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Unit VI Discussion Board

Open Posted By: highheaven1 Date: 14/01/2021 High School Research Paper Writing

 Please make sure that it  is your own work and not copy and paste off of some one else work because the professor will check. This is a DBA course and needs to be done on this level. Please watch out for spelling and grammar errors. Please use the APA 7th format edition. Please read the study guide.

Book reference: Gliner, J. A., Morgan, G. A., Leech, N. L. (2017). Research methods in applied settings: An integrated approach to design and analysis (3rd ed.)Routledgehttps://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781317526896 


 A junior doctoral student approaches you for advice about their proposed research design. They want to measure differences in personality based on four different age groups. Regarding within-group and between-subjects, what other variables should the junior doctoral student consider? 


Category: Arts & Education Subjects: Education Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $150 - $300 Pages: 3-6 Pages (Medium Assignment)

Attachment 1

2020 Success Center

Citation Guide Based on the Publication Manual of the American

Psychological Association—7th Edition

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Citation Guide – 7th Edition

This document covers certain citation formats addressed in the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) but is not a complete guide. Should you have any questions, please contact the CSU Success Center by email at [email protected] or by phone at (877) 875-0533.

For all rules and requirements of APA, please refer to the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, which can be purchased through the American Psychological Association at https://apastyle.apa.org/products/publication-manual- 7th-edition/.

The Writing Center also provides an accompanying tutorial for the CSU Citation

Guide. This tutorial provides further explanation on several APA formatting topics:

Citation Guide Tutorial.

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Contents

What is APA format and why is it used? ............................................................................................... 4

Citing Sources ...................................................................................................................................... 5

Citations in In-text .................................................................................................................................... 5

Examples of in-text citations ............................................................................................................... 6

Example of block quote in-text citation .............................................................................................. 7

Reference List ........................................................................................................................................... 7

Examples of reference list entries ....................................................................................................... 8

Selecting Appropriate Research Sources ............................................................................................... 12

Formatting ......................................................................................................................................... 12

Document formatting in APA style ........................................................................................................ 12

Steps for document formatting ............................................................................................................. 13

Specific formatting steps for documents .............................................................................................. 16

Library Resources and Services for CSU Students ............................................................................... 17

Sample Essay ..................................................................................................................................... 18

Sample Research Paper ...................................................................................................................... 19

References ......................................................................................................................................... 20

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What is APA Format and Why is it Used?

The American Psychological Association is a professional organization representing

psychologists in the United States. APA format is a set of rules developed to assist with writing

and the citing of sources. Following the rules laid out in the Publication Manual helps to

prevent plagiarism and acknowledges the original author of the information used. It is meant

to provide a concise and standardized citation format for written assignments (such as essays,

research papers, and article critiques, among others) and is used for all Columbia Southern

University courses.

In educational institutions, academic integrity is an area of great concern. Academic

integrity refers to being intellectually honest by “avoiding… cheating, plagiarism, self-

plagiarism, and/or poor scholarship” (Columbia Southern University, 2019, p.28). Adhering to

APA guidelines can prevent academic integrity violations (especially plagiarism) by clearly

marking which words and ideas belong to outside sources. Committing an academic integrity

violation of any kind can have serious consequences.

Plagiarism is the act of stealing someone else’s work and passing it off as one’s own. It

can be deliberate or accidental; deliberate plagiarism includes directly copying, summarizing, or

paraphrasing a source without giving credit to the author or putting it in quotation marks. This

type of plagiarism also includes turning in a paper that has been bought, written by another

student, or copied from another source. Accidental plagiarism is when a writer uses another

author’s thoughts or ideas without realizing credit must be provided. This includes working in

groups and submitting the same answers as other students, forgetting to place quotation marks

around a direct quotation, omitting an in-text citation for a summary or a paraphrase, and

omitting an in-text citation for the ideas of another writer. Accidental plagiarism also includes

submitting an assignment that has already been previously submitted in another course.

Unfortunately, both types of plagiarism can result in a failing grade, suspension from the

university, or even expulsion.

There are a few ways APA can help students avoid plagiarism. The primary way to avoid

it is to cite any ideas that are not one’s own. Citations help readers to locate the sources used in

a paper. Citations should not only be used for direct quotes, but they should also be provided

when information is paraphrased or summarized from another author. Paraphrasing a source’s

material is a good way to avoid copying directly from an outside source and possibly being

reprimanded. If any questions or concerns about APA format, please feel free to contact the

CSU Success Center by email at [email protected] or by phone at (877) 875-

0533.

