A Practical, Problem-Solving Approach
Angelo Kinicki Arizona State University
Kent State University
A Practical, Problem-Solving Approach
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: A PRACTICAL, PROBLEM-SOLVING APPROACH, THIRD EDITION
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DEDICATION To the thousands of students I encountered during my career. Thank you for making me a better teacher and writer.
t t he
ho r nizational performance. Angelo has published over 95 articles in a variety of academic journals
and proceedings and is co-author of eight text- books (32 including revisions) that are used by hundreds of universities around the world. Several of his books have been translated into multiple languages, and two of his books were awarded revisions of the year by McGraw-Hill. Angelo also was identified as being among the top 100 most influential (top .6%) Organizational Behavior authors in 2018 out of a total of 16,289 academics.
Angelo is a busy international consultant and is a principal at Kinicki and Associates, Inc., a management consulting firm that works with top management teams to create organizational change aimed at increasing organizational effec- tiveness and profitability. He has worked with many Fortune 500 firms as well as numerous entrepreneurial organizations in diverse indus- tries. His expertise includes facilitating strategic/ operational planning sessions, diagnosing the causes of organizational and work-unit problems, conducting organizational culture interventions, implementing performance management sys- tems, designing and implementing performance appraisal systems, developing and administering surveys to assess employee attitudes, and lead- ing management/executive education programs. He developed a 3600 leadership feedback instrument called the Performance Management Leadership Survey (PMLS) that is used by com- panies throughout the world.
Angelo and his wife of 37 years, Joyce, have enjoyed living in the beautiful Arizona desert for 36 years. They are both natives of Cleveland, Ohio. They enjoy traveling, hiking, and spending time in the White Mountains with Gracie, their adorable golden retriever. Angelo also has a pas- sion for golfing.
Angelo Kinicki is an emeritus professor of management and held the Weatherup/Overby Chair in Leadership from 2005 to 2015 at the W.P. Carey School of Business at Arizona State University. He joined the faculty in 1982, the year he received his doctorate in business administration from Kent State University. He was inducted into the W.P. Carey Faculty Hall of Fame in 2016. Angelo currently is the Dean’s Scholar in Residence at Kent State University. He is teaching in the MBA program and serves on the Dean’s National Advisory Board.
Angelo is the recipient of six teaching awards from Arizona State University, where he taught in its nationally ranked MBA and PhD programs. He also received several research awards and was selected to serve on the editorial review boards for four scholarly journals. His current research interests focus on the dynamic relationships among leadership; organizational culture; organi- zational change; and individual, group, and orga-
Courtesy of Angelo Kinicki
nwe have included a variety of new exercises to our already robust Connect offering:• Problem-Solving Application Case Analyses: All problem-solving application mini-cases and end-of-chapter cases are now assignable as case analyses in Connect. These exercises give students the opportunity to analyze a situation and to apply the 3-Step Problem- Solving Approach. Student knowledge and proficiency are assessed using high-level multiple-choice questions that focus on both the problem-solving approach and on the key topics of each chapter.
• Application-Based Activities: Students can gain valuable practice using problem- solving skills to apply their knowledge to realistic scenarios. Included in this edition are two types of Application-Based Activities: Role-Playing mini-simulations that allow students to make decisions and see, in real time, the impact of those decisions; and Self-Assessments, which are research-based surveys that students can take to gain fur- ther introspection into how organizational behavioral concepts apply to them.
• Cumulative Case: This capstone activity provides students the opportunity to apply the 3-Step Problem-Solving Approach on an actual situation affecting a specific firm (Tesla). Because the case examines issues at the individual, group, and organizational levels of analysis at Tesla, it can be used in parts or as a comprehensive assignment or exam. All told, this activity presents stu- dents with a rich and practical example to apply their OB knowledge and problem- solving skills.
• iSeeIt Videos: Brief, contemporary intro- ductions to key course concepts that often perplex students, this series will enhance your student-centered instruction by offer- ing your students dynamic illustrations that guide them through the basics of core OB concepts such as motivation, leadership, socialization, and more.
