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Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 25/10/2020 High School Dissertation & Thesis Writing

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Attachment 1

A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development, 7th edition John W. Santrock

Cognitive Development

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Piaget’s theory stresses that children actively construct their own knowledge of the world

Create mental structures to help us adapt to our world

Discusses systematic changes in children’s thinking

Processes of development:

Schemes

Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge

Assimilation

Children use existing schemes to incorporate new information

Accommodation

Adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences

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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Organization

Grouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into higher-order, more smoothly functioning cognitive system

Continual refinement of organization is a part of development

Equilibration

How children shift from one stage of thought to the next

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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education, 2014

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor Stage:

Lasts from birth to 2 years

Infants construct an understanding of world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical, motor actions

6 Substages:

Simple reflexes

First month after birth

Sensation and action are coordinated through reflexive behaviors

Infant begins to produce behaviors that resemble reflexes in absence of the usual stimulus

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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

First habits and primarily circular reactions

Develops between 1-4 months of age

Coordinate sensation with:

Habit – scheme based on a reflex that has become completely separated from its eliciting stimulus

Primary circular action – scheme based on attempt to reproduce an event that initially occurred by chance

Habits and circular reactions are stereotyped – repeated the same way each time

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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Secondary circular reaction

Between 4-8 months of age

Infants become more object-oriented, moving beyond preoccupation with the self

Secondary circular reactions are when schemes are repeated because of their consequences

Infant also imitates simple actions and physical gestures of others

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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

Between 8-12 months of age

Infant coordinates vision and touch, hand and eye

Actions become more outwardly directed

Infant readily combines and recombines previously learned schemes in a coordinated way

Presence of intentionality

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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

Between 12-18 months of age

Tertiary circular reactions are schemes in which an infant purposely explores new possibilities with objects, continually doing new things to them and exploring the results

Internalization of schemes

Between 18-24 months of age

Infant develops ability to use primitive symbols

Symbol – internalized sensory image or word that represents an event

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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Object permanence Example

Understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched

Important accomplishment made during first year of infancy

A-not-B error Example

Occurs when infants make mistake of selecting a familiar hiding place (A) rather than a new hiding place (B) as they progress into substage 4 of sensorimotor stage

Older infants are less likely to make this error because their concept of object permanence is complete

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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Perceptual development and expectation

Several theorists argue that infants’ perceptual abilities are highly developed very early in life

Presence of certain cognitive abilities much earlier than Piaget’s theory predicts

Evidence that infants see objects as bounded, unitary, solid, and separate from their background, possibly at birth or shortly thereafter

Definitely by 3 or 4 months of age

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Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

Core knowledge approach

Infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems

Space, number sense, object permanence, language

Strongly influenced by evolution, infants are prewired to make sense of their world

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Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

Preoperational Stage

Lasts from approximately 2 to 7 years of age

Children begin to represent the world with words, images, drawings

Form stable concepts and begin to reason

Do not yet have understanding of operations

Reversible mental actions that allow children to do mentally what before they could only do physically

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Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

Symbolic function substage

Occurs between ages 2 to 4

Child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present

Scribble designs to represent people, houses, cars, etc.

Use language and engage in pretend play

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Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

Egocentrism Example

Inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective

Preschool children often show the ability to take another’s perspective on some tasks but not others

Animism Example

Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action

Failure to distinguish between appropriate occasions for human and nonhuman perspectives

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Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

Intuitive thought substage

Second substage of preoperational thought

Between ages 4 to 7 years old

Children use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions

“Why?” questions signal emergence of interest in figuring out why things are the way they are

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Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

Centration Example

Focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others

Conservation

Awareness that altering the appearance of an object or substance does not change its basic properties

Conservation may appear earlier than Piaget thought

Attention is especially important in explaining conservation

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Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

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Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

Concrete operational stage

Lasts from approximately 7 to 11 years of age

Children can perform concrete operations and logical reasoning as long as it can be applied to specific or concrete examples

