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Category: Accounting & Finance Subjects: Corporate Finance Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Public Policymaking An Introduction

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Public Policymaking An Introduction

Eighth EDitiON

JAMES E. ANDERSON texas A&M University

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Public Policymaking: An Introduction, Eighth Edition James E. Anderson

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Preface  ix

ChAPtER 1 The Study of Public Policy 1 The Plan of This Book  2 What Is Public Policy?  6 Categories of Public Policies  10 Approaches to Policy Study  19 Methodological Difficulties in Studying  Public Policy  30

For Further Exploration  33

Test Your Knowledge  33

Suggested Readings  33

Notes  34

ChAPtER 2 The Policy-Makers and Their Environment 37

The Policy Environment  41 The Official Policy-Makers  50 Nongovernmental Participants  61 Levels of Politics  73 CASE STUDY  The Endangered Snail Darter  78

For Further Exploration  80

Test Your Knowledge  81

Suggested Readings  81

Notes  82

ChAPtER 3 Policy Formation: Problems, Agendas, and Formulation 87

Policy Problems  89 The Policy Agenda  95 The Agenda-Setting Process  98 Nondecisions  106 The Loss of Agenda Status  107 Two Cases in Agenda Setting  108 CASE STUDY  Coal-Mine Safety  108

Contents

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vi Contents

CASE STUDY  Environmental Pollution Control  112 The Formulation of Policy Proposals  114 Policy Formulation as a Technical Process  120 CASE STUDY  Formulating Policy: The Patient Protection    and Affordable Care Act  122 A Concluding Comment  127

For Further Exploration  128

Test Your Knowledge  128

Suggested Readings  128

Notes  129

ChAPtER 4 Policy Adoption 133 Theories of Decision-Making  134 Decision Criteria  140 The Public Interest  150 Styles of Decision-Making  153 Presidential Decision-Making  161 CASE STUDY  Policy Adoption: Consumer Bankruptcy  165 CASE STUDY  Policy Adoption: The Family Smoking     Prevention and Tobacco Control Act  172

For Further Exploration  174

Test Your Knowledge  175

Suggested Readings  175

Notes  175

ChAPtER 5 Budgeting and Public Policy 180 The Budget and Public Policy  181 Fiscal Policy  187 The National Budgetary Process  188 CASE STUDY  The Struggle to Balance the Budget  207

For Further Exploration  220

Test Your Knowledge  221

Suggested Readings  221

Notes  222

ChAPtER 6 Policy Implementation 225 Federalism and Implementation  227 CASE STUDY  The Elementary and Secondary Education Act  229

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Contents vii

Who Implements Policy?  232 Administrative Organization  239 Administrative Politics  243 Administrative Policymaking  249 CASE STUDY  The Nuclear Waste Disposal Act  258 CASE STUDY  The Total Maximum Daily Load Program  259 Techniques of Control  261 CASE STUDY  The Clean Air Act’s Emissions-Trading System  272 Compliance  273

For Further Exploration  282

Test Your Knowledge  282

Suggested Readings  283

Notes  283

ChAPtER 7 Policy Impact, Evaluation, and Change 290

Policy Impact  290 Policy Evaluation  295 Policy Evaluation Processes  299 CASE STUDY  The GAO and Food Safety  302 Problems in Policy Evaluation  307 Policy Evaluation: The Use and Misuse of     Cost–Benefit Analysis  311 CASE STUDY  The Politics of Evaluation: Head Start  317 Policy Termination  321 CASE STUDY  The Policy Cycle: Airline Regulation    and Deregulation  325

For Further Exploration  333

Test Your Knowledge  334

Suggested Readings  334

Notes  335

ChAPtER 8 Reflections and Observations 341 Notes  352

Index  355

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ix

In Public Policymaking: An Introduction, Eighth Edition, the policymaking  process is presented as a policy cycle—a sequence of functional activities  beginning with problem identification and agenda formation, and continuing  through the evaluation of policy, which may result in the continuation, modi- fication, or termination of policy. This may restart the policy cycle in a search  for alternatives for handling a problem. 

The policy cycle schema is a workable and flexible approach to the study  and analysis of public policymaking, whether in the United States or else- where. In addition, the text looks at some other ways to study policy formation  (e.g., group theory and elite theory); makes some comparisons with action in  other countries; and delves into some of the logistical aspects of policymaking,  such as majority building, cost–benefit analysis, and decision-making.

Since the seventh edition of this book was written, various noteworthy  changes or developments have occurred in American government and  public  policy. National budget deficits soared because of the Great Recession and  then began to decline. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the  Wall Street Reform and Consumer Financial Protection Act were enacted. The  Democratic Party, which won control of both houses of Congress in 2008, lost  control of the House of Representatives in 2010 to the Republicans, partly  because of the Tea Party. The long American combat involvement in Iraq  has finally ended, although violence in that country has not. The long war in  Afghanistan is now winding down, at least as far as American participation is  involved. In 2012, President Barack Obama decisively won a second term.

