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Case Study SSG110 Lean Six Sigma

Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 18/12/2020 Graduate Essay Writing

Can you complete the case study?

Category: Arts & Education Subjects: English literature Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

DMAIC_Roadmap

Lean Six Sigma DMAIC Roadmap
Purpose Key Tools Key Outputs
Define To establish a quantified problem statement, objective and business case that will become the foundation to your Six Sigma project. Conduct stakeholder analysis, select team members and kick-off your project. Primary Metric Process Map Project Charter Project Plan * Process Map * Gather VOC * Translate VOC to CTQ's * QFD/HOQ * COPQ * Primary & Secondary Metrics * Establish Project Charter * Stakeholder Analysis * Team Selection * Project Plan
Measure Refine your understanding of the process. Assess process capability relative to customer specifications. Validate measurement systems. Brainstorm potential x's. C&E SIPOC FMEA Cpk * Early Y=f(x) Hypothesis * Detailed Process Map * SIPOC * Cause & Effect Diagram * Cause & Effect Matrix * FMEA * Basic Statistics * Normality Test * Capability Analysis * Gage R&R
Analyze Conduct data collection and planned studies in order to eliminate non-critical x's and validate critical x's. Establish a stronger and quantified Y=f(x) equation. Normality Test ANOVA 2 Sample t-test Equal Variances * Narrowed Y=f(x) * 1 & 2 Sample t-tests * 1 & 2 Proportions tests * Equal variance tests * Normality tests * ANOVA * Moods Median * Mann Whitney * Paired t-test * Chi-Squared test
Improve Design, test and implement your new process or product under live operating conditions. Pilot solutions if feasible before broadly deploying expensive improvements or products. Pugh Matrix Linear Regression Binary Logistic Regression DOE * Refined Y=f(x) * Pugh Matrix * Correlation * Simple Linear Regression * Multiple Linear Regression * Binary Logistic Regression * Full Factorial DOE * Fractional Factorial DOE
Control Plan, communicate, train and implement your product or process solutions. Ensure control mechanisms are established. Use Poke Yoke, visual controls, SOP's and SPC wherever possible. Control Plan SOP's Communication Plan SPC * Control Plan * Training Plan * Refined FMEA * Communication Plan * Standard Operating Procedures * Five-S Audit * Poke Yoke * Visual Controls * Statistical Process Control

VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY

DMAIC_Project_Checklist

D.M.A.I.C Project Checklist
DEFINE IMPROVE
2 Projecct Charter 2 Potential Solutions Developed
2 Business Case (why is this project important) 2 Potential Solutions Prioritized
3 Problem Statement & Objective 2 Solution Selected
2 Baseline Data (Primary Metric "Y") 2 Improvement Pilot/Test Plan
2 Target 2 Improvement Pilot/Test Execution
2 COPQ Estimate 2 Improvement Verified
2 Project Team 2 New Process Capability
2 Project Scope 2 Updated Process Map
2 Project Timeline 2 Solution Implementation Plan
2 Project Constraints/Dependencies 2 Primary Metric Updated
2 High Level Process Map 2 COPQ Revision
2 Customer Requirements Identified 2 Improve Phase Report
2 Define Phase Report
MEASURE CONTROL
2 Detailed Process Map 2 Full Solution Implementation
2 SIPOC 2 Standard Operating Procedures Developed
3 Data Collection Plan (Potential X's) 2 Communication Plan
2 Measurement Systems Analysis (Primary Y) 2 Training Plan
2 Process Capability Analysis 2 Audit Plan
2 List of Possible X's 2 Control Charts
2 Prioritized List of X's to be Analyzed 2 Control Plan
2 Primary Metric Updated 2 Primary Metric Updated
2 COPQ Revision 2 COPQ Revision
2 Measure Phase Report 2 Full Project Report
ANALYZE
2 Sources of Variation Identified
2 Potential X's Eliminated
2 Root Causes Confirmed (Critical X's Identified)
2 Primary Metric Updated
2 COPQ Revision
2 Analyze Phase Report

VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY

Solution Selection Matrix

Solution Selection Matrix GO HOME!!
Project Goal Please rank each solution for each criteria by using the 1-5 Scale as indicated below
Increase IISE SDD Membership Engagement by 10%
Very Low (less good) Moderate Very High (best)
1 2 3 4 5
Potential Solution (Provide Brief Description) Potential to Meet Goal Positive Customer Impact Cost to Implement (1 = $$$ & 5 = $) Stakeholder Buy-in Time to Implement (1 = Long 5 = Quick) Total Score Implement? Yes/No
Weighted Criteria 10 9 8 7 5
IISE Sustainable Development Division Membership Engagement
Coffee talks with Lean topics 5 3 2 4 5 146 Yes
More interactive sessions, instead of standard panel discussions 5 4 4 3 1 144 Yes
Board meetings, problem solving discussion groups 5 4 4 3 1 144 Yes
Tracks for problem solving – interactive session less directive 5 4 4 3 1 144 Yes
Could we utilize the app to gain feedback? 5 5 2 3 1 137 Yes
IISE Connect? 5 4 5 5 5 186 Yes
Discussions with TVP's and Track Chairs 2 3 2 3 1 89 Yes
Can we do this outside of the conference? 4 4 3 3 2 131 Yes
Survey – VOC 3 3 5 3 5 143 Yes

&"Arial,Bold"&10Solution Selection Matrix &"Arial,Regular"&8v1.0

&"Arial,Regular"&8&G_x000D_Copyright 2017 GoLeanSixSigma.com. All Rights Reserved.

