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Journal-type

Open Posted By: highheaven1 Date: 13/01/2021 High School Homework Writing

  I need you to write Journal which is about the topic down: 

we are focusing on diversity and the impact of diversity in organizations. This assignment reinforces and expands on this topic by exploring how our biases influence the way we interact with others and information. 

Please reflect on what you know/think and write a journal-type entry of about 500-750 words. Below are questions to consider as you prepare to write. However, your journal 

entry does not have to be limited to exploring and answering these questions:

1.What are possible challenges that you see for yourself regarding overcoming biases? 

2.Have you ever tried to overcome a bias that you were aware of? What did you do to change it?

3.How would content from Chapter 2 related to overcoming biases?

4.What have been your experiences working with diverse colleagues? Colleagues of different ages? Colleagues from different cultures? Different backgrounds? Different demographics? Was the experience different from what you expected? Why or why not?


I did attach chapter 2 PowerPoint you may need it. 

Category: Arts & Education Subjects: Art Deadline: 24 Hours Budget: $80 - $120 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Organizational Behavior: Bridging Science and Practice, v3.0

Talya Bauer and Berrin Erdogan

©FlatWorld 2018

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Chapter Learning Objectives

Understand what constitutes diversity.

Explain the benefits of inclusiveness.

Describe challenges of managing a workforce with diverse demographics.

Describe the challenges of managing a multicultural workforce.

Understand diversity and ethics.

Understand cross-cultural issues regarding diversity.

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Demographic Diversity

Diversity refers to the ways in which people are similar or different from each other

Any characteristic that varies such as gender, race, age, education, tenure, physical abilities, sexual orientation, religion, or functional background

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Benefits of Diversity

When examined with inclusion, there are many benefits of diversity

Inclusion involves allowing individuals to bring aspects of themselves that make them unique, while also being treated as insiders

The organization makes efforts to ensure that all individuals are allowed to participate in the organization fully

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Benefits of Diversity (Continued)

Higher Creativity in Decision-Making

In teams with different opinions and perspectives, people are more likely to consider alternatives and think outside the box

Research shows that diversity in values, thinking styles, knowledge, skills, and beliefs can stimulate creativity in members

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Benefits of Diversity (Continued)

Better Understanding and Service of Customers

A company with a diverse workforce may create products or services that appeal to a broader customer base

Companies lacking diversity may not be able to meet the needs of a particular segment of the population

More Satisfied Workforce

Employees that feel they are fairly treated tend to be more satisfied

Organizations with high employee satisfaction have lower turnover

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Benefits of Diversity (Continued)

Higher Stock Prices

Diversity can be a factor in how investors view how well a company is being managed which can impact stock market performance

Declines in stock prices can be seen for companies that announce settlements for discrimination lawsuits

Lower Litigation Expenses

Employees that feel discriminated against may file a complaint

The EEOC acts as a mediator between the company and the employee

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Benefits of Diversity (Continued)

Higher Company Performance

Companies that manage diversity more effectively tend to outperform others

Research shows a positive relationship between a company’s racial diversity and its performance

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Challenges of Diversity

Similarity-Attraction Phenomenon

The similarity-attraction phenomenon is the tendency to be more attracted to individuals who are similar to us

Risk in hiring because the hiring manager may feel more comfortable with someone similar to them

Even when candidates from underrepresented groups are hired, they may receive different treatment within the organization

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Challenges of Diversity (Continued)

Stereotypes and Unconscious Bias

Stereotypes are generalizations about a particular group of people

Unconscious biases are stereotypes held outside of conscious awareness

The problem lies in using stereotypes or unconscious bias to make decisions (as opposed to using data)

Steps to prevent stereotypes from affecting decisions:

Holding “blind” auditions or interviews

Removing personal data from applications

Making structural changes impacting employment decisions

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Specific Diversity Issues

Gender Diversity in the Workplace

Three laws prohibit gender discrimination:

The Equal Pay Act (1963) – prohibits discrimination in pay based on gender

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964) – prohibits discrimination in all employment-related decisions based on gender

The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act (2009) – gives employees 180 days to file a claim regarding a paycheck

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Specific Diversity Issues (continued)

Race Diversity in the Workplace

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964) prohibits race discrimination in all employment-related decisions

