Week 1 Discussion

Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 13/01/2021 Graduate Assignment Writing

 Due January 15 at 12:59 AM

By the due date assigned, submit your responses to the discussion question given below. Submit your responses to this Discussion Area.

Respond to the discussion question using the lessons and vocabulary found in the reading. Support your answers with examples and research, and cite your research using the correct APA format.

Justify your answers using examples and reasoning. Comment on the postings of at least two classmates with regard to whether you agree or disagree with their views.

New Ways to use Web-based Applications

As technology grows, so does its uses. Companies are finding ways to let their employees manage various parts of their job without needing a full-time employee. One way this is done is with web-based self-service applications.

Discuss new ways for employees to use Web-based self-service applications in their companies that will help save time and money. Describe not only the applications and how they work, but how they can save the company money and time. Be sure to include disadvantages to the process from the point of view of the employee.

Category: Mathematics & Physics Subjects: Calculus Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

1/12/2021 South University

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IS in Organizations

In an organization, the various functions of IS are broadly categorized as:

Sales and Marketing systems: Focus on customer interaction, order processing, and sales forecasting.

Manufacturing and Production systems: Handle all aspects of production such as production goals, procurement and storage of materials, equipment, facilities, and the labor required to produce the �nished products.

Finance and Accounting systems: Track the organization’s �nancial assets and fund �ows through transactions such as payroll, payments to suppliers, accounts receivable, security, and tax reporting.

Human Resource IS: Monitors and analyzes the recruitment, allocation, and compensation of employee bene�ts and employee job performance evaluations, including federal and state record-keeping requirements for Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO).

Enterprise applications: Support company-wide process coordination and integration. The applications are ERP systems, SCM systems, CRM systems, and knowledge management (KM) systems.

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Strategy and MIS

System designers adopt various strategies of decision-making in an organization. There are four stages involved in decision making such as:

Intelligence: Gathering information to identify problems in the organization.

Design: Proposing alternative solutions to problems.

Choice: Selecting a solution from various alternatives.

Implementation: Executing the decision and reporting the progress of the solution’s implementation.

You may decide to revisit the design or choice stages when an implementation does not work. To be able to make the correct decision, you need to understand the concept of value chain analysis.

Value Chain Analysis

The value chain model is the most common analytical tool used at the business level. The model highlights speci�c activities that add a margin of value to an organization’s products or services, by leveraging the IS to achieve competitive advantage. IS is said to have strategic impact if it helps the

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organization provide products or services at lower costs compared to competitors or if it provides products or services at the same cost as competitors but with greater value. The organization’s value chain can be linked to the value chains of its suppliers, customers, distributors, and partners.

Digitally enabled networks are used not only to purchase supplies but also to closely coordinate and manage the production of independent suppliers. Let’s consider an example of how Lee Sport, a subsidiary of VF Corporation, implements Value Chain Analysis. Lee Sport buys and leases production capability from sewing shops in New York City to produce tee shirts and sweat shirts, which are then sent to their screen print operation in Tampa for their licensed sportswear business. The sewing fabric styles, colors, and production size scales change to meet the changing demand and buying patterns of customers at VF stores and VF factory outlets.

A value web is a customer-driven network of independent organizations on the Internet. These organizations use IT to coordinate their value chains to collectively produce a product or a service for the market.

Next we will discuss strategic IS and its functions.

Attachment 3

1/12/2021 South University

https://myclasses.southuniversity.edu/d2l/le/content/73907/viewContent/3255554/View 1/2

Major Types of IS

After understanding the various functions of IS, let us discuss the four major types of IS used in various organizational levels in an enterprise:

Executive Support Systems (ESS): This serves the strategic level of the organization to solve critical issues such as business forecast, competitors’ information, and acquisitions. It is primarily used by senior managers to analyze aggregate internal and external data and make strategic decisions.

Decision Support Systems (DSS): This category helps managers of an organization to make decisions based on data analysis. It is used by professional and staff managers for data analysis to perform operations research, analytic modeling, and data analysis in order to make dynamic decisions.

Management Information Systems (MIS): It is a special category of IS that serves the management level of the organization. It is used by middle management to summarize transaction data and access current performance, historical records, and exception reports.

Transaction Processing Systems (TPS): It is a computerized system which executes and records several transactions required for the daily functioning of an organization. It is used by operations, personnel managers, and supervisors for daily reports, lists, and summaries of all transactions and events in business operations.

Next we will discuss the various strategies adopted by managers in an organization when making decisions.

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Attachment 4

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Strategic IS

Strategic IS are computer systems at any level of the organization that can change goals, operations, products, services, or environmental relationships to help the organization gain competitive advantage. Various systems operate at various levels of strategy such as:

Business Level: Here IS can serve new markets or help �rms differentiate products and services and become low-cost producers.

Organizational Level: Here IS can enhance services or achieve new ef�ciencies by tying together the operations of disparate business units. This is done to promote the sharing of knowledge across business units.

Industry Level: Here IS can promote competitive advantage by facilitating cooperation with other �rms in the industry. IS can also create communities for sharing information, coordinating activities, or exchanging transactions.