A3

Project XYZ
Location Date: Project Leader: Tina Agustiady Team Members GO HOME!!
Project XYZ
Strategic Project Critical Project X Issue Resolution
1. Project Goal 3. Action Plan
Action Owner Due Date 2017 - Week Beginning
Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov
5 12 19 26 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 6 13 20 27 3 10 17 24 1 8 15 22 29 5 12 19 26 3 10 17 24 31 7 14 21 28 4 11 18 25 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27
2. Project/Problem Analysis (Project: Objectives; Problem: Root Cause, Barriers, Roadblocks)
Out of scope items:
4. Results (Impact on Targets to Improve)
For each line item determine % completion
Element Item % complete sitewide
Comment
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
5. Unresolved Issues - Risks:
Legend
Planned Timeline to Complete Action Planned Due Date Planned Action "ON TARGET" Planned Action "OFF TARGET" Planned Action "Past Due" Planned Action Complete

CounterMeasureTemplate

Countermeasure for Project Data Table
Plant: # Reasons (Root Cause Short Description. This MUST come from a root cause analysis tool) Impact Month Enter KPI Target Savings Target Gap Closure Target Actual Better Worse GO HOME!!
Date of Review: Enter Date of Review 1
Start Month: Enter 1st Month Counter Measure Form Is Used Jan
2 Feb
Mar
3 Apr
May
4 June
July
5 Aug
Sep
6 Oct
Nov
7 Dec
Problem Statement: 8
Enter Problem Statement
9
10
Overall Impact (Note: Should Exceed "Gap to Close") 0.00%
# Reasons (Enter Reason Being Addressed from Above) What (Describe actions being taken to address this Root Cause) Who (Resp for action and impact) When (Date Complete) Impact (Target Benefit by the Complete Date) Status (P,D,C,A)
Planned Impact Improvement (Note: This must equal or exceed the gap closure target) 0.00%

Enter Title

Better Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Worse Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Target Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Actual

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Gap Closure

PFMEA

# Process Function (Step) Potential Failure Modes (process defects) Potential Failure Effects (KPOVs) SEV Class Potential Causes of Failure (KPIVs) OCC Current Process Controls DET RPN Recommend Actions Responsible Person & Target Date Taken Actions SEV OCC DET RPN GO HOME!!
1 0
2 0
3 0
4 0
5 0
6 0
7 0
8 0
9 0
10 0
11 0
12 0
13 0
14 0
15 0
16 0
17 0
18 0
19 0
20 0
21 0
22 0
23 0
24 0
25 0
26 0
27 0
28 0
29 0
30 0
30 0
31 0
32
33
34
35

Severity

Effect Criteria: Severity of Effect Defined Ranking GO HOME!!
Hazardous: Without Warning May endanger operator. Failure mode affects safe vehicle operation and / or involves noncompliance with government regulation. Failure will occur WITHOUT warning. 10
Hazardous: With Warning May endanger operator. Failure mode affects safe vehicle operation and / or involves noncompliance with government regulation. Failure will occur WITH warning. 9
Very High Major disruption to production line. 100% of product may have to be scrapped. Vehicle / item inoperable, loss of primary function. Customer very dissatisfied. 8
High Minor disruption to production line. Product may have to be sorted and a portion (less than 100%) scrapped. Vehicle operable, but at a reduced level of performance. Customer dissatisfied. 7
Moderate Minor disruption to production line. A portion (less than 100%) may have to be scrapped (no sorting). Vehicle / item operable, but some comfort / convenience item(s) inoperable. Customers experience discomfort. 6
Low Minor disruption to production line. 100% of product may have to be reworked. Vehicle / item operable, but some comfort / convenience item(s) operable at reduced level of performance. Customer experiences some dissatisfaction. 5
Very Low Minor disruption to production line. The product may have to be sorted and a portion (less than 100%) reworked. Fit / finish / squeak / rattle item does not conform. Defect noticed by most customers. 4
Minor Minor disruption to production line. A portion (less than 100%) of the product may have to be reworked on-line but out-of-station. Fit / finish / squeak / rattle item does not conform. Defect noticed by average customers. 3
Very Minor Minor disruption to production line. A portion (less than 100%) of the product may have to be reworked on-line but in-station. Fit / finish / squeak / rattle item does not conform. Defect noticed by discriminating customers. 2
None No effect. 1

Occurrence

Probability of Failure Possible Failure Rates Cpk Ranking GO HOME!!
Very High: ³ 1 in 2 < 0.33 10
Failure is almost inevitable 1 in 3 ³ 0.33 9
High: Generally associated with processes similar to previous 1 in 8 ³ 0.51 8
processes that have often failed 1 in 20 ³ 0.67 7
Moderate: Generally associated with processes similar to 1 in 80 ³ 0.83 6
previous processes which have 1 in 400 ³ 1.00 5
experienced occasional failures, but not in major proportions 1 in 2,000 ³ 1.17 4
Low: Isolated failures associated with similar processes 1 in 15,000 ³ 1.33 3
Very Low: Only isolated failures associated with almost identical processes 1 in 150,000 ³ 1.5 2
Remote: Failure is unlikely. No failures ever associated with almost identical processes £ 1 in 1,500,000 ³ 1.67 1

Detection

Detection Criteria: Liklihood the existence of a defect will be detected by test content before product advances to next or subsequent process Ranking GO HOME!!
Almost Impossible Test content detects < 80 % of failures 10
Very Remote Test content must detect 80 % of failures 9
Remote Test content must detect 82.5 % of failures 8
Very Low Test content must detect 85 % of failures 7
Low Test content must detect 87.5 % of failures 6
Moderate Test content must detect 90 % of failures 5
Moderately High Test content must detect 92.5 % of failures 4
High Test content must detect 95 % of failures 3
Very High Test content must detect 97.5 % of failures 2
Almost Certain Test content must detect 99.5 % of failures 1

