Facilities Management Essay 1000words

Open Posted By: surajrudrajnv33 Date: 21/01/2021 High School Assignment Writing

- Think of one chapter that we have taken, and reflect on the content- Create an essay reflecting on that chapter. What interested you; give me the points. Will it help you in the future? Is the knowledge relevant to you? Etc.- Essay must have a minimum of three paragraphs and or 1,000 words.- Use the material that I have sent you. If you have notes, now is the time to use them.- Any reference and or citations must be included using the APA citation guidelines

Category: Engineering & Sciences Subjects: Electrical Engineering Deadline: 24 Hours Budget: $80 - $120 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Hospitality Facilities Management and Design Fourth Edition

Chapter 4

Safety and Security Systems

Safety and the Hospitality Industry

Safety involves avoiding those causes of injury and damage that we might call accidental—slips and falls, cuts, burns, and other personal injuries, as well as related property damages

Safety issues are important for their impact not only on guests and employees but on profitability as well

Risk management and loss prevention programs are designed to pinpoint major potential risk areas and identify options to reduce either the frequency or the severity of their losses

Establishing a safety committee is a key to a safe workplace; employee involvement is a key to employee buy-in on safety issues


Slide 2a

Safety and the Hospitality Industry

Occupational injuries and lost workdays affect the capability of operating departments to function properly

It is very important to place either an individual or a safety committee in charge of safety

Responsibility for safety and security cannot be delegated to a committee or department; safety and security is the responsibility of all staff members

A method of measuring how staff members are doing with regard to safety must be implemented

Attention to employee safety is legally mandated in the United States under the Occupational Safety and Health Act

Slide 2b

Key Elements of Safety Programs

Compose and communicate to all employees a written safety policy

Solicit and use the input of line employees on safety issues

Conduct regular safety inspections of the property

Set realistic accident-reduction goals, closely monitor progress, and reward reductions

Require accountability for accident reduction

Offer a modified or transitional duty program in order to return injured employees to work sooner

Create safety awareness through signs, contests, etc.

Train, retrain, and then train some more

Establish specific safety-oriented behaviors as a performance consideration for management

Slide 3

Building Design, Maintenance, and Safety

The proper design and maintenance of the physical plant are important contributors to employee and guest safety

Properly maintained and adequately illuminated walkways, stairs, and parking lots reduce the likelihood of falls and related injuries

Slip-resistant flooring and tempered glass help with safety

The Americans with Disabilities Act spells out accommodations that must be made to make the environment safer for people with disabilities

Furniture, fixtures, and equipment are safer when properly maintained

Managers should also pay attention to product recall and defect notices

Use of “tempered glass” to reduce injury from shattered glass

Slide 4

Safety Concerns in the Guest Bath

Hot water temperatures

Slip resistance of bathtubs, showers, and bathroom floor coverings

Electrical shock

Proper bathroom construction

Slide 5

Scalding of Guests in Lodging Bathrooms

The scalding of guests in lodging bathrooms has resulted in injury and even death

This issue occurs primarily in older establishments with outmoded system design and operation

According to one survey, many hotels deliver hot water to guest baths that is hotter than it should be

Guest-use water temperatures should be set no higher than 120°F (49°C) at the source and 110°F (43°C) at the tap

Water systems supplying commercial facilities, guestrooms, and locker rooms should be separated from those supplying kitchens and laundries

Bath and shower valves should be installed that provide pressure and temperature compensation

Slide 6

Slip Resistance of Bathtubs

Slippery bathtubs can cause injuries

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has defined indices of slipperiness; lodging managers should purchase bathtubs and showers with a nonslip surface per ASTM F462

The slip resistance rating of a bathtub and shower can decrease over time due to wear and the effects of cleaning chemicals

If bathtubs and showers are resurfaced, managers should specify the required slip resistance as part of the contract; the contractor should be required to submit test results per ASTM F462 on samples of the finished product

