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Open Posted By: highheaven1 Date: 21/10/2020 Graduate Research Paper Writing

For the LCD discussions please respond to the following questions based on the material covered in each section. *You do not have to do an LCD for each chapter, just the section as a whole.  

1. What do you feel was the most important thing you learned in this section?

2. Was there anything you found confusing in this section?

3. What is one thing you can do with the information learned in this section?

(300 words total - make each question separate from the other) 

Category: Engineering & Sciences Subjects: Electrical Engineering Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

4: Sleep

Your Health Today, 6th edition

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Sleep

Circadian rhythm: internal daily 24-hour cycle of waking and sleeping

Most adults need about 8–9 hours of sleep each night

A typical college student sleeps only 6–7 hours a night on week nights

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sleep and Your Health

Sleep is a period of rest and recovery from the demands of wakefulness

It can be described as a state of unconsciousness or partial consciousness from which a person can be roused by stimulation

We spend about a third of our lives sleeping

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Health Effects of Sleep

Sleep is strongly associated with overall health and quality of life

Restoration and growth take place during the deepest stages of sleep

Natural immune system moderators increase during sleep and promote resistance to viral infections

A lack of sleep can lead to a breakdown in the body’s health-promoting processes

Short sleep: less than 7 hours; increases risk of negative health outcomes

Long sleep: 10 hours or more; has not been found to have negative health consequences

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Health Effects of Sleep (2)

Sleep deprivation and other sleep disorders are associated with serious physical and mental health conditions

Slowed reaction time

High blood pressure, heart disease, stroke

Suppressed immune system

Overweight and obesity

Breast cancer

Diabetes

Dementia, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sleep Deprivation

Sleep deprivation is the lack of sufficient time asleep, a condition that impairs physical, emotional, and cognitive functioning

Effects all domains of functioning

Emotional effects, including heightened irritability and difficulty handling stress

Reduced motivation

Reaction time, coordination, and judgment

Memory impairments

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sleep Deprivation (2)

Chronic sleep deprivation damages brain cells and impairs debris removal, accelerating brain aging

Sleep debt is the difference between the amount of sleep attained and the amount of sleep needed to maintain alert wakefulness during the daytime, when the amount attained is less than the amount needed

Can’t be made up for with extra sleep on weekends

May disrupt sleep structure

Prescription stimulants are not a healthy solution

©McGraw-Hill Education.

What Makes You Sleep?

Circadian rhythms are maintained by the suprachiasmic nuclei (SCN) in the brain

Internal “biological clock” that controls body temperature and levels of alertness and activity

SCN signal the release of hormones, including signaling the pineal gland to release melatonin, which increases relaxation and sleepiness, and the pituitary gland to release growth hormone during sleep to help repair damaged tissues

External environmental cues such as light are also important

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Structure of Sleep

The brain cycles into two main states of sleep:

Non-rapid eye movement (NREM)

Rapid eye movement (REM)

NREM sleep:

Stage 1: relaxed, half-awake sleep

Stage 2: brain activity slows and movement stops

Stages 3 and 4:

Blood pressure drops

Heart rate slows

Blood supply to brain minimized

Stage 4 is referred to as deep sleep

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Structure of Sleep (2)

REM sleep:

Brain activity becomes more like being awake

Dreams are most likely to occur in this stage

REM sleep paralysis: periods of no muscle tone and immobility

Appears to give the brain the opportunity to “file” ideas and thoughts into memory

Creative and novel ideas may be more likely to flourish

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Structure of Sleep (3)

Insufficient REM sleep may impair memory and the ability to learn new skills

REM rebound effect: when long sleep is possible after inadequate sleep for several nights, you will have longer and more frequent REM sleep

Demonstrates importance of REM sleep to the brain

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sleep Cycles

After the first REM period, you cycle back and forth between REM and NREM stages

Repeats about every 90 to 110 minutes until waking

Children and adolescents experience large quantities of “deep sleep”

As people get older, high-quality, deep sleep becomes more elusive

Structure is essentially the same for men and women

Women have more slow-wave sleep (NREM stages 3 and 4) and experience more insomnia

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 4.3 One night’s sleep cycles.

After your first REM period, you cycle back and forth between REM and NREM sleep stages. Typically, you experience four or five sleep cycles each night. After the second cycle, however, you spend little or no time in NREM stages 3 and 4 and most of your time in NREM stage 2 and REM sleep. After each successive cycle, the time spent in REM sleep doubles, lasting from 10 to 60 minutes at a time.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Insomnia

Insomnia: difficulty falling or staying asleep

Can be caused by stress, anxiety, medical problems, poor sleep environment, noisy or restless partners, and schedule changes

Distress over inability to fall asleep also contributes

Improved sleep habits and exercise have been shown to improve sleep quality for chronic insomnia

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea: periods of nonbreathing during sleep

Almost 40% of U.S. population may have some form of sleep apnea

Some 80–90% of cases are undiagnosed

Central sleep apnea: brain fails to regulate the diaphragm and other breathing mechanisms correctly (rare)

Obstructive sleep apnea: upper airway is obstructed during sleep

Person is typically unaware of the typical pattern of snoring and gasping

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 4.4 Obstructive sleep apnea.