Concrete operations allow a child to consider several characteristics rather than to focus on a single property of an object

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Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

New skills at concrete operational stage:

Classify and divide into different sets or subsets

Consider interrelationships among objects

Capable of seriation

Ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension (such as length)

Transitivity

Ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions

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Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

Formal operational stage

Appears between 11 to 15 years of age

Begin to think in abstract, more logical ways

Develop images of ideal circumstances

Deductive reasoning

Develop hypotheses, or best guesses, and systematically deduce which is the best path to follow in solving the problem

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Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

Adolescent egocentrism

Heightened self-consciousness of adolescents

Reflected in beliefs that others are as interested in them as they themselves are

Imaginary audience

Feeling one is the center of attention and sensing one is on stage

Personal fable

Sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility

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Applying and Evaluating Piaget’s Theory

Piaget’s theory applied to teaching children:

Take a constructivist approach

Children learn best when active and seeking solutions for themselves

Facilitate rather than direct learning

Design situations where students learn by doing

Consider child’s knowledge, level of thinking

Teachers need to interpret what students are saying and respond in a way not too far from student’s level

Important to examine children’s mistakes to help guide to a higher level of understanding

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Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Vygotsky also emphasized that children actively construct their knowledge and understanding

Emphasized the role of the social environment in stimulating cognitive development

Society provides tools to support cognitive development

Cognitive development is shaped by cultures in which we live

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Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Zone of proximal development (ZPD)

Range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be mastered with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children

Lower limit of ZPD is level of skill reached by child working independently

Upper limit of ZPD includes additional responsibility child can accept with assistance of an able instructor

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Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

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Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development

Scaffolding

Changing level of support over the course of a teaching session

More skilled person adjusting guidance to fit child’s current level of performance

When student is learning a new task, skilled person can use direct instruction

As student’s competence increases, skilled person gives less guidance

Dialogue is an important tool of scaffolding

Through dialogue, child’s concepts become more systematic, logical, and rational when met with skilled person’s concepts

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Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development Theory

Children use speech not only for social communication but to help them solve tasks

Private speech – language of self-regulation

Involves talking to oneself to guide through a task

As children age, they can act without verbalizing and self-talk becomes internalized into inner speech

Inner speech becomes their thoughts

Children use private speech more often when tasks are difficult, when they have made errors, and when they are not sure how to proceed

Children using private speech are more attentive and improve their performance more than children who do not

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Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development Theory

Vygotsky’s theory applied to education:

Use child’s ZPD in teaching

Teachers should begin teaching toward zone’s upper limit so child can reach goal with help and move to a higher level of skill or knowledge

Simply observe child and provide support when needed

Use more-skilled peers as teachers

Children also benefit from support and guidance of more-skilled children

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Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development Theory

Monitor and encourage use of private speech

Be aware of change from externally talking to oneself in preschool years to privately talking to oneself in elementary school

Encourage elementary school children to internalize and self-regulate their talk

Place instruction in meaningful context

Provide students with opportunities to learn in real-world settings

Transform the classroom with Vygotskian ideas

Kamehameha Elementary Education Program (KEEP) based on Vygotsky’s theory

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Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development Theory

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Vygotksy’s Cognitive Development Theory

Social constructivist approach

An emphasis on social contexts of learning and construction of knowledge through social interaction

Criticisms:

Vygotsky’s theory not specific enough about age-related changes

Does not adequately describe how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development

May have overemphasized the role of language in thinking

Collaboration and guidance may be “too helpful” in some cases

Children may become lazy and expect help when they could have done something on their own

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Cognitive Change in Adulthood

Adolescents often view the world in terms of polarities

Right/wrong

We/they

Good/bad

With age, adults become aware of diverse opinions and multiple perspectives of others

Reflective, relativistic thinking of adulthood

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Cognitive Change in Adulthood

