Open Posted By: highheaven1 Date: 28/12/2020 Graduate Assignment Writing

 Please use the ATTACHED "Excel Study Design Workbook." to complete the assignments

TOPIC: Effectiveness of Studies Used in Epidemiology

A premise of epidemiology is that health outcomes are not random occurrences within a population, but are linked to particular risk factors and diseases. Epidemiologists utilize a range of study design methods to evaluate evidence-based associations to understand and improve health outcomes. Use the ATTACHED specific Excel worksheets, located in the "Excel Study Design Workbook,” to complete this assignment.

Part 1: Study Design Comparison 

Using the "Study Design Comparison Worksheet," compare and contrast the characteristics of the different types of study design types discussed in this course. You will be able to use this as a reference throughout the program.

Part 2: Article Comparison 

Consider an area of interest that you want to explore as a potential topic for your Epidemiological Profile project. Search for two articles that fit any two of the four study designs (randomized trial, cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) pertaining to the interest area you chose. Review the articles provided in the "Study Design Resource Document" to practice identifying articles for each study design. (Do not use the actual articles listed in the "Study Design Resource Document" for this assignment.) Complete the "Article Comparison Worksheet" to compare the study design characteristics in each of your two articles. Include details of any gaps in the characteristics or identify if information is missing.

General Requirements

Upon completion of both worksheets, submit the "Excel Study Design Workbook."

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.


Read Chapter 10 in Gordis Epidemiology.

View "Cohort and Case Control Studies," by Martin (2013), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3GHTYa-gZg

Read "Introduction to Study Designs - Cross-Sectional Studies," located on the Health Knowledge website. URL: https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/e-learning/epidemiology/practitioners/introduction-study-design-css

Read "Cross-Sectional Studies," from ERIC Notebook (2012), located on the Gillings School of Global Public Health -University of North Carolina website. URL: https://sph.unc.edu/files/2015/07/nciph_ERIC8.pdf

Read "Section 7: Analytic Epidemiology," from Lesson 1 of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) self-study course, Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice: An Introduction to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics (2012), located on the CDC website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section7.html

Study Design Resource Document

Randomized Trial Study Examples

  1. Monti PM, Barnett NP, Colby, SM, et al. (2007) Motivational interviewing versus feedback only in emergency care for young adult problem drinking. http://www.coping.us/images/Monti_et_al_2007_Alcohol_Motiv_Interview.pdf
  2. Sinharoy SS, Schmidt WP, Wendt R, et al. (2017) Effect of community health clubs on child diarrhea in western Rwanda: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/langlo/PIIS2214-109X(17)30217-6.pdf
  3. Tham CK, Collins JSA, Malloy C, Sloan JM, Bamfoard KB, Watson RGP. (1996) Randomized controlled trial of ranitidine versus omeprazole in combination with antibiotics for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.lopes.idm.oclc.org/pmc/articles/PMC2448584/pdf/ulstermedj00066-0035.pdf

Cohort Study Examples

  1. Allison M, Garland C, Chlebowski R, et al. (2006) The association between aspirin use and the incidence of colorectal cancer in women. https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/164/6/567/129968/The-Association-between-Aspirin-Use-and-the
  2. Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, et al. (2002) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/76/1/93.long
  3. Sesso HD, Buring JE, Rifai N. (2003) C-Reactive protein and the      risk of developing hypertension. http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/197807

Case-Control Study Examples

  1. Carton M, Barul C, Menvielle G, et al. (2017) Occupational exposure to solvents and risk of head and neck cancer in women: a population-based case-control study in France. http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/7/1/e012833
  2. Davila JA, Morgan RO, Shaib Y, McGlynn KA, El-Serag HB. (2005) Diabetes increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United Sates: a population based case control study. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.lopes.idm.oclc.org/pmc/articles/PMC1774454/
  3. Cramer DW, Vitonis VF, Terry KL, Welch WR, Titus LJ. (2016) The association between talc use and ovarian cancer: a retrospective case-control study in two US states. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4820665/

Cross-Sectional Study Examples

  1. Nilsen P, Holmqvist M, Nordqvist C, Bendsten P. (2007) Linking drinking to injury – a causal attribution of injury to alcohol intake among patients in a Swedish emergency room. http://www.tandfonline.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/doi/abs/10.1080/17457300701374759
  2. Johnson JV, Hall EM. (1988) Job strain, work place social support, and cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional study of a random sample of the Swedish working population. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.lopes.idm.oclc.org/pmc/articles/PMC1349434/
  3. Elliott AM, Luo N, Tembo, G, et al. (1990) Impact of HIV on tuberculosis in Zambia: a cross sectional study. http://search.proquest.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/1776431657?accountid=7374
Category: Mathematics & Physics Subjects: Calculus Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Study Design Comparison

PUB 540 - Study Design Comparison Worksheet
Randomized Trial Cohort Study Case-Control Study Cross-Sectional Study
Type: Descriptive or Analytic
Participant selection criteria (by exposure status, outcome status, randomized, or other)
Observation type (Prospective, retrospective, or single time point)
Data Sources (primary data, surveys, secondary data, medical records, other)
Measures of association (prevalence/odds ratios, incidence/relative risk)
Major strengths
Major weaknesses (sources of bias, etc.)

Article Comparison

PUB 540 - Article Comparison Worksheet
Topic of Interest:
Search Terms:
Article #1 Article #2
Author, Year, Title
Article importance
Study design type
How were participants selected or recruited?
How many participants? (state the number of cases and controls or exposes and unexposed)
If appropriate, how long was the average length of follow-up?
What sources of data were used to measure the exposure and outcome(s)?
How was the exposure defined or measured?
How was the outcome defined or measured?
What was the primary measure of association or statistical method used? (relative risk, odds ratio, logistic regression, etc.)
How did the authors control for bias and confounding?
What were the strengths of the study?
What were the weaknesses of the study?
What were the primary findings and conclusions?