(a) Normally, the airway is open during sleep. (b) When the muscles of the soft palate, tongue, and uvula relax, they narrow the airway and cause snoring. (c) If these structures collapse on the back wall of the airway, they close the airway, preventing breathing. The efforts of the diaphragm and chest cause the blocked airway to become even more tightly sealed. For breathing to resume, the sleeper must rouse enough to cause tension in the tongue, which opens the airway.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sleep Apnea (2)

Obstructive sleep apnea is potentially dangerous, even fatal

Associated with high blood pressure and increased risk of heart disease and stroke

If not severe, sleep apnea can be addressed by behavioral strategies

More severe cases are often treated with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine

Through a mask, pressurized air is gently blown into the patient’s nose

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sleepwalking Disorder

Sleepwalking disorder: a person rises out of an apparently deep sleep and acts as if awake

Episodes typically last less than 10 minutes

Most sufferers have no family history of the disorder

May be brought on by excessive sleep deprivation, fatigue, stress, illness, excessive alcohol, and use of sedatives

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sleep-Related Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome

Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED): a person rises from bed during the night and eats and drinks while asleep

About three-quarters with this disorder are female

The person has no memory of the episode (or multiple episodes), and does not experience indigestion or feelings of fullness

Night eating syndrome: a person eats excessively during the night while awake

Repeatedly awakens during the night to eat, then eats very little during the day

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Evaluating Your Sleep

Take the sleep latency test

Sleep latency: amount of time it takes a person to fall asleep

Check for symptoms of a sleep disorder

Look at behavior change strategies

If referred to a sleep clinic or lab, you may be asked to monitor your sleeping habits at home, or you may be evaluated in a lab

Multiple Sleep Latency Test: administered as an index of daytime sleepiness, usually repeated five times during the day in a sleep clinic

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Getting a Good Night’s Sleep

Most people experience disordered sleep at some point, experiencing the symptoms of sleep disorders but less frequently and less severely

Ways to ensure healthy sleep patterns include moderating technology use and adopting other sleep-friendly habits and behaviors

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Taking a Break from Technology

Artificial blue light from computers, televisions, and phones blocks the production of melatonin, the hormone that induces sleep

If possible, turn off electronic devices at least 2 hours before going to sleep

Alternately, dim brightness levels or adjust light sources from blues to reds

Answering texts and calls interrupts sleep architecture and can also lead to awkward and embarrassing communications

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Establishing Good Sleep Habits

Maintain a regular sleep schedule

Be smart about napping

Create a sleep-friendly environment

Avoid eating too close to bedtime

Avoid caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol

Get regular exercise but not close to bedtime

Manage stress and establish relaxing bedtime rituals

Consider your bed partner

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Creating a Sleep-Friendly Environment

Your bedroom should be comfortable, secure, quiet, cool, and dark, giving special consideration to the following:

Choice of mattress and pillow

Clean sheets

Quiet

Temperature

Air quality

Body position

Chronic pain

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Using Sleep Aids and Sleep Apps

Frequently prescribed sleep medications induce sleep but suppress both deep sleep and REM sleep

Daytime side effects include decreased memory and intellectual functioning

Many OTC medicines contain antihistamines

Can cause dehydration, agitation, constipation

Rebound insomnia can occur, worse than before medication was taken

A variety of smartphone apps can be calming and help induce sleep, or will track your sleep quality

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Using Sleep Aids and Sleep Apps (2)

Many complementary and alternative products aim to address sleep problems

Herbal products, most commonly valerian

Can interact with other medication and drugs

Dietary supplements, especially melatonin

Aromatherapy, using certain scented oils

Relaxation drinks, or anti-energy drinks

Because of the potential for adverse affects, it is important to consult with your health provider

©McGraw-Hill Education.

In Review

How does sleep affect your health?

What makes you sleep?

What is the structure of sleep?

What are common sleep disorders?

How can you enhance the quality of your sleep?

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Attachment 2

3: Social Connections

Your Health Today, 6th edition

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Healthy Personal Relationships

Relationships are at the heart of human experience

Family

Community

Classmates, teammates, colleagues

Acquaintances, friends, intimate partners

Relationships are fraught with difficulties

Divorce

Single-parent and blended families

Living alone

Electronic connections

©McGraw-Hill Education.

A Healthy Sense of Self

Relationships begin with who you are as an individual and what you bring to the relationship

Attributes that make successful relationships possible:

A healthy sense of self

A reasonably high self-esteem

A capacity for empathy

The ability both to be alone and to be with others

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Friendships and Other Kinds of Relationships

Friendship is a reciprocal relationship based on mutual liking and caring, respect and trust, interest and companionship

Considered longer-lasting and more stable when compared to romantic relationships

Offers a psychological and emotional buffer against stress, anxiety, and depression

Networks that provide social support also increase one’s sense of self-worth

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Strengths of Successful Partnerships

Intimate relationships have similarities to friendships, but also other qualities

More exclusive

Deeper levels of connection and caring

Sexual component

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Strengths of Successful Partnerships (2)

Some characteristics of successful partnerships:

Independence and maturity

Self-esteem and mutual respect

Understanding of the importance of good communication

Open expression of sexual affection and respect

Enjoyment of time together and time alone

Acknowledge strengths and failings

Assertive and flexible in wants and needs

Handle conflict constructively

Friends as well as lovers, with a focus on unselfish caring

Good relationships with family and friends

Shared spiritual values

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Attraction

People seem to use a systematic screening process when deciding if someone could be a potential partner

Factors that promote attraction:

Proximity—or, sometimes determined by proximity, familiarity

Physical attractiveness

Similar characteristics, including values and attitudes

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Process of Finding a Partner: Dating and More

Indirectness is not an effective strategy

People who are straightforward and respectful in developing a relationship are more likely to get a positive response

Partners are often found through social connections

The Internet is playing a larger role

Enlarges the pool of potential partners

Online social networking

Importance of caution: How much do you really know about the person?

