Complete 1-8. Min 150 word each answer cite your sources min of 3. due 1/10

Open Posted By: surajrudrajnv33 Date: 09/01/2021 Graduate Dissertation & Thesis Writing

 1.According to the characteristics of life discussed in the course, a rock is not considered life.  Choose one characteristic of life to defend why a rock is not life.

2.Describe an experiment that evaluates the impact of the drug Remdesivir on shortening the length of hospital stay for patients with COVID-19 infection. Define the independent variable, dependent variable and controls you put in your investigation.


3.Compare how ionic, non-polar covalent and polar covalent bonds differ from each other. Be sure to include the following terms in your comparison: electronegativity, stability and polarity.

4.For question number 3, give an example of a compound formed by each of the type of bonds listed. Make sure to give a description of why the electron arrangement involved in each compound results in the compound being classified as ionic, non-polar covalent or polar covalent.

5. Solution A has a pH of 4.2 while Solution B has a pH of 7.2 How much more acidic is Solution A than B? Which of these two solutions would be compatible with the environment of our cells. Explain.

6.Why is carbon the building block of life? Describe the chemical characteristics of carbon that make it our unique building block.

7.Name the four macromolecules present in all living organisms and tell one function of each type. Which macromolecules are found in COVID-19?

8.What was the special type of macromolecule was discussed in Unit 2 attend that was a form of protein? Discuss why shape is important in their function.

Category: Arts & Education Subjects: English literature Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

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For my wife, Amy

For my children, Justina and Konrad

For my father, Tobias

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chapter 1 Welcome to Biology! 1

Unit 1 that’s Life… 35 chapter 2 Chemistry Comes Alive 37

chapter 3 The Cell As a City 73

chapter 4 Energy Drives Life 117

Unit 2 is it all in the Genes? 151 chapter 5 Molecular Genetics 153

chapter 6 Inheriting Genes 191

Unit 3 We are not alone! 233 chapter 7 Evolution Gives our Biodiversity 235

chapter 8 Before Plants and Animals: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi 267

chapter 9 Getting to Land: The Incredible Plants 307

chapter 10 Moving on Land and in the Sea: Animal Diversity 339

Unit 4 the Dynamic animal Body 379 chapter 11 Animal Organization 381

chapter 12 Nutrition and Digestion 421

chapter 13 The Heart Lung Machine: Circulation and Respiration 467

chapter 14 Regulation: Nervous, Musculoskeletal, and Endocrine Systems 509

Brief contents

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vi Brief Contents

chapter 15 A War against the Enemy – Skin’s Defenses and the Immune Attack 567

chapter 16 Urogenital Functions in Maintaining Continuity 607

Unit 5 a small hole sinks a Big ship – our fragile ecosystem 649 chapter 17 Population Dynamics and Communities that Form 651

chapter 18 Ecosystems and Biomes 681

chapter 19 Biosphere: Life Links to Earth 715

Unit 6 Biology and society 747 chapter 20 The Evolution of Social Behavior: Sociobiology 749

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Preface xxiii

Acknowledgements xxxi

About the Author xxxiii

1. Welcome to Biology! 1 Check In 2 The Case of the Nonpaying Tenant 2 Check Up Section 3 Getting to Know Biology 3 What Is Life? 5 Order in a Universe of Chaos 9

Organizing Biodiversity: Hierarchy of Life 9 Taxonomy: The Science of Classification 11

Asking Hard Questions 17 The Development of Evolutionary Thinking 17

Buffon and the Founding of Descent with Modification 17 Fossil Record 19 Changes and Catastrophes 20 Inheriting Acquired Traits 20 Darwin’s Voyage: Natural Selection 21 Evolution and Economic Systems 22

Scientific Thinking 23 Scientific Literacy 23 Induction/Deduction 25 Hypothesis Testing 25 Experimentation 25 Data Analysis 26 Math Gives Biology Power: Statistics 26 Results and Discussion 27

Summary 29 Check Out 29


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viii Contents

Unit 1 that’s Life… 35

2. chemistry comes alive 37 Check In 38 The Case of the Mysterious Killer: A 用硝酸处理; 硝化 Nightmare 38 Check Up Section 39 Atoms and Elements that Make Up Life 39

