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Module 2 Assignment

Open Posted By: surajrudrajnv33 Date: 11/01/2021 High School Assignment Writing

 

Required Readings-2

  • Monishipouri, Human Rights in the Middle East, Introduction and Part I: Introduction and chapter 1
  • Castellino and Cavanaugh, Minority Rights in the Middle East, Introduction and chapter 1, sections 1 and 2

 

The Assignment:

Identify TWO themes from any of the readings assigned for Module 2.  Then, explain why you consider these to be particularly interesting or important themes in terms of how they help us better understand human rights in the Middle East region.


 

Reflection posts:

  • These should be 400 - 600 words in length. 
  • The purpose of these postings is to enable you to think critically about what you're learning as well as foster an intellectual community of discussion. You are required to integrate readings and themes from the course into your reflections in a coherent fashion. In other words, demonstrate that you have undertaken the readings relevant to the weekly assignment in a timely fashion and that you have critically reflected on these readings.
  • The idea is that you are reflecting on readings and themes for the week. When referring to readings, make sure that they include the readings for the week you are reflecting on! Reflections will be evaluated for thoughtfulness, engagement with the material, integrity, organization, and accuracy of information.
  • When appropriate, refer to sources in a formal manner. Cite sources when appropriate.
Category: Mathematics & Physics Subjects: Calculus Deadline: 24 Hours Budget: $80 - $120 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

MINORITY RIGHTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST

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Minority Rights in the Middle East

JOSHUA CASTELLINO and

KATHLEEN A. CAVANAUGH

1

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© Joshua Castellino and Kathleen A. Cavanaugh, 2013

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1

In Memory of Lian Abu Hussein نيسح وبأ نايل ىركذل

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Table of Contents

Table of Case Law ix Table of Legislation x United Nations Documents xii Table of International Organizations’ Documents xvi

Introduction 1

1 Th e Contemporary Middle East 9 Introduction 9 1 Th e Territorial Ambit 11 2 Th e Crucial Peace and Security Questions 14 3 Islam, the Middle East and Human Rights Law 29 4 Constructing Minorities 47 5 Approach to Human Rights by Middle Eastern States 54 Conclusion 78

2 Minority Identities in the Middle East: Religious Minorities 79 Introduction 79 1 Non-Muslim Religious Minorities 82 2 Islamic Minorities 127 Conclusion 140

3 Minority Identities in the Middle East: Ethno-national and Other Minorities 141 Introduction 141 1 Trapped Minorities 142 2 Ethnic/National Minorities 165 3 Political Minorities 176 4 Majoritarian Minorities 179 Conclusion 181

4 Minority Rights in Iraq 182 Introduction 182 1 History 186

viii Table of Contents

2 Identifi cation of Minorities 203 3 Rights of Minorities 221 4 Remedies 240 Conclusion 251

5 Minority Rights in Syria 255 Introduction 255 1 History 264 2 Identifi cation of Minorities 288 3 Rights of Minorities 300 4 Remedies 326 Conclusion 332

6 Minority Rights in Lebanon 334 Introduction 334 1 Th e Unwanted Past 338 2 Identifi cation of Minorities 345 3 Rights of Minorities 350 4 Remedies 362 Conclusion 374

Conclusion 376

Bibliography 383 Index 417

Table of Case Law

Alhaji lla Alkamawa v Alhaji Hassan Bello and Alhaji Malami Yaro [1998] 6 SCNJ 127 . . . . . . . 243 MK Barakeh v. Tel Aviv Magistrate Court et. Al. , HCJ case 5754/10 [petition

withdrawn June 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Zoabi v. Th e Knesset , HCJ case 8148/10 [case pending, order to show cause issued] . . . . . . . . . 147 Ka’adan v. the Israel Land Administration , HCJ case 6698/95 [PD 54(1) 258 (2000)] . . . . . . . . 149 Adalah, et. al. v. Th e National Council for Planning and Building, et. Al. , HCJ

case 2817/06 [June 15, 2010] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 MK Zahava Galonv v. Th e Attorney General, et. al. , HCJ case 466/07 [petition

dismissed January 11, 2012] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Adalah and others v. Th e Minister of the Interior , HCJ cases 7052/03, 7102/03

[May 14, 2006] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Table of Legislation

Arab Charter for Human Rights 1994 Arab Republic of Egypt, Constitution 1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122–3 Arab Republic of Egypt, Decree No. 12025 of the Year 2004 Concerning

Certain Provisions Enforcing Law No. 154 of the Year 2004 on Amendment of Certain Provisions of Law No. 26 of the Year 1975 Concerning the Egyptian Nationality July 25, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Arab Republic of Egypt, Decree No. 1231 of the Minister of the Interior May 2011 . . . . . . . . 158 Assyrian National Pact 1932 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Camp David Accords September 17, 1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 23, 25, 150, 158 Charter of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference 1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Covenant of the League of Nations 1919 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Darfur Peace Agreement 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Declaration of Agreement for Federal Union of the United Arab Republic,