Scorecard

Villanova Basic Scorecard
GO HOME!!
Calculate
Status Q1'15 Q2'15 Q3'15 Q4'15 Full Year 2015
Current FYF Key Business Metrics Goal Fcst Actual Goal Fcst Actual Goal Fcst Actual Goal Fcst Actual Goal Fcst Actual
1.16 0.97 Operating Expense Reduction $15.0 $12.0 $8.0 $25.0 $25.0 $29.0 $35.0 $36.0 $25.0 $24.0 $100.0 $97.0
0.9672131148 ERROR:#DIV/0! Customer Satisfaction $61.0 $58.0 $57.0 $61.0 $58.0 $59.0 $61.0 $59.0 $59.0 $61.0 $61.0
ERROR:#DIV/0! ERROR:#DIV/0! Net Income
0 1.05 OWT $10.0 $10.0 $0.0 $10.0 $10.0 $13.1 $40.0 $40.0 $60.0 $63.0
Operating Metrics
3 3 Recall Open Cases
3 3 Recall Open Case Dollars
3 3 Recall Cases w/Purchasing
3 3 Recall Case Dollars w/Purchasing
3 3 Legacy Open Cases
3 3 Legacy Open Case Dollars
3 3 Legacy Cases w/Purchasing
3 3 Legacy Case Dollars w/Purchasing
1 1 OWT Cumulative Parts Reviewed 31,200 3,802 52,800 4,967 52,800 4,967
1 1 OWT Cumulative Recovery Groups w/TF 1,213 189 1,933 195 1,933 195
Status Rules: Current status based on forecst vs. goal for future periods and based on actual vs. goal for past period. FYF status based on full year forecast vs.goal untill the year completes.
Status Conditions: Green >=100% of Goal, Yellow 95%-99% of Goal, Red <95% of Goal
$dollars represented in Millions

VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY

Gantt Chart Instructions

GO HOME!!

Project Plan Guide: •To delete these instructions, select this text box and then hit [Delete]. Date Cells (H6:GU7) These cells power much of the conditional formatting and allow the project plan to "float." All the cells are indirectly referenced to cell G6, which can be set to a firm date (ex. 2/1/2010) or a reference (ex. =MIN([project dates])). Adjusting cell G6 will shift the entire calendar. Task Cells (A10:F40) The tasks have three levels, deliverable, task and sub task. Each has a different conditional format in the Gantt chart area. Deliverable Sections The deliverable section(s) (ex. 15:19) can be copied and pasted as rows to add new deliverable sections below the existing sections if needed. Within each deliverable section you can add additional room for tasks by inserting a row above the light blue row (ex. 13). This way the appropriate conditional formatting is added and no formulas are compromised. Task s By entering a task in the B column the conditional formatting will make the associated bar a medium blue. By entering a task in the C column the associated bar will be light blue. The bar is shown via conditional formatting based on the dates entered (Cols D:E) cross referenced with the calendar across the top. Task dependence/precedence can be managed by creating formulas between the data cells instead of firm dates (ex. =E11+5 vs. 2/10/2010). Special Events (B2:E7) Functionality was added to allow for up to five "special events" that will highlight the background color. This was intended for non-task events that may need to be included. Misc. - There is a current date indicator that will show the current date on the Gantt chart. - The Gantt chart bars and the task list will highlight according to % complete status. - The Page Setup includes repeating rows of 2:9 and repeating columns of A:G. To print a small section of the chart simply select the area of the Gantt chart (ex. H10:AZ41) and set it as the Print Area. - Hypothetically additional days can be added to the calendar by copy and inserting columns to the left of Column GU. Be sure to check that the formulas in 6:7 and 4:5 have been copied appropriately.

Gantt Chart

Special Events Start End Project Plan Template
Time off 4/27 5/10 GO HOME!!
Holiday 3/12 3/12 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
1/28 1/29 1/30 1/31 2/1 2/2 2/3 2/4 2/5 2/6 2/7 2/8 2/9 2/10 2/11 2/12 2/13 2/14 2/15 2/16 2/17 2/18 2/19 2/20 2/21 2/22 2/23 2/24 2/25 2/26 2/27 2/28 2/29 3/1 3/2 3/3 3/4 3/5 3/6 3/7 3/8 3/9 3/10 3/11 3/12 3/13 3/14 3/15 3/16 3/17 3/18 3/19 3/20 3/21 3/22 3/23 3/24 3/25 3/26 3/27 3/28 3/29 3/30 3/31 4/1 4/2 4/3 4/4 4/5 4/6 4/7 4/8 4/9 4/10 4/11 4/12 4/13 4/14 4/15 4/16 4/17 4/18 4/19 4/20 4/21 4/22 4/23 4/24 4/25 4/26 4/27 4/28 4/29 4/30 5/1 5/2 5/3 5/4 5/5 5/6 5/7 5/8 5/9 5/10 5/11 5/12 5/13 5/14 5/15 5/16 5/17 5/18 5/19 5/20 5/21 5/22 5/23 5/24 5/25 5/26 5/27 5/28 5/29 5/30 5/31 6/1 6/2 6/3 6/4 6/5 6/6 6/7 6/8 6/9 6/10 6/11 6/12 6/13 6/14 6/15 6/16 6/17 6/18 6/19 6/20 6/21 6/22 6/23 6/24 6/25 6/26 6/27 6/28 6/29 6/30 7/1 7/2 7/3 7/4 7/5 7/6 7/7 7/8 7/9 7/10 7/11 7/12 7/13 7/14 7/15 7/16 7/17 7/18 7/19 7/20 7/21 7/22 7/23 7/24 7/25 7/26 7/27 7/28 7/29 7/30 7/31 8/1 8/2 8/3 8/4 8/5 8/6 8/7 8/8 8/9 8/10
Start End % Compl.
Project Deliverable 1 2/17 3/1
Task 1 2/17 3/1 80%
Task 2 2/20 2/27 60%
Task 3 3/1 3/5 10%
Project Deliverable 2 3/3 3/23
Task 1 3/3 3/23 25%
Sub task 1 3/4 3/17 40%
Sub task 2 3/17 3/23 0%
Project Deliverable 3 3/23 4/18
Task 1 3/23 4/5 0%
Task 2 3/23 4/12 0%
Task 3 4/12 4/18 0%
Project Deliverable 4 5/10 5/22
Task 1 4/19 5/22 0%
Sub Task 1 5/2 5/22 0%
Task 2 5/10 5/30 0%
Task 3 5/31 6/20 0%
Task 4 6/13 7/4 0%
Project Deliverable 5 7/5 8/15
Task 1 7/5 7/18 0%
Task 2 7/19 8/1 0%
Task 3 8/2 8/8 0%
Task 4 8/9 8/15 0%