African Americans are 4 times more likely and Hispanics are 3 times more likely to experience discrimination than Caucasians

Ethnic minorities can experience a glass ceiling and earnings gap

Race and gender combined can affect other’s reactions

Research shows ethnic minorities are less likely to have high job satisfaction and less commitment to the organization

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Specific Diversity Issues (continued)

Age Diversity in the Workplace

Although research shows that age is correlated with positive workplace behaviors, older employees often deal with age-related stereotypes

These may discourage older workers from remaining in the workforce or may act as a barrier to being hired

Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967) prohibits discrimination against employees over 40 years old

Organizations can offer flexible work arrangements and learning opportunities to increase age inclusiveness

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Specific Diversity Issues (continued)

Religious Diversity in the Workplace

Title VII of the Civil Rights (1964) prohibits discrimination against using religion in employment decisions

Organizations must make reasonable accommodations for employees to be able to practice their beliefs unless it creates an unreasonable hardship

May require allowing for time off or adjusting the dress code

Organizations should avoid requiring employees to participate in religious practices – this is illegal

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Specific Diversity Issues (continued)

Employees with Disabilities in the Workplace

The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) prohibits discrimination in employment against individuals with physical or mental disabilities

People with disabilities often:

Experience barriers in hiring and stereotypes

Get dead-end jobs or ones requiring lower skills

Organizations can provide reasonable accommodations and foster supportive relationships to help employees with disabilities succeed

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Specific Diversity Issues (continued)

Sexual Orientation in the Workplace

There is no federal law prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation

22 states and DC do have these laws

92% of the Fortune 500 companies have implemented non-discrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity

Employees that fear disclosing their sexual orientation can experience:

Negative reactions from coworkers

Lower job satisfaction

Reduced organizational commitment

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Suggestions for Managing Demographic Diversity

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Build a culture of respecting diversity

Make managers accountable for diversity

Diversity Training Programs

Review Recruitment Practices

Affirmative Action Programs

Diverse Organization

Cultural Diversity

Culture refers to values, beliefs, and customs that exist in a society

An expatriate is someone who is temporarily assigned to a position in a foreign country

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Hofstede’s Cultural Framework: Individualism-Collectivism (Continued)

Individualism Collectivism
Cultures in which people define themselves as individuals and form looser ties with their groups. Cultures where people have stronger bonds to their groups and group membership forms their self-identity.
USA Australia UK Canada Hungary Guatemala Ecuador Indonesia Pakistan China

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Hofstede’s Cultural Framework: Power Distance (Continued)

Low Power Distance High Power Distance
A society that views an unequal distribution of power as relatively unacceptable. A society that views an unequal distribution of power as relatively acceptable.
Austria Denmark Israel Ireland New Zealand Malaysia Slovakia Philippines Russia Mexico

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Hofstede’s Cultural Framework: Uncertainty Avoidance (Continued)

Low Uncertainty Avoidance High Uncertainty Avoidance
Cultures where individuals are comfortable in unpredictable situations and have a high tolerance for ambiguity. Cultures where individuals prefer predictable situations and have a low tolerance for ambiguity.
Denmark Jamaica Singapore China Sweden Belgium El Salvador Greece Guatemala Portugal

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Hofstede’s Cultural Framework: Masculinity-Femininity (Continued)

Masculinity Femininity
Cultures where individuals value achievement, competitiveness, acquisition of money and other material objects. Cultures where individuals value maintaining good relationships, quality of life, and caring for the weak.
Slovakia Japan Hungary Austria Venezuela Norway Netherlands Sweden Costa Rica Chile

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Suggestions for Managing Cultural Diversity

Help Employees Build Cultural Intelligence

Cultural intelligence is a person’s capability to understand how a person’s cultural background influences one’s behavior

Avoid Ethnocentrism

Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own culture is superior to other cultures one comes across

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What Do You Think?

What is culture? Do countries have uniform national cultures?

How would you describe your own home country’s values on the four dimensions of culture?

Reflect on a time when you experienced a different culture or interacted with someone from a different culture. How did the cultural differences influence your interaction?

How does culture influence the proper leadership style and reward system that would be suitable for organizations?