©McGraw-Hill Education.

What Is Love?

Similarity theory is based on the concept that we fall in love with people who are similar to us in important ways

Social exchange theory suggests that falling in love and choosing a partner are based on the exchange of “commodities’”

Love, status, property, services

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Course of Love

Beginning stages of falling in love can feel like a roller coaster ride

“Lovesick”

Experience of love likely involves increased levels of dopamine

Causes arousal of the sympathetic nervous system

Effects subside as lovers become habituated to each other

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sternberg’s Love Triangle

According to psychologist Robert Sternberg, love has three dimensions

Intimacy, the emotional component

Passion, the sexual component

Commitment, the decision aspect

Different combinations of these components produce different kinds of love

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 3.1 Sternberg’s triangular theory of love.

Jump to long image description

Source: “A Triangular Theory of Love,” by Robert J. Sternberg, in Psychological Review, 93, pp. 119–135. Copyright © 1986. Reprinted by permission of Robert J. Sternberg.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Nonverbal Behavior and Metamessages

Nonverbal communication includes facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, body position and movement, and spatial behavior

Nonverbal and verbal communication cues make up the metamessage, or the unspoken message you send or receive when communicating

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Building Communication Skills

Before you speak, know what you want to say

Use “I” statements

“I feel…when you…” vs. “You make me feel…”

As a listener, give the other person time and space

Good communication skills help make conflict constructive

Assertiveness: speaking up for yourself without violating someone else’s rights

Gender differences in communication patterns can significantly impact relationships

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Table 3.2 Gender Differences in Communication

Men Women
Feel oppressed by lengthy discussions Expect a decision to be discussed first and made by consensus
Do not want to have long discussions, particularly about what they consider to be minor decisions Appreciate the discussion itself as evidence of involvement
Are included to resist what they perceive as someone telling them what to do; do not want to take orders Are inclined to do what is asked of them
Think every question needs to be answered Believe a questions is not simply a question but the opening for a negotiation
Believe they are showing independence by not asking probing questions Believe that when men change the subject they are showing a lack of interest and sympathy
Goal is to “fix” the problem Goal is to share, develop relationships, and listen

Source: Adapted from You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation, by D. Tannen, 1990, New York: William Morrow.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sex and Gender

Sex is a person’s biological status as a male or female

Intersex is a condition in which the genitals are ambiguous at birth

Gender refers to “masculine” or “feminine” behaviors and characteristics considered appropriate in a particular culture

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Gender Roles and Gender Identities

Gender role: a set of behaviors and activities a person engages in to conform to society’s expectations

Androgynous: a person who displays characteristics or performs tasks traditionally associated with both sexes

Gender identity is an internal sense of being male or female

Gender dysphoria: discomfort about one’s own sex

Transgender: having a sense of identity as a male or female that conflicts with one’s biological sex

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sexual Orientation

Sexual orientation refers to a person’s emotional, romantic, and sexual attraction to a member of the same sex, the other sex, or both

Exists along a continuum, influenced by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and societal factors

Heterosexuality: emotional and sexual attraction to members of the other sex

Homosexuality: emotional and sexual attraction to members of the same sex

Bisexuality: emotional and sexual attraction to both sexes

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Marriage

Both a legal union and a contract between the couple and the state

Age at first marriage has risen

Confers benefits for the individual and society

One predictor of a successful marriage: positive reasons for getting married

Characteristics of successful or unsuccessful marriages are typically present before the marriage

Infidelity mars some marriages but does not necessarily end them

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Gay and Lesbian Partnerships

Same-sex couples have the same desire for intimacy, companionship, passion, and commitment

As a result of the struggle with “coming out,” many gays and lesbians have valuable communication skills and strengths

Homophobia: irrational fear of homosexuality and homosexuals

More than 60% of the U.S. population now supports same-sex marriage

Made legal with a June 2015 Supreme Court decision

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Cohabitation

Cohabitation is when two people of the opposite sex live together as unmarried partners

Incidence has increased 10-fold since the 1960s

More than 60% of marriages are preceded by a cohabiting relationship

Individuals may choose cohabitation as a path to marriage or as an end in itself

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Divorce

First marriages have a 40–50% probability of ending in divorce

Many ill-prepared to handle the challenges of married life

Leading cause of poverty

One of the most stressful life events a person can experience

Especially hard on children

Best served by continuing contact with both parents, as long as parents get along

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Blended Families

In blended families, one or both partners bring a child or children from a previous marriage

It takes time to achieve a level of cohesion and for stepparents and stepchildren to build relationships

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Singlehood

Many young adults are delaying marriage

An increasing number of people view singlehood as a legitimate, healthy, and satisfying alternative to marriage