Syria and Iraq April 17, 1963 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements

for Palestinians (Oslo I) September 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–7 Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel May 14, 1948 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Egyptian-Israeli General Armistice Agreement February 24, 1949 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty (Heskem HaShalom Bein Yisrael LeMitzrayim )

March 26, 1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 23, 26, 158 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Constitution 1952 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112–13 Islamic Council of Europe, Universal Islamic Declaration of Human

Rights September 19, 1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 74–5 Islamic Republic of Iran, Constitution 1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102, 128, 137 Law on the Structure, Duties and Mandate of the Afghanistan Independent

Human Rights Commission (No. 3471) May 14, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 League of Arab States, Arab Charter on Human Rights May 22, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 74–5 Lebanese-Israeli General Armistice Agreement March 23, 1949 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Pact of the League of Arab States 1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Republic of Lebanon, Constitution 1926, amended 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346, 350–9, 365 Republic of Lebanon, Parliamentary Election Law (Law No. 25) October 8, 2008 . . . . . . 359, 370 Revised Arab Charter on Human Rights May 22, 2004, entered into force March 15, 2008 . . . 75 Syrian Arab Republic, Code of Personal Status For Catholic Communities in Syria,

(Law No. 31) 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Syrian Arab Republic, Constitution 1973, amended

2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111, 302, 308, 310, 311–14, 316, 320, 322, 324 Syrian Arab Republic, Labour Code (Law No. 279) June 1, 1946 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324–5 Syrian Arab Republic, Law of Local Government (Legislative Decree No.

15) May 11, 1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319–20 Syrian Arab Republic, Law of Personal Status 1953, amended 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Syrian Arab Republic, Legislative Decree No. 26 April 14, 1973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Syrian Arab Republic, Legislative Decree No. 49 April 7, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Th e Balfour Declaration, November 2, 1917 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18–19, 280 Th e Beirut Declaration on the Regional Protection of Human Rights 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . 74–5, 77

xiTable of Legislation

Th e Cairo Declaration 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 74–5 Th e Lebanese Republic, Law of 16 July 1962 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Th e Palestinian-Israeli Agreement on Security Arrangements in Hebron and the

Renewal of the Negotiation, March 31, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Th e Palestinian-Israeli Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government

Authority 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Th e Paris Protocol April 29, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Th e People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, Constitution 1963, amended 1996 . . . . . . . . . 92–3 Th e Republic of Iraq, Constitution 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163, 186, 202, 221–240, 244, 249, 356 Th e Republic of Yemen, Constitution 1994, amended 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Th e State of Israel, 7 Laws of the State of Israel (LSI) 113 (5713-1952/53) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Th e State of Israel, Land Acquisition Law 1953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Th e State of Israel, Land Administration Law, Amendment No. 7 (5769–2009),

the Book of Laws 2209 August 10, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Th e State of Israel, Lands Law, Amendment No. 3 (5771-2011), the Book

of Laws 2291 April 5, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Th e State of Israel, Law to Amend the Cooperative Societies Ordinance

(No. 8) 5771-2011 March 30, 2011, the Book of Laws 2286 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148–9 Th e State of Israel, Law to Amend the Land (Acquisition for Public Purposes)

Ordinance, No. 3 (5770-2010), the Book of Laws 2228 February 15, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Th e State of Israel, Th e Absentees’ Property Law 1950 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Th e State of Israel, Th e Nationality and Entry into Israel Law (Amendment)

July 27, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Th e State of Israel, Th e Nationality and Entry into Israel Law (Amendment)

March 21, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Th e State of Israel, Th e Nationality and Entry into Israel Law July 31, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Th e State of Israel, Th e Negev Development Authority Law, Amendment

No. 4 (5770-2010), the Book of Laws 2250 July 22, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Th e Treaty of Lausanne 1923 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282, 318 Treaty Alliance between Britain and Iraq October 10, 1922, FO 371/14515

E125/125/93 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190–1 Treaty of Peace between the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the State of Israel

(Wadi ‘Araba) October 26, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

United Nations Documents

General Assembly Res. 181(II), ‘Future Government of Palestine’, UN Doc. A/Res/181/A-B, November 29, 1947 (29 Nov. 1947) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 152

General Assembly Res. 2200A (XXI), 21 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, UN Doc. A/6316 (1966), 993 UNTS 3, entered into force January 3, 1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

General Assembly Res. 2200A (XXI), 21 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 52, UN Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 UNTS 171, entered into force March 23, 1976 . . . . . . . . . 55–6

General Assembly Res. 34/180, 34 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 46) at 193, UN Doc. A/34/46, entered into force September 3, 1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

General Assembly Res. 39/46, annex, 39 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, UN Doc. A/39/51 (1984), entered into force June 26, 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

General Assembly Res. 44/25, annex, 44 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 167, UN Doc. A/44/49 (1989), entered into force September 2, 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

General Assembly Res. 44/128, annex, 44 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 207, UN Doc. A/44/49 (1989), entered into force July 11, 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

General Assembly Res. 54/4, annex, 54 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 5, UN Doc. A/54/49 (Vol. I) (2000), entered into force December 22, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

