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Media Systems and Communication Technology

Open Posted By: highheaven1 Date: 14/01/2021 High School Essay Writing

  

     Assignment 1: Media Effects

How Media Used Matters--McCain and Obama Speeches 

     Assignment 2: Discussion post

QUESTIONING THE MEDIA

Category: Arts & Education Subjects: English literature Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $100 - $150 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Chapter 2 • MASS COMMUNICATION EFFECTS: HOW SOCIETY AND MEDIA INTERACT 45

TEST YOUR MEDIA LITERACY

WORKING WITH THEORY

So far, you’ve seen the application of several of the Seven Secrets, and you might have even asked yourself, which of these is most important? As you work your way through this text, you will likely suspect that the author would put forward Secret 3—everything from the margin moves to the center.

The introduction to this secret notes:

One of the mass media’s biggest effects on everyday life is to take culture from the margins of society and make it into part of the mainstream, or center. This process can move people, ideas, and

even individual words from small communities into mass society.

So if we apply this to the case study that opens this chapter, we are left with the question:

Why, after years of neglect, did the press, in all its varied forms, suddenly start paying attention to these accusations and the women making them? (Want to read more on this subject? You can find that here: www.ralphehanson.com/ tag/me-too/.) Why did these stories move to the center?

Two of the theories you’ve read about so far could be used to answer this question. Here is a simplified summary of each:

Agenda Setting Critical/Cultural Theory

Issues that are portrayed as important in the news media become important to the public.

While the media don’t tell people what to think, they can tell people what to think about.

This theory asks whether people take their cues from the media as to what the most important stories are that they should attend to.

There are serious problems that people suffer that come from exploitation and the division of labor.

People are treated as “things” to be used rather than individuals who have value.

You can’t make sense out of ideas and events if you take them out of their historical context.

Society is coming to be dominated by a culture industry (the mass media) that takes cultural ideas, turns them into commodities, and sells them in a way to make the maximum amount of money.

WHO are the sources? Who were the sources for the sexual harassment and abuse stories? Who was publishing the stories? Where did the information come from?

WHAT are they saying? Read through either the opening vignette or the series of blog posts linked to above. What reasons do the sources give for the sexual harassment/abuse story breaking out when it did? Whom do they say was responsible for this happening?

WHAT evidence exists? What evidence is there for the story spreading because news organizations were interested in making the story spread? What evidence is there for the story spreading because women (and men) who had been abused were willing to speak out?

WHAT do you think explains what happened? How would you explain the spread of the story using agenda setting? Critical/cultural theory? Which do you think does a better job of explaining what happened? Why?

gratifications theory views audience members as active receivers of information of their own choosing. Uses and gratifications theory is based on the following assumptions:

• Audience members are active receivers who have wants and needs. They then make decisions about media use based on those wants and needs. For example, in this approach, video games don’t do things to children; children make use of video games.

Attachment 2

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Chapter 2

Mass Communication Effects: How Society & Media Interact

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Media Coverage of the Rise of #MeToo

In 2017, the issue of sexual harassment and abuse moved from margin to center of media reports

Accusations against movie mogul Harvey Weinstein brought story to forefront

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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What Had Kept Women’s Stories of Sexual Abuse from Being Published?

Women were embarrassed and worried they might have been at fault

They still wanted to work where they worked

They were worried they might be blacklisted

They were afraid they wouldn’t be believed

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Rise of Mass Society

Pre 1800s: people in the U.S. lived in rural communities with people of similar ethnic, racial, and religious backgrounds

1800s: Industrial Revolution: people move into cities, live and work with people of diverse backgrounds

Media began to replace church, family, and community in shaping public opinion

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Direct Effects Model

Fears: direct effects of WWI and WWII propaganda (via media) would be strong

Direct effects presumes media messages are a stimulus that leads to consistent, predictable attitudinal or behavioral effects

Indirect effects recognizes that people have different backgrounds, needs, values and thus respond differently

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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People’s Choice Study and the Limited Effects Model

Lazarsfeld study of voter decision making in 1940 presidential election

Opinion leaders (friends and neighbors) more influential than media or campaign

Media content and campaign had indirect effect; interpersonal influence was stronger