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Keeping Your Relationships Strong and Vital

Cohesion is the dynamic balance between separateness and togetherness in both couple and family relationships

Relationships are strongest when there is a balance between intimacy and autonomy

Flexibility is the dynamic balance between stability and change

Communication is the tool that partners and families use to adjust levels of cohesion or flexibility when change is needed

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Communities

Community: group of people connected in a way that transcends casual attachment

Typically, shared common goals and a sense of belonging

Being active in a community is likely to have a positive impact on health

Positive relationships within a community are essential to personal health and growth

Improve self-esteem

Improve social capital: sharing and exchanging of resources

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Community Starts Within

Fulfilling community participation requires an understanding of your beliefs and how you fit into a particular community

Knowing what your values are, what gives meaning to your life, and what you want to accomplish

Values: set of criteria for judging what is good and bad that underlies moral principles and behavior

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Finding a Community That Works for You

Religious and spiritual communities

Spirituality: experience of connection to self, others, and community at large, providing a sense of purpose and meaning

Spiritually connected people stay healthier and live longer

Social activism and the global community

Social causes can unite people from diverse backgrounds for a common good

“Dragonfly effect”: how social media has been used to facilitate social change

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Finding a Community That Works for You (2)

Volunteering

People who give time, money, and support to others are likely to be more satisfied with their lives

One-on-one contact and direct involvement are key to experiencing positive effects

Service learning

Service learning: form of education that combines coursework with community service

Meant to teach students how to extend themselves beyond their enclosed world, taking the risk of getting involved in others’ lives

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Finding a Community That Works for You (3)

The arts

Enjoying and appreciating the arts allows you to embrace diverse cultures past and present;

Expressing yourself creatively can forge a connection between yourself and the natural world

Internet communities

Virtually limitless in number

Have a global reach, connecting with international social and political movements

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Review

What kinds of relationships are important for health?

How do people attract and find intimate partners?

What makes people fall in love and fall out of love?

What are different communication skills and styles?

What are the differences between sex and gender?

What are different types of relationship choices?

What are the benefits of connecting with a community?

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix A

Long image descriptions

©McGraw-Hill Education

Figure 3.1 Sternberg’s Triangular Theory Appendix

Intimacy alone produces liking, or friendship

Passion alone produces infatuation

Commitment alone produces a dutiful relationship that many would consider empty love

Intimacy and passion combined produce romantic love

Intimacy and commitment combined, but without passion, produce companionate love

Passion and commitment combined, but without intimacy, produce fatuous love, a love that has probably developed rapidly and has little substance

The three components together—intimacy, passion, and commitment—produce consummate love

Jump back to slide containing original image

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Attachment 3

2: Mental Health and Stress

Your Health Today, 6th edition

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Positive Psychology and Character Strengths

In recent years, psychologists have become more interested in positive psychology

Focus on positive emotions, characteristics, strengths, and conditions that create happiness

Six virtues that “enable human thriving”

Wisdom

Courage

Humanity

Justice

Temperance

Transcendence

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Characteristics of Mentally Healthy People

Possess high self-esteem: positive regard for oneself

Accept imperfections

Altruistic: unselfishly concerned for others

Have a sense of control over their lives

Demonstrate social competence in relationships, and able to rely on others

Not overwhelmed by emotions

Maintain a positive outlook on life

Have a capacity for intimacy; no fear of commitment

Creative, and appreciate creativity in others

Persevere and take on challenges

Take reasonable risks in order to grow

Bounce back from adversity

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Self-Actualized Person

Self-actualization: the state attained when a person has reached his or her full potential

Proposed by Maslow as the level at which people achieve transcendence

Sense of well-being that comes from finding purpose and meaning in life

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Optimism, Self-Efficacy, and Resilience

Optimism: tendency to see problems as temporary and specific rather than permanent and general

Self-efficacy: general sense that you have some control over your life

Resilience: ability to bounce back from adverse events

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 2.1 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

Physiological needs (base)

Food and water; shelter; sleep; exercise; sex

Safety and security

Safe surroundings; protection by others; knows to avoid risks

Love and belongingness

Loved; loving; connected

Self-esteem

As a person; as a doer; in relationships

Self-actualization (top)

Realism; self-acceptance; autonomy; authenticity; capable of intimacy; creativity

Source: Based on Motivation and Personality, by Abraham H. Maslow, ed. Robert D. Frager and James Fadiman, 1987, 3rd ed., New York: Harper & Row.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Happiness and Positive Psychology

Happiness involves three components:

Positive emotion and pleasure (savoring sensory experiences)

Engagement (being deeply involved with family, work, romance, and hobbies)

Meaning (using personal strengths to serve some larger end)

Engagement and meaning are the most important in giving people satisfaction and happiness

Note: some people may have a happiness “set point” determined by genetics

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 2.2 Happiness by the numbers.