General Assembly Res. 54/263, Annex II, 54 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 6, UN Doc. A/54/49, Vol. III (2000), entered into force January 18, 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

General Assembly Res. 54/263, Annex I, 54 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 7, UN Doc. A/54/49, Vol. III (2000), entered into force February 12, 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

General Assembly Res. 45/158, annex, 45 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 49A) at 262, UN Doc. A/45/49 (1990), entered into force July 1, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

General Assembly Res. 60/251, UN Doc. A/RES/60/251, entered into force April 3, 2006 . . . . 73 General Assembly Res. 57/199, UN Doc. A/RES/57/199, entered into force

June 22, 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 General Assembly Res. 61/106, Annex I, UN GAOR, 61st Sess., Supp. No. 49,

at 65, UN Doc. A/61/49 (2006), entered into force May 3, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 General Assembly Res. 63/117, UN Doc. A/RES/63/177 (2008), opened for

signature September 24, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 General Assembly Res. 61/177, UN Doc. A/RES/61/177 (2006), entered into

force December 23, 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Secretary General Report UN Doc. S/12611, March 19, 1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Security Council Res. 242, S/RES/242 (1967), November 22, 1967 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Security Council Res. 425, S/RES/425 (1978), March 19, 1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Security Council Res. 426, S/RES426 (1978), March 19, 1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Security Council Res. 509, S/RES/509 (1982), June 6, 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Independent Expert on Human Rights and Extreme Poverty, Report

E/CN.4/1999/48, November 11–14, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Independent Expert on Human Rights and Extreme Poverty, Report

E/CN.4/2004/43/Add.1, October 2–5, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Independent Expert on Human Rights and Extreme Poverty, Report E/CN.4/2004/43,

November 18–20, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Somalia, Report E/CN.4/1999/103,

November 11, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

xiiiUnited Nations Documents

Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Somalia, Report E/CN.4/2000/110, January 26, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Somalia, Report E/CN.4/2002/119, January 14, 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Somalia, Report E/CN.4/2004/103, November 30, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Somalia, Report E/CN.4/2005/117, March 11, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Somalia, Report A/HRC/2/CRP.2, 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Somalia, Report A/HRC/7/26, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Representative of the Secretary General on Internally Displaced Persons, Mission to the Sudan, Report E/CN.4/2002/95/Add.1, February 5, 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Representative of the Secretary General on Internally Displaced Persons, Mission to the Sudan, Report E/CN.4/2003/86/Add.1, November 27, 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Representative of the Secretary General on Internally Displaced Persons, Mission to the Sudan, Report E/CN.4/2005/8, July 24–31, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Representative of the Secretary General on Internally Displaced Persons, Mission to Southern Sudan, Report E/CN.4/2006/71/Add.6, February 13, 2006 . . . . . . . . . 72

Special Representative of the Secretary General on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders, Mission to Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Report E/CN.4/2006/95/Add.3, October 4–11, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71–2

Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education, Mission to Morocco, Report A/HRC/4/29/Add.2, February 7, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing as a Component of the Right of an Adequate Standard of Living, Visit to the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Report E/CN.4/2003/5/Add.1, January 5–10, 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing as a Component of the Right of an Adequate Standard of Living, Mission to Afghanistan, Report E/CN.4/2004/48/Add.2, September 1–12, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing as a Component of the Right of an Adequate Standard of Living, Mission to Iran, E/CN.4/2006/41/Add.2, July 19–30, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . 72

Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Mission to Afghanistan, Report E/CN.4/2003/3/Add.4, October 13–23, 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary and Arbitrary Executions, Mission to the Sudan, Report E/CN.4/2005/7/Add.2, June 2–12, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Mission to Afghanistan, Report A/HRC/8/3/Add.6, May 5–15, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, Mission to Algeria, Report E/ CN.4/2003/66/Add.1, September 16–26, 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71, 92

Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, Mission to Israel, Report A/HRC/10/8/Add.2, January 20–27, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and Counter Terrorism, Mission to Israel, Report A/HRC/6/17/Add.4 [and A/HRC/6/17/Add.4/Corr.1], July 3–10, 2007 . . . . . . . . 71–2

Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, Mission to Kuwait, Report E/CN.4/1997/71/Add.2, November 17–27, 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, Mission to Mauritania Report A/HRC/7/19/Add.6, January 20–24, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

xiv United Nations Documents

Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants, Mission to Iran, Report E/CN.4/2005/85/Add.2, February 22–29, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food (3–12/07/2003), Mission to the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Report E/CN.4/2004/10/Add.2, July 3–12, 2003 . . . . . . . . 72

Special Rapporteur on the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, Mission to the Sudan Report E/CN.4/2000/63/Add.1, September 20–26, 1999 . . . . . . . . . . 72

Special Rapporteur on the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, Mission to Iran, Report E/CN.4/2004/62/Add.2, November 3–11, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Iraq, Report E/CN.4/2001/42, November 5–9, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Iraq, February 11–15, 2002 . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Occupied Palestinian

Territories since 1967, Report A/HRC/10/20, February 11, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan,