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Citing Sources

When writing a paper in APA 7th edition style, there are two specific ways to cite the information that is used: within the text and in the reference list at the end of the paper. Citations are utilized when a phrase, a piece of specific information, or a sequence of sentences is drawn from an outside source. To meet APA requirements specified for CSU written essay responses, in-text citations and a reference list must be included if any outside sources are used. For formal papers, follow all guidelines listed in this handout. For all rules and requirements of APA, please refer to the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, which can be purchased through the American Psychological Association at https://apastyle.apa.org/products/publication-manual-7th-edition/.

In-text Citations

 An in-text citation should be used when a phrase, a piece of specific information, or an idea is drawn from an outside source.

 In-text citations are also required when putting the author’s information in your own words (paraphrasing).

 Citing helps to prevent plagiarism, and it acknowledges the original author of the information used.

 In-text citations and reference citations must always correspond; each in-text citation must have a matching reference citation and vice-versa. APA uses the author-year method of citation.

 It is standard practice for the period at the end of the sentence to be placed after the last parentheses of the in-text citation. An exception is made if inserting a direct quote that contains more than 40 words; in this instance, the period is placed directly before the in-text citation.

Paraphrased Information When paraphrasing or summarizing a source, provide the author’s last name and year of publication (separated by a comma). Page and paragraph numbers are not required when you are paraphrasing information. However, be sure to consult with your faculty member to determine his or her preference on adding page numbers in citations. Direct Quotations If utilizing a direct quote, this must be indicated by placing the passage in quotation marks. Further, the specific page or paragraph number is always required. If there is no page or paragraph number, as is the case for many electronic sources, provide a section heading or other label to indicate the passage the quote was borrowed from.

For additional information, please see the Writing Center’s In-text Citations Tutorial.

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Examples of in-text citations

Reference Type

Examples of in-text citations

Paraphrased information from one author

It has been found … can be concluded (Simpson, 2007).

According to Simpson (2007), … can cause problems.

Other people say… based on Simpson (2007).

Paraphrased information from two authors

There are … at this point (Stemmer & Tisdale, 2008).

Stemmer and Tisdale (2008) mention … a set of styles.

This plan will … according to Stemmer and Tisdale (2008).

Paraphrased information from three or more authors

When stating…. can be located (Padgett et al., 2004).

Padgett et al. (2004) explain … is further noted.

Direct quotation less than 40 words

“It is amazing…with confidence” (OSHA, 2010, p. 121).

According to Davis and Dudley (2005), “We are…to save” (para. 5).

“What is lost…come at all” (Ingram et al., 2001, pp. 8-9).

Paraphrased information with no author listed

When using data … can be seen (“Title of Document,” 2003).

If information is … was conquered (“Driving and Talking,” 2004).

According to “Leadership Versus Management” (2001), … is an art form.

Information from a secondary source

It can be found … in Stemmer’s work (as cited in Pratt, 2008).

According to Stemmer’s work (as cited in Pratt, 2008), “…” (p. 65).

**Add the page number if you use a direct quote from Stemmer found in Pratt’s work.

Information via personal communication

J. M. Newsome (personal communication, May 30, 2008) expressed …

…of time (V. P. DeLuca, personal communication, November 9, 2007).

**Personal communication should only be listed in the in-text, not on the reference list.

Information found in classical works

…will have everlasting life (King James Bible, 1769/2017, John 3:16).

…as read in the Bible in John 3:16 (King James Bible, 1769/2017).

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Direct Quotations of 40 or more words Block quotations (quotes that contain 40 words or more) are formatted differently, as they have no quotation marks. In formal writing, block quotations are acceptable, although their use should not be in excess. While block quotes are accepted in formal writing, the use of them in essay responses is not encouraged due to the length of the assignment. Block quotations are indented an additional .5” and double spaced. The period is placed before the citation.

Block Quotation Example

The solutions proposed by a number of advocacy groups underscore this interest in

political and cultural change. A report outlined trends that may have contributed to the

childhood obesity crisis.

