Integrating and Citing Quotes
Introduce your quote:
According to John Smith,
Jane Doe argues,
Lynn Boyle states,
In the article, “We are the Best,” the author states,
2. Put quotation marks around the words being quoted
According to John Smith, “56% of Americans are obese” (34).
3. Cite your source with in-text citations
According to John Smith, “56% of Americans are obese” (36).
In the article, “We are the Best,” the author states, “We will never go down without a fight” (Smith 37).
-If you list the authors name when introducing the quote, you only include the page number in the parenthesis.
- If you list the title of the article and not the author when introducing the quote, then include the author’s last name and the page number in the parenthesis.
Be sure to punctuate properly.
In the article, “We are the Best,” the author states, “We will never go down without a fight” (Smith 37).
- Titles of short works go in parenthesis.
Quotation marks go around the author’s words.
The period goes AFTER the parenthesis.
How does this quote relate to your essay?
Tell us how the quote is important with a sentence after the quote that starts like this—
This shows that…
This proves that…
According to John Smith, “56% of Americans are obese” (36). This proves that the United States needs to start forcing all fast food restaurants to put the calorie count on the menu. If they do, then maybe people will make better choices, and the number of obese people will shrink.
Works Cited Page
Citing an Entire Web Site
It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated, and information available on one date may no longer be available later. If a URL is required or you chose to include one, be sure to include the complete address for the site. (Note: The following examples do not include a URL because MLA no longer requires a URL to be included.)
Remember to use n.p. if no publisher name is available and n.d. if no publishing date is given.
Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.
The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008. Web. 23 Apr. 2008.
Works Cited Page
A Page on a Web Site
For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites. Remember to use n.p. if no publisher name is available and n.d. if no publishing date is given.
"Athelete's Foot - Topic Overview." WebMD. WebMD, 25 September 2014. Web. 6 July 2015.
INTEGRATING QUOTES PRACTICE
· You’ve written an insightful claim and found a great supporting quote.
· Now, you need to integrate that quote into your writing.
· How should this be done?
· The “loose balloon” (dropped quotes)
· Quotes need to be “held down” with your own writing.
· If not, they are disconnected from your other ideas.
Examples of common errors:
· T.S. Eliot, in his "Talent and the Individual," uses gender-specific language. "No poet, no artist of any art, has his complete meaning alone. His significance, his appreciation is the appreciation of his relation to the dead poets and artists" (Eliot 29).
· Holden gets frustrated and decides to leave. "People are always ruining things for you" (Salinger 88).
· The narrator feels powerless against the Burmese. For example, “I knew they would laugh at me if I backed down. And that would never do” (Orwell).
How to fix these common errors:
· Using signal phrases
· Learn the 4 Methods to integrate your quotes
Sample signal phrases:
Insists Reveals Responds
Method #1: Use a signal phrase (an introductory or explanatory phrase) separated from the quotation with a comma. Signal phrase + ,
Thoreau suggests the consequences of making ourselves slaves to progress when he says, "We do not ride on the railroad; it rides upon us."
In his examination of the values and rhythm of American life, Thoreau asks, "Why should we live with such hurry and waste of life?"
Method #2: Make the quotation a part of your own sentence without any punctuation between your own words and the words you are quoting using that. Signal phrase + that
Thoreau argues that "shams and delusions are esteemed for soundest truths, while reality is fabulous."
Holden gets frustrated and decides to leave, claiming that "people are always ruining things for you" (Salinger 88).
In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states directly his purpose for going into the woods when he says that "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived."
Notice that the word "that" is used in the examples above. “That" replaces the comma which would be necessary without "that" in the sentence
Method #3: Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon. Complete sentence + :
In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states directly his purpose for going into the woods: "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived
Thoreau ends his essay with a metaphor: "Time is but the stream I go a-fishing in."
Thoreau summarizes how he thinks we can improve our lives: "Simplify, simplify."
This is an easy rule to remember: if you use a complete sentence to introduce a quotation, you need a colon after the sentence. Be careful not to confuse a colon (:) with a semicolon (;).
Method #4: Use short quotations--only a few words--as part of your own sentence. Fully integrated small quotes
In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states that his retreat to the woods around Walden Pond was motivated by his desire "to live deliberately" and to face only "the essential facts of life."
Thoreau argues that people blindly accept "shams and delusions" as the "soundest truths," while regarding reality as "fabulous."
Although Thoreau "drink[s] at" the stream of Time, he can "detect how shallow it is."
Tips for Method #4: Weave the author’s words into your ideas. Use the words as if they were your own.
REVIEW: Which method is used for each statement below?
A. Atticus metaphorically explains why a man like Boo Radley should be left alone: “it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird” (Lee 86).
B. Atticus metaphorically explains the reason people should leave Boo Radley alone when he says, “remember it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird” (Lee 86).