Report E/CN.4/1998/66, January 1, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan,

Report E/CN.4/1999/38/Add.1, May 17, 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan,

Report E/CN.4/2000/36, April 19, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan,

Report E/CN.4/2002/46, January 23, 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan,

Report E/CN.4/2003/42, January 6, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan,

Report E/CN.4/2006/111, January 11, 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan,

Report A/61/469, September 20, 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan,

Report A/HRC/7/22, March 3, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane and Degrading

Treatment or Punishment, Report A/HRC/4/33/Add.3, June 25–29, 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Special Rapporteur on Traffi cking in Persons, especially Women and Children,

Mission to Lebanon, Report E/CN.4/2006/62/Add.3, September 7–16 , 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Special Rapporteur on Traffi cking in Persons, especially Women and Children,

Mission to Bahrain, Qatar and Oman, Report A/HRC/4/23/Add.2, November 17, 2006 . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences, Mission

to Pakistan and Afghanistan, Report E/CN.4/2000/68/Add.4, September 1–13, 1999 . . . . . 71 Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences, Mission

to the Occupied Palestinian Territories, E/CN.4/2005/72/Add.4, June 13–18, 2004 . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences, Mission

to the Sudan, Report E/CN.4/2005/72/Add.5, September 28 to October 2, 2004 . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences, Mission

to Iran, Report E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3, January 29 to February 6, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences, Mission

to Afghanistan, Report E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.5, July 9–16, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences, Mission

to Algeria, Report A/HRC/7/6/Add.2, January 21 to February 1, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions; Special

Rapporteur on the Right of Everyone to the Enjoyment of the Highest Attainable Standard of Physical and Mental Health; Representative to the Secretary General on Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons and Special Rapporteur on

United Nations Documents xv

Adequate Housing as a Component of the Right of an Adequate Standard of Living, Joint visit to Lebanon and Israel, Report A/HRC/2/7, September 10–13, 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Special Rapporteur on the Right of Everyone to the Enjoyment of the Highest Attainable Standard of Physical and Mental Health, Mission to Syria, UN.Doc. A/HRC/17/25/Add.3, March 21, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Mission to Iran, Report E/CN.4/2004/3/Add.2/Corr.1, February 15–27, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, Mission to Yemen, Report E/CN.4/1999/62/Add.1/Corr.1, August 17–21, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries, Mission to Afghanistan, Report A/HRC/15/25/Add.2, April 4–11, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

UN Commission on Human Rights, Report on the situation of human rights in Iraq, March 15 , 2002, E/CN.4/2002/44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Background Information on the Situation of Non-Muslim Religious Minorities in Iraq, October 1, 2005 . . . . . . . 204, 210, 217

UN High Commissioner for Refugees, ‘Surviving in the city: A review of UNHCR’s operation for Iraqi refugees in …

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Human Rights in the Middle East

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Human Rights in the Middle East

Frameworks, Goals, and Strategies

E d i t e d b y M a h m o o d M o n s h i p o u r i

HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST Copyright © Mahmood Monshipouri, 2011.

All rights reserved.

First published in 2011 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN® in the United States – a division of St. Martin’s Press LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010.

Where this book is distributed in the UK, Europe and the rest of the world, this is by Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Pub- lishers Limited, registered in England, company number 785998, of Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS.

Palgrave Macmillan is the global academic imprint of the above companies and has companies and representatives throughout the world.

Palgrave® and Macmillan® are registered trademarks in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe and other countries.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Human rights in the Middle East : frameworks, goals, and strategies / edited by Mahmood Monshipouri. p. cm.

1. Human rights—Middle East. 2. Human rights—Religious aspects—Islam. 3. Islam and politics—Middle East. I. Monshipouri, Mahmood, 1952– JC599.M53H85 2011 323.0956—dc23 2011020954

A catalogue record of the book is available from the British Library.

Design by MPS Limited, A Macmillan Company

First edition: December 2011

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 978-1-349-29882-2 ISBN 978-1-137-00198-6 (eBook)

DOI 10.1057/9781137001986

Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 2011 978-0-230-12061-7

Contents

List of Tables vii

Acknowledgments viii

Introduction 1

Part I Introduction I: Problems with the Current Frameworks 23

1 Framing the Human Rights Discourse: The Role of Natural Localism and the Power of Paradigm 27

Lawrence Davidson

2 Islam and Human Rights: Ideals and Practices 41 Manochehr Dorraj

3 Human Rights through the Lens of Islamic Legal Thought 57

Halim Rane

4 Islamophobia, Defamation of Religions, and International Human Rights 73

Turan Kayaoğlu

Part II Introduction II: Common Goals and Case Studies 91

5 Human Rights and the Kurdish Question in the Middle East 95

Nader Entessar

6 The Janus Nature of Human Rights in Iran: Understanding Progress and Setbacks on Human Rights Protections since the Revolution 111