Elements 40 Atoms and Subatomic Particles 40

Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment 42 Atomic Number and Atomic Mass 42 Ions 43 Isotopes 43 Exposure to Radiation 45

The Elements of Living Systems 46 Substances Combine to Form Complex Systems 46

From Atoms to Molecules 46 Valence Electrons: How Matter Is Combined? 47 Factors Influencing Chemical Reactions 48 Type of Chemical Bonds 49

Covalent Bonds 49 Polar Covalent Bonds 49 Ionic Bonds 50 Hydrogen Bonds 50 The Importance of Water 50

Acids and Bases 52 Why Carbon? 55

Macromolecules 56 Building Up and Breaking Down Macromolecules 56

Carbohydrates 56 Lipids 58 Triglycerides 59 Phospholipids 60 Steroids 60 Proteins 61 Enzymes 63 Nucleic acids 64

Summary 66 Check Out 66

3. the cell as a city 73 Check In 74 The Case of the Meddling Houseguest:

A Friendship Divided 74

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Contents ix

Check Up Section 75 Culture, Biology, and Social Stratification 75 Exploring the Cell 77

The Microscope 77 Cell Theory 80 Types of Cells 81 The Role of Inheritance 86 Endosymbiosis 87

Cell Architecture: The Cell As a City 90 Plasma Membrane: The “Flexible” Border Patrol 91

Walls of the City 93 Cytoskeleton: The City Scaffolds 93 Nucleus: A City’s City Hall 95 Ribosomes, the City’s Factory 95 Endoplasmic Reticulum: A City’s Subway 96 Golgi Apparatus: A City’s Processing Plant 97 Lysosomes: A City’s Police Officer 98 Vacuoles: A City’s Warehouse 99 Plastids: The Cell City’s Paint Shops 100 Cell Junctions: The City’s Bridges 100 Cell Shape and Size 101 The Moving Crew: Rules and Procedures are City Law 102

Passive Transport 103 Osmosis: A Special Case of Diffusion 104 Special Cases in Osmosis 105 Passive Transport with a Helper 106 Active Transport 107 Bulk Transport: A Bigger Moving Van 107

Summary 110 Check Out 110

4. energy Drives Life 117 Check In 118 The Case of a White Pine Memory 118 Check Up Section 119 Discovering Energy Exchange 119 Rules for Energy Exchange: Energy Laws 121 Photosynthesis: Building Up Molecules of Life 124

Chloroplasts: Where the Action Takes Place 124 What Is Light? 124

Pigments 126 The Light Reactions 126

The water-splitting photosystem 128 The NADPH-producing photosystem 129

How is Sugar Made? 130 Some Like it Hot 131

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Cellular Respiration: Breaking It All Down 132 Step 1: Glycolysis, the Upfront Investment 132 Step 2: Moving Money 134

The Energy Shuttle 134 Step 3: Breaking Bonds and Giving Credit 134

The Krebs Cycle 134 Step 4: Cash is King – Getting Money Exchanged 135

Electron Transport Chain 135 Bioprocessing: Where does the Cash Get Used? 139

Beer, Wine, and Muscle Pain 141 Anaerobic respiration 141 Fermentation 141

Alcohol and Cellular Respiration: Is it OK for Me to Drink Heavily Just in College? 142

Summary 144 Check Out 144

Unit 2 is it all in the Genes? 151

5. Molecular Genetics 153 Check In 154 The Case of Out-of-Place Color 154 Early Ideas about Genetics 154 Check Up Section 155 DNA As an Inherited Substance 159

The Structure of DNA 159 How Does Eukaryotic DNA Reproduce Itself? 165

Mitosis 165 Molecular Processes during Mitosis 168 Why Go through It All? Prokaryotic Cell Division Is More Simple 170

DNA Is the Universal Language 171 What Do Proteins Do? 172 Gene Expression: How Proteins Are Made 173