• Manager’s Hot Seat Videos: These vignettes allow students to assume the role of a man- ager as they immerse themselves in real-life situations. Students see how managers deal with employees and complex issues, and use critical-thinking skills in defining their approach and course of action--while learning from the manager’s mistakes.
We are pleased to share these exciting updates and new additions to the third edition of Organizational Behavior!
Features In this new edition, we have better integrated the 3-Step Problem-Solving Approach through- out, and clarified its relationship to the Orga- nizing Framework for Understanding and Applying OB. In addition:
• Winning at Work boxes at the beginning of every chapter offer career-readiness guid- ance for students on a variety of timely, pertinent topics.
• OB in Action boxes illustrate OB concepts or theories in action in the real world, featuring well-known companies and individuals.
• Applying OB boxes offer students “how-to” guidance on applying OB knowledge in their lives. The importance of career readiness is stressed in many of these boxes throughout the book, indicated with a “Career Readiness” label.
• Problem-Solving Application boxes provide a minicase for students to analyze, using the 3-Step Problem-Solving Approach.
• Takeaways for Me and Takeaways for Managers conclude each chapter, explaining in direct terms practical appli- cations of the chapter content from the student’s perspective as an employee and a manager.
• Problem-Solving Application Cases at the end of each chapter provide a complex and current case with one or more problems that pertain to concepts discussed in the chapter.
• Legal/Ethical Challenges provide a conclud- ing exercise in each chapter and ask stu- dents to choose from several courses of action or invent their own to resolve a business situation involving ethics at work.
Connect In our continuing efforts to help students move from comprehension to application, and to ensure they see the personal relevance of OB,
vi NEW TO THE THIRD EDITION
Chapters In each chapter we have refreshed examples, research, figures, tables, statistics, and photos, as well as streamlined design to ease navigation and improve readability. We have also largely replaced the topics in such popular features as Winning at Work, Legal/Ethical Challenges, Problem-Solving Application mini cases, and Problem-Solving Application Cases. New in this edition, each chapter concludes with a sec- tion entitled “Making Connections,” in which we provide a list of specific applications of chapter content for students and managers. Beyond these valuable changes, the following outlines some of the more notable changes by chapter.
CHAPTER 1 • New content on the implications of OB for
students’ jobs and careers.
• Expanded and enhanced section on ethics, including expanded treatment on the preva- lence of cheating and other forms of unethi- cal conduct at school and work; revised and further developed section on ethical dilem- mas and whistleblowers; revised and enhanced content on the importance of soft versus hard skills; expanded explanation of the importance of self-awareness for personal development and job and career success.
• Updated survey results outlining skills most sought by employers.
• New Winning at Work feature provides insight and guidance on how to deal with challenges in the hiring process, including the growing role of artificial intelligence and how to effectively get past these virtual gatekeepers.
• New Applying OB feature on how self- awareness can help one build a fulfilling career.
• Updated and refined the 3-Step Approach to Solving Problems Using OB.
CHAPTER 2 • New content on the factors that shape the
values of Generation Z; increasing employee commitment, with best practices used by Hilton, Salesforce, and Cisco.
• New examples clarify content about Schwartz’s value theory and explain cognitive dissonance.
• Updated statistics on employee engagement around the world; new data on employee
satisfaction in the U.S.; new statistics on telecommuting; new research on accounting/ financial performance and customer service/satisfaction as outcomes of job satisfaction.
• New Winning at Work feature on creating your own sense of employee engagement.
• New Problem-Solving Application features on McDonald’s workers protesting sexual harassment at work; Netflix’s approach to sexual harassment in the workplace.
• New OB in Action feature on how compa- nies foster employee engagement.
• New Applying OB features on ways to implement telecommuting for employees; using job satisfaction to reduce employee turnover.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case on Walmart’s values under scrutiny.
CHAPTER 3 • New section on the dark side of personal-
ity, the dark triad: narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism; new coverage of emotional intelligence, including the most recent research and ways in which to develop one’s EI; new content on the potential and actual success of introverts in the workplace; new content on how to manage emotions during the job search process.