C. While bothering Boo Radley and “kill[ing] a mockingbird” are not entirely the same, Atticus was still able to get the children to understand that harming a defenseless person is “a sin” (Lee 86).
D. The children learn to leave Boo Radley alone after their father told them that “it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird” (Lee 86).
Directions: PRACTICE! Choose 2 ideas from the list below, and use all 4 methods for each of the ideas and quotes that you chose below. You may add/delete/ or change words as needed for the idea and quote integration to make sense and for it to be grammatically correct.
Idea: After June's humiliating piano recital, Waverly adds insult to injury. Quotation: "You aren't a genius like me" (Tan 151).
Method 1: After June's humiliating piano recital, Waverly adds insult to injury when he says, “You aren't a genius like me" (Tan 151).
Method 2: After June's humiliating piano recital, Waverly adds insult to injury when he says that “You aren't a genius like me" (Tan 151).
Method 3: After June's humiliating piano recital, Waverly adds insult to injury: "You aren't a genius like me" (Tan 151).
Method 4: After June’s humiliating piano recital, Waverly tells her that she isn’t a “genius,” adding insult to injury.
Choose 2 ideas from the list below, and use all 4 methods for each of the ideas and quotes that you chose below. You may add/delete/ or change words as needed for the idea and quote integration to make sense and for it to be grammatically correct.
1. Idea: Macbeth is worried before he murders Duncan. Quotation: "Bloody instructions, which being taught, return To plague th'inventor."
2. Idea: Scout is constantly complaining about being left behind by Jem and Dill. Quotation: “You never let me go anywhere. If you don’t let me go this time I’m gonna tell Atticus on the both of you.”
3. Idea: Jem constantly tells Scout that she needs to leave him alone because she pesters him with concerns about his safety. Quotation: “Stop acting like a girl”
4. Idea: Doodle is a sick individual. Quotation: “The doctor said that he mustn’t get too excited, too hot, too cold, or too tired and that he must always be treated gently.”
INTEGRATING SOURCES INTO YOUR PAPER
In a RESEARCH PAPER, knowing how to effectively integrate sources is extremely important. Being able to integrate sources is important because it helps you:
· Bolster your point with the credibility or reputation of the source.
· Identify others’ opinions, theories, and personal explanations.
· Present assertions of fact that are open to dispute.
· Present statistics.
· Establish your ethos as a good, reliable scholar/researcher.
· Let readers know where to find information on your topic.
Generally speaking, there are three ways to integrate sources into a research paper – summarizing, paraphrasing and quoting. First, it is important to understand the difference between these three things:
SUMMARY – A relatively brief objective account, in your own words, of the main ideas in a source or a source passage.
PARAPHRASE – A restatement, in your own words, of a passage of text. Its structure reflects (but does not copy) the structure of the source passage, and may be roughly the same length as the passage, but does not use exact wording.
QUOTE – Using the exact words of a source.
(You will want to summarize and paraphrase most often in your research paper, using direct quotes sparingly. Putting source material in your own words shows readers that you have a true understanding of that material. Also, to restate in your own words the full meaning of a phrase or passage helps readers understand difficult, complex, jargon-riddled or ambiguous passages. Such passages, if quoted, will still require extensive explanation in order to be understood.
( Following are some good reasons to use direct quotes:
· The source author has made a point so clearly and concisely that it can't be expressed more clearly and concisely.
· A certain phrase or sentence in the source is particularly vivid or striking, or especially typical or representative of some phenomenon you are discussing.
· An important passage is sufficiently difficult, dense, or rich that it requires you to analyze it closely, which in turn requires that the passage be produced so the reader can follow your analysis.
· A claim you are making is such that the doubting reader will want to hear exactly what the source said. This will often be the case when you criticize or disagree with a source; your reader wants to feel sure you aren't misrepresenting the source aren't creating a straw man (or woman). And you need to quote enough of the source so the context and meaning are clear.
WRITING SUMMARIES AND PARAPHRASES
To write a summary or paraphrase, first read and reread your source until you understand exactly what it is saying. Write down the relevant information from the source. At this point you may still be using phrasing and language from the source. So next, rewrite this information into your own words and sentences so it becomes a coherent part of your paper written in your own style.
Remember, do not include your own ideas or commentary in the body of the summary or paraphrase. You should introduce a summary or paraphrase, then give your own ideas that show the significance of that summary or paraphrase afterward. You don't want your reader to become confused about which information is yours and which is the source's. And you always have to document summaries and paraphrases since the ideas are not your own.
Failing to document any ideas that are not your own (whether they are summarized, paraphrased or quoted) constitutes plagiarism.
1. Instructions: Below is a quotation followed by three samples, one of which inadvertently plagiarizes. See if you can identify what each sample is (a paraphrase or a summary), and see if you can "catch" the one that inadvertently plagiarizes.