About 40% of happiness is under our control

50% is due to our genes; 10% is due to circumstances

$75,000 is the annual income that makes people happiest

More doesn’t make people happier; less can make life difficult

Having 10 friends or regular contacts leads to the most happiness

Spending 6 to 7 hours each day socializing with friends and family leads to the most happiness

The happiest couples have 5 good interactions for every bad one

33, 55, 70s: the happiest ages, according to research

Source: “Happiness by the numbers: 8 Stats that could change your life,” by Jessica Cassity, 2016, http://my.happify.com/hd/happiness-by-the-numbers/

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence: understanding of emotional experience, self-awareness, and sensitivity to others

Daniel Goleman argued qualities such as self-awareness, self-discipline, persistence, and empathy are more important than IQ

Leads to more positive relationships, better academic performance, more adaptive decision-making skills, and greater mental health

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Emotional Intelligence (2)

People who are emotionally intelligent can:

Recognize, name, and understand their emotions

Manage their emotions and control their moods

Motivate themselves

Recognize and respond to emotions in others

Be socially competent

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Bereavement and Healthy Grieving

Grieving is a natural response to loss, often expressed by sadness, loneliness, anger, and guilt

Such intense emotions can have a negative impact on overall health

Bereavement typically involves four phases: numbness and shock; separation; disorganization; reorganization

Seeking support and keeping a journal can be part of the healing process

There is no right or wrong way to grieve and no specific timetable

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Facing Death

Kübler-Ross, in 1969 proposed stages people go through when in the process of dying

(1) denial and isolation

(2) anger

(3) bargaining

(4) depression

(5) acceptance

Stages are not linear; people experience them in different orders or may revisit stages

More modern approaches focus on ways to live with illness rather than prepare for death

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Brain’s Role in Mental Health and Illness

The brain is the central control station for human intelligence, feeling, and creativity

The brain and nervous system mediate all behavior, both normal and abnormal

Since the 1980s, knowledge of the structure and function of the brain has increased dramatically

Advances in imaging technologies (CAT scans, PET scans, MRIs, fMRIs) have allowed for many new discoveries

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Developing Brain

By the age of 6, 95% of the brain is formed

Just before puberty, a growth spurt occurs in the frontal cortex, where the “executive functions” of planning, organization, and rational thinking are controlled

The limbic system becomes more powerful, while the prefrontal cortex that controls impulses does not mature until the 20s

By the early to mid-20s, a more mature adult brain has developed

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Mental Illness and the Brain

Mental illnesses are diseases that affect the brain

Mental disorders are caused by complex interactions

Biological factors, psychological processes, social influences, and cultural factors, especially during early childhood

Some have a genetic component

Cognitive mental disorders can be caused by tumors, brain trauma, or stroke

Imbalances of neurotransmitters seem to be particularly important in a variety of mental disorders

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Mental Disorders and Treatment

Mental disorder: a pattern of behavior associated with distress, disability, or significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom

A mental disorder is qualitatively different from a psychological problem that can be considered normal, and it can be diagnosed from a set of symptoms

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Group of conditions that often start before a child enters grade school

Include limitations of learning and difficulty with behavior control and social skills

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Mood Disorders

Also called depressive or affective disorders

Among the most common mental disorders around the world

About 15.7 million adults in the U.S. (6.7%) have at least one major depressive episode

Women experience episodes twice as often as men

Examples include:

Major depressive disorder (depression)

Bipolar disorder (with manic episodes)

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Anxiety Disorders

Along with depression, anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders

Panic attack: apprehension or intense fear, in no danger

Panic disorder: recurrent unexpected panic attacks

Specific phobia: intense fear of a situation or object, invoking immediate anxiety

Social phobia: intense fear of social or performance situations

Generalized anxiety disorder: worry about routine matters

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: persistent, intrusive thoughts, impulses, or images that cause intense anxiety or distress

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Addiction

Addiction: continued, compulsive behavior despite serious negative consequences

Physiological dependence reduces sensitivity to substance’s effects

Withdrawal symptoms occur when substance use stops

Even without physiological dependence, psychological dependence can occur

Usually associated with substance use, but concept of addiction now extended to other areas of compulsive behaviors

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders

Psychotic disorders: characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior, and other signs that an individual has lost touch with reality

Schizophrenia has a strong genetic component

In most cases, symptoms of the disease can be controlled with medication

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Mental Disorders and Suicide

Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students

About 8% of college-aged students seriously considered suicide in 2014, and 1.3% attempted to kill themselves

Women in the U.S. are more likely to attempt suicide, but men are four times more likely to succeed

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Mental Disorders and Suicide (2)

What leads a person to suicide?

As many as 90% of those who commit suicide are suffering from a mental disorder, often depression

The symptom linking depression and suicide is a feeling of hopelessness

Depression and alcoholism may be involved in two-thirds of suicides

Substance abuse and depression can be lethal

Sometimes there is no apparent precipitating event or problem

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Mental Disorders and Suicide (3)

Behavioral signs that may indicate a person is thinking about suicide:

Comments about death and threats of suicide

Increasing social withdrawal and isolation

Intensified moodiness

Increase in risk-taking behaviors

Sudden improvement in mood, accompanied by certain behaviors, such as giving away possessions

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Mental Disorders and Suicide (4)

How to help:

The danger of asking if someone is thinking about suicide (“planting the seed”) is a myth

Encourage the person to talk, asking direct questions

Encourage the person to get help through a suicide hotline or counseling

Do not agree to keep the situation a secret

Do not leave a suicidal person alone

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Self-Injury

Intentional injury to one’s own body, known sometimes as self-harm, self-mutilation, or self-injurious behavior

Behaviors include cutting, burning, scratching, branding, and head banging

Individuals often have a history of physical and/or sexual abuse as well as coexisting problems such as substance abuse or an eating disorder

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Treatments for Mental Disorders

Psychotherapy (counseling)

Psychotherapy: treatment based on the development of a positive interpersonal relationship between a client and a therapist

More than 250 different models exist

Medications

Antipsychotics

Antidepressants

Anxiolytics (antianxiety)

Use has increased dramatically in recent years, especially among children and adolescents

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What Is Stress?