• Expanded section on brain training, using current research findings and applications; streamlined treatment of multiple intelli- gences with new, compelling examples; updated and streamlined material related to core self-evaluations.
• Updated research and practical implications of intelligences, linking Big 5 personality dimensions to performance.
• New Winning at Work feature illustrating the career implications of OB, with guidance on which interview questions students should be prepared to answer and ask.
• New Applying OB features on what to look for in a manager; managing emotions during the job search.
• New OB in Action features on intelligence testing; one of the richest self-made women in America (who also epitomizes self- efficacy).
research and examples on job design, job crafting, and i-deals.
• New Winning at Work feature on how to negotiate for a pay raise at work.
• New Problem-Solving Applications about employee benefits at Walmart; symphony orchestra members going on strike.
• New OB in Action feature about job swap- ping and job rotation opportunities.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Appli- cation Case on why Amazon workers are not feeling motivated.
• New Legal/Ethical Challenge about whether Sears executives should receive bonuses while taking the company through bankruptcy.
CHAPTER 6 • New content on the primary outputs and
functions of performance management; applied goalsetting to jobs and careers; the major reasons performance manage- ment is criticized; the growing role of technology in performance management; contemporary performance management, highlighting that it is now continual and includes more coaching and ongoing feedback; how to improve performance monitoring.
• Revised Winning at Work feature on best practices for productivity.
• New Applying OB features on goal-setting; responding to negative feedback; effective coaching.
• New OB in Action features on ID checks; monitoring for performance; com- pensation.
• New Problem-Solving Application on incen- tivizing teachers in one underperforming school district.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case on the consequences resulting from Wells Fargo’s use of incentives.
• New Legal/Ethical Challenge on the practice of employers’ asking about current salary.
CHAPTER 7 • New content on positive and negative
deviance; how students can increase their
• New Problem-Solving Application on Uber’s former CEO, Travis Kalanick.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case on the fall of John Schnatter, founder of Papa John’s Pizza.
• New Legal/Ethical Challenge on drug testing with the recent legalization of marijuana in some states.
CHAPTER 4 • New, expanded discussion and illustration
of the four stages of social perception; new content on diversity, including new discussion of assumptions about diversity and new examples about the use of quotas when it comes to hiring practices; new example to elaborate on the self-serving bias.
• New research on how a person’s appear- ance affects our perception and their ability to get hired; updated research on stereo- types; new results of gender research; updated trends and statistics related to diversity, including the topic of pay equity for men and women and research on unwel- coming workplace environments.
• New Applying OB features on developing cultural awareness to enhance perception; the best companies for Millennial workers.
• New OB in Action features on the use of vir- tual technologies for job interviews and recruit- ment; how U.S. companies are using product design to reach a diverse customer base.
• New Problem-Solving Application about firefighters suing for age discrimination.
• Updated end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case on the diversity profile of technology companies.
• New Legal/Ethical Challenge about patient requests versus employees’ civil rights.
CHAPTER 5 • New content on equity sensitivity.
• New illustrations of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; new examples to illustrate key theories including Maslow’s theory, self- determination theory, and equity/justice theory; new examples to illustrate the concept of goal setting and the application of the job characteristics model.
• New research on employees’ opinions about performance feedback and pay; updated
NEW TO THE THIRD EDITION
• Expanded and refined content on team effectiveness, including new material on the characteristics of high performing teams and how to use conflict to improve teamwork.
• Revised and expanded research and appli- cation related to social-loafing (how to prevent and overcome it); updated research and content on team adaptive capacity.
• New Applying OB features on cultivating cohesiveness to improve the function of groups and teams; the benefits of microinternships for both employers and students.
• New OB in Action features on how T-Mobile has changed their customer service approach by working in teams; how conflict and tension can be the key to better teams.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case on the predicaments that Boeing faces with its 737 Max airliner.
CHAPTER 9 • New content on media richness; social
listening; generational differences regarding the role of digital devices and communica- tion expectations and norms; social media and OB.