Strategic IS can be used for product differentiation and creating new products and services. A focused differentiation strategic IS can offer organizations competitive advantage by producing data for �nely tuned sales and marketing techniques. Competitive advantage helps to develop new market niches for specialized products or services where a business can compete in the target area better than its competitors.

Attachment 5


Response No Submission 0 points

Emerging (F-D: 1-27) 27 points

Satisfactory (C: 28-31) 31 points

Proficient (B: 32-35) 35 points

Exemplary (A: 36-40) 40 points

Criterion Score


of Initial


/ 40No initial posting exists to evaluate.

The information provided is

inaccurate, not focused on

the assignment’s topic,

and/or does not answer the

question(s) fully. Response

demonstrates incomplete

understanding of the topic

and/or inadequate


The information provided is accurate,

giving a basic understanding of the

topic(s) covered. A basic understanding

is when you are able to describe the

terms and concepts covered. Despite

this basic understanding, initial posting

may not include complete development

of all aspects of the assignment.

The information provided is accurate,

displaying a good understanding of the

topic(s) covered. A good understanding is

when you are able to explain the terms and

topics covered. Initial posting demonstrates

sincere reflection and addresses most

aspects of the assignment, although all

concepts may not be fully developed.

The information provided is

accurate, providing an in-depth,

well thought-out understanding

of the topic(s) covered. An in-

depth understanding provides an

analysis of the information,

synthesizing what is learned from

the course/assigned readings.

Participation No Submission 0 points

Emerging (F-D: 1- 13) 13 points

Satisfactory (C: 14-16) 16 points

Proficient (B: 17-18) 18 points

Exemplary (A: 19-20) 20 points

Criterion Score




/ 20No responses to other classmates

were posted in this

discussion forum.

May include one or

more of the


*Comments to only

one other student's


*Comments are not

substantive, such as

just one line or

saying, “Good job” or

“I agree.

*Comments are off


Comments to two or more

classmates’ initial posts but only

on one day of the week.

Comments are substantive,

meaning they reflect and expand

on what the other student wrote.

Comments to two or more

classmates’ initial posts on more

than one day. Comments are

substantive, meaning they

reflect and expand on what the

other student wrote.

Comments to two or more classmates’ initial posts and to

the instructor's comment (if applicable) on two or more

days. Responses demonstrate an analysis of peers’

comments, building on previous posts. Comments extend

and deepen meaningful conversation and may include a

follow-up question.

Writing No Submission 0 points

Emerging (F-D: 1- 13) 13 points

Satisfaction (C: 14-16) 16 points

Proficient (B: 17-18) 18 points

Exemplary (A: 19-20) 20 points

Criterion Score






Style) and



/ 20No postings for which to evaluate

language and

grammar exist.

Numerous issues in

any of the following:

grammar, mechanics,

spelling, use of slang,

and incomplete or

missing citations and

references. If

required for the

assignment, did not

use course, text,

and/or outside

readings (where

Some spelling, grammatical,

and/or structural errors are

present. Some errors in

formatting citations and

references are present. If

required for the assignment,

utilizes sources to support work

for initial post but not comments

to other students. Sources

include course/text readings but

outside sources (when relevant)

include non-

Minor errors in grammar, mechanics, or

spelling in the initial posting are present.

Minor errors in formatting citations and

references may exist. If required for the

assignment, utilizes sources to support work

for both the initial post and some of the

comments to other students. Sources include

course and text readings as well as outside

sources (when relevant) that are academic

and authoritative (e.g., journal articles, other

text books, .gov Web sites, professional

organization Web sites, cases, statutes, or

administrative rules).

Minor to no errors exist in grammar,

mechanics, or spelling in both the initial post

and comments to others. Formatting of

citations and references is correct. If required

for the assignment, utilizes sources to

support work for both the initial post and the

comments to other students. Sources include

course and text readings as well as outside

sources (when relevant) that are academic

and authoritative (e.g., journal articles, other

text books, .gov Web sites, professional

organization Web sites, cases, statutes, or

administrative rules).


Total / 80

Overall Score


relevant) to support


academic/authoritative, such as

Wikis and .com resources.

No Submission 0 points minimum

There was no submission

for this assignment.

Emerging (F to D Range) 1 point minimum

Satisfactory progress has not been met on the

competencies for this assignment.

Satisfactory (C Range) 56 points minimum

Satisfactory progress has been achieved on the

competencies for this assignment.

Proficient (B Range) 64 points minimum

Proficiency has been achieved on the

competencies for this assignment.

Exemplary (A Range) 72 points minimum

The competencies for this

assignment have been mastered.

Attachment 6

1/12/2021 South University

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Collaborative Commerce with CPFR

The Internet has helped organizations become more �exible by coordinating and collaborating with their suppliers and customers. IT provides managers tools for precise planning, forecasting, and monitoring business operations. SCM links and coordinates the activities of purchasing, storing, and moving products. Collaborative commerce refers to the use of digital technology to collaboratively design, develop, build, move, and manage products through their life cycles.