Reading the Message: Translation 176 Gene Regulation 179 Errors in Gene Regulation: A Focus on Cancer 182 Summary 183 Check Out 184

6. inheriting Genes 191 Check In 192 The Case of the Vampire Diary 192 Check Up Section 193 Unraveling the Mystery of Inheritance 193

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Contents xi

Mendel’s Laws 195 Law of Dominance 195 Law of Segregation 195 Law of Independent Assortment 196 Testcross 200

Meiosis: How Sex Cells Are Formed 201 The Phases of Meiosis 205

Male and Female Gametes 207 Sex: A Cost–Benefit Analysis 209 Determining Sex 210

Mendelian Traits: Single Gene Characteristics 212 Not So Mendelian Genetics 214

Incomplete Dominance 215 Multiple Alleles 215 Polygenic Inheritance 216 Pleiotropy 218 Tracing Gene Flow in Families: Pedigree Analysis 218

Tracing Gene Flow in Groups: Population Genetics 219 Gene Technology: Solving Problems Using Genetics 222

The Things We’ve Handed Down: Should We Tamper With Our Genes? 225

Summary 226 Check Out 227

Unit 3 We are not alone! 233

7. evolution Gives our Biodiversity 235 Check In 236 The Case of the Quiet Island 236 Check Up Section 237 What Are the Origins of Life? 237 Natural Selection and Biodiversity 240 Types of Natural Selection 242 Speciation Increases Biodiversity 245 Extinction 246

Extinction and Biodiversity 250 Evidence for Evolution 250

Modern Day Evolution 251 The Fossil Record 252 Homology 253 Molecular Evidence 255 Biogeography 255

Evolutionary Design: There is No One Right Answer 256 Sexual Selection 261

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Summary 261 Check Out 261

8. Before plants and animals: Viruses, Bacteria, protists, and fungi 267 Check In 268 The Case of the First Rabies Survivor 268 Check Up Section 237 Discovering Pathogens and Ways to Treat Them 269 Viruses: To Live or Not to Live . . .  272

Features 272 Size of viruses 273

Viruses: The Internal Terrorist 275 Some Interesting Viruses 277

Herpes Virus 277 Rhabdovirus 278 Rhinovirus 278 Myxovirus 278 Papillomavirus 279 Oncovirus 280 Retrovirus 281

Prokaryotes: The Little Things in Life 282 Features 282 Shapes, Sizes, and Types 285 Prokaryote Nutrition 287 Bacterial Reproduction 288 Prokaryote Diversity 289

Archaebacteria 289 The Misfit Kingdom: Protista 293

Classification 294 Algae 294 Protozoans 296 Slime Molds 297

A Favorite Fungus 298 Features and Types 298

Summary 301 Check Out 301

9. Getting to Land: the incredible plants 307 Check In 308 The Case of the Wet Village 308 Check Up Section 309 The Village’s Move to Land: A History 309

Evidence for Green-Algae Ancestry 311

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What are Plants? 312 Plant Structure Refinements to Help Them Live on Land 312

Divisions of Plants 314 Bryophytes 314 Tracheophytes 316 Seedless Plants 316 Seed Plants 316 Gymnosperms 317 Angiosperms 318 Flowers, Fruit, and Plant Reproduction 319 Monocots and Dicots 323

Plant Tissues 324 Plant Growth 326 Transport of Water and Nutrients in Plants 327 Plant Responses to the Environment 330

Hormones and Tropisms 330 Plant Defenses 332

Summary 332 Check Out 333

10. Moving on Land and in the sea: animal Diversity 339 Check In 340 The Case of the Homey Homeotherm 340 Check Up Section 341 Unity and Diversity of Animals 341 Four Ways to Classify Animals 344

Specialized Cells 344 Symmetry 344 Molting 344 Body Cavity Formation 345

The Major Phyla 345 Porifera: The Scattered Sponges 345 Cnidarians: Creatures with an Open Cavity 347