Stress: general state of the body, mind, and emotions when an environmental stressor has triggered the stress response

Stressors: events or agents in the environment that can cause stress

When you appraise an event as positive, you experience eustress, or positive stress

When you appraise it as negative, you experience distress

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The Stress Response

A stress response (or fight-or-flight response) is a series of physiological changes that occur in the body

All animals, including humans, have the ability to respond to emergencies they perceive as dangerous

The stress response is carried out by the autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic branch: initiates the stress response

Parasympathetic branch: turns off the stress response and returns the body to normal

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The Relaxation Response

Homeostasis is a state of stability and balance in which body functions are maintained within a normal range

The relaxation response is a series of physiological changes that calm the body systems and return them to normal functioning

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Acute Stress and Chronic Stress

Your body can deal with short-term acute stress, as long as you recover afterwards

Many people live in a state of chronic stress, which is a stress response continuing without resolution

Chronic stress increases the likelihood of illness

Prolonged or severe stress weakens nearly every system in the body

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The General Adaptation Syndrome

Hans Selye introduced the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) to describe and explain the physiological changes observed in the stress response

The syndrome has three stages:

Alarm stage

Resistance stage

Exhaustion stage

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Figure 2.6 General Adaptation Syndrome.

Homeostasis is the state of stability and balance in which functions are maintained within a normal range. The body’s responses move furthest from homeostasis in the alarm stage. In the resistance stage, the body uses energy to cope with the continued stress but is unable to return to homeostasis. After prolonged exposure to stress, the body may either recover and return to homeostasis, or enter the exhaustion stage and fall away from homeostasis toward illness or even death.

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Physical Effects of Chronic Stress

Stress plays a role in illness and disease in a variety of ways

Immune system: can be suppressed by both brief and long-term stressors

Cardiovascular system: the stress response can cause various forms of heart disease

Gastrointestinal system: common stomach ailments can be related to stress

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Physical Effects of Chronic Stress (2)

Mental health: both acute and chronic stress can contribute to the development of psychological illnesses

Acute stress disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Adjustment disorder

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Mediators of the Stress Response

Different people respond differently to stressors

Reasons may include past experiences and one’s overall level of wellness

Other critical areas include:

Personality factors

Habitual ways of thinking

Inborn or acquired attitudes toward the demands of life

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Personality Factors

Type A behavior pattern: impulsive, achievement oriented, and highly competitive

Prime candidates for stress-related illnesses, and increased risk for a number of other diseases

A key culprit is hostility, an ongoing accumulation of irritation and anger

Type B behavior pattern: less driven

More easygoing and less readily frustrated

Less susceptible to coronary heart disease

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Personality Factors (2)

Recent additional personality types

Type C personalities: introverted and detail-oriented; may have trouble communicating, and appear cautious and reserved, with a tendency to please others

Type D personalities: not very expressive, and hold in negative emotions, with a tendency to experience anger, anxiety, and sadness while fearing negative judgments from others

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Cognitive Factors, Resilience, and Hardiness

Your outlook and beliefs about life affect how you deal with stressors in your life

People with a realistic attitude can take things in stride and reduce the frequency and intensity of the stress response

Resilience allows stress-resistant people to focus on immediate issues and explain their struggles in positive and helpful ways

Hardiness: an affective style of coping with stress, characterized by a tendency to view life events as challenges rather than threats

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Sources of Stress

Life events that require adjustment and adaptation

Daily hassles, especially if they pile up

College stress

Job pressures and burnout

Money and financial worries

Family and interpersonal stress

Time pressure, overload, and technology

Anger

Trauma

Societal pressures

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Healthy and Unhealthy Ways to Manage Stress

Unhealthy ways to manage stress include the use of tobacco, the use and abuse of drugs and alcohol, and the use of food to manage feelings

Positive but sedentary approaches, such as listening to music, should be balanced with more active stress management techniques

What works for one may not be helpful for another

Practice stress management on a regular basis

Some stressful events and situations are overwhelming—don’t hesitate to seek counseling

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Stress Reduction Strategies

Time management

Improve planning

Prioritize

Social support

The best way to develop a support system is to give support to others

A healthy lifestyle

Adopt a nutritious diet

Exercise

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Relaxation Techniques

Deep breathing

Progressive relaxation

Visualization, or guided imagery

Mindfulness-based meditation

Yoga

T’ai chi

Biofeedback

Affirmations

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Review

What is mental health?

How do we respond to a loss?

What is the brain’s role in mental health and illness?

What are common mental disorders, and how are they treated?

What is stress?

How does stress affect health?

What are the main sources of stress and the main approaches to managing stress?

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Attachment 4

1: Self, Family, and Community

Your Health Today, 6th edition

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Health and Wellness

Health: state of complete physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being

Not merely the absence of disease and infirmity

Wellness: active process of adopting patterns of behavior that can lead to improved health and heightened life satisfaction

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 1.1 The wellness continuum.