Barbara Ann Rieffer-Flanagan

7 From Omission to Reluctant Recognition: Political Parties’ Approach to Women’s Rights in Turkey 129

Zehra F. Kabasakal Arat

8 Minorities and Marginalized Communities in the Middle East: The Case for Inclusion 153

Mahmood Monshipouri and Jonathon Whooley

9 Lessons from Movements for Rights Regarding Sexual Orientation in the Arab World 171

Anthony Tirado Chase

Part III Introduction III: Strategies 189

10 A Prospect of Democratic Uprisings in the Arab World 193

Bahey eldin Hassan

11 Counterterrorism, Nation- building, and Human Rights in the Middle East: Complementary or Competing Interests? 211

Mahmood Monshipouri and Shadi Mokhtari

12 Migrant Workers and Their Rights in the United Arab Emirates 227

Mahmood Monshipouri and Ali Assareh

13 Health and Human Rights in Palestine: The Siege and Invasion of Gaza and the Role of the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions Movement 245

Jess Ghannam

List of Contributors 263

Index 267

vi C o n t e n t s

Tables

4.1 Voting Patterns at the HRC and UNGA 78 7.1 The list of political parties and programs

included in the study 132 8.1 Selected minority groups 155 12.1 Population of the United Arab Emirates 230 13.1 PHCR summary of deaths and injuries in Gaza

during 23-day IOF offensive by province 250

Acknowledgments

This volume, which grew out of a conference on the Middle East and Islamic Studies, held on the campus of San Francisco State University, October 16–17, 2009, intends to enhance the global parameters of human rights by illustrating ways in which the protections against violence, torture, and discrimination, extrajudicial killings, as well as freedom from hunger in the region—and for that matter, the rest of the world—must be upheld in the name of human dignity, welfare, security, and social justice.

Of particular relevance to this project is the question of whether a commitment to the full range of human rights is even feasible given the cultural diversity, unequal economic circumstances, and socio- economic priorities of the expanding globalized world. It is equally important to ascertain the appropriateness and desirability of applying the international human rights framework in the Middle East. More- over, we hope the debates offered in this volume will shed light on the international human rights project originating from the Middle Eastern countries by helping to defi ne political and human rights dis- courses in a way that transcends traditional and conventional thinking. Thus, in addition to inquiries about how international human rights norms have shaped the consciousness and behavior of actors in the region, we are interested in exploring the ways in which Muslim actors themselves have potentially contributed to the promotion of interna- tional human rights norms.

A culmination of many years of work on human rights in the Middle East and North Africa, this book represents a joint effort by many schol- ars from different disciplines—history, political science, international law, religious studies, public health, and international relations—and various parts of the world, including Australia, Egypt, Iran, Turkey, England, the Palestine, and the United States. I owe a debt of gratitude to all contributors to this volume who submitted several drafts of their proj- ects and endured through the lengthy process of review. Special thanks are also due to Jonathon Whooley and Ali Assareh whose assistance was an equally valuable part of completing this volume. Some of the most insightful remarks that we received were provided by anonymous

external reviewers. We gratefully acknowledge their invaluable assistance and support at various stages of this book. Finally, we express our deep gratitude to the Middle East and Islamic Studies Center of the San Francisco State University that made it possible to bring about this human rights workshop.

A c k n ow l e d g m e n t s ix

4I n t r o d u c t i o n

M a h m o o d M o n s h i p o u r i

There is unfortunately little prospect of eliminating all obstacles to protecting human rights in the twenty- fi rst century. Applying universal human rights standards across the globe is a diffi cult and daunting task. Many problems and challenges lie ahead. One of the most formidable tasks facing the international human rights community is to establish whether a commitment to the full range of human rights is even feasible given the cultural diversity, unequal economic circumstances, and socio- economic priorities of the expanding globalized world. A related focus of this volume will be on the extent to which the dynamics surrounding the human rights challenges in the Middle East conform to or diverge from such dynamics in other parts of the world. Since the protection of all human rights requires perfection regardless of region, two sensible ques- tions to ask regarding the Middle East are: (a) To what extent progress or improvement can realistically be made on the status quo? and (b) To what extent are the apparent or real features of such uniqueness a func- tion of contemporary manifestations of Orientalism and Islamophobia?

Another line of inquiry we would like to pursue in this volume is to ascertain the appropriateness and desirability of applying the inter- national human rights framework in the Middle East. What does the international human rights framework offer Middle Eastern countries? In what ways does it foster local efforts to improve human rights in the Middle East and in what ways does its baggage of imperialism, neoimperi- alisms, power relations, and appropriations of human rights discourses by governments pursuing their own geopolitical interests damage such local and authentic efforts? This fi rst inquiry inherently leads to a second: Is an Islamic social, political, and legal framework compatible with the notion of human rights? In addressing these two main questions, we hope to take on

2 M a h m o o d M o n s h i p o u r i

the task of examining the human rights project, proposing ways to apply universal norms across diverse nations and cultures in the region.