This includes food advertising for children as well as a reduction in physical

education classes and after-school athletic programs, an increase in the availability

of sodas and snacks in public schools, the growth in the number of fast-food outlets,

and the increasing number of highly processed high-calorie and high-fat grocery

products. (Kaiser, 2004, pp. 1-2)

Reference List

The reference list is of the utmost importance, as it allows the reader to access the sources cited in the in-text and enables the student writer to give credit where credit is due. For this reason, the references should contain accurate information, as well as proper punctuation and spelling. References will follow the conclusion of any APA document. For each reference listed, there will be at least one corresponding in-text citation in the document. Examples of reference source formatting can be found on the following pages.

 If there is a digital object identifier (DOI) available, include that in the reference. The DOI is precisely used to give the reader information about where the document can be found on the Internet. The DOI is typically located near the copyright notice on the first page of the electronic journal article. In the case that there is no DOI, provide the homepage URL of the web page where you found the article. (Please note the DOI, when available, is required in doctoral courses.)

 Multiple citations containing the same author and year should first be listed chronologically by the specific date (with newer sources being listed first) and then alphabetically by the title. A lowercase a, b, c, etc. should be placed after the year to distinguish between the entries. This is also used in the in-text citations. For example:

Smith, J. (2013a, March 8). How to groom cats. Garden Press.

Smith, J. (2013b, January 20). How to groom dogs. Garden Press.

For additional information, please see the Writing Center’s References Tutorial.

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Examples of reference list entries

Reference List

What to Include Information and Examples

General Referencing Information

 When listing the author on the reference list, the

last name should be first, followed by the

author’s first and middle (if applicable) initials.

For example: Smith, J. R.

 References should be placed in alphabetical order

by the first author’s last name, by associates (if

the work is authorized by an organization), or by

anonymous. Anonymous should only be listed as

the author if it is signed as such.

 If a particular person did not create the document

being cited, use the organization that created the

document.

 The document title can be substituted as the

author if no author is provided. In this case, the

first word of the title will dictate the alphabetical

placement (“a,” “an,” and “the” notwithstanding).

 The letters “n.d.” (no date) can be utilized if the

source listed has no listed date. Substitute “n.d.”

where the date would normally go.

For example: Smith, R. T. (n.d.)…

 Professional credentials, such as Ph. D., should

not be used on the reference page.

 References beginning with numerals should be

alphabetized based on the spelling of the numeral

 States should be identified with their two letter

abbreviations, such as AL, MS, and NY.

 Spell out cities and countries outside the United

States.

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Reference List

What to Include Information and Examples

Books

 For titles on the reference list, only capitalize the

first word of the title, proper nouns, and the first

word after a colon or dash.

 Journal articles and books only require the year,

rather than the entire date.

 Book titles should be italicized within the

reference list.

Book Author(s). (date of publication). Book title. Publisher.

Book Examples:

Erickson, C. K. (2007). The science of addiction: From

neurobiology to treatment. W.W. Norton &

Company.

Morenberg, M. (2014). Doing grammar (5th ed.).

Oxford University Press.

Periodicals: Journals, magazines, and newspaper articles

 For the name of the actual publication the article

appears in (journal, magazine, or newspaper), use

standard title capitalization. Capitalize all words

with the exception of conjunctions, articles, and

short propositions; however, capitalize all words

that have four letters or more.

 Magazine articles, newsletters, and newspaper

articles require the listing of the entire date when

available (month or month and day).

For example: (2001, May) or (2001, May 2)

 Journal articles and books only require the year.

 For journal articles, there is no need to write out

the words volume, issue, p., or pp. The order of

the numbers indicate what they represent.

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Reference List

What to Include Information and Examples

Periodicals: Journals, magazines, and newspaper articles continued

Author(s). (date of publication). Article title. Journal Title, volume (issue), page numbers. Retrieval information. *Retrieval information for online sources can be either a URL or a DOI. If neither is available, treat the journal like a print source.

Journal Examples: Clark, L. B. (2019, April). Education as property.

Virginia Law Review, 105(2), 397-424.

Rouw, R., & Erfanian, M. (2018, March). A large-scale

study of misophonia. Journal of Clinical

Psychology, 74(3), 453-479.

doi:10.1002/jclp.22500.

Smith, J. E. (2003). Addiction and environmental

change. Journal of Personality and Social

Psychology, 66(3), 47-68.

http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/psp/

Websites

 Do not add a period after the retrieval

information (URL or DOI). Otherwise, the

period might be mistaken as part of the URL.

 The URL can either be an active hyperlink

(blue and underlined), or the hyperlink

formatting can be removed.

 To ensure accuracy, always test the URL prior

to submission.