Enterprise software organizations such as MarketMAX, Peoplesoft, and Manugistics have developed SCM software that uses CPFR to enable multiple partners to work together on forecasting demand. VF Corporation, an apparel manufacturer of Lee Jeans and Wrangler Jeans in Greensboro, South Carolina uses Manugistics software to coordinate production planning with their suppliers. The system enables the transmission of production plans over the Web, and highlights any con�icts in VF’s production schedule and its suppliers’ delivery schedule.

Let us understand how CPFR works for an organization.

VF uses MarketMAX’s DISP planning software to support its collaborative, forecasting, and replenishment processes. This software works with large retailers such as ShopKo, Wal-Mart, JC Penney’s, and Sears to share their sales forecasts with VF’s demand forecast. When the forecasts match the results are fed into VF’s replenishment system so that inventory levels are set and the required styles, sizes, and quantities are restocked on shelves at the right time to maximize sell- through. Wal-Mart works with VF by taking point of sales (POS) data from Wal-Mart’s checkout counters and transmits it directly to VF’s CPFR system. VF continuously revises its Wal-Mart forecast with Wal-Mart’s real-time POS data. This Ef�cient Customer Response system is an excellent example of how one organization’s value chain works with the industry chain. The result is that products are

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replenished within 24 hours instead of 3 weeks. You learned the importance of CPFR in collaborative commerce. Now let’s discuss how IS coordinates with various departments of an organization to perform its daily operations.

Attachment 7

1/12/2021 South University

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Managing the Digital Organization

Let us begin by discussing the management of digital enterprises.

Managing the Digital Organization

Let us understand some commonly used terms of management information systems (MIS).

An IS is composed of inter-related components that work together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information in order to facilitate decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization in an organization. The following three activities within the IS function generate the required information for organizations to make decisions, control operations, analyze problems, and create new products or services:

Input: Captures or collects raw data from within the organization or from the external environment.

Processing: Converts the raw data into a meaningful format.

Output: Transfers the processed information to users who can use it or to activities that use it. IS also requires feedback, which is in the form of output that is returned to the appropriate user in order to help them evaluate information.

MIS combines the theoretical work of computer science, management science, and operations research to develop system solutions for real-world problems and manage information technology (IT) resources.

Mass customization refers to the capability of offering customized products or services by using mass production resources. IS enables mass customization by using individual order data to drive production equipment. For example, a customer walks into a Levi’s store in the Prudential Center in downtown Boston, Massachusetts to take the measurements for a custom pair of Levi’s jeans. The

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customer's measurements are fed into a kiosk that is networked with the Levi’s factory’s ERP system in Monterey, California. The custom pair of Levi’s jeans are then packed and shipped directly to the customer’s home address.

Inter organizational systems are systems that automate the �ow of information across organizational boundaries and link a company to its customers, distributors, or suppliers.

A digital market is a virtual marketplace related to IT that links buyers and sellers.

Attachment 8

1/12/2021 South University

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E-Government and Information Architecture

E-Government refers to the use of the Internet and related technologies to digitally enable operations and relationships between government and public sector agencies and citizens, businesses, and other government agencies. The use of the Internet in government operations offers the following bene�ts:

Most states permit their residents to renew automobile registrations through the web.

You can calculate and �le tax returns over the Internet.

You can �le and renew state unemployment compensation over the Internet.

Soon with proper identity veri�cation, �le encryption, and Internet security to validate, guarantee, and secure transactions, you will be able to register to vote and vote virtually over the Internet without having to stand in long lines.

Information architecture refers to the design of the IT system in an organization to attain speci�c goals or perform speci�c functions. For organizational success it is essential that the Information Architecture meets current and future business requirements.

Digitally enabling core business processes can enhance an organization's economic value and enable it to adapt to changes more rapidly.

For example, eLoyalty Corporation is a virtual CRM management consulting company based in Lake Forest, Illinois in the northern suburbs of Chicago. The company conducts most of its international and regional meetings through Web seminars. The performance review process and weekly time sheet reporting is also done over the Web. Consultants are based out of their homes and travel to client work sites, and all expenses are paid by the client. The only overhead for eLoyalty is to provide laptops and the required software packages for all the consultants. Often consultants can upgrade software over the Web. Internal corporate portals are used to share consulting competencies, methodologies, and best practices which facilitate internal training, development, and communications. This virtual infrastructure enables the company to be scalable and the company has grown to thousands of employees globally within a few short months.

Now let us discuss how collaborative commerce is performed with collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment.

Attachment 9

1/12/2021 South University

https://myclasses.southuniversity.edu/d2l/le/content/73907/viewContent/3255549/View 1/1

Information Systems Management

Moore’s law of doubling computational power every 18 months has contributed to vast improvements over the last 30 years. Today we use the Internet for business transactions, to access and supply information, to communicate, collaborate, and participate in discussions, and for entertainment. We can order books and music from Amazon.com, book vacations or business travel on United.com or expedia.com and access personal productivity products over the Web from personal computers (PC), notebooks, personal digital assistants (PDA), or cell phones.

For example, a small company in Brazil used the digital platform to attract a more af�uent type of customer, which increased their average sales over 15 times and expanded their business in the global market. Today companies can manage their business on a global scale by leveraging network economics.

We will also discuss applications and systems used in organizations today.