Additionally, we hope the debates offered in this volume will highlight potential contributions to the international human rights project origi- nating from the Middle Eastern countries. Thus, in addition to inqui- ries about how international human rights norms have impacted the consciousness and behavior of actors in the region, we are interested in learning about how Muslim actors—scholars, activists, lawyers, journal- ists, cultural elite, and policymakers—have, and potentially can contribute to the development of international human rights norms. There is a good deal of discussion about the barriers of transcending the application of Western human rights standards. They may have been Western in origin, but they have been globally endorsed, which suggests that human rights norms responded to dangers to human dignity found in all states and regions. We need to engage such discussions in order to substantiate or disprove the reasoning and rationale underlying it all.

Finally, given the state of contemporary international affairs, few discus- sions of human rights in the Middle East can transpire without at least some reference to the relationship between the Middle Eastern countries and the West, particularly the United States, its policies, geopolitical considerations, and human rights practices and discourses. We hope that contributors to this volume will help to illuminate the complexities of this relationship and the impact of its discourses and counterdiscourses on human rights, in a way that transcends traditional and conventional scholarship.

There can be no doubt that the increasing global attention to legal matters and human rights has fostered the idea of holding states to higher moral and legal standards, causing more dissonance than consensus among states on matters of interpretation and enforcement. With some exceptions, states have nevertheless cooperated with the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia, both of which have issued powerful indictments against war criminals. The International Criminal Court (ICC) has come closer to becoming an operational insti- tution. This is evident by the way in which the ICC’s Prosecutor Luis Moreno Ocampo has pushed for the arrest of Sudanese President Omar Hassan al- Bashir, the most senior fi gure and the fi rst sitting head of state, charged and pursued by the court. There are new developments in crimi- nal justice and international criminal law. While many obstacles remain en route to protecting human rights globally, it is important to continue efforts aimed at doing so. Human rights continue to fi gure in high- level foreign policy, as in the 2011 US- China summit. Similarly, human rights continue to fi gure in many regional and national developments, as can be seen in Ivory Coast, Honduras, and other cases.

These positive trends have marked a new era in defense of human rights, but the larger question of transnational norms development

I n t r o d u c t i o n 3

and transsovereign law enforcement still remain unanswered. Several issues typify practical and normative diffi culties facing states, including sovereignty, military and humanitarian intervention, globalization, universal jurisdiction (national courts can prosecute serious human rights violations committed anywhere in the world), and international justice. It is in this context that we turn to the Middle East as a region that has been resistant to the enforcement of universal standards of human rights. It is imperative to explore the possi- bilities for compatibility—or their absence—between universal human rights norms and the tremendous diversity of cultural traditions, local and national identities, as well as socioeconomic and political conditions. Without taking into account the entire array of factors contributing to human rights viola- tions or improvements, it is not possible to identify variables and policies that affect human rights practices in the region. The Middle Eastern region has no robust regional regime for real human rights protections, whereas some other regions, such as Latin America and Europe, do.

This book represents a joint effort by many scholars from different disciplines (history, political science, international law, religious studies, psychiatry and health sciences, and international relations) and various parts of the world (Australia, Egypt, Iran, Turkey, Palestine, England, and the United States) to explore the contemporary roots of human rights violations in the Middle East. The volume’s main focus is to pro- vide a systematic analysis of looking beyond the abuses of human rights in the Middle East with a view toward (1) problematizing traditional doctrinal thinking and concepts in the region; (2) ascertaining histori- cal roots of human rights abuses in the Middle East, and (3) developing strategies for improving human rights conditions of the vast majority of people more generally and those of minorities and marginal communities more particularly. To constructively address and deal with human rights conditions, we will fi rst attempt a thematic analysis to frame the debate by measuring and mapping out the nature of human rights and dignity. Here we will turn to the issues of group rights and localism that give meaning and value to human existence, diversity of perspectives, limits to the defamation of religion, and ways to reconcile Islam and the global normative consensus on human rights. Our analysis will also examine the diffi culties as well as challenges one encounters in privileging Islam as either the savior of human rights or the main source of its violations.

In the second section, our focus will then shift to comparative his- torical studies to demonstrate the underlying human rights abuses in the region. In this section, we set out to examine the Kurdish question, sexual orientation and gender identity, the case study of Iran in the post- revolutionary period, and the extent to which women’s rights have been incorporated into the programs of political parties in Turkey. These studies will scrutinize the status and acceptance of human rights condi- tions in the region. More broadly, this section attempts to illustrate that

4 M a h m o o d M o n s h i p o u r i

Islam per se does not determine developments; that women’s rights and political rights, inter alia, depend on more than just a nation’s dominant religion; and that it does make a difference that Turkey is offi cially secular even with an Islamic party in power.

This volume’s fi nal section identifi es strategies of promoting human rights through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and mechanisms to include minorities—both economically and politically—in national affairs. Also in this section, we argue that in the post-9/11 era, some Islamic movements have distanced themselves from condemning human rights and repositioned themselves toward embracing important parts of the internationally recognized human rights. Such a shift has enhanced the internal logical consistency and legitimacy of the human rights notion throughout the region. Human rights NGOs will need to work with states and civil society not only on whether their goals are desirable but chiefl y on whether they are feasible and sustainable in the long run. To do so, it is necessary to engage Islamic networks, scholars, and activists, who—through study of and interaction with society—have gained a bet- ter understanding of local conditions, that is, the socioeconomic status of women, children, and the elderly. This cooperation toward achieving common goals is the key to fi nding the most effective strategies to obtain a wider acceptance of human rights standards in the region. To this end, both Islam, as a religion, and Islamic law (Shari’a), as a legal system, can be positively employed for the promotion of human rights in the Middle East. Thus a pragmatic version of Islam can affect developments if it is carefully related or adjusted to the facts of the region.