Imagine that you will be sent to live in a foreign country different from your own in a month. What are the types of preparations you would benefit from doing?

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Key Terms

Diversity: The ways in which people are similar or different from each other.

Inclusion: The degree to which individuals can bring the aspects of themselves that make them unique while also being treated as insiders.

Similarity-attraction phenomenon: The tendency to be more attracted to individuals who are similar to us.

Surface-level diversity: Traits that are highly visible to us and those around us, such as race, gender, and age.

Deep-level diversity: Diversity in values, beliefs, and attitudes.

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Key Terms (Continued)

Faultline: An attribute along which a group is split into subgroups.

Stereotypes: Generalizations about a particular group of people.

Unconscious (or implicit) biases: Stereotypes about specific groups that are held outside of conscious awareness.

Glass ceiling: The situation that some qualified employees are prevented from advancing to higher level positions due to factors such as discrimination. Glass ceiling is often encountered by women and minorities.

Glass cliff: Tendency of women and minority members to be promoted to leadership positions in poor performing, struggling firms.

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Key Terms (Continued)

Sexual harassment: Unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal and physical conduct that is sexual in nature.

Affirmative action: Policies designed to recruit, promote, train, and retain employees belonging to a protected class.

Culture: The values, beliefs, and customs that exist in a society.

Expatriate: Someone who is temporarily assigned to a position in a foreign country.

Individualistic cultures: Cultures in which people define themselves as individuals and form looser ties with their groups.

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Key Terms (Continued)

Collectivistic cultures: Cultures where people have stronger bonds to their groups, and group membership forms a person’s self identity.

Power distance: The degree to which the society views an unequal distribution of power as acceptable.

Uncertainty avoidance: The degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous, risky, or unstructured situations.

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Key Terms (Continued)

Masculine (aggressive) cultures: Cultures that value achievement, competitiveness, and acquisition of money and other material objects.

Feminine (nurturing) cultures: Cultures that value maintaining good relationships, caring for the weak, and emphasizing quality of life.

Cultural intelligence: A person’s capability to understand how a person’s cultural background influences one’s behavior.

Ethnocentrism: The belief that one’s own culture is superior to other cultures one comes across.

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Hofstede’s Cultural Framework: Individualism-Collectivism

Individualistic cultures – people define themselves as an individual and form looser ties with their groups

Value autonomy and independence of the person, self-reliance, and creativity

Attempt to change groups more often and have weaker bonds to them

May evaluate the performance of their colleagues more accurately

Collectivistic cultures are cultures where people have stronger bonds to their groups and group membership forms a person’s self-identity

Value family bonds in their daily lives – this extends beyond immediate family members

Are attached to their groups and create permanent attachments

Draw sharp distinctions between the groups they belong to and those they do not

Are more likely to be generous when evaluating their in-group members

Emphasize conformity to the group

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Hofstede’s Cultural Framework: Power Distance

Power distance refers to the degree to which the society views an unequal distribution of power as acceptable

Low power distance cultures believe egalitarianism is the norm

High power distance cultures believe people occupying powerful positions are more powerful and deserve a higher level of respect

In the workplace, the difference can be seen in whether employees conform or question authority

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Hofstede’s Cultural Framework: Uncertainty Avoidance

Uncertainty avoidance refers to the degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous, risky, or unstructured situations

Cultures high in uncertainty avoidance prefer:

Predictable situations and have a low tolerance for ambiguity

To avoid risky situations and attempt to reduce uncertainty

Employment contracts

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Hofstede’s Cultural Framework: Masculinity-Femininity

The terms masculinity and femininity may be misleading - more accurately this dimension refers to aggressive-nurturing

Masculine (aggressive) cultures:

Value achievement, competitiveness, and acquisition of money and other material objects

Are characterized by a separation of gender roles

Feminine (nurturing) cultures:

Value maintaining good relationships, caring for the weak, and emphasizing quality of life

Believe values are not separated by gender

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Suggestions for Managing Cultural Diversity

Help Employees Build Cultural Intelligence

Cultural intelligence is a person’s capability to understand how a person’s cultural background influences one’s behavior

Avoid Ethnocentrism

Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own culture is superior to other cultures one comes across

©FlatWorld 2018