Jellyfish 349 Sea anemones 350 Hydras 350 Corals 350

Worms 351 Flatworms 351 Roundworms 352 Segmented Worms 353

Mollusks 353 Arthropods 355

Arachnids 356

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Crustaceans 357 Insects 358

Echinoderms 360 Chordates 361

Subphyla: Lancelets and Tunicates 361 Vertebrates 362

Fish 362 Amphibians, the First on Dry Land 364 Vertebrates: Reptiles, More Efficient on Land 365 Vertebrates: Birds, the Other Reptile 367 Vertebrates: Mammals, Homeotherms That

Thrive on Land and in the Sea 368 Human Evolution 369

Summary 372 Check Out 372

Unit 4 the Dynamic animal Body 379

11. animal organization 381 Check In 382 The Case of a Saved Star 382 Check Up Section 383 Orientation to the Human Body 383 Complementarity 386 Homeostasis Is Vital for Carrying Out Life Functions 388

Negative Feedback 389 Positive Feedback 390 Systems of Homeostasis: Interplay between Endocrine and Nervous

Controls 393 Discovery of Homeostasis 393

The Major Types of Tissues 395 Epithelial 396

Simple Epithelial Tissues 399 Stratified Epithelial Tissue 399

Connective Tissue: An Overview 400 Types of Connective Tissue 401

Muscle 403 Nervous 404

The Language of Anatomy 405 Animal Organization 405 Surface Regions 406 Anatomical Position 408 Directional Terms 408 Body Planes: Imaginary Lines on the Human Body 410 The Abdominopelvic Regions 410

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Organ Systems 411 Summary 415 Check Out 415

12. nutrition and Digestion 421 Check In 422 The Case of the Sweet Breath Date 422 Check Up Section 423 Eating Disorders 423

Anorexia and Bulimia 423 The Obesity Epidemic 424 Why Is Obesity Rising? 426

Nutrients 427 The Micronutrients 427 Minerals 431 Water 433

Macronutrients 434 Proteins 435 Lipids 435 Carbohydrates 437

How Is Weight Gained and Lost?: Food, Energy, Metabolism, and Weight 440 Energy Is measured in Calories 440 Basal Metabolic Rate 441

The Digestive System: How Humans Break Down and Absorb Food 442 The Alimentary Canal: A Tour of the Digestive System 442 Digestion 443

Mouth 445 Esophagus 446 Stomach 449 Small Intestine 451 Large Intestine 456

Common Diseases of the Digestive System 458 Heartburn 458

Ulcers and Stomach Cancer 458 Colon Cancer 459

Summary 460 Check Out 460

13. the heart Lung Machine: circulation and respiration 467 Check In 468 The Case of his Daughter’s Heart 468

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Check Up Section 469 Blood: Life’s Force 469

What is Blood? 470 Why Blood? 473

Cardiovascular System: Heart and Vessels 476 Heart 476 Movement of Blood in the Heart and Vessels 477 Heart Beats: Electricity Activity 479 Diseases of the Cardiovascular System 480 Heart Attack: Myocardial Infarction 480 Arteriosclerosis 481 Heart Valve Disease 482 Cardiovascular Disease: Treatment Progress 483

Blood Vessels 483 Blood Pressure 484

The Respiratory System 487 What Is Respiration? 487 Anatomy of the Respiratory System 489 Exchange in the Lungs 491 Lung Compliance 494 Gas Transport in Blood 494

Diseases of the Respiratory System 495 Respiratory Acidosis 495 The Bends 496 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning 496 Altitude Sickness 497 Lung Cancer 497 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 499 Controls of Heart and Lung Actions 499

Summary 501 Check Out 502

14. regulation: nervous, Musculoskeletal, and endocrine systems 509 Check In 510 The Case of the Burning Arm 510 Check Up Section 511 The Nervous System 511

Regulation 511 Pain 511 Nerves 513 Organization of the Nervous System 516 Do Nerves Use Electricity? 517 Nerve Impulses 517 Neurotransmitters 518

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Special Senses 520 Gustation 521 Olfaction 524 Vision 525 Changing Light into Nerve Impulses 526 Hearing 527 Touch 529

The Brain 530 The Muscular System 535

Characteristics of Muscles 535 Muscle Cell Organization 536 Sliding Filament Theory 536 Rigor Mortis 537 Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers 537