Wellness may be conceptualized as a continuum. At one end is terminal illness and premature death; at the other is a sense of vitality, wellness, and optimal health.

Source: Adapted from “Definition of Health Promotion,” by M. P. O’Donnell, American Journal of Health Promotion, 1 (5), premier issue, 1986.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Socioecological Model of Health and Wellness

Addresses interrelationship between individual and environment

Individual has unique set of characteristics, including genetics, age, and knowledge

Environment is anything external to us: relationships with others, community resources, physical and built environment, etc.

Many social determinants of health influence the options you have and the choices you make

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Population Health

Life expectancy has not increased as fast in the United States as in other countries

Measuring differences in health outcomes between populations can reveal why gains not equally shared

Demographics: statistical data about populations or groups of people

Population health: health outcomes of a group of people, and the distribution of those outcomes within the group

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Health Disparities

Result from systemic and avoidable social and economic practices and policies that create barriers for some groups

Geographical disparities:

Americans have greater health risks than individuals in other high-income countries

Health disparities also seen between U.S. regions

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 1.3 Health Olympics 2014, life expectancy in 35 countries.

Source: Population Health Forum, by School of Public Health, University of Washington, http://depts.washington.edu/eqhlth/ (based on Human Development Report 2015, by United Nations Development Program, Table 1, http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr_2015_statistical_annex.pdf).

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Health Disparities (2)

Ethnic and racial disparities:

Health improvements not shared equally among racial and ethnic groups

Ethnicity: sense of identity drawn from common origins

Race: ethnic groupings based on physical characteristics

Socioeconomic disparities:

Socioeconomic status has perhaps most significant impact on health outcomes

Age disparities:

Different ages associated with critical phases in life, when healthy and harmful environments have greater impact

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Public Health

Discipline focused on the health of populations

Health promotion: actions designed to maintain a current health state or encourage a more desirable state of health

Disease prevention: defensive actions to ward off specific diseases and their consequences

Initiatives must balance needs and rights of individuals against needs and rights of others

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Community Health

Activities directed toward improving the health of a whole community, or activities employing resources shared by the members of the community

Public Health Service, led by Surgeon General and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

State and local government programs

Nongovernmental organizations

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Healthy People Initiative

Leading health indicators: priority public health issues to be targeted and measured

Nutrition, physical activity, and obesity

Maternal, infant, and child health

Tobacco

Substance abuse

Reproductive and sexual health

Mental health

Injury and violence

Environmental quality

Clinical preventive services (such as immunizations)

Access to health care

Oral health

Social determinants of health

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Individual Choice Versus Societal Responsibility

Ethical questions:

Are individuals responsible for their health choices, given the powerful influence of their environment?

Should individuals be held accountable for costs to society of poor health choices?

Is government justified in enacting health-related laws, regulations, and policies?

Should society take action to prevent people from taking risks?

Is health a basic right?

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Health-Related Behavior Choices

Choices concerning physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, social well-being

Areas where individuals have most control over managing their health

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Health Belief Model

Health behaviors influenced by:

Perceived susceptibility (risk for a problem)

Perceived seriousness of consequences

Perceived benefits of specific action

Perceived barriers to taking action

All these considerations enter into your decision-making process when making health-related behavior change decisions

©McGraw-Hill Education.

The Stages of Change Model

Also called Transtheoretical Model (TTM); takes into account thinking, feelings, behaviors, relationships, and many other factors

Stages of change:

Precontemplation

Contemplation

Preparation

Action

Maintenance

Termination

Relapse, backsliding into a former health state, is the rule rather than exception

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 1.4 The stages of change.

Stages or steps include Precontemplation, “Not me!”; Contemplation, “Well… maybe”; Preparation, “What should I do to prepare?”; Action, “I’m doing it”; and Maintenance, “I can change!” Relapse can happen at any stage of change. It’s part of the process.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Creating a Behavior Change Plan

Accept responsibility for your own health and make a commitment to change

Set goals

Develop action steps

Identify benefits

Identify positive enablers

Sign a behavior change contract

Create benchmarks

Assess accomplishments and revise, if necessary

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Being an Informed Consumer of Health Information

Develop health literacy: ability to read, understand, and act on health information

Nine out of ten American adults have trouble interpreting health materials

Many factors contribute to health risk: probability of exposure to a hazard that can result in negative consequences

Emotional responses affect how we interpret and react to information

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Being an Informed Consumer of Health Information (2)

Understanding medical research studies

Basic medical research, epidemiological studies, clinical studies

Careful consideration of health recommendations involves asking a series of critical questions

Formal study or expert opinion?

If formal clinical study, randomized and double-blind?

People in the study similar to you?

How many participants?

Published in a reputable, peer-reviewed journal?

©McGraw-Hill Education.

DNA and Genes: The Basis of Heredity

Nucleus of every human cell contains entire set of genetic instructions stored in deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA

Body’s instruction book

Genome: complete set of DNA

Within the nucleus, DNA divided into 23 pairs of chromosomes

One pair of chromosome is the sex chromosomes: XX in females; XY in males

©McGraw-Hill Education.