Slide 7

Other Guest Bath Safety Concerns

The location and installation of grab bars is also important in bath safety

All wall-mounted grab bars should be installed with adequate blocking to ensure secure anchoring; the Americans with Disabilities Act also contains provisions regarding grab bars

Any glass used in shower stalls and mirrors should be safety glazed; shower stall doors should be of tempered glass

Bathroom floors should have proper slip resistance; managers should ask the manufacturer of flooring materials to submit certified copies of slip resistance test results from independent laboratories

Managers should furnish ground fault protection on selected electrical outlets in the bathroom

If a lodging property provides hair dryers, the fan and coil should be mounted on the wall with a built-in GFCI capability

Slide 8

Fire Safety

A greater attention to fire prevention, improved ways to detect a fire and notify/evacuate building occupants, and improved fire suppression systems have all contributed to a better fire safety record for U.S. hotels

Even with this vastly improved fire safety record, fires and loss of life still happen, so focusing on fire safety is still important

Improved, more sophisticated fire detection and suppression equipment needs attention and proper maintenance

The federal government requires hotels in which government employees stay to meet minimum fire safety standards

No fire safety program will ever totally eliminate the possibility of a fire; however, a well-conceived and well-managed fire protection program can reduce the frequency and severity of fires

One key fire safety provision is that all fire protection equipment must be able to operate during a power outage

Slide 9

Fire Prevention

Fire prevention is everyone’s job at a property

There are many links between maintenance activities and fire prevention, such as cleaning dryer ductwork regularly, removing lint from filters, locking linen chutes, inspecting electrical systems, and so on

Kitchen areas pose great risks for fire; proper housekeeping practices in the kitchen, regular cleaning of hoods and ductwork, and quick attention to poorly operating kitchen equipment can help prevent a kitchen fire

Trash storage and disposal should be viewed with fire safety in mind; combustible trash should not be stored near the building, and trash and storage areas should be secured

Fire prevention issues must be kept in mind during renovations: interior finishes must be selected with care, and new furniture, carpeting, and other combustibles should be stored carefully; contractor equipment such as cutting torches and fuel tanks can create fire risks

Slide 10

Fire Detection

Human observation

Heat detectors

Photoelectric smoke detectors

Ionization smoke detectors

Sprinkler systems

Slide 11

Fire Notification

Emergency instructions and floor plans

Building horns/alarms

Voice alarms

Visual alarms

Communication systems

Single-station detectors-Usually powered by dedicated electrical circuits, not batteries

Slide 12

Fire Suppression Equipment

Sprinkler systems

Portable fire extinguishers

Kitchen hood fire suppression systems

Slide 13


Fire Hose

Sprinkler Systems

Sprinkler systems are becoming much more prevalent, as their effectiveness becomes better known and as fire codes require them

Wet-pipe sprinklers are commonly found in hospitality operations

Wet-pipe sprinkler systems consist of pipes filled with water, individual temperature-activated sprinkler heads, and a water source with sufficient pressure

Properties with sprinkler systems are required by law to stock a supply of spare sprinkler heads

Slide 14

Portable Fire Extinguishers

Portable fire extinguishers are useful for extinguishing fires in their early stages

To be effective, an extinguisher must be of the correct type and operated properly

The extinguishers in a given area should be appropriate for the type of fire likely to be encountered in that area

All portable extinguishers should be included in the operation’s preventive maintenance program

Slide 15

Match these with types of fires using Exhibit 7

Types of Portable Fire Extinguishers

Class A: designed for fires in ordinary combustible materials such as cloth, wood, rubber, paper, and many plastics

Class B: designed for fires involving flammable liquids, such as grease, gasoline, oil, and oil-based paints

Class C: designed for fires involving appliances, tools, or other electrically energized or plugged-in equipment

Class D: designed for fires involving flammable metals

Class K: designed for fires involving vegetable oils, animal oils, or fats in cooking appliances