The Obama administration has a more leftward tilt than the predecessor  George W. Bush administration. In Congress, however, polarization of the  political parties has intensified. The increased opposition of the Republicans,  especially in the House, to anything “Obama,” has made stalemate common- place in Congress, which is often referred to as a dysfunctional body.

The fundamental structure of the policymaking process remains as before.  However, in the last few years not much of significance has made the journey  through the policy cycle. That said, I believe the policy cycle approach remains  useful. For instance, it can be used in the analysis of executive policymaking,  which seems likely to gain greater usage in the Obama administration.

As the subtitle indicates, Public Policymaking: An Introduction is intended  to be a starting point for the study of public policymaking by giving some  consideration to all of the stages or phases of the policymaking process. For  those who wish to explore various stages more deeply, the suggested readings  and websites listed at the end of each chapter will be helpful. After decades of  studying the policy process, I still have much to learn.

Preface

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x Preface

While I am fully equipped with opinions on policy and politics, I have tried  to be impartial and objective in my treatment of the many topics covered in  this book. I have been informed, and I think with considerable success, by the  principle of “intended neutrality” in writing this book. Analysis rather than  advocacy and teaching rather than preaching have been my goals.

Organization and Updates I have made many changes, updates, additions, and a few deletions 

in this revision, taking into account new developments in public policymak- ing, especially at the national level in the United States. I have also benefitted  from recent additions to the scholarly literature on public policy formation.  The basic framework of the book, however, remains intact. 

Chapter 1, “The Study of Public Policy,” has new material on distributive  policy, elite theory, and the application of various policy approaches to the  Wall Street Reform and Consumer Financial Protection Act. 

Chapter 2, “The Policy-Makers and Their Environment,” surveys the politi- cal environment, or context of policymaking, and presents the official and  unofficial participants in the policy process. Material has been added on politi- cal culture, social change, the President, and the communications media.  I retained the Snail Darter case, because though old, it is seminal.

Chapter 3, “Policy Formation: Problems, Agendas, and Formulation,”  examines policy problems and agendas, agenda-setting processes, and the for- mulation (or crafting) of policy proposals. These are the pre-adoption aspects  of the policy process. Here one will encounter new material on policy prob- lems, issue definition, agenda denial, an updating of coal mine safety and pol- lution control, and a new case study of the Affordable Care Act.

Chapter 4, “Policy Adoption,” centers on decision-making processes and  criteria and the adoption of policies. Here one will find new and/or updated  material on public opinion, filibustering in the U.S. Senate, and the Israeli  election. A new case study is included on the Family Smoking Prevention and  Tobacco Control Act.

Chapter 5, “Budgeting and Public Policy,” discusses the national budgetary  process because of its importance for the substance, implementation, and impact  of public policies, which I try to make more apparent.  Budgetary numbers are  updated. There is a new example on the ever-popular Animal and Plant Health  Inspection Service and on the budgetary process, per se. The ongoing saga of the  struggle for a balanced budget, which becomes more partisan, complicated, and  seemingly hopeless as time goes on, has been modified and updated.

Chapter 6, “Policy Implementation,” roams over much ground to provide  understanding of the implementation or administration of public policies.  Changes here include new material on the President and implementation,  agency rule-making, the failed Nuclear Waste Disposal Act, tax expenditures,  and “libertarian paternalism.”

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to

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Preface xi

Chapter 7, “Policy Impact, Evaluation, and Change,” probes the effects of  policies, their evaluation, and possible termination. Numerous limited modi- fications, additions, and deletions have been made here. There is more on  food safety, Head Start, and policy termination. The concluding case study  on  airline deregulation has also been updated. Does the air traveler in coach  really feel better off?

Chapter 8, “Reflections and Observations,” goes beyond stating conclu- sions. It is, rather, an informative essay on the American policymaking pro- cess, adding new information to the topic.

Companion Website An exciting feature of this edition is the text’s companion website, 

which provides additional resources for instructors and students. The Instruc- tor website includes PowerPoint slides for classroom presentations, ideas for  classroom activities, suggested paper topics, and an Instructor’s Manual, while  the Student website has flashcards for reviewing text terms, crossword puz- zles, tutorial quizzes, and chapter outlines. Access the companion website at  login.cengage.com.

Acknowledgments I wish to express my appreciation to all who have assisted in the prep-

aration of this edition. At the request of Cengage Learning, several scholars  provided pre-revision reviews. They provided many good ideas and suggestions  for change and improvement. I did not agree with everything that came at me,  nor was I able to respond positively to some of their recommendations. Over- all, though, they helped greatly in this revision. My thanks go to the  following  professors for reviewing the text and offering their evaluations, comments,  and suggestions:

Mike Abels (University of Central Florida) 

Jeffrey M. Brauer (Keystone College)

William Doyle (Vanderbilt University)

Shankar Prasad (NYU Wagner)

Stephen Sussman (Barry University)