&"-,Bold"Example Project Plan Template

Page &P of &N

Project Plan Guide: •To delete these instructions, select this text box and then hit [Delete]. Date Cells (H6:GU7) These cells power much of the conditional formatting and allow the project plan to "float." All the cells are indirectly referenced to cell G6, which can be set to a firm date (ex. 2/1/2010) or a reference (ex. =MIN([project dates])). Adjusting cell G6 will shift the entire calendar. Task Cells (A10:F40) The tasks have three levels, deliverable, task and sub task. Each has a different conditional format in the Gantt chart area. Deliverable Sections The deliverable section(s) (ex. 15:19) can be copied and pasted as rows to add new deliverable sections below the existing sections if needed. Within each deliverable section you can add additional room for tasks by inserting a row above the light blue row (ex. 13). This way the appropriate conditional formatting is added and no formulas are compromised. Task s By entering a task in the B column the conditional formatting will make the associated bar a medium blue. By entering a task in the C column the associated bar will be light blue. The bar is shown via conditional formatting based on the dates entered (Cols D:E) cross referenced with the calendar across the top. Task dependence/precedence can be managed by creating formulas between the data cells instead of firm dates (ex. =E11+5 vs. 2/10/2010). Special Events (B2:E7) Functionality was added to allow for up to five "special events" that will highlight the background color. This was intended for non-task events that may need to be included. Misc. - There is a current date indicator that will show the current date on the Gantt chart. - The Gantt chart bars and the task list will highlight according to % complete status. - The Page Setup includes repeating rows of 2:9 and repeating columns of A:G. To print a small section of the chart simply select the area of the Gantt chart (ex. H10:AZ41) and set it as the Print Area. - Hypothetically additional days can be added to the calendar by copy and inserting columns to the left of Column GU. Be sure to check that the formulas in 6:7 and 4:5 have been copied appropriately.

Data Collection Sheet

FLOW CHART
SUBJECT FORM NO. DATE GO HOME!!
FILE NO. PAGE NO. OF PAGES CHARTED BY
SUMMARY OF STEPS IN PROCESS
OPERATIONS TRANSPORTS INSPECTIONS DELAYS STORAGE TOTAL STEPS TOTAL DIST. TOTAL MINS
PRESENT
PROPOSED
SAVINGS
LINE DETAILS OF PRESENT/PROPOSED METHOD (CIRCLE ONE) Operation Transport Inspection Delay Storage TIME DISTANCE Possibilities Notes
Simplify Eliminate Alt Sequence Reg. Combine Other
1 ¡ [ ¨ D s
2 ¡ [ ¨ D s
3 ¡ [ ¨ D s
4 ¡ [ ¨ D s
5 ¡ [ ¨ D s
6 ¡ [ ¨ D s
7 ¡ [ ¨ D s
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22 ¡ [ ¨ D s
23 ¡ [ ¨ D s
24 ¡ [ ¨ D s
25 ¡ [ ¨ D s
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31 ¡ [ ¨ D s
32 ¡ [ ¨ D s
33 ¡ [ ¨ D s
34 ¡ [ ¨ D s
35 ¡ [ ¨ D s

RACI - People

RACI Matrix Count of Assignments
Project Structure Organization Development Daily Accountability Lean Tools
Role Names Project Leader Project Management Communication Plan Roles & Responsibilities Talent Selection Goal Alignment Structure Support Functions 4 - Tier Structure Steering Team Coaching Structure Daily Tier Accountability Leader Standard Work Escalation Process Problem Solving 5S + 1 Visual Management Total Productive Maintenance Value Stream Mapping/ Flow Responsible Accountable Consulting Inform GO HOME!!
Sponsor SENIOR I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I SENIOR 0 0 0 0 18
VP of CI A A C I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0 0 2 1 15
HR Director Americas C C C I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0 0 0 3 15
MBB ACCOUNTABLES A A R C C C C C C C R R R R R R R R ACCOUNTABLES 0 9 2 7 0
MBB A A R C C C C C C C R R R R R R R R 0 9 2 7 0
MBB R R R I I I I I R A R R R C C C C C 0 7 1 5 5
MBB 0
HR Director R R A R R R R R R R C I I I I I I I 0 9 1 1 7
Plant Manager R R R A A A A A A R A C C C C C C C 0 4 7 7 0
Lean Manager I C I R R R R R R R R A A A A A A A 0 8 7 1 2
Operations Mgr 0 0 0 0 0
BB BB I C I C C C C C C C R R R R R R R R BB 0 8 0 8 2
BB I C I C C C C C C C R R R R R R R R 0 8 0 8 2
BB I C R R R R R R R R C C C C C C C C 0 8 0 9 1
BB I C R R R R R R R R C C C C C C C C 0
CI I I I I I I I I I I I I I R R R R R 0 5 0 0 13
CI I I I I I I I I I I I I I R R R R R 0 5 0 0 13
CI I I I I I I I I I I I I I R R R R R 0 5 0 0 13
CI 0
CI I I I I I I I I I I I I I R R R R R 0 5 0 0 13
Team Members Team Members 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
Quality Manager Support Support 0 0 0 0 0
EH&S Manager 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
Responsible 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SENIOR ACCOUNTABLES BB Team Members Support 0 0 0 9 9 7 9 4 8 0 8 8 8 5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Accountable 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SENIOR ACCOUNTABLES BB Team Members Support 0 2 0 2 2 1 1 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Consulting 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SENIOR ACCOUNTABLES BB Team Members Support 0 1 3 7 7 5 1 7 1 0 8 8 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Responsible 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SENIOR ACCOUNTABLES BB Team Members Support 0 0 0 9 9 7 9 4 8 0 8 8 8 5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Accountable 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SENIOR ACCOUNTABLES BB Team Members Support 0 2 0 2 2 1 1 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Consulting 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SENIOR ACCOUNTABLES BB Team Members Support 0 1 3 7 7 5 1 7 1 0 8 8 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