Slide 16

Kitchen Hood Fire Suppression Systems

For many years, dry chemical hood systems were commonly used in kitchens; recent code changes require food service operations to use wet agents in their kitchen hoods; advantages to a wet agent system include easier cleanup and low corrosiveness compared to dry chemical hood systems

Many different types of kitchen hood systems exist

For any kitchen hood system, maintenance staff should make sure that:

The hood system is properly connected

The nozzle caps are in place to protect nozzles from grease

The nozzles are aimed correctly

The fusible links are not covered with grease and dirt

When the fire suppression system is activated, it should also shut off the supply of fuel to kitchen equipment

A fire suppression system’s capability should not be compromised by inappropriate maintenance work

Slide 17

Fire Control Items

Fire dampers-fire-control devices that limit the spread of fire in duckwork

Smoke dampers

Smoke sensors

Stairwell pressurization systems

Automatic door closers on doors

Walls with minimum fire resistance ratings

Smoke and fire stops


Slide 18

Evacuation Plans

Evacuation plans should be developed that include the following:

Designation of staff members to supervise the movement of guests out of the building

Designation of locations of assembly for hotel staff outside the building

Preparation of lists of registered guests and their room numbers, as well as on-duty staff

Designation of staff members to ensure that special-needs guests receive information and special care as needed

Designation of individuals to meet fire department personnel and provide them with assistance/information

Instructions for the securing of cash and other valuables

Slide 19

Egress Issues

The role of exit signs and lighting in a fire is very important

Exit signs are almost always included in a fire department inspection

Managers must keep exit signs illuminated and clear of obstruction

Emergency lighting should be properly installed and operational at all times

Systems powered by emergency generators should be checked with the generator under load

Doors and hallways that are dead ends should be clearly marked “NOT AN EXIT”

Changes in exit patterns during renovation work should be noted

Managers should never override the protection devices of fire doors or allow exit passages to be blocked

Fire and smoke control doors should not be held open by anything other than an approved device that will release the door in case of a fire

Exit passages should not be used for storage

Slide 20


Market issues stand as one of the motivating factors of managerial concern for safety and security: guests care about security

A hotel that maintains a high level of security does so through a mix of facility design and managerial practices

Physical facilities designed with security in mind help restrict hotel access to guests only; they are designed to inhibit forced entry, allow supervision of entrances and exits, and provide adequate lighting

Management practices that increase security:

Instituting procedures to ensure guest privacy

Keeping records to support security-related decisions

Training employees to recognize and deal effectively with security-related issues

Adhering to procedures that enhance the property’s security

Slide 21

Security Measures

Installing electronic locks

Providing guests with information about property security and safe guest behavior

Equipping guestrooms with phones

Installing guestroom doors that self-close and lock automatically, and have deadbolt locks and view ports

Installing deadbolt locks on both sides of connecting doors between guestrooms

Ensuring that sliding glass doors and operable windows have a means of being locked; windows should not open wide enough to allow a person to pass through; managers should consider installing secondary access-restricting devices for sliding glass doors

Installing security cameras

Providing safe-deposit boxes and in-room safes for guests

Training employees to recognize and report suspicious individuals and unsafe conditions

Slide 22

Key Control

Central to security for hotels is key control

Whether mechanical or electronic locks are used, the need for key control is essentially the same; mechanical systems rely more on continuous management involvement, while electronic systems embody a large amount of key control within the system itself

The Five R’s of key control are:






Slide 23


The rationale of a key control system determines how many keying levels there will be and who gets what keys

Considerations include the physical layout of the building, departmental needs for access, the interaction of these needs with the productivity and staffing of these departments, the needs of guests, and the property’s overall security needs

The rationale helps managers develop a coherent keying schedule

Slide 24


For guestrooms, effective key control calls for keeping records about the status of guestroom keys, the names of room occupants, and the names of any others having access to the guestroom