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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People’s Choice Findings

Voters with strong opinions are unlikely to change them

Voters who pay most attention to campaign are those with strongest views

Most persuadable voters are not informed, not paying attention to campaign, and not influenced by media coverage

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Critical Cultural Model

People suffer from exploitation and division of labor

People are treated as “things” to be used rather than individuals with value

Ideas and events must be analyzed within historical context

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Critical Cultural Model

Society is dominated by culture industry (mass media) that turns ideas into commodities and sells them to maximize profits

Facts cannot be separated from values attached to them and the circumstances from which these facts emerge (context is everything)

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Types of Media Effects

Message effects

Medium effects

Ownership effects

Active audience effects

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Message Effects

How are people affected by the content of messages?

Cognitive effects Short-term learning of information

Attitudinal effects Changing people’s attitudes about a person, product, institution, or idea

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Message Effects

Behavioral effects

Inducing people to adopt new behaviors or change existing ones. Much harder than changing attitudes

Psychological effects

Inspiring strong feelings or arousal in audience members. People often seek feelings such as fear, joy, revulsion, happiness, or amusement

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Medium Effects

How does the medium used change the nature of the message and the receiver’s response to the message?

What are the social effects of each medium?

“The medium is the message” – Marshall McLuhan

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Media Transformation: From Paper to Electronic Documents

Leaking the Pentagon Papers to the press required boxes of documents

Edward Snowden’s leak of NSA documents required a flash drive

We are undergoing a shift from paper to electronic documents

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Media Transformation: Harold Innis

Media have a bias of lasting a long time or being easy to distribute

Presence of electronic documents makes leaking them vastly easier

Innis inspired McLuhan’s “Medium is the message”

The more portable a medium is, the more social it becomes

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Ownership Effects

How does ownership affect the media?

Do we get different messages from different owners?

How important are the six largest media companies?

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Active Audience Effects

Audience members seek out and respond to media for a variety of reasons

People can be segmented by geographics, demographics, or psychographics

Audience members are selective consumers rather than naïve victims of the media

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Theories of Media and Society

Functional analysis

Agenda setting

Uses and gratifications

Social learning

Spiral of silence

Media logic

Cultivation analysis

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

19

Functional Analysis

Surveillance of the environment

Status conferral

Correlation of different elements of society

Transmission of culture from one generation to the next

Entertainment

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Agenda Setting

The media don’t tell the public what to think, but rather what to think about

Media sets the terms of public discourse

But can media determine what people will care about?

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Uses and Gratifications

Audience members are active consumers with wants and needs

Media compete with other sources of gratifications

Audience members decide deliberately which choices they will make

Judgments on the media should be made based on audience’s perspective

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Uses and Gratifications

Possible gratifications:

To be amused

To experience the beautiful

To have shared experiences with others

To find models to imitate

To believe in romantic love

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Social Learning

Albert Bandura: we are able to learn by observing others and the consequences they face

Steps of social learning:

We extract key information from situations we observe

We integrate these observations to create rules about how the world operates

We put these rules into practice to regulate our own behavior and predict the behavior of others

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Symbolic Interactionism

The process by which individuals produce meaning through interaction based on socially agreed-upon symbols

“If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences” – W.I. Thomas

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Spiral of Silence

People want to see themselves as part of a majority

They will remain silent if they perceive themselves as being in a minority

This tends to make minority opinions appear less prevalent than they are

But some people like having contrary opinions; others speak out because they care

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Spiral of Silence and Social Media

Pew Foundation study of people’s willingness to discuss Snowden case on social media found:

People are less willing to discuss the case on social media than in person

People are more likely to share opinions when they think the audience agrees with them

People who won’t share opinion face-to-face are even less likely to do so on social media

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Cultivation Analysis

Watching significant amounts of television alters the way an individual views the nature of the surrounding world

Can cultivate a response known as the Mean World Syndrome

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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Mean World Syndrome

Heavy television viewers are more likely to:

Overestimate chance of experiencing violence

Believe their neighborhood is unsafe

Say fear of crime is a serious personal problem

Assume the crime rate is rising

Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World, 7e

SAGE Publishing, 2019

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