The fi ndings and implications resulting from this volume will have theoretical as well as policy application. We hope to demonstrate the rele- vance of area studies to the study of contemporary international affairs. The similarities, differences, and interactions between Middle Eastern countries and the West must be fully explored to prevent potential con- fl icts in the future. Still, this volume, which grew out of a conference on the Middle East and Islamic Studies, held on the campus of San Francisco State University, October 16–17, 2009, intends to analyze the global parameters of human rights by illustrating ways in which the protections against violence, torture, and discrimination, extrajudicial killings, as well as freedom from hunger in the region—and for that mat- ter, the rest of the world—must be upheld in the name of human dignity, welfare, security, and social justice.

Human Rights in the Middle East: An Overview

The spread of democratic values and fundamental freedoms across the globe in the past quarter century has turned the attention of experts

I n t r o d u c t i o n 5

to the Muslim world’s internal struggles in achieving universal human rights standards. Whether impediments to observing modern notions of human rights in the Muslim world are inherent to Islam or linked to the social, structural, and cultural factors is an issue that has sparked intense debate over the nature of democratic change in these societies. More broadly, the struggle for human rights has revived an old rivalry within the Muslim world between secular rationalists and Islamists. In today’s globalizing world, religious heterogeneity, emerging norms, and multiple loyalties have become so intricately entangled that it makes eminent sense, therefore, to talk about values and religious pluralism. Can embracing religious pluralism provide the best hope for effective adjustment to global change and the information age? Is value pluralism a necessary condition for making progress toward achieving social justice in the international community? What role does the human rights discourse play in nudging along the debate between Western and non- Western worlds, and who should be held to account for the persistence of human rights abuses in the Middle East? These are critical and complex issues that should be addressed.

In Iran, Barbara Ann Rieffer- Flanagan points out, there is some basis for hope in the future: There is limited progress on second generation rights (socioeconomic and cultural rights) and the political elites are increasingly using the language of international human rights. A prag- matic Islam that seeks a dynamic interpretation of Islamic law (Shari’a) can be an effective alternative to the sacred and textual rigidity of ortho- dox Islam. On balance, human rights prospects in the Middle East are uncertain if not entirely bleak. But beyond the Middle East, experiences of Muslims in Turkey, Indonesia, and India have been positively linked to human rights and democracy at least in certain periods.

Deciding between competing narratives regarding the relationship— or even the conversation—between religion and human rights has not been an easy affair. This can also be comparatively demonstrated, by examining the role of Catholicism and human rights both in the Western world and Latin America, Hinduism and human rights in India, Con- fucianism and Buddhism and human rights in East Asia—to cite a few examples. It is worth noting that some ostensibly Christian nations have produced admirable records of human rights and democracy, while oth- ers have produced fascism and other forms of totalitarianism. The same nation with the same religious heritage has sometimes produced both. Put very simply, the linkage between religion and human rights needs further nuanced and subtle analysis.

The Catholic Church has faced a myriad of criticisms regarding its complicity in corrupt regimes, gender bias in the nonordination of women and the regulation of reproductive freedom, unfair treatment of its own employees and members, and, perhaps most crucially, the

6 M a h m o o d M o n s h i p o u r i

exploitation of dependent and unemancipated persons receiving its ser- vices.1 Over time, however, the infl uence of the Church’s basic theologi- cal message and legal forms and policies has arguably helped account for the realization of human rights as a feature of Western legal institutions. The key point to note is that the richness and complexity of Catholicism’s role in advancing human rights point to both successes and failures.2 The Vatican has both identifi ed with some human rights and also endorsed those violating rights, depending on which rights, eras, and issues one is addressing. One Pope was all for democracy in Poland, and another helped cover up child abuse in Ireland and elsewhere.

Similarly, it is important to understand the ways in which Hindu traditions both strengthen and weaken the struggle for human rights in South Asia today. Opposition to caste discrimination in the Hindu world has a long history. Yet many Indians tend to attribute the persisting dis- crimination against untouchables (Dalits) to Hinduism. As it is the case in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, Hinduism has always contained both conservative and reformist, even radical variants.3 In contemporary India, as Jack Donnelly notes, “Hinduism functions as both a support for and an impediment to the exercise and enjoyment of internationally recog- nized human rights.”4 The universalist elements of Hinduism—a single dharma governing an integrated, divinely infused reality and regulating a universal struggle toward liberation—have provided in both principle and practice an impetus toward shoring up local support for fundamental human rights.5 Some experts on Islamic law have shown the compet- ing trends in Islamic interpretation, similar to varieties of thought in Christianity, Southern Baptist and Congregationalist interpretations of Christianity.6