• New subsection on phubbing (phone snubbing) and FOMO (fear of losing out); new discussion on nondefensive communi- cation.
• New research on media richness, managers’ use of empathy; tips on managing e-mail; statistics on social media and OB.
• New OB in Action features on communica- tion transparency at a skin-care company; how empathy is good for business; crowd- sourcing success stories at Lego and Frito- Lay.
• New Applying OB feature on how to ace a video job interview.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case about United Airlines’ turbulent communications strategy.
• New Legal/Ethical Challenge on whether social media posts impact the cost of life insurance premiums.
flourishing at school; turning rejection in the job search process into positive motivation.
• Updated and expanded section on doing well and doing good, including three quali- fying criteria and further development of how this occurs across levels of OB ( individual, group, and organizational); expanded material on how to insert more positivity in one’s work; organizational cli- mate; revised material on the history and current role of positivity in OB; prosocial behaviors.
• Refined, updated, and expanded research, applications, and benefits of mindfulness at work; updated research and applications of resilience, optimism, and signature strengths at work.
• New Winning at Work feature on boosting performance with productivity.
• New Applying OB features on how managing internal responses can improve performance; boosting positivity with a fun work environ- ment; fostering positive candidate experi- ences during job interviews.
• New OB in Action features on socially- responsible investing; mindfulness at major healthcare, biotech, and industrial compa- nies; employee wellness via resistance training at a major health system; how one fast-casual health food business fosters posi- tive culture
• New Problem-Solving Application on Amazon’s acquisition of Whole Foods and reckoning of the two companies’ values.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case on how aggressive mar- keting created an opioid epidemic.
• New Legal/Ethical Challenge on hiring those with criminal pasts.
CHAPTER 8 • New section differentiating groups
and teams using three characteristics: dependence, accountability, and time.
• Revised and updated content on formal and informal groups and their respective func- tions; group and team norms; types of teams, especially related to virtual team challenges and solutions; updated and expanded content on trust: what it is, why it is important, and how to repair it when damaged.
NEW TO THE THIRD EDITION
new research on the importance of creativity and curiosity within organizations.
• New Winning at Work feature about how to practice critical thinking skills for decision making.
• New OB in Action features on improving an airport terminal under bounded rationality; how big data helps advance the health care industry; how shaking up your routine may spark creativity.
• New Problem-Solving Application on how cognitive bias was partly to blame for California’s devastating wildfires.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case on Airbus’s decision to cease production of its A380 airliner.
• New Legal/Ethical Challenge on whether college students should be expelled if their parents cheated to get them into school.
CHAPTER 12 • Revised content on common influence
tactics, including current and compelling examples of students, #MeToo, and employ- ees; political tactics, highlighting the increasing activism by employees, students, and other groups; political behavior, uncer- tainty, performance, and change; the tactic of blame and levels of political action; apologies—when and how to use them effectively.
• Updated and expanded research on the five bases of power, with a focus on negative legitimate and referent power.
• New Applying OB features on social media influencers; etiquette in the hiring process; body art in the workplace.
• New OB in Action features on giving tax breaks and other incentives to billion-dollar companies; employee activism; the effects of student activism on companies and corporations.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case on Nike and the MeToo Movement.
• New Legal/Ethical Challenge on companies who impose their leaders’ values on employees.
CHAPTER 10 • New section on harassment—what it is and
how to prevent it at work.
• New content on functional versus dysfunc- tional conflict: causes and outcomes; intergroup conflict material; creating the climate for psychological safety; framing negotiation as a skill, task, or even a game— with the goal of improving your attitude related to negotiation and thus improving the outcomes.
• Revised and updated content related to conflict avoidance, including reasons why people avoid conflict, how to avoid avoiding conflict, and the desired outcomes of conflict management.
• Expanded and updated sections related to work-life conflict, with a new focus on har- mony or integration of life’s; modern con- flict at work; civility at work, including its forms, prevalence, and costs; programming functional conflict and conflict handling styles; ethics and negotiations.
• New Applying OB features on how to explain your departure from one job while interviewing for another; psychological safety at Google; how to ask for a larger s alary or a raise.