 Italicize the titles of webpages.

Author(s). (date of

publication). Title of

page. Retrieval

information

(including direct

URL)

Website Examples:

Cain, A., & Burris, M. (1999). Investigation of the use

of mobile phones while driving.

http://www.cutr.eng.usf.edu/oldpubs

/mobile_phone.pdf

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Reference List

What to Include Information and Examples

Websites continued

Starbucks Coffee Company. (n.d.). Starbucks social

impact. https://starbucks.com/responsibility

If there is not an author listed, you can use the

company that created the website as an

organizational author.

PowerPoint slides

 The PowerPoint format description in brackets is

used because the format is something out of the

ordinary.

 The title of the PowerPoint should be italicized.

Author(s). (date of publication). Title of slideshow [Format of document]. Retrieval information

PowerPoint Examples:

Sprott, J. C. (2000). Is global warming for real?

[PowerPoint slides].

http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/

lectures.htm#warming

How to succeed in business [PowerPoint slides].

(n.d.). http://online.columbiasouthern.edu

/webapps.jsp

If there is no author, list the title of the document in

the author’s position.

Personal conversations, emails, interviews, and letters

Do not include on the reference page.

Due to retrieval inability, personal conversations, emails, interviews, and letters should not be listed on the reference page. Instead, cite these as a personal communication in the in-text. For an example, see the chart on page 6 (information via personal communication).

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Selecting Appropriate Research Sources

In academic writing, only certain types of resources are considered acceptable. All sources mentioned in this guide are sources that are considered to be academic. If you have any questions regarding acceptable and unacceptable sources or how different types of sources can be used, please contact the CSU Library. Additional information about the CSU Library can be found on page 17 of this guide.

Formatting

When writing any type of formal paper, the document should have in-text citations and a reference list, and should be formatted in accordance to APA format. The following are specific instructions on how to set up a document in APA format using Microsoft Word.

Document formatting in APA style

General Formatting

Information

Margins  All margins (top, bottom, and sides) should be set at one inch.

 Microsoft Word allows the user to set the margin at a default of

one inch on all sides.

Page Numbers  Page numbers should be listed in the top right corner of the

document, beginning on the title page.

Alignment/ Line Spacing

 All documents following APA guidelines are required to be flush-left

style and double-spaced throughout the entire document.

 Additional spacing should not be used between headings and

paragraphs.

Font Type and Size

 APA font options include the following: o Times New Roman, size 12 o Calibri, size 11 o Arial, size 11 o Lucida Sans Unicode, size 10 o Georgia, size 11 o Computer Modern, size 10

Paragraph Indention

 All papers typed in APA format require the first line of each

paragraph to be indented .5”.

 Pressing the Tab button on the keyboard automatically indents the

text .5”.

For additional information, please see the Writing Center’s Formatting Formal Assignments Tutorial.

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Steps for document formatting

Formatting Steps

Title Page

NOTE: The title page of the document can be thought of as the paper’s first

impression. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the format

required by APA.

1. The title of the paper (in bold) should be centered on the page and

followed by a single space. Then, also centered, list the student’s

name, the name of the university, the course, the name of the

instructor, and the due date.

Abstract

NOTE: All papers at CSU do not require an abstract. Please consult the

course syllabus or professor for specifications about this.

1. The abstract tells the audience why they should care about the

presented topic.

2. It provides the methods that will be utilized in order to get the

results.

3. The word “Abstract” will be listed, centered and bold, one inch from

the top of the page as the heading for the abstract.

4. The abstract itself should be flush left and should not be indented.

5. The abstract should be an accurate and concise reflection of the

document’s content.

6. Typically, the abstract should only be one paragraph (150-250

words) in length, with no direct quotations, and be on a page of its

own directly after the title page.

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Formatting Steps

Headings 1. Headings are titles of different sections of a formal written

assignment.

2. They can be used to add structure, organize ideas, and tell the

reader what content to expect.

3. The following headings should be used when required:

For additional information, please see the Writing Center’s Level Headings Tutorial.

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Formatting Steps

References

Page

NOTE: At the end of each APA document, there should be a references page

containing the sources used within the paper.

 Every reference cited in-text should be listed on the references

page(s), and every reference listed on the references page(s) should

be cited in the in-text.

 The exceptions to this are personal communications and secondary

sources.

 With secondary sources, only the original source should be cited on

the reference page.