Skeletal System 542 Skeletons 542 Functions of Bones 542 Morphology of Bones 542 The Human Skeleton 543 Bone Remodeling and Disease 549

Endocrine System 551 Glands and Basics 551 Hormones Regulate Homeostasis 554

Calcium and Bones 554 Blood Sugar and Diabetes 554 Metabolism 555 Control atop the Kidneys 556 Pineal Gland 557 Reproduction 558 Pheromones 558 Pain and Paracrine glands 559

Summary 560 Check Out 560

15. a War against the enemy – skin’s Defenses and the immune attack 567 Check In 568 The Case of the Recurring Chemistry Nightmare 568 Check Up Section 569 The Immune System’s War 569 Physical Barriers: First Line of Defense 570

Border Patrol: The Skin and Mucous Membranes 570 The Border’s Construction: Skin Structure and Function 572 The Outside Border: Epidermis 573 The Inside Border: Dermis and Hypodermis 573 The Role of the Border: Skin Functions 576

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xviii Contents

Malfunctions of the Border: Skin and Disease 578 Internal Borders: Stomach and Respiratory Tract Defenses 579

Nonspecific Immunity: The Second Line of Defense 579 The Start of Warfare: Inflammation 580 The Tanks: Cells of the Immune System 581 Neutrophils 581 Macrophages 581 Lymphocytes 583 Chemical Warfare 583

Specific Immunity: The Third Line of Defense 584 Rebuilding after the War: Regeneration of Tissues 589 Preventing Future Attacks: Acquired Immunity 592 Defense Stations: The Lymphatic System 594 Malfunctions in our Immune Defenses 597

Our Immune System Attacks its own Troops: Autoimmune Disease 597

Our Immune System Overreacts to Terror: Allergies 598 Spies and Corruption of our Immune Defenses 598

Summary 600 Check Out 601

16. Urogenital functions in Maintaining continuity 607 Check In 608 The Case of the Stone Baby 608 Check Up Section 609 The Urinary System 609

Regulating Water Balance 610 Kidneys 611 Functions of the Kidneys 612 Special Cells of the Kidneys: Nephrons 613 The Kidney has a Three-Step Process to Make Urine 615 Urine Indicates a Person’s Health 616 Excretion is Expensive 617 Why Uric Acid? 618 Controlling Kidney Functions 619 Malfunctions of the Kidneys 619

Reproduction: An Introduction 620 Types: Sexual and Asexual 620 External and Internal Fertilization 622

Male Reproductive System 623 Male Structures 623 Tracing a Sperm’s Travel 625 Making Semen 625

Female Reproduction 626 Female Structures 626

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Contents xix

Tracing an Egg’s Travel 628 External Structures: Outside the Cervix 629 Hormones of Female Reproduction 630 Menarche and Menopause 631 What Happens After an Egg Meets Sperm? 632

Fertilization 632 Embryology 632

Stages of Pregnancy 634 First Trimester 634 Second Trimester 634 Third Trimester 636

Birth and After 636 Malfunctions of the Reproduction System 638

Males Cancers 638 Prostate Cancer 638 Testicular Cancer 638 Penile Cancer 639

Inflammations in Male Organs 639 Infertility 639 Contraception 640 Female Cancers 640

Summary 643 Check Out 643

Unit 5 a small hole sinks a Big ship – our fragile ecosystem 649

17. population Dynamics and communities that form 651 Check In 652 The Case of the Terrible Toads 652 Check Up Section 653 Ecology is based on Studying Populations 653

Order in a Population 653 Population Demographics 655 Population as a Unit of Study 655

Population Growth 656 Human Population Structure 657

Survivorship Curves and Life History Strategies 660 Characteristics of Communities 663

Roles 663 Interactions within Communities 664

Competition 664 Predator–Prey Relationships 665

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Defenses Evolve 666 Physical Prey Defenses 667

Mechanical defenses 667 Camouflage 667 Warning Coloration 667

Behavioral Prey Defenses 668 Group Behavior 668 Alarm Call 668 Plants and Herbivory 669 Symbiosis 670