• New OB in Action features on dealing with conflict; the battle between two unions involved in the creation of shows and movies.
• New Problem-Solving Application on the Fair Food Program.
• New Problem-Solving Application Case on Facebook’s struggles with protection of data and privacy.
• New Legal/Ethical Challenge on arbitration versus litigation.
CHAPTER 11 • New section on artificial intelligence and its
increasing use in decision making.
• Expanded discussion of Kahneman’s two ways of thinking; updated information on data analytic jobs and majors; new exam- ples for the four types of decision-making styles; new examples of bounded rationality, intuition, big data, analytical decision mak- ing, and creativity.
• New data on use of heuristics by physi- cians; new statistics about use of big data;
NEW TO THE THIRD EDITION
• New Applying OB feature about key strate- gies for cultivating a network and mentor- ing relationship.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case about the culture clashes at Ford Motor Company.
CHAPTER 15 • New introductory section and illustration
that provide an overview of how organiza- tional structure and innovation impact organizational effectiveness.
• Shifted discussion of assessing organiza- tional effectiveness to the end of the chapter to provide a clearer link between implementing organizational design and evaluating its effectiveness using various metrics, including the Balanced Scorecard.
• Updated examples on learning organiza- tions; the seven types of organizational structure; innovation in organizations.
• New research on the effects of open-office design on individual, group, and organiza- tional outcomes; updated research related to learning organizations and innovation in organizations.
• New Problem-Solving Applications about gig workers’ growing influence in the labor market; AMD and its struggles to innovate.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case about one major book- seller and the challenges it faces to stay in business.
• Updated Legal/Ethical Challenge about universities’ tax-exempt status and the response from their local communities.
CHAPTER 16 • New section on confronting and effectively
overcoming failures at work.
• New material contrasting fatigue versus tiredness and consequences at work; the role and characteristics of change agents; tips on overcoming resistance to change.
• Revised and expanded content on forces for change; updated material on using missions to motivate change; revised content on resistance to change—its causes and how to overcome it; revised content on stress at work, including statistics, causes, and costs.
CHAPTER 13 • New section on abusive supervision and
what strategies organizations can imple- ment to eliminate such behavior.
• New content on the leadership model devel- oped by Kouzes and Posner; the four ways of creating psychological empowerment; the four behaviors demonstrated by trans- formational leaders.
• New statistics on why leadership is so important in today’s organizations; new research on leadership traits and task and relational leadership; new research about leader- member exchange model of leadership.
• New OB in Action features on how one university used task leadership to help reclaim the national college football championship; abusive leadership at a local pharmacy.
• New Problem-Solving Application on Barnes & Noble’s search for a new CEO.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case on Elon Musk and his leadership behavior.
• New Legal/Ethical Challenge on whether store managers should force employees to pierce childrens’ ears against their wishes.
CHAPTER 14 • Expanded discussion of sustainability as a
key driver of organizational success.
• New examples for the three levels of organi- zational culture; the four cultural types in the competing values framework; the 12 mechanisms to change organizational culture; the three stages of socialization; the career and psychosocial functions of mentoring; how human and social capital enhance the benefits of mentoring.
• Updated research for the three stages of socialization; new illustrations on the importance of organizational culture; new examples of the career and psychosocial functions of mentoring.
• New OB in Action feature about compa- nies that demonstrate sustainability leadership.
• New Problem-Solving Application about Sprouts Farmers Market and its organiza- tional culture.
NEW TO THE THIRD EDITION
• Streamlined and updated research and examples related to common models of change; forces for change; managing stress.
• New Winning at Work feature on relocating.
• New OB in Action features on turnover among CEOs; improving lives with shoes.
• New Applying OB features on answering behavioral interview questions; how to rant productively.
• New Problem-Solving Application on the AT&T/Time Warner merger.
• New end-of-chapter Problem-Solving Application Case on the reinvention of Toys R Us.
NEW TO THE THIRD EDITION
“My students have embraced the problem-solving approach . . . and are excelling as a …