"Empire State College has a policy describing the conditions under which students may be warned or withdrawn from the College for such unethical academic behavior as plagiarism, forgery, misrepresentation, or other dishonest or deceptive acts which constitute grounds for warning or administrative withdrawal" (CDL Student Handbook 5).
a. The Student Handbook states that the College may dismiss students who in any way present others' work as their own (5).
b. According to policy in the Student Handbook, Empire State College may take punitive action (including dismissal) against students who act fraudulently. Fraudulent action includes using the words or ideas of others without proper attribution, falsifying documents, or depicting the words of others as one's own (5).
c. The Student Handbook states that the College has a policy that describes the different instances under which students may be withdrawn from the College. These instances include plagiarism, forgery, misrepresentation, and other instances that show dishonest .
2. Instructions: Write a summary or paraphrase of the paragraph below.
"Beginning in 1952, television caused structural as well as superficial changes in American politics. That year, delegates of both parties were warned that the probing television lenses could capture every movement they made in their chairs. They were admonished to be careful about what they said to one another lest lip readers pick up the conversation from the television screen. Women delegates were cautioned against affronting blue-collar viewers by wearing showy jewelry" (Donovan and Scherer 21).
TIPS FOR USING DIRECT QUOTES
1. Always have a good reason for using a direct quote. Otherwise, paraphrase or summarize.
2. Do not allow quotes to speak for themselves. Your research paper is ultimately about communicating YOUR IDEAS. Your research simply helps prove or support those ideas. So, you should not just string other peoples ideas together giving quote after quote.
3. Always make sure you provide an analysis of the quote. Show your readers that you understand how the quote relates to your ideas by analyzing its significance.
4. Do not use quotes as padding. This is related to tips 1, 2 and 3. Very long quotes will require long explanations of their significance. If quotes do not have adequate analysis, readers will feel that you don’t have a grasp on what that quote means, and they also might feel that you are using quotes as “filler” to take up space.
5. Extract those parts of the passage that need quoting, and integrate quotes smoothly into your text. Following are some ideas on how to do this:
· Avoid wordy or awkward introductions to a quote:
In Simone de Beavoir’s book The Coming of Age, on page 65 she states, “The decrepitude accompanying old age is in complete conflict with the manly or womanly ideal cherished by the young and fully grown.” OR
In The Coming of Age, Simone de Beavoir contends that “the decrepitude accompanying old age is "in complete conflict with the manly or womanly ideal cherished by the young and fully grown" (65).
· Choose your introductory verb carefully: If you want to use a neutral verb, try using these: writes, says, states, observes, suggests, remarks, etc. If you want to convey and attitude or emotion try using verbs such as laments, protests, charges, replies, admits, claims, etc.
· Combine quotes with a paraphrase or analysis:
Original: Tania Modleski suggests that "if television is considered by some
to be a vast wasteland, soap operas are thought to be the least nourishing
spot in the desert" (123).
Revised: In her critique of soap operas, Tania Modleski argues that some
view television as "a vast wasteland" and soap operas as "the least nourishing
spot in the desert" (123).
· Use a few words of a quote for effect:
Example: As William Kneale suggests, some humans have a "moral deafness" which is never punctured no matter what the moral treatment (93).
RULES FOR PUNCTUATING QUOTES
· If your quotations are less than four lines long (which is usually the case), place them in your text and enclose them with quotation marks.
· Remember to include a parenthetical citation for each quotation used.
Example: Pearl, who is Hawthorne's symbol of truth, reaches a proportionately happy conclusion, becoming "the richest heiress of her day, in the New World" (243).
Example: Edward Zigler laments, "One finds violence, hostility, and aggression everywhere, including TV, the movies, and in many of our everyday social relations" (40).
· If your quote is not introduced with an author’s name, you will need to put that name in the parenthetical citation.
Example: For example, “One finds violence, hostility and aggression everywhere, including TV, the movies, and in many of our everyday social relations” (Zigler 40).
· If a quotation is more than four lines long, set it off from your text by indenting.
· Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon.
· Indent 10 spaces, double space the lines, and do not use quotation marks.
· Do not indent the opening line unless the quote begins a new paragraph.
Example: Robert Hastrow sums up the process in the following passage, where he compares rays of
light to a ball thrown up from the earth and returning because of the pull of gravity:
The tug of that enormous force prevents the ray of light from leaving the surface of the star; like the ball thrown upward from the earth, they are pulled back and cannot escape to space. All the light within the star is now trapped by gravity. From this moment on, the star is invisible. It is a black hole in space (65).
Ellipses Use ellipses to indicate when you have omitted unnecessary words from a direct quote.
"Even to take drugs once or twice," Diamond writes, "I must be strong enough to get past . . . the misery of my first hangover" (199).
( You do not need to quote or cite information that is common knowledge. (The earth revolves around the sun. Excessive consumption of alcohol can impair your judgement).
Remember, avoid plagiarism at all costs! When in doubt, provide a citation.