Summary 674 Check Out 674

18. ecosystems and Biomes 681 Check In 682 The Case of the Hitchhiker 682 Check Up Section 683 Major Biomes of the World 684

What Are Biomes? 684 Topography Affects Land Areas 685

A Drive through the Biomes 688 Terrestrial Biomes 688 Aquatic Biomes 698 Freshwater Biomes 698 Estuaries 700 Marine Biomes 701

Ecosystems 702 Ecosystems Make Up Biomes 702 Energy Flow through Ecosystems 702 Energy Pyramids: Not Cutting Out the Middle Man 704 Vegetarians Cut Out the Middle Man 705 Ecosystem Disturbance and Ecological Succession:

Communities Change over Time 706 Summary 708 Check Out 708

19. Biosphere: Life Links to earth 715 Check In 716 The Case of the Big Blast 716 Check Up Section 717 The Earth, the Sun, and Atmosphere 717

The Earth’s Boundaries for Life 717 Atmosphere: A Layer of Protection 718 Solar Radiation: Heat from the Sun 719

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Seasonal Changes in Temperature 719 Global Atmospheric Circulation Affects Climate 720 Winds: Movement Under Pressure 721

Hydrosphere: Global Transport and Climate Control 723 The Earth’s Waters 723 Ocean Circulation 723 Ocean–Atmospheric Interactions: El Nino 724

Biogeochemical Cycles 725 Water Cycle 726 Carbon Cycle 728 Greenhouse Effect and Global Climate Change 729 Nitrogen Cycle 730 Eutrophication 732 Phosphorous Cycle 732

Human Influences on the Biosphere 733 Deforestation 733 Engineering of Waterways 734

Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers 734 Three Gorges Dam 735

Pollution 736 Bioaccumulation/Biomagnification 737 Ozone 739

Summary 740 Check Out 741

Unit 6 Biology and society 747

20. the evolution of social Behavior: sociobiology 749 Check In 750 The Case of the Nuclear Ant Hill 750 Check Up Section 751 Defining Sociobiology 751

Animal Behavior 751 Types of Behaviors 753 Learning 753

Behaviorism 754 Imprinting 754 Habituation 755 Classical Conditioning 755 Operant Conditioning 756 Insight 757

Cognitivism 758 Sociobiology and Society 758

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Aggression 760 Human and Animal Kindness 760 Kin Selection 761 What about Helping in Unrelated Organisms? 762 Debate on the Nature of Animal Society 763 Group Cooperation vs. Selfish Genes 764

Summary 766 Check Out 766

Glossary 773

Index 821

xxii Contents

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The purpose of Essential Biology is to improve biological literacy and advance the importance of scientific thinking. This textbook grew out of 20 years of science teaching. It applies learning strategies that work in the classroom by weaving bio- logical themes alongside stories and social applications for understanding. My central goals for this textbook are to motivate students to look at science in a passionate way. In a sense to appreciate Aristotle’s view that “in all things of nature there is something of the marvelous.” This textbook seeks a new way of approaching biology by incorporating stories, social themes, and integrating non-science areas to augment student interest. The textbook is intended to enhance teaching methods by bringing social applications of biology to each unit and to each student. It retains the rigor of the traditional college biology curriculum. Its pedagogy uses many different techniques to motivate students:

• How? The textbook uses instructional methods that foster active student partic- ipation in the lecture. Each chapter ends with a set of discussion questions that stimulate classroom conversations and span all levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. A “Biology and Society Corner” assessment section for each chapter leads students into an application of the content to their lives and to the societies around the world. It touches upon historical and philosophical ideas threaded alongside rig- orous content. Simple and clear language is important, but an appeal to the socio- logical (e.g. bioethical, medical, and practical) underpinnings of biology drives student motivation. Through my teaching, I found that explaining the subject is only part of its passion. An equally important aspect of working with undergrad- uates is to make the content come alive through tapping into the societal parts of biology that integrate content into other disciplines and student interests. Stu- dents do not live in a science vacuum, where the world is one of internally moti- vated, empirical hypothesis testing. Instead, they live in a society and they have interests besides basic science fact-knowing. Through tapping into that real world of experiences, this textbook asks the reader to commit to the most important aspect of a textbook – a student’s desire to keep on learning. I begin each chapter with a story to introduce the content and make a paradoxical and provocative application to familiar societal encounters. Then, the reader is shown how to think scientifically.