CTQ

GO HOME!!
Instructions:
Step 1: Define the problem. Place it at the top.
Step 2: Ask: 'What causes this?" or "Why did this happen?"
Brainstorm all possible answers and write each below the problem
Step 3: Determine if all items from Step 2 are sufficient and necessary.
Ask: "are all …

Attachment 2

Villanova University

College of Professional Studies

Page 1

Case Study: Lean

Process Improvement – Nova Point

Tina Agustiady

Certified Six Sigma Master Black Belt

Villanova University

College of Professional Studies

Page 2

Executive Summary

Nova Point is a growing product for a main ice-cream factory named Uncle T’s.

The product is selling extremely well, and sales have been rising for the past

year. Over the past year, with the increase of sales there also has been an

increase in complaints for thick or thin ice-cream. Customers felt that some ice-

cream was too thick losing the fluffy texture and some had thin ice-cream that

melted too quickly in their mouth making it feel like a liquid. Poor quality of the

Nova Point causes thick or thin product resulting in major quality variation in the

product due to materials, methods, machinery, measurements, manpower or

mother nature. The product is made in two main factories, but most of the

problems are coming from one factory. The product with the problems is made

on a production line where the temperature is warm within the factory. They are

also scrapping a great amount of product due to the product now being inedible.

It goes through a series of processes mainly kettles where raw materials enter

and then go through a series of mixing steps. The materials are then pumped out

onto a production line and packaged. The current First Pass Quality is 91% and

there are many holds on the product due to thick or thin product that is held

within the factory before it is sent to the customer.

The goals of the project are to:

▪ Increase first pass quality from 91% to 99%

▪ Reduce holds by 10%

Villanova University

College of Professional Studies

Page 3

Methodology

▪ Determine improved process for thick/thin issues while implementing

specifications for ingredients

▪ Determine the waste coming from the product/process

▪ Create standardized work and train all associates

▪ Determine proper preventative maintenance for equipment

▪ Determine possible equipment replacement and/or upgrades

What is Lean?

Lean is the pursuit of perfection via a systematic approach to identifying and

eliminating waste through continuous improvement of the value stream,

enabling the product and information to flow at a rate determined by the pull of

the customer.

The five principles of lean are:

• Identify Value

• Map the Value Stream

• Create Flow

• Establish Pull

• Seek Perfection

Villanova University

College of Professional Studies

Page 4

Figure 1. Lean System

Introduction

Tina Agustiady – Continuous Improvement Leader

Tom Jones – Operator

Michelle VanHutson – Operator

John George – Production Engineer

Nancy Feller – Maintenance Coordinator

Todd Peterson – Plant Manager and Project Champion

Andy Myers – Executive Sponsor

Master Black Belt – Michael Bell

The team was selected based on knowledge and expertise of the process.

The team did a great job and was proficient and organized during the project.

Identify Value

Map the Value

Stream

Create Flow

Establish Pull

Seek Perfection

Villanova University

College of Professional Studies

Page 5

IDENTIFY VALUE

A project charter is developed to show responsible personnel, problem

statements, goals, and timelines.

PROJECT CHARTER PURPOSE

The purpose of this Continuous Improvement project is to pilot the CI

methodology in a factory utilizing a structured approach and being able to

benchmark the findings across processes. We want to identify where we

can add value, and this can be seen through the project charter.

PROJECT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

▪ Determine the improved process for thick/thin issues while

implementing specifications for ingredients

▪ Determine the waste coming from the product/process

▪ Create standard work and train all associates

▪ Determine proper preventative maintenance for machinery

▪ Determine possible equipment replacement and/or upgrades

PROJECT OVERVIEW

Business Justification consists of reducing thin/thick Issues associated on

the manufacturing line and increasing first pass quality (FPQ).

Villanova University

College of Professional Studies

Page 6

PROJECT GOALS

Table 1. Project Goals

Goals Objectives

Increase first pass

quality (FPQ) to 99%

and reduce holds by

10%

▪ Determine manufacturing process along with specifications and reduce thick/thin issues

▪ Determine if target specifications are accurate or need to be revised

▪ Train all personnel on manufacturing process and create manual

▪ Determine proper preventative maintenance for machinery

▪ Measure initial viscosity and temperatures for correlation vs 24-hour viscosity

Table 2. Milestones and Deliverables

Milestone Deliverable

1. Conduct Training • Identify training dates

2. Create Manual • Manual will be for documentation and training purposes

3. Create preventative maintenance (PM’s) for main equipment

• PM’s will be established, and sign off sheets will be available

4. Benchmark factory with best practices

• Determine best in-class process and implement in both manufacturing plants

5. Reduce holds and consumer concerns by 10%

• Determine correlation between holds and consumer concerns

6. Determine root causes of each hold and

• Ongoing

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consumer concern and document action plan

7. Maintain consumer concerns under 2.5M pounds, focusing on v- line

• Ongoing

8. Reduce material waste from icings and v-line back to 2018 levels or better

• Ongoing

9. Improve consistency and reduce variation from v-line process

• Ongoing

Deliverable Module 3

Please fill out a project charter from the Excel templates provided.