Emotional maturity may impact cognitive development in adulthood

Negative emotions may produce distorted and self-serving thinking

Emerging adults high in empathy, flexibility, and autonomy are more likely to engage in complex, integrated cognitive-emotional thinking

In middle age, individuals become more inwardly reflective and less context-dependent in their thinking than young adults

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Cognitive Change in Adulthood

Postformal thought

Thinking that is reflective, relativistic, and contextual

Recognition that the correct answer to a problem requires reflective thinking and may vary from one situation to another

Become more skeptical about the truth and seem unwilling to accept an answer as final

Understand that thinking can’t always be abstract; in some instances, it must be realistic and pragmatic

Understand that thinking is influenced by emotions

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Information-Processing Approach

Information-processing approach

Analyzes how individuals manipulate, monitor, and create strategies for handling information

Involves attention, memory, and thinking

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Information-Processing Approach

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Information-Processing Approach

Mechanisms of change are important in advances in cognitive development:

Encoding

Process by which information gets into memory

Automaticity

Ability to process information with little or no effort

Strategy construction

Creation of new procedures for processing information

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Information-Processing Approach

Metacognition

Knowing about knowing

Assists in self-modification in children’s information processing

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Information-Processing Approach

How fast information is processed influences what we can do with information

Reaction time assesses processing speed

Speed at which tasks are completed improves dramatically across childhood

Continues to improve in adolescence

Begins to decline in middle adulthood and continues to slow into late adulthood

Due to decline in functioning of brain and central nervous system

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Information-Processing Approach

How fast children can process information linked with competence in thinking

Strategies that people learn through experience may compensate for decline in processing speed with age

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Attention

Attention

Focusing of mental resources

Different allocations of attention:

Selective attention Example

Focusing on specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant

Divided attention

Concentrating on more than one activity at the same time

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Attention

Different allocations of attention (continued):

Sustained attention

Ability to maintain attention to selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time

Executive attention

Action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress, dealing with novel or difficult circumstances

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Attention

Orienting/investigation processes dominates attention in first year

Directing attention to potentially important locations in environment and recognizing objects and features

Habituation What if...?

Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentation

Dishabituation

Increase in responsiveness after change in stimulation

Parents do novel things and repeat them often

Stops or changes behaviors when infant redirects his/her attention

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Attention

Joint attention

Two or more individuals focus on the same object or event

Requires:

Ability to track another’s behavior, such as following a gaze

One person directing infant’s attention

Reciprocal interaction

Joint attention skills frequently observed by end of first year

Infants begin to direct adults’ attention to objects

Increases infants’ ability to learn from other people

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Memory

Memory

Retention of information over time

Encoding, storage, and retrieval are basic processes required for memory

Failures can occur in any process

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Memory

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Memory

Schema theory

People mold memories to fit information that already exists in their minds

Schemas – mental frameworks that organize concepts and information

Influence encoding, making inferences, and retrieving information

Often gaps are filled in when memories retrieved

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Memory

Infants as young as 3 months show a limited type of memory

Infants can remember perceptual-motor information

By 2.5 months, baby’s memory is detailed

Implicit memory

Memory without conscious recollection

Explicit memory

Conscious memory of facts and experiences

Infants do not show explicit memory until after 6 months

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Memory

Most infants’ conscious memories are fragile and short-lived

Except for memory of perceptual-motor actions, which can be substantial

Conscious memories improve across second year of life

Maturation of hippocampus and surrounding cerebral cortex, especially frontal lobes, makes advances in explicit memory possible

Less is known about areas of the brain involved in implicit memory in infancy

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Memory

Infantile amnesia

Most adults can remember little, if anything, from first three years of life

Elementary school children do not remember much of their early childhood years

Immaturity of prefrontal lobes of the brain plays a role in memory difficulty in recalling events from infancy and early childhood

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Memory

Long-term memory

Relatively permanent and unlimited type of memory

Short-term memory

Retention of information for up to 15-30 seconds without rehearsal of information