DNA and Genes: The Basis of Heredity (2)

Most cells become specialized, taking on characteristic shapes or functions

Skin, bone, nerve, muscle

Process called differentiation

Stem cells: unspecialized cells

Present in an embryo (embryonic stem cells)

Adult stem cells retained within tissues

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 1.5 Chromosomes, genes, and DNA.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Genetic Inheritance

Mutation: change in a gene

Alleles: alternate forms of same gene

Some mutations harmful, some beneficial, some have no effect

Mutations allow for human diversity

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Genetic Inheritance (2)

Alternate forms of genes called alleles are responsible for traits such as eye color

Alleles can be dominant or recessive

Most characteristics (such as height or skin color) are determined by the interaction of multiple genes at multiple sites on different chromosomes

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 1.6 Dominant and recessive alleles.

A single gene appears to determine whether earlobes are detached (left) or attached (right). We all have two copies (alleles) of the “earlobe” gene. The detached allele is dominant, meaning a single copy will make the earlobes appear detached (remember, if a dominant allele is present, it determines appearance). The attached allele is recessive, meaning two copies are required for the earlobes to appear attached. Think about your parents and siblings; can you figure out which alleles you have? Consider other single-gene dominant traits—do you have the ability to roll your tongue, a widow’s peak, or freckles? Or single-gene recessive traits—do you have a hitchhiker’s thumb, inability to roll your tongue, or blue eyes?

© Beyond/Beyond/SuperStock; © McGraw-Hill Companies Inc./Ken Karp, photographer

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Genetic Inheritance (3)

Multifactorial disorders: conditions caused by interactions among one or more genes and the environment

Account for the majority of illnesses and death in the developed world

Heart disease is one example

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 1.7 Methylation of genes.

Methyl particles, a type of chemical modification that alters DNA without changing the nucleotide sequence, can activate or repress gene expression. In this way, the environment interacts with DNA to create changes that are passed along from generation to generation and do not involve changes in DNA sequencing.

Sources: “Epigenetic and Behavioral Outcomes Associated With Caregiver Experiences,” by Tania Roth, University of Delaware Center for Neuroscience Research, n.d., http://www.delawareneuroscience.org/Pages/Roth.htm; “Genetic and Epigenetic Contribution to Complex Traits,” by H. Kilpinen and E. T. Dermitzakis, 2012, Human Molecular Genetics, 21 (1), pp. 24–28.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 1.8 Relative contribution of environment and genetics.

Genetic and environmental contributions for some common diseases and incidents can be conceptualized as a continuum, from single gene disorders and chromosomal disorders all the way to injury and poisoning. Notice that there is no clear distinguishing line between environment and genetics because the precise roles of each are not always clear.

Source: Adapted from Figure 12.1: Relative contribution of environment and genetic factors in some common disorders, in ABC of Clinical Genetics by Helen Kingston, 3rd edition, 2002, London: BMJ Publishing Group.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Creating a Family Health Tree

Also called a genogram or genetic pedigree

Visual representation of your family’s genetic history

Illustrates the patterns of health and illness within a family

Pinpoints areas of special concern or risk for you

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 1.9 A family health tree.

Jump to long image description

What conclusions can you draw from this tree? Perhaps the grandfather’s obesity played a role in his heart attack at age 50. Perhaps the uncle would have survived the motor vehicle crash if seat belt laws had been in place in 1964.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

What Can You Learn From Your Health Tree?

Early onset of disease is more likely to have a genetic component

Appearance of a disease in multiple individuals on the same side of the family is more likely to have a genetic correlation

Family member with multiple cancers represents a greater likelihood of genetic association

Presence of disease in those with good health habits is more suggestive of a genetic cause

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Looking Ahead

While reading each chapter of this text:

Reflect on your current level of health

Know your predispositions based upon family history

Identify the behaviors that are affecting your health

Assess your readiness to change, and develop a behavior change plan

Think about the influences that shape your decisions

Share health information with family members and friends, and find ways to make a difference in your community

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Review

How are health and wellness defined?

What factors influence a person’s health?

What health-related trends are occurring in our society?

What is health-related behavior change?

What challenges do we face in changing our health behavior?

How do genes affect your health?

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Appendix A

Long image descriptions

©McGraw-Hill Education

Figure 1.5 Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA Appendix

A karyotype is an ordered display of one individual’s 23 pairs of chromosomes

Chromosomes are made of tightly coiled molecules of DNA

DNA consists of long strands of paired nucleotides arranged in a double helix—a kind of spiraling ladder

A gene is a series of paired nucleotides at a certain location on a chromosome that codes for a certain protein

Jump back to slide containing original image

©McGraw-Hill Education.

Figure 1.9 A Family Health Tree Appendix

This person’s family health tree includes her child, husband, siblings, parents, uncles and aunts, and grandparents.

It includes dates of birth and death, and major health issues experienced by each individual

The person’s paternal grandfather had heart disease and diabetes, was obese, and died of a heart attack in 1969

Her husband also has diabetes and is overweight

Her paternal uncle died in a motor vehicle accident in 1964

Her maternal grandfather died of colon cancer in 2001; her maternal grandmother died of breast cancer in 1987; her maternal aunt also died of breast cancer, in 1956; and her brother has been diagnosed with testicular cancer

She herself has allergies, and her son has asthma

Jump back to slide containing original image

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