Figure 2. Project Charter

Phase Start Finish

Identify Value

Map the Value

Stream

Create Flow

Establish Pull

Seek Perfection

Organization

Approval/Steering Committee Stakeholders & Advisors Project Team & SME's

Name Organization Name Organization Name

High Level Project Timeline Constraints & Dependencies Project Risks Other Diagnostics

Project Goals Project Scope

Primary Metric Secondary Metric

Problem Statement Business Case

Project Title:

Black Belt Project Champion Executive Sponsor MBB/Mentor

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MAP THE VALUE STREAM

Three levels of process mapping can be utilized in order to visualize the process steps

as they occur, understand the process and to provide a baseline of the current process

as a starting point for improvements. Three levels of process mapping are:

• A high-level process map

• A SIPOC

• A value stream map (VSM)

The manufacturing process is defined as the following:

• Place icing in Kettle 1

• Complete a shortening quality check

• Transfer icing to Kettle 2

• Complete a viscosity check

• Transfer product to final assembly

• Perform final quality check

• Package product

HIGH-LEVEL PROCESS MAP

In a high-level process map, also known as a macro level process map,

the major process steps are defined in the order that they occur. Think of

this as a 50,000-foot view of the process. Additional detail can be added to

the high-level process map as needed as the project proceeds.

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SIPOC

SIPOC is an acronym that stands for supplier, input, process, output and customer.

A SIPOC is a process mapping variant that for each process step identifies the inputs,

the suppliers (internal or external) for those inputs, the outputs and the customers

(internal or external) for that output

VALUE STREAM MAPPING

A value stream map is a form of process mapping that identifies the flow of

information in addition to process flow. It is also designed to collect data about

process steps.

Here is information for the VSM map:

1. First, label the process steps with the steps from the High-Level Process Map.

You will have to add a couple more steps to the Value Stream Map template

2. Then, transfer the following data onto the Value Stream Map: Cycle Time

(C/T), Change-over Time (C/O time), FPY (First Pass Yield), and Percent

Holds. You will have to replace or eliminate some of the other symbols in the

data blocks (if you are curious what the existing data acronyms mean, see the

note at the end of this instruction)

Process Steps

(Value Added)

C/T

(hours)

C/O

(hours)

FPY

(%)

Holds

(%)

Icing in Kettle 1 6.0 0.5 98% 0%

Shortening

Quality Check

1.0 0.0 85% 20%

Icing Transfers

to Kettle 2

3.0 0.5 98% 0%

Check Viscosity 1.0 0.0 76% 25%

Transfer to Final

Assembly

1.5 0.5 98% 0%

Final Quality

Check

0.5 0.0 95% 5%

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Package Product 2.0

0.25

96% 0%

For example, the data block for the first step will look like this:

C/T 6.0

C/O 0.5

FPY 98%

Holds 0%

3. Fill in the value-added times on the timeline below each step the map, using

the cycle time (C/T) for that step.

4. Add the inventories before each process step in the triangles, or right below the

triangles if you like.

Process Steps

(Value Added)

Inventory

before Step

(Non-Value

Added), in tons

Icing in Kettle 1 15

Shortening

Quality Check

3

Icing Transfers

to Kettle 2

5

Check Viscosity 3

Transfer to Final

Assembly

10

Final Quality

Check

5

Package Product 10

5. Fill in the non-value-added times below each inventory. You will have to

convert the tons of inventory before each step into hours of inventory. Assume

the customer demand is 50 tons per day. This is 2.08 tons per hour. Then for

the step Icing in Kettle 1, you would have 15/2.08 = 7.2 hours on inventory. Do

this same calculation for each inventory and put those values on the timeline.

6. Add up the value-added times from the timeline. Then add up separately the

non-value added (wait) times. Finally, calculate the total lead time for the

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process by adding the value-added and wait time totals. Show the total lead

time anywhere above the value stream.

Total Lead Time = Total Value- Added Times + Total Wait Times

7. Calculate the Cycle Efficiency and show this next to the total lead time:

Cycle Efficiency = 100% * Value Added Time Total Lead Time

Deliverables Module 4

Please complete the three levels of process maps using the Excel template

provided :

• High-level process map of the current process

• SIPOC

• High -level value stream map (VSM)

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS (RCA)

RCA includes a very structured approach to investigating issues for a permanent fix of a

problem. What is sought is the true or root cause of the problem, which many people

mistake with short-term fixes. Guards put in place on manufacturing lines and buckets

put in place to eliminate waste are examples of short fixes. The problem still occurs,

there is just a measure put in place to try and eliminate the waste. The problem is not

prevented from happening as a result of short-term fixes.

RCA explores the possible causes of problems to determine the root cause. Even

though assumptions are utilized for RCA, they should be backed up with documentation

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and data. Data driven conclusions should be made. RCA can also point out possible

areas where data can be collected.

The three RCA tools that this project will use are

• Cause and effect diagram

• Pareto charts

• 5 Why’s

Cause and Effect Diagram

A Cause and Effect Diagram will examine the importance of the different

variables that play a part in the thin and thick holds.

Steps to conducting a Cause and Effect or Fishbone Diagram include:

• Brainstorm all possible causes of the problem or effect selected by classifying

ideas under the following categories (6M’s):

o Manpower

o Machinery

o Methods

o Measurements

o Materials

o Environment (Mother Nature)

• Focus on the quantity of ideas rather than quality. One person’s idea will

trigger someone else’s idea, and a chain reaction will occur

• No Criticism allowed, ALL team members must participate

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Deliverable Module 5

Please complete a Cause and Effect Diagram using the Excel template

provided.

Pareto Chart

A pareto chart is completed to see what the biggest reasons are for having

quality problems. A pareto chart is a visual root cause analysis tool that displays

the type of problem versus the frequency of them to determine which are the

biggest problems to focus on.

Data was collected about the problem:

Categories (Causes) # of Occurrences

Water in pipe 55

Liquid sucrose 25

Supplier providing out of spec materials 48

Clean out water not purged 32

Quality of shortening 41

Deliverable Module 5

Please complete a Pareto Chart using the Excel template and the

information provided.