Likewise, Confucian tradition, with its strong communitarian strands and frameworks, has become a topic of much discussion in recent years. Many observers have argued that Confucianism can be properly inter- preted to become compatible with modern human rights with respect to their content, if not legal regulation. Even though Confucianism has historically been based on a hierarchical foundation, especially in the con- text of patriarchal social and cultural traditions, classical Confucians took the view that all people have the capacity to become fl ourishing moral persons in the community, if not exemplary sages.7 Like all traditions, Confucianism has been open to change and development in response to both internal social problems and external pressures. Currently, there exists a strong movement of New Confucians who tend to progres- sively reinterpret the tradition in robust engagement with the West.8 As a dynamic tradition, Confucianism can be reinterpreted to provide a minimum of social guarantees for human rights in the form of support- ive public policies and political reforms, including constitutionalism and democracy. Contemporary Japan and South Korea provide particularly

I n t r o d u c t i o n 7

apt examples for adjusting Confucian- infl uenced societies to modern human rights standards.9

Islam and Human Rights

While focusing largely on the Muslim world, this book has examined both internal and external factors infl uencing the state and progress of human rights in the Middle East. The central theme underlying this volume’s arguments is that religious factors seem extraneous to an understanding of human rights issues in the Muslim world. All religions have developed in patriarchal settings: They are largely expressed in patriarchal terms, and they are heavily infl uenced by patriarchal values. It is therefore wrong to examine the ambiguities and contradictions in Islamic sacred texts, instead of addressing social and structural causes of economic and political decay. The contributions by Manochehr Dorraj, Turan Kayaoglu, and Halim Rene have demonstrated that renewed emphasis on the relationship between religion and human rights has increasingly become an essential element of law, politics, and society in contemporary Muslim world. By way of contrast, the chapter by Lawrence Davidson has noted that, histori- cally, all rights have local origins and have been shaped by local cultural traditions. Others, such as Anthony Chase, have argued that sexual and gender rights continue to challenge traditionally narrow notions of what constitutes a protected status against discrimination. Chase underscores the point that respect for rights based on a singular identity risks forgoing the emergence of fl uid, multiple, and evolving identities of Muslims.

Although the issue of how to implement human rights remains unre- solved, the gap between the Muslim and Western worlds over the issue of what constitutes human rights has been narrowed. The dispute between the two worlds over human rights is not a confl ict in dialectics but one of perspective. In the post-9/11 era, Islamists and secular human rights forces have inherited overlapping priorities in areas such as the use of security prisons and courts, electoral rights, and freedom of expression, leading the way for bridging the religious- secular divide that had vexingly beleaguered human rights conditions in the Middle East.

Over the centuries, Muslim countries have been subject to political machinations and manipulation by great powers, driven both by rivalry and collusion. In the Middle East, for example, the Western world has gained more access to the region’s oil resources by working with dictators rather than democratic regimes accountable to their people. The U.S. strategic ties with the governments of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Pakistan have always been based on purely instrumental grounds, refl ect- ing geopolitical impulses. The persistence of geopolitical concerns, especially in the aftermath of the U.S. occupation of Iraq, has rendered

8 M a h m o o d M o n s h i p o u r i

the work of human rights groups and organizations immensely diffi cult in countries such as Egypt.

Security considerations have dramatically narrowed the space for human rights claims and activities in the name of the global campaign dubbed the “war on terror.” The chapter by Monshipouri and Mokhtari demonstrates the fl aws of the so- called war on terror strategy undertaken by the Bush administration. Beyond the exigencies of “humanitarian intervention,” and “the responsibility to protect,” they point out, moral and ethical justifi cations for military intervention under the rubric of security, stability, and nation- building have fallen by the wayside. It may very well be the case that investing in nation- building and peace- building is an effective way to combat terrorism, but postconfl ict societies encounter a bewildering array of socioeconomic and political diffi culties for which the military occupation cannot provide reliable panacea, and in fact may be the overt cause of many of these issues.

Exploring the root causes of human rights abuses in the Middle East and North Africa, Bahey eldin Hassan argues, the dominant role of the executive branch—and the security apparatuses at the heart of it—has led to a chronic failure to build a nation of rights and laws. Institutions and mechanisms that are meant to protect the individual and society from autocracy are used to legitimize and institutionalize a systematic assault on the liberties and rights of the individual and society, all the while methodically weakening civil society, which was created in some countries such as Egypt, Syria, and Iraq during the periods of relative liberalism in the fi rst half of the twentieth century. In these countries, the constitution, legislative process, courts, parliament, and religious establishments have often been used as means of conferring legitimacy on methodical assaults on the rights of individuals and society.

The 2011 uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, and the rest of the Middle East and North Africa illustrate the fact that the spread of modernity and modernizing forces in a society is indeed a key contrib- uting factor to the implementation of reform. These forces are likely to push a country toward a gradual democratic transition, a possibility that, as Hassan notes, seems more likely in Tunisia than Egypt given that Tunisia is the most modernized and urbanized country in the region. In Egypt, by …