Individuals can retain information longer using rehearsal

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Memory

Working memory

A mental “workbench” where individuals manipulate and assemble information when making decisions, problem solving, and comprehending written and spoken language

More active in modifying information than short-term memory

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Memory

Long-term memory and eyewitness testimony:

Age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion

Individual differences in susceptibility

Interviewing techniques produce distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events

Children’s long-term memory improves more as they move into middle and late childhood years

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Memory

Strategies for processing information:

Rehearsal and organizing

Strategies employed by older children and adults

Creating mental imagery

Using imagery to remember verbal information works better for older children

Elaboration

Engaging in more extensive processing of information

Thinking of examples and self-reference

Adolescents more likely to use elaboration

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Memory

Fuzzy trace theory

Memory is understood by verbatim memory trace or gist memory representations

Verbatim memory trace - precise details of information

Gist – central idea of information

Young children tend to store and retrieve verbatim traces

During elementary school years, children begin to use gist more

Improves memory and reasoning because fuzzy traces are more enduring and less likely to be forgotten than verbatim traces

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Memory

Knowledge influences what people notice and how they organize, represent, and interpret information

Affects ability to remember, reason, and solve problems

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Memory

Episodic memory

Retention of information about the where and when of life’s happenings

Autobiographical memory – personal recollection of events and facts

Reminiscence bump in which adults remember more events from second and third decades of their lives than other decades

Found mostly for positive life events

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Memory

Semantic memory

A person’s knowledge about the world, including:

Fields of expertise

General academic knowledge

“Everyday knowledge”

Meanings of words, names of famous individuals, important places, and common objects

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Memory

Source memory

Ability to remember where one learned something

Contexts may include physical setting, emotional context, or identity of speaker

Failures in source memory increase with age

Prospective memory

Remembering to do something in the future

Some researchers find declines in prospective memory with age

Related factors include nature of task and what is being assessed

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Thinking

Thinking

Manipulating and transforming information in memory in order to reason, reflect, think critically, evaluate ideas, solve problems, or make decisions

Concepts are key aspects of infants’ cognitive development

Concepts – cognitive groupings of similar objects, events, people, or ideas

Unsure how early concept formation begins

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Thinking

Executive functioning

Higher-level cognitive processes linked to development of brain’s prefrontal cortex

Managing one’s thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and to exercise self-control

In early childhood, executive functioning involves advances in cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and goal-setting

Linked to school readiness

Significant advances in executive functioning unfold over middle and late childhood years

Increased efficiency in cognitive control

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Thinking

Critical thinking

Thinking reflectively and productively, evaluating evidence

Mindfulness is an aspect of critical thinking

Mindfulness – being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible

Schools critiqued for not teaching students to think critically

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Thinking

Executive functioning strengthens during adolescence

Controlling attention and reducing interfering thoughts are key aspects of learning and thinking in adolescence and emerging adulthood

Self-oriented thoughts of worry, self-doubt, intense emotionally-laden concerns may interfere with focusing attention

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Thinking

Dual-process model

Decision making is influenced by analytical and experiential cognitive systems

Systems compete with each other

Experimental system may benefit adolescent decision making

Monitoring and managing actual experiences

Adolescents may not benefit from analytical approach

Reflective, detailed, higher-level cognitive analysis

Some disagree – adolescents benefit from both systems

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Thinking

Expertise

Extensive, highly organized knowledge and understanding of a particular domain

Expertise shows up more among middle-aged or older adults

Distinguishing novices from experts:

Experts rely on accumulated knowledge to solve problems

Experts have better strategies and shortcuts

Experts are more creative and flexible in problem solving

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Thinking

Education, work, and heath influence cognitive functioning of older adults

Older adults with less education have lower cognitive abilities

Frequent engagement in cognitive activities improves episodic memory

Increased emphasis on complex information processing likely enhances intellectual abilities