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Automatically it could be seen according to the pareto chart that the water in the

pipe needed to be dealt with along with product specifications and the quality of

the shortening in that order.

Finally, specifications were gathered to ensure the process was on target:

▪ 83% of Holds in Factory A are for Viscosity

▪ Factory B has wider specs for Viscosity due to different Uses

▪ Factory B requires tighter spec range

▪ Factory A specs: Viscosity: 200,000 – 600,000 cps

▪ Factory B specs: Viscosity: 320,000 – 512,000 cps

5 Why’s

The 5 Why’s is a root cause analysis tool where the question why is asked 5

times to drill down from the symptom to the root cause of a problem.

A 5 Why’s analysis to understand why the water was clogging in the pipe can be

done by referencing the figure below.

Figure 3. Water Pipe

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Deliverable Module 5

Please complete a 5 Why’s analysis on the water in the pipe issue using the

Excel template provided.

CONCLUSION OF MAP THE VALUE STREAM

Data was taken of as many parameters as possible before changing any

variables. It was found that piping was making a significant impact on the

process and there needed to be analysis completed for that.

The following was accomplished during the mapping of the value system:

• Process Mapping

• Data Gathering

• Cause and Effect Diagram

• Root Cause Analysis

• Pareto Chart

• 5 Why’s

CREATE FLOW

WASTE WALK (GOING TO GEMBA)

It is important to understand the types of waste that were occurring in the

process. The team decided to do a floor walk (Go to Gemba) to find the main

types of waste according to the acronym DOWNTIME.

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Deliverables Module 6

• Please complete the Waste Walk tab in the Excel template provided.

Be creative here, there are no right or wrong answers!

• Please complete the RCA tab in the Excel template provided as to

why the water is clogging in the piping system. What is the key

factor for the root cause of the thick/thin product issue?

CONCLUSION OF CREATE FLOW

In Lean management, flow is a key concept. Since any kind of waiting is a waste,

when creating a flow of value, your goal is to ensure smooth delivery from the

second you receive an order to the moment when you deliver it to the customer.

Hints to improving flow:

• Map the process

• Talk to Subject Matter Experts about issues

• Identify all types of different waste in the current process

• Map an ideal state – the perfect process

• Develop an action plan

• Actively monitor the new processes put into place by creating performance

measures

• Think about places where batch processing can be changed to single

piece flow

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ESTABLISH PULL

The team decided to change the piping so that water could flow quicker through the

piping to make more consistent product that was in specification. The extra water in the

pipe could make the product thin by dispersing too much water from the pipe or too

thick by not having enough water because it was stuck in the pipe.

The changes to the piping were made immediately:

Figure 4. Changes to Piping

Ensure Pipe from Pipe #1 to Product is purged and has no residual water

Changed pitchRemoved sweep

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Since the temperature of 235 degrees in Factory A seemed to have better specifications

than Factory B at a lower temperature, we decided to benchmark and make a Standard

Operating Procedure to heat the product to 235 degrees.

KANBAN

The team noticed that all of the raw ingredients were brought to the line at the

beginning of the shift. This caused some of the ingredients to start melting

before they were put in the kettle.

The team decided to setup a Kanban system in order to have the ingredients

come to the line at the proper temperature and just in time for them to use them.

Deliverable Module 7

Please complete the Kanban card(s) in the Excel template by filling out the

following information:

• Part Description/Picture if Applicable

• Part Number

• Profile

• Quantity

• Lead Time

• Due Date

• Supplier

• Location

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• Card Number (Generally two Kanban cards 1 of 2 and 2 of 2)

CONCLUSION OF ESTABLISH PULL

Many opportunities were identified, and action items were completed to improve

the variation issues for Nova Point.

• Piping changes to ensure water is not stuck in 3-way valve of pipe

• Benchmark Factory A

• Training to teach all operators how to make product properly and

consistently

• Temperature changes to Benchmark Factory A

The three major variables are:

Variable 1 – Piping

• After several tests and data analysis, the thin and thick issues

were minimized after the piping changes

• Therefore, the piping changes were significant and were an impact and

root cause of the thick/thin product issues.

Variable 2 – Specifications for Thin or Thick Product

• We also spoke to the supplier and changed our specification

ranges with them saying we would no longer take any raw

material out of specification because it was ruining our

reputation.

Variable 3 – Temperatures

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• The temperature of 235 degrees in Factory A seemed to have better

specifications than Factory B at a lower temperature.

SEEK PEFECTION

An audit checklist will be used to perform continual audits to ensure the improved

manufacturing process is sustained.

Deliverable Module 7

Please complete an Audit Checklist to ensure the process is sustained.

CONCLUSION TO PROJECT

One major change was made as a result of the project involving the piping. The water

was being trapped in a pipe, making the product thick or thin based on whether the

Target Area: Statement of Audit Objective: Auditor: Audit Date:

Audit Technique Auditable Item, Observation, Procedure etc.

Observation Have all associates been trained? YES NO

Observation Is training documentation available? YES NO

Observation Is training documentation current? YES NO

Observation Are associates wearing proper safety gear? YES NO

Observation Are SOP's available? YES NO

Observation Are SOP's current? YES NO

Observation Is quality being measured YES NO

Observation Is sampling being conducted in random fashion YES NO

Observation Is sampling meeting it's sample size target? YES NO

Observation Are control charts in control YES NO

Observation Are control charts current? YES NO

Observation Is the process capability index >1.0? YES NO

#DIV/0!

Auditor Comments

Audit Checklist

Individual Auditor Rating

(Circle Rating)

Number of Out of Compliance Observations

Total Observations

Audit Yield

Corrective Actions Required

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water purged from the pipe. The pipe was changed and immediately the problem was

fixed.