Guestroom keys should be given out only to guestroom occupants who can verify their identity

Records should indicate which employees have which keys

Hotels should also maintain records of problems with guestroom and other locks (maintenance and incidents) and of actions taken to enhance security, such as rotating or replacing locks

Information about the number of key blanks and their disposition should be recorded and checked

Records of the lock cores installed in each guestroom should be made

The guestroom number should not be recorded on the guestroom key itself

Slide 25


Employees should ask for room keys when guests check out, and drop boxes should be provided for room keys at hotel exit points—these measures are more important for properties using mechanical locks, as electronic locking systems can render plastic key card guestroom keys inoperative once a guest checks out

Employees should not take keys off the premises, mechanical or electronic

Keys needed for a work shift should be signed out at the start of the shift and returned at the end; these keys should be placed in a secure location whether in use or not

Housekeepers should keep keys on their person, not on their carts

Keys should be retrieved from employees who have been terminated

Outside contractors should not be given keys to the building if at all possible

Slide 26


Rotation involves moving locks from room to room to maintain security; rotation is used for mechanical locks, as electronic locks can be “rotated” automatically

Properties still using mechanical locks for guestrooms rotate these locks periodically (every six months or annually is typical), or when a given number of guestroom keys have been lost

Rotation is also a good practice whenever it appears that guestroom security has been compromised

Slide 27


The replacement of part or all of a locking system will eventually be necessary

Locks for back-of-the-house areas should be replaced if security has been compromised to the point where rotating the existing locks will not solve the problem

The loss of master keys at hotels still using mechanical locks may trigger the replacement of all the locks in the hotel

Replacement of mechanical locks should be considered when the property is sold, especially when there is a major change in staff

The replacement process for those operations currently using mechanical locks will likely involve the installation of electronic locks

Operations currently using electronic locks will also find that changing technology will probably cause them periodically to consider updating or replacing their systems

Slide 28

Electronic Locks

Electronic locks perform many elements of key control automatically

The central computer for an electronic locking system maintains records of keys issued

With an electronic locking system, the need to retrieve guestroom keys from departing guests is greatly reduced, since the combination for opening a guestroom’s door is changed for each new guest

If a master key is lost, the central computer and individual units can be reprogrammed; the locks themselves to not have to be replaced

Some electronic locks maintain records of the keys used to gain entry to the room; this has cut down on theft and assists in the investigation of those thefts that do occur

Electronic locking systems continue to evolve; some automatically engage the deadbolt when a guestroom door is closed, for example, while others now incorporate “smart card” technology

Slide 29


Over the past dozen years, terrorists have conducted several mass-casualty attacks on “soft targets,” including hotels, using vehicle bombs, suicide bombs, and explosives in briefcases

Factors that put hotels at risk for terrorist attacks include location, clientele, and the iconic status of the building itself

Slide 30

Mitigating the Risk of Terrorist Attacks

Encourage personnel to be alert to suspicious behavior or unusual activity and report it to management

Use vehicle barriers/bollards or rearrange traffic patterns to move vehicle traffic further from the hotel

Control building access

Deploy visible security cameras/personnel; review surveillance tapes regularly

Be aware of persons unusually dressed

Train personnel regularly on terrorism prevention

Slide 31

Other Extraordinary Events

Terrorism is just one item in the category referred to by some as “extraordinary events”

Extraordinary events include accidental events (e.g., toxic chemical leaks), intentional events (e.g., war and terrorism), and natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes and floods)

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers has a publication that provides some guidance for facilities professionals in dealing with extraordinary threats affecting air, water, and food systems

The Caribbean Hotel Association and the Caribbean Tourism Organization have prepared a Hurricane Procedures Manual to assist hotel operators in the Caribbean deal with hurricanes

Given the current political and environmental challenges facing the world today, coping with extraordinary events may, unfortunately, become more ordinary in the years ahead

Slide 32