Each chapter anchors the content briefly in its historical roots within the science community, showing how biology and scientists work together to create knowledge. This models scientific thinking. Knowledge presented is clear and organized, as well as embedded in practical applications, sociological–ethical– legal dilemmas, literary cases, and medically related and provocative reflection on issues.

For example, molecular genetics is not merely described and defined, but the content is surrounded within a case of skin color discrimination in another culture different from our own. That theme is treated through the chapter until it

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xxiv Preface

concludes with readers applying their newly learned content knowledge with the thematic issues. Each chapter, as in each stage of a play, has a clear beginning, middle, and end to captivate the reader at different junctures. The text uses this approach by adding specific sections to touch the reader at strategic points in the writing to get them to want to read and reflect more.

Many within the incoming cohort of first-year college students are academ- ically underprepared and/or unfocused for entry into the field of study. They require a book that cleverly motivates them. The starter course for such programs is introductory college biology, generally for non-majors. Textbooks that are the- matically non-specific and not engaging to non-major students usually define these courses. Instead, this textbook particularly directs the reader, and thus the introductory biology courses, to highlight the importance of biology within other areas of knowing. The textbooks works through using an approach that taps the varied interests of the non-major – with historical and social issues, and literary and health-related applications infused throughout the chapters. Although the textbook is intended for all non-majors college biology courses, it will partic- ularly appeal to pre-allied health students by tapping into the societally based content that medical professionals are concerned with.

• New Strategies: As a Ph.D.-level researcher who studies the tenuous transition between secondary and post-secondary biology programs and a professor for 20 years in the General Biology-to-Human Anatomy and Physiology sequence, I see a real need for such a textbook. The new product will better prepare and harness the energy of this non-major cohort to prepare them to become scientifically liter- ate adults in society. Such students are often bored and unengaged with post-sec- ondary general biology textbooks and courses that do not address their unique interests. The new textbook will: • Use language and applications, clever and clear to understand in a style and

format particularly aligned in a societally applied approach. • Engage readers in case studies and critical thinking applications and assess-

ment required for scientific literacy in a modern society. • Employ and guide students’ study strategies for learning general biology con-

tent and applications. • Retain the breadth and rigor of general biology course content.

• Enhance Classroom Conversation: Instructors using this textbook, both online and in the traditional classroom, can expect their students to become more engaged in cooperative learning as they apply the social themes of each story starting the chapters. Students will follow the story throughout the chapters to reflect contin- uously on the content material. Each discussion will tap higher order reasoning skills in helping students understand biology and its place within society.

• Why? Because: student motivation equals academic results. To illustrate, in my classroom and in my books, instead of merely describing the endosymbiotic the- ory of eukaryotic development, I relate it to a story about how life could be if we judge people based on the health of their mitochondrial DNA; and I discuss its importance in mitochondrial division and muscle building.

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Preface xxv

Figure I.5 Four ways to organize information. Use any of these methods at the end of each chapter to structure your thoughts and put them onto paper. A blank box is provided at the end of each chapter titled “concept” maps for your use for this purpose. This text is meant to be used with an active style of learning employed for each chapter. Research shows that if you can put all of the information from the chapter on one page, you have mastery of the material. From Biological Perspectives, 3rd ed by BSCS.

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xxvi Preface

thinking Like a scientist The book shows the reader how to think like a scientist. Throughout the book, provoc- ative biology examples are provided that guide the reader to consider facts more crit- ically. The tools to question authority and think scientifically are given by exposing the reader to cutting-edge biology research, mathematics, biological history, integrated biology content, bioethical case studies, and science philosophy as roots to science literacy. In the many textboxes woven through the chapters, the excitement and opti- mism …