The successes of the project include :

• Identified root causes for product quality variation

• Removed waste from the process

Lean Six Sigma Tools Used

• Project charter

• Process mapping

• SIPOC

• Value stream mapping

• Pareto charting

• Root cause analysis

• Cause and effect diagrams

• 5 Why’s

• Waste walk (Gemba)

• Kanban

• Audit

Attachment 3

Project_Charter

DELIVERABLE MODULE 3 - PROJECT CHARTER
Project Title:
Black Belt Project Champion Executive Sponsor MBB/Mentor
Problem Statement Business Case
Project Goals Project Scope
High Level Project Timeline Constraints & Dependencies Project Risks Additional Information
Phase Start Finish
Identify Value
Map the Value Stream
Create Flow
Establish Pull
Seek Perfection
Approval/Steering Committee Stakeholders & Advisors Project Team & SME's
Name Organization Name Organization Name Organization

VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY

High Level Process Map

DELIVERABLE MODULE 4 - HIGH-LEVEL PROCESS MAP
Please add in extra processes and symbols as needed

SIPOC

DELIVERABLE MODULE 4 - SIPOC
Introduction and Instructions for SIPOC
SIPOC is an acronym that stands for supplier, input, process, output and customer
A SIPOC is a process mapping variant that for each process step identifies the inputs, the suppliers (internal or external) for those inputs, the outputs and the customers (internal or external) for that output
Using the template below, begin by filling in the "Process" column with the process steps identified in the high-level process map
Then, for each process step identify the inputs, the suppliers (internal or external) for the inputs, the outputs and the customers (internal or external) for the outputs
S.I.P.O.C. Template
Suppliers Inputs Process Outputs Customers

VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY

Start

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

End

VSM

DELIVERABLE MODULE 4 - VSM
Value Stream Map
Supplier Customer
Information Information

&"Arial,Bold"&10Value Stream Map &"Arial,Regular"&8v3.0

&"Arial,Regular"&8&G Copyright 2016 GoLeanSixSigma.com. All Rights Reserved.

min

min

min

min

min

min

min

min

min

min

TOTAL

L/T

P/T

%C&A

Cause_Effect_Diagram

DELIVERABLE MODULE 5- CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM
Instructions:
STEP 1 : Define the problem. What is the product, process or service that has failed.
STEP 2 : Starting with 'Materials' or any other label, ask: is there anything about materials that
might contribute to the problem. Record it next to one of the arrows under Materials.
STEP 3 : Repeat asking "is there anything about materials that might contribute to the problem"
Problem Record each result next to an arrow.
STEP 4 : Repeat Step 2 & 3 for each successive category.
STEP 5 : Identify the candidates that are the most likely Root Cause
STEP 6 : If further "screening" is necessary, assess the likely Root Causes using the "Impact"
and "Implement" matrix, selecting items marked 1, then 2 . . . 4 as priorities.

Pareto

DELIVERABLE MODULE 5 - PARETO CHART
Categories # of Occurrences
Issue 1
Issue 2
Issue 3
Issue 4
Issue 5

5-Why's

DELIVERABLE MODULE 5 - 5 WHY'S
5-WHY ANALYSIS SHEET
Note: Continue on separate page if 5-Whys are not enough to determine root cause.

WHY ? #1:

WHY ? #5

WHY ? #2:

WHY ? #4

WHY ? #3

TEMPORARY Date: COUNTERMEASURES

FINAL COUNTERMEASURE Name: - PERMANENT CORRECTIVE ACTION Date:

VERIFICATION: No Recurrence in Three Months? TBD Date: Single-Point Lesson? _________ Date ________ DO THE 5 WHY'S MAKE SENSE WHEN READ BACKWARD?

Waste Walk

DELIVERABLE MODULE 6 - WASTE WALK
8 Wastes/Waste Walks
Defects - Re-adjusting process parameters, reworking finished products, off spec materials Defects
Overproduction - Making anything sooner, faster or in excess of customer requirements Overproduction
Waiting - Waiting for raw materials, maintenance personnel, processes to finish, and instructions Waiting
Non Utilized Talent - Workers not involved in improvement areas; input or feedback ignored. Changes without consulting workers and employees not challenged Non Utilized Talent
Transportation - Putting products in work-in-progress areas and moving materials due to poor layout Transportation
Inventory (Excess) - Work-in-progress, rework waiting for testing, excessive raw and finished products Inventory
Motion (Excess) - Moving tools and people to defferent areas, excessing manual material movement Motion
Excessive Processing - Excessive Quality checks, Performing operations not required Excessive Processing
Waste Type Describe the waste you saw

Root Cause Analysis

Deliverable Module 6 Root Cause Analysis
Root Cause Analysis (Please state your conclusions)

Kanban

DELIVERABLE MODULE 7 - KANBAN
KANBAN CARD
Part Description/Picture if Applicable Part Number Profile
QTY. Lead Time Due Date
Supplier Location Card #
1 OF 2
KANBAN CARD
Part Description/Picture if Applicable Part Number Profile
QTY. Lead Time Due Date
Supplier Location Card #
2 OF 2

Audit_Checklist

DELIVERABLE MODULE 7 - AUDIT
Audit Checklist
Target Area: Statement of Audit Objective: Auditor: Audit Date:
Audit Technique Auditable Item, Observation, Procedure etc. Individual Auditor Rating (Circle Rating)
Observation Have all associates been trained? YES NO
Observation Is training documentation available? YES NO
Observation Is training documentation current? YES NO
Observation Are associates wearing proper safety gear? YES NO
Observation Are SOP's available? YES NO
Observation Are SOP's current? YES NO
Observation Is quality being measured YES NO
Observation Is sampling being conducted in random fashion YES NO
Observation Is sampling meeting it's sample size target? YES NO
Observation Are control charts in control YES NO
Observation Are control charts current? YES NO
Observation Is the process capability index >1.0? YES NO
Number of Out of Compliance Observations
Total Observations
Audit Yield ERROR:#DIV/0!
Corrective Actions Required
Auditor Comments

VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY