1. Research and discuss the term “global perspective.” (Also: How is it different
Global education has five learning emphases or perspectives: interdependence and
globalization, identity and cultural diversity, social justice and human rights, peace
building and conflict resolution, and sustainable futures. Global perspective includes
2. Research and discuss the differences in meaning between the terms “modern
art,” “contemporary art,” and "21st-century art."
Modern art includes works of art created during the period from the 1860s to the
1970s, and represents the artistic style and philosophy created during that era. During
this period, artists focused on experimentation, abandoning past traditions and
stereotypes, and artists began to try to think and create with new perspectives and
ideas. From traditional art to abstract art. (Wikipedia) Artists began to merge different
cultures, and African culture as a representative influences the creation of artists. These
include romanticism, abstract art, cubism and Dadaism as representatives.
Contemporary art are the works of art that appear today, which developed from
postmodern art and continued to follow modern art. In vernacular English, "modern"
and "contemporary" are similar words, which has caused many non-professionals to
mistakenly merge the terms modern art and contemporary art together. Some people
refer to contemporary art as the artistic style that is currently being practiced in this era,
and the other refers to art from the late 1960s to the present 21st century. In the
expression of the latter words, contemporary art can also be understood as postmodern
art, or art that consciously opposes the creed of modernism, and Pop art is the dividing
line between contemporary art and modern art. (Wikipedia)
The art of the 21st century is an emerging field of practice, research and publishing,
making it an incredibly dynamic field of research. At the end of the 20th century, other
topics that were widely discussed were still essential for analyzing the art and visual
culture of the 21st century, including semiotics, postmodernism, and feminism. The art
of the 21st century comes from a variety of materials and methods. These include the
latest electronic technologies such as digital imaging and the Internet. Many artists mix
media and forms regularly and freely, making choices that best suit their concepts and
purposes. Among them, visual culture, public participation art, and multimedia art are
3. Research and discuss the term “majority-world” culture.
The term "majority world culture" refers to the culture of the country where the
majority of the population lives.
4. Research and discuss argument style essay or persuasive style essay form.
It should contain: introduction (brings up the questions); thesis; body
paragraphs:Moving from general to specific information; Rebuttal Sections and
5. Research and discuss CMS/Turabian notes-bibliography citations style. Hint:
What is the difference between notes-bibliography vs. author-date?
Author-Date uses parenthetical citations in the text to reference the source's author's
last name and the year of publication. Each parenthetical citation corresponds to an
entry on a References page that concludes the document. In these regards, Author-Date
is very similar to, for instance, APA style. By contrast, NB uses numbered footnotes in
the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation at the bottom of the page. This
corresponds to a fuller citation on a Bibliography page that concludes the document.
Though the general principles of citation are the same here, the citations themselves are
formatted differently from the way they appear in Author-Date.
Example: (NB) 1. “Title of Resource,” List the OWL as Publishing
Organization/Website Name, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.
(AD) Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing
Organization/Website Name. http://Web address for OWL resource.
6. Research and discuss what are a Title page, Illustrations Page, Endnotes (vs.
Footnotes), and a Bibliography.
● Title Page will have an attention-getting title (centered about a third of the way
down the page). Centered at the bottom third of the page is your name, course
title and section number, the name of the instructor, and the date the assignment
● Illustrations page, presented after the essay, before the Endnotes. Include at
least two images labeled “Fig. 1, 2, 3, etc.” (of the work under discussion or
another relevant image) with a caption that communicates where you obtained
the image. Incorporate into your discussion and refer to the illustration(s) in the
body text of your essay.
● In the footnotes:
○ Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period
(superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).
○ Lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. Place commentary after
source documentation when a footnote contains both; separate commentary and
documentation by a period.
● Bibliography is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It
should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include
other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading.(books,
articles, websites, etc.) Example: “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as
Publishing Organization/Website Name. http://Web address for OWL resource.
7. Research and discuss the differences between primary and secondary research
Primary Sources are immediate, first-hand accounts of a topic, from people who had a
direct connection with it. Primary sources can include: texts of laws and other original
documents; Newspaper reports, by reporters who witnessed an event or who quote
people who did; Speeches, diaries, letters and interviews - what the people involved
said or wrote; Original research; Datasets, survey data, such as census or economic
statistics; Photographs, video, or audio that capture an event.
Secondary Sources are one step removed from primary sources, though they often
quote or otherwise use primary sources. They can cover the same topic, but add a layer
of interpretation and analysis. Secondary sources can include: Most books about a
topic; Analysis or interpretation of data; Scholarly or other articles about a topic,
especially by people not directly involved; Documentaries (though they often include
photos or video portions that can be considered primary sources).
8. In your own words, discuss the two different categories of online resources,
according to Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and
1. Books, articles, news reports and public documents published on the Internet.
They have proof of publication and access materials and dates, just like printed
2. Online resources, such as videos, blogs, etc. Many of these resources lack
standard facts and are informal resources.
9. When citing an online source, you need to communicate the standard facts of
publication (for example, the author's name, title of essay, publication name, date
of publication, etc.) In addition to the standard publication information, what
other two pieces of information do you need to include?
It should include the URL and the date we last accessed it.
10. When using an image you found online, in addition to the basic identifying
information of the image (for example, the artist's name, title of the piece,
materials, dimensions, and date) what other piece of information do you need to
The appropriate caption and be sure to use high resolution images.
11. Research and identify the names of five contemporary international fine art
magazines (these can be published in print and or online only and can be
specifically related to your field of study).
★ ARTnews: https://www.artnews.com
★ Apollo Magazine: https://www.apollo-magazine.com
★ Aesthetica | The Art & Culture Magazine: https://aestheticamagazine.com
★ Artists Network Magazine: https://www.artistsnetwork.com
★ Hi-Fructose Magazine: https://hifructose.com
This assignment is a formal four-five page (1250-2000 words) Persuasive Research
Essay (also known as an “argument” style research essay) formatted in Chicago
Manual of Style (CMS).
In addition to the four-five page body text requirement for the assignment, students must
create a separate
Endnotes (footnotes accepted, but I prefer Endnotes) Bibliography
We are using the notes-bibliography citation style. There will be discussion and
assignments related to CMS formatting: my main reference for understanding CMS is Kate
L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 9th
Edition. (Please note that Turabian’s manual is a guide designed specifically for students
● Students will research and identify contemporary 21st-century artists, designers, art
and or design movements whose work and or lifestyle you think is topically,
materially, and or culturally relevant at this current moment in time. (Comment: I
encourage you to research artists and designers living and working outside North
America and Western Europe: consider majority-world artists and
designers.2)(Note that I am not simply asking you to write about internationally
recognized art stars! In fact, please, no Ai Weiwei, Banksy, Fairey, etc.; it’s a big
planet, so let’s try to research beyond the mainstream art and design press.)
● Students will research and integrate into their discussion a global perspective. Think about and research what “global perspective” means and be prepared to
discuss the artists’ or designers’ work or the movement as it relates to, challenges,
or engages with this context (or not).
● You will integrate into your discussion how or why your research topic connects to or resonates with you personally, to your own field of study (your major), and or
your own communities.
● This is an argument style essay. You will be stating your position in a thesis
statement in the introduction and persuading the reader to your point of view.
(Your position need not be all “pro” or “con.” You can broaden your discussion by
comparing and contrasting work or including some form of counter argument.)
● In the body text, students will elaborate on the effectiveness or impact of the
work chosen for discussion by presenting at least two-three specific examples to
support your claims. Your examples serve as evidence to support your thesis
statement. For examples that are integral to your discussion, you will write
descriptions of how the works look, their objectives, and their content. (Remember
the descriptive writing strategies you learned from writing the formal analysis
● You may choose any combination of examples from a specific artist(s)’
designer(s)’ work, group, collective, action, or event.
2. As you refine your paper, find the focus of your discussion.
Consider approaches like this:
1) Discuss works based on related themes or concerns
2) Discuss audience engagement or interaction: the relationship of the work to its audience
3) Discuss distribution strategies or locations of selected artworks or design projects
4) Discuss media coverage (or lack of) how the work is being represented in the art and/or
5) Discuss any political or social changes as a result of the work; the work’s broader
influence, results, or outcomes.
6) Discuss technological issues (see posthumanist or transhumanist issues) 7) Other (but
you must be clear)
• Your conclusion should summarize your content, remind the reader of your position, and
leave the reader wanting to learn more.
3. The papers necessarily involve the following:
● CMS notes-bibliography style formatting. We are creating Endnotes and a
Bibliography. (Again, I will accept footnotes, but my preference is for Endnotes)
● This assignment requires a minimum of five TOTAL secondary sources as part
of your discussion taken from any combination of print media (can be
books journals magazines newspapers
● These sources will be articles and essays from SJSU or other online databases and
or from verifiable, established publications and books available online and in print.
● Informally published electronic resources (blogs, websites, social media, video)
from the Internet can be used and must be cited, but will not count toward the five
required sources. (See explanation below for definitions of online resources.) All
material will be properly cited for your Endnotes and Bibliography.
● Use of primary sources is encouraged, but does not override the assignment’s
secondary sources requirement.
4. EXPECTATIONS FOR PROPOSAL
• Write a brief, approximately 200-300 word proposal (sometimes called an “Abstract”)
that clearly communicates your specific argument and who/what you will discuss. For
example, What is relevant or significant about the works you’ve chosen? Why do you
think they are significant? What question(s) are you asking? What is your argument and
why? What do you find interesting or complex?
5. EXPECTATIONS FOR DRAFT
• Have a well-developed topic outline or one-two paragraph narrative overview that
specifically describes how you will organize your paper. Mind maps or other visual
organizers are acceptable, but must have adequate detail to convey your ideas.
● At least 1 1/2 - 2 pages of text/content development.
● An informal, annotated bibliography of at least three sources you have found to
date. An annotation is a brief summary of the content of the reference material,
with an explanation why you think it is relevant to your research. (PLEASE NOTE:
YOUR FINAL BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR THIS PAPER WILL NOT BE
6. SUMMARIZING, PARAPHRASING, AND QUOTING
○ Use summarizing, paraphrasing, and direct quotation in your final version
with corresponding Endnotes.
○ In the final version of your paper, you will demonstrate your understanding of accurate paraphrasing by:
In your body text, highlight or underline two examples of text that you
paraphrased from other research material.
Include (on a separate document, presented after your Bibliography) copies
of the original source material. Label the source. You need not copy entire
chapters or articles, just the specific passage that you have paraphrased or
quoted from. You can cut and paste and or screenshot the original source
7. TITLE PAGE AND ILLUSTRATION PAGE
○ Final paper will be submitted with a Title Page. It will have an
attention-getting title (centered about a third of the way down the page).
Centered at the bottom third of the page is your name, course title and
section number, the name of the instructor, and the date the assignment was
○ For the final paper, create a separate Illustrations page, presented after the essay, before the Endnotes. Include at least two images labeled “Fig. 1, 2,
3, etc.” (of the work under discussion or another relevant image) with a
caption that communicates where you obtained the image. Incorporate into
your discussion and refer to the illustration(s) in the body text of your
Figure reference in body text example:
Michelangelo’s David (Fig. 1) is a visual metaphor for challenging corrupt
Illustration Page captioning example:
Fig. 1. Michelangelo, David (detail), 1501, marble, height approximately
14’, in Jane Doe, History of Michelangelo (New York: Sample Publishing,
8. TONE OR VOICE
○ Use the third person (he, she, them, they, one) point of view: formal tone.
○ Do not use contractions. (don’t, isn’t, would’ve, etc.)
Your audience is your instructor, your peers, and your professional colleagues. Avoid
extra words and slang. Phrases like "amazing," “cool,” “sort of/kind of” are meaningless
and should be eliminated. Find precise and concrete ways of making connections.
Look for synonyms, especially for overused words like “got,” “get,” "use," “very,” and
Some brainstorming sources:
and-the-global-art-forum-74989 Artforum reporter discusses Global Art Forum 2018
Global Art Daily: https://www.globalartdaily.com/ podcast on the global art scene
Global Art Magazine: https://www.globalartmagazine.com/en/ GAM aims to inform its
readers of significant art related news from across the globe
Protocollum https://protocollum.org/ (journal of international contemporary art/good for
brainstorming names of artists)
Universes in Universe: Worlds of Art https://universes.art/en/about (online international
contemporary art magazine)
Wikipedia list of art magazines https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_art_magazines
CITATION RESOURCES FOR CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE:
Citation Machine, http://www.citationmachine.net/chicago
Chicago/Turabian Citation Help, San José State University, https://libguides.sjsu.edu/
NOTES ON ONLINE SOURCES (From A Manual for Writers of Research Papers,
Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian pages 137-139.):
There are two categories of Online Sources:
1. Many online sources are like print sources in everything except medium—for
example, an article
published in an online journal instead of a printed journal. Other sources of this
type include online books, newspaper and magazine articles, and public documents.
Cite an online source of this type similarly to a print source, beginning with
standard facts of publication (author’s name, title, date, and so forth). At the end of
the citation, add the URL and the date you accessed the material.
2. Other types of online sources, such as institutional or personal web sites and
electronic mailing lists, video streaming sites, blogs, music distribution sites, are
unique to the medium. Since these sources
lack many of the standard facts of publication, they are considered “informally published.”
To cite such a source, you will need to give as much information as possible about it in
addition to the URL and access date.
URLS, PERMANENT SOURCE IDENTIFIERS, AND ACCESS DATES. Although
URLs are unstable, they are still the primary locator for online content. Every citation of
an online source identified with a URL should include the URL after the facts of the
In addition, every citation of an online source should include the date you last accessed it.
If the source has changed or been removed from the Web, this date represents the version
you consulted more accurately than the URL or identifier alone.
Other Electronic Media
Sources available in other electronic media, such as CDs and DVDs, are more stable than
those posted online. Those that are reproduced and distributed in quantity should be cited
similarly to published books, with the addition of information about the medium.
10. Finally, a Quick Note on Plagiarism
University work requires both the ability to explore a given subject in depth, and the
skill of summarizing and analyzing the work and thoughts of other authors. In this
context, using other sources, learning from them and integrating their concepts in your
work is inevitable, even encouraged. However, you have an intellectual and ethical
responsibility to give credit to your sources. To plagiarize is to use the ideas or words of
another person without giving them explicit credit. It is essential to precisely identify all
your sources --the origin of each quotation and idea which you borrow. Remember that
any sequence of words taken from another source must be placed in quotation marks. Even
when paraphrasing an idea borrowed from someone else, from any source, you must
provide an accurate reference or it is considered plagiarism. Conscious or not, plagiarism
is always fraud. Therefore, it is necessary to make note of all your sources, both quotations
and ideas, as you conduct your reading and research for your assignments.
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