Illnesses may have negative impact on cognitive functioning

Exercise linked to improved cognitive functioning

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Thinking

Aging, brain, and cognitive functioning

Neural circuits in prefrontal cortex decline

Linked to poorer performance on complex reasoning tasks, working memory, episodic memory tasks

Older adults are more likely to use both hemispheres of brain

Compensate for aging declines in attention, memory, and language

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Thinking

Use it or lose it

Older adults benefit from activities such as reading books, crossword puzzles, attending lectures and concerts

Disuse may promote atrophy of cognitive skills

Cognitive training

Training can improve cognitive skills of many older adults

Loss in plasticity in late adulthood

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Metacognition

Metamemory

Knowledge about memory

Includes:

General knowledge about memory

Knowledge about one’s own memory

Metacognition helps people perform cognitive tasks more effectively

Critical thinking skills

Generate hypotheses for problem solving

Solve math problems

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Metacognition

Theory of mind

Awareness of one’s own mental processes and mental processes of others

Linked to cognitive processes

From 18 months-3 years, children begin to understand:

Perceptions

Emotions

Desires

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Metacognition

2-3-year-olds understand that desires are related to actions and simple emotions

Refer to desires earlier and more frequently than cognitive states such as thinking and knowing

Key development is understanding others’ desires may differ from their own

Between 3-5 years, children come to understand that the mind can represent objects and events accurately or inaccurately

False beliefs – beliefs that are not true

In most children, understanding of false belief developed by age 5

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Metacognition

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The Concept of Intelligence

Intelligence

Ability to solve problems

Capacity to adapt and learn from experience

Can only be evaluated indirectly

Individual differences measured by intelligence tests

Designed to tell whether a person can reason better than others

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The Concept of Intelligence

Binet Tests

Core of intelligence consists of complex cognitive processes

Memory, imagery, comprehension, and judgment

Mental age

Individual’s level of mental development relative to others

Compared to chronological age to determine intelligence quotient

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The Concept of Intelligence

Intelligence quotient

Mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100

IQ scores approximate a normal distribution

Symmetrical, bell-shaped curve with a majority of cases falling in the middle of the range of possible scores

Few scores appearing toward the ends of the range

Stanford-Binet Tests among one of the most widely used intelligence tests

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The Concept of Intelligence

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The Concept of Intelligence

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)

Designed for adults

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV)

Designed for children and adolescents between 6-16 years old

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III)

Designed for children age 2 years 6 months-7 years 3 months

Overall IQ score but also yield composite scores

Verbal comprehension, memory, processing speed

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The Concept of Intelligence

Intelligence tests predict school and job success

Moderately correlated with work performance

Many other factors contribute to success in school and work

Motivation to succeed, physical and mental health, and social skills

Intelligence tests used in conjunction with other information

Developmental history, medical background, school performance, social competency, family experiences, etc.

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The Concept of Intelligence

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory

Analytical intelligence

Ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast

Creative intelligence

Ability to create, design, invent, originate, imagine

Practical intelligence

Ability to use, apply, implement, put ideas into practice

Children with high analytic ability tend to be favored in schooling

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The Concept of Intelligence

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Verbal

Mathematical

Spatial

Bodily-kinesthetic

Musical

Interpersonal

Intrapersonal

Naturalist

Individuals have each type of intelligence to varying degrees

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The Concept of Intelligence

Emotional intelligence

Ability to perceive and express emotion accurately and adaptively, understand emotion, and manage emotions in oneself and others

Critics argue that emotional intelligence broadens concept of intelligence too far to be useful

Has not been adequately assessed and researched

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The Concept of Intelligence

Moderate correlation between brain size and intelligence

Frontal lobes are likely the location of intelligence

Highest levels of thinking in prefrontal cortex

Brain-imaging studies reveal a distributed neural network involving frontal and parietal lobes is related to higher intelligence

Temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and cerebellum also linked to higher intelligence to a lesser degree