 References are of the utmost importance, as they allow the reader to

access the sources cited in-text, and they enable the author of the

document to give credit where credit is due.

 The references should contain accurate information, as well as proper

punctuation and spelling.

 References will accompany the conclusion of any APA document.

 For each reference listed, there must be at least one corresponding in-

text citation in the document.

 All margins should be one inch.

 The word “References” should be used as the heading, and it should

be centered and bold.

 Double spacing should be used.

 With the exception of the first line of each reference, all lines are

indented .5”. This is called a hanging indention.

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Specific formatting steps for documents

Software Click the following icons to access formatting.

MS Word 2016

MS Word Office 365

MS Word for Mac

MS Word Online

Pages for Mac 2019

Google Docs

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Library Resources and Services for CSU Students

The CSU Library supports the CSU community with access to information and research

assistance. The online collection contains resources chosen to support the programs of study at

Columbia Southern University. Library resources such as journal articles or ebooks can be

accessed at any time through the library website.

The library resources include:

• Online databases that contain a wide variety of resources including journal, magazine,

and newspaper articles.

• A collection of over 180,000 online books in eBook Academic Collection.

• Electronic journal subscriptions in specialized fields of study.

• Video tutorials and research guides designed by CSU librarians.

Contact a librarian when you need to do the following:

• Brainstorm appropriate research strategies such as determining keywords for your

topic.

• Navigate library databases for journal articles and other library resources to support

your assignments.

• Locate and obtain specific articles or other resources assigned in your courses.

• Limit your search by article type (such as peer-reviewed), date of publication, or article

length.

The CSU Library is staffed by professional librarians …

Attachment 2

RCH 8301, Quantitative Research Methods 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VI Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

6. Create research questions appropriate for a selected research method and design. 6.1 Develop a research topic, and include appropriate research questions.

7. Formulate hypotheses appropriate for a selected research method and design.

7.1 Design hypotheses that are suitable for a selected research method and design.

Course/Unit Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity

6.1, 7.1

Unit Lesson Chapter 18, pp. 318–331 Chapter 19, pp. 334–346 Unit VI Research Paper

Required Unit Resources Chapter 18: General Design Classifications for Selection of Difference Statistical Methods, pp. 318–331 Chapter 19: Selection of Appropriate Statistical Methods: Integration of Design and Analysis, pp. 334–346

Unit Lesson

General Design Classifications

Researchers must think critically about the type of information that is needed to address a research problem, and then researchers must make sure that the overall research problem will be adequately addressed. If they do not do this, they may reach conclusions that are unconvincing, and the overall validity of the study may be questioned. In this unit, we will focus on general design classifications, which will help us determine the proper format and statistical approach to use.

Present-day statistics offer the basis for inference in various research studies. In the various differential methods for statistical analysis, there are procedures called general design classifications. These general design classifications are between-group design, within-subject design (repeated measures design), and mixed design. However, the focus in this unit is to distinguish the general design classification for comparative research, experimental, and quasi-experimental approaches with the aim of understanding the selection of appropriate statistical methods. The study design is considered a general plan that is used in setting up and testing a research question or a specific hypothesis (Thompson & Panacek, 2006). This implies that the research design directs the researcher on the who, when, what, and how regarding how the study project is conducted. Consequently, the general design classifications are important in the determination of

the appropriate statistical methods that the researcher adopts in the data analysis stage. Therefore, it is a necessity in the randomized experimental, comparative, and quasi-experimental approaches that all of the

UNIT VI STUDY GUIDE

Selection of Appropriate Statistical Measures

(Alexmillos, n.d.)

RCH 8301, Quantitative Research Methods 2

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

designs be appropriately fitted in the categories (i.e., between-group design, within-subject design, and mixed design). The between-group design refers to a design whereby each participant in a research project is in only one group or condition (Morgan et al., 2002). Accordingly, this design requires that each participant in the research study receive only one of the two conditions set in the experiment. For example, in a study where the effects of high temperature on the growth of a plant might have two groups of the independent variable (retarded growth or improved growth), each plant will only achieve one condition. Thus, the choice of study participants (sample size) will be influenced by these groups, where each group will have the number of participants doubled. In a within-subject design (repeated measures design), which is the opposite of the between-group design, a general design classification is realized. According to Morgan et al., a within-subject design is where each participant in the research project receives all of the conditions. This implies that each participant in the study experiences all levels of an independent variable to complete the study. For example, in a study where a drug is tested among children to establish the outcome between the two sets of doses (current and new medications as independent variables), the within-subject design requires that each participant in the study receive both medications; therefore, a number of symptoms would be measured on both of the independent variables. Furthermore, in this design, the number of participants is not affected by the variables used like it is in the case of between-group design since each participant receives all or both conditions of the independent variable in the study. Therefore, the within-subject design is referred to as a repeated measures design because of the experimental conditions where each participant is assessed more than once depending on the research conditions. Despite the existing advantages of the within-subject design, such as a reduction in the error variance and a reduction in the number of participants, this design is considered less appropriate compared to the between-group design. Its inappropriateness is derived from the possibility of participants having carryover effects, especially in studies where the change over time in the response to medication (example provided earlier) is an independent variable. Otherwise, both the between-group design and the within-subject design have a similarity in the number of independent variables considered, which is only one. A mixed design has more than one between-group independent variable as well as one within-subject independent variable. This implies that this design has at least two independent variables studied. Consider the aforementioned experiment where the effects of high temperature on the plant growth are to be investigated; in the mixed design, an additional independent variable (between-group) will be required, thus identifying this as a mixed design. In this case, the variety of the plant may be introduced as the additional independent variable to study the effects of high temperature on the growth of the plants. In the design considerations for a mixed design, there is the need for the researcher to appreciate the dimensions of the design (e.g., issues of validity). The design dimensions in the mixed research include the theoretical drive, purpose, timing, design complexity, and planned design (Schoonenboom & Johnson, 2017). Thus, in the mixed design, both qualitative and quantitative approaches are considered in the use of theory, the use of logic, the purpose of the results, the view of objectivity, the sampling of strategies, and the choice of statistical methods for data analysis.

Selection of Appropriate Statistical Methods

There are various aspects that must be considered when selecting an appropriate statistical method in the design and analysis of a research project. When selecting a statistical method, the concepts that must be considered include the research approaches and questions, dependent and independent variables, design classification, statistical assumptions, and the levels of measurement. The first step toward selecting a statistical method is defining the level of measurement for all of the variables (nominal, interval, ratio, or ordinal level) that are studied and included in the analysis. However, the use of tables is also effective when trying to select the appropriate statistics for the design and analysis of the result findings. For example, in the common single comparison tests, the dependent variable (scale) and the independent variable (nominal) would require different parametric tests and non-parametric tests, such as the independent-samples t-test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, respectively.

RCH 8301, Quantitative Research Methods 3

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

To arrive at the most suitable statistical method, it is recommended to identify whether the research question focuses on the association or the difference between variables and to identify the number of independent variables in the study. Moreover, the aspects of general design classifications (between-group, within-subject, and mixed designs) come into play. By using a schematic diagram, which describes the purpose, approach, type of question, and general type of statistics, it can be useful in helping one identify and select the appropriate statistical method that suits the research project. For example, one is required to distinguish between the relationship between variables (experimental or non- experimental) and thereby use the variables to identify the specific approach to be adopted in the study (randomized or quasi for an experimental approach and

comparative or associational for a non-experimental approach). Having identified the specific purpose for the variables, one would then identify the type of questions (e.g., difference for an experimental approach and associational or descriptive for a non-experimental approach), one would then determine the general type of statistic to be used. For example, difference inferential statistics would be used for the difference type of question, and associational inferential or descriptive statistics would be used for associational and descriptive statistics for descriptive-type questions. For example, difference inferential statistics use the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA); descriptive statistics use histograms, percentages, and means; and associational inferential statistics use correlation and regression (Gliner et al., 2017). As covered in the readings for this unit, selection of the appropriate statistical method requires good judgement. Since each research study is different, the most suitable research design and statistical analysis must be chosen.

References

Alexmillos. (n.d.). Business icons and target infographics (ID 64597036) [Illustration]. Dreamstime. https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-illustration-business-icons-target-infographics-illustration-design- graphic-image64597036

Gliner, J. A., Morgan, G. A., & Leech, N. L. (2017). Research methods in applied settings: An integrated

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(Tashatuvango, n.d.)

RCH 8301, Quantitative Research Methods 4

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. Review the “Interpretation Questions” and “Application Problems” at the end of Chapters 18 and 19.

  • Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VI
  • Unit Lesson
    • General Design Classifications
    • Selection of Appropriate Statistical Methods
    • References
  • Learning Activities (Nongraded)