Neurological speed may also play a role in intelligence

Heredity and environment contribute to brain size and intelligence

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Controversies and Group Comparisons

Genetic influences examined by comparing IQ similarity of identical and fraternal twins

Heritability attempts to distinguish between effects of heredity and environment in a population

By late adolescence, strong genetic influence suggested

Genes exist in an environment, and environment shapes gene activity

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Controversies and Group Comparisons

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Controversies and Group Comparisons

Environmental influences

Parent-child communication during first 3 years of life correlates with IQ scores

Socioeconomic status also influences IQ scores

Schooling influences intelligence

No formal education or for an extended period of time results in lower intelligence

Flynn effect shows worldwide increase in intelligence scores across history

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Controversies and Group Comparisons

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Controversies and Group Comparisons

Cross-cultural comparisons

Cultures vary in what it means to be intelligent

Western cultures emphasize reasoning and thinking skills

Eastern cultures emphasize members of a community engaging in social skills

Cultural bias

Early intelligence tests favored people from urban environments, middle socioeconomic status, and non-Latino Whites

Non-native English speakers or nonstandard English speakers at a disadvantage in understanding questions

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Controversies and Group Comparisons

Culture-fair tests

Intelligence tests designed to avoid cultural bias

Includes questions familiar to people from all socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds or no verbal questions

Most intelligence tests reflect what dominant culture thinks is important

Time limits bias groups not concerned with time

Same words may have different meaning for different groups

Different attitudes, values, and motivation could affect performance

No culture-fair tests, only culture-reduced tests

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Development of Intelligence

Crystallized intelligence

Individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills

Continues to increase across life span

Fluid intelligence

Ability to reason abstractly

Begins to decline during middle adulthood

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Development of Intelligence

Cognitive mechanics

“Hardware” of the mind

Speed and accuracy in sensory input, attention, visual and motor memory, discrimination, comparison, and categorization

Age-related declines likely due to biology, heredity, and health

Cognitive pragmatics

Culture-based “software” of the mind

Reading and writing skills, language comprehension, educational qualifications, professional skills, self and life skills

Improvement into old age is possible

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Development of Intelligence

Wisdom

Expert knowledge about practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgment about important matters

Insight about human development and life matters, good judgment, understanding of how to cope with difficult life problems

High levels of wisdom are rare

Factors other than age critical for wisdom to develop to a high level

Personality factors, such as openness to experience, generativity, and creativity are better predictors of wisdom than intelligence

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The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

Intellectual disability

Limited mental ability in which individual has:

Has low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional intelligence test

Has difficulty adapting to demands of everyday life

First exhibits these characteristics by age 18

About 5 million Americans fit definition of intellectual disability

Varying degrees of intellectual disability

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The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

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The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

Organic intellectual disability

Genetic disorder or lower level of intelligence due to brain damage

Down syndrome

Cultural-familial intellectual disability

Results from growing up in a below-average intellectual environment

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The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

Gifted

High intelligence or superior talent

IQ of 130 or higher

3-5% of U.S. students are gifted

Gifted programs in school systems often select those with intellectual superiority and academic aptitude

Tend to overlook children talented in art or athletics or other special aptitudes

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The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

Characteristics of gifted children:

Precocity

March to their own drummer

Passion to master

Gifted children recall high levels of ability at very young ages

Prior to formal training

Strong family support and years of training and practice

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The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

Highly gifted individuals are not typically gifted in many domains

During childhood, domains where they are gifted usually emerge

Begin to show expertise in domain

Gifted children may be socially isolated and underchallenged

Can become disruptive, skip classes, and lose interest in achieving

African American, Latino, and Native American children underrepresented in gifted programs

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The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

Creativity

Ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique, good solutions to problems

Intelligence and creativity are not the same

Creativity requires divergent thinking, which produces many answers to the same question

Conventional intelligence tests measure convergent thinking, in which there is only one correct answer

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