Loading...

Human Resources

Open Posted By: surajrudrajnv33 Date: 15/10/2020 High School Case Study Writing

Look at the Conceptual Model of HR.  Choose one area you find interesting.  Based on your own experiences and readings, what would you like to see happen in that area?  For instance, in Total Rewards/Compensation, maybe you’d like to have paid family medical leave.  In performance management, perhaps you would like to have a particular type of appraisal process.  Or, if you’re looking at employee relations, maybe you’d like to adopt a teleworking policy at an organization.  Maybe you see a change in the labor pool, law, or technology that will impact your chosen HR area and you want to address how such change will be incorporated. 

Once you’ve identified a specific area to explore, ask:  If I had to propose this idea to executive management, how could I address the pro vs. con questions:

--How might it impact a hypothetical organization’s strategic direction and operations? Why would an organization want or not want to do this?

--How might it impact employees? Why would employees want or not want this?

--What impact would it have on other parts of the HR system?  Would other dimensions of HR need to change in order for my proposal to work?  What support might be needed from the other HR areas?  For instance, would we have to pay more, revise job descriptions, train staff, or lay-off people? 

--How would we measure whether my proposed idea succeeded?  

--What are real organizations doing about this?  Give at least one specific, referenced example.

When answering the content questions, be sure:

____ The work is original. Remember that you may not submit work that was created for any other class, including a previous semester of HRMD 610. This was part of the Academic Integrity Pledge you signed at the beginning of the term. The professor reserves the right to submit student papers to determine the originality percentage at his or her discretion. A good rule of thumb is that no more than 20% of a paper should be from direct quotes.

_____ The content is substantial and represents a significant literature review. In other words, the material extends substantially beyond the course readings. The issues discussed are key facets of the topic.

_____ Most of the references represent scholarly sources. Plan to use 8-12 sources for the paper. (Use UMGC’s library. The librarians are very helpful.)

_____ Since they are not vetted, commercial websites (.com) are not used unless the reason is to report the organization’s own policies or strategies as an example to illustrate a point.

_____ Because the HRM field has been changing rapidly in the last few decades, sources published prior to 2009 should be avoided, except when some brief history of the topic is necessary.

_____Points are well supported with logic, data, and/or examples.

_____Conclusions demonstrate integrative, critical thinking.

Presentation (15% of the assignment value)

_____The introduction tells the reader the purpose of the research and the agenda for the paper. (Do NOT use an abstract.)

_____ Special terms are defined.

_____Points are logically sequenced; the paper is well-organized.

_____The summary recaps the key points and provides psychological closure to the discussion.

_____Technical aspects of writing (i.e., grammar, sentence structure, and spelling) are correct.

_____Academic style (i.e., appropriate diction, clarity, smooth transitions, and an audience-oriented approach) is demonstrated. Note: This is a research paper, thus please do not:

o  Write in the 1st or 2nd person (I, me, my, we, us, you, your, our, etc.)

o  Share personal stories or workplace situations

o  Express your beliefs, feelings, or opinions on the subject

_____The body of the paper is 8 double-spaced pages

_____ A maximum of one bulleted list is used, if needed.

_____Citations are given for non-original material, using APA format for the in-text citation as well as the reference list.

Administrative Preparation

_____The paper is posted by the deadline in the proper place, using a Word file format. Per the syllabus, a grade penalty can apply if the document is late.

_____ An abstract page is not used.

_____Headers and footers are not used. (They can make it difficult to provide feedback.)

_____A 12-point font is used, and margins are reasonable.

_____Pages are numbered.

_____ The title page, the body, and the reference listing are not followed by any other appendices.


Category: Mathematics & Physics Subjects: Algebra Deadline: 24 Hours Budget: $80 - $120 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

374 THE MIDWEST QUARTERLY

A Human Resource Development Perspective

JUDY B. SMETANA

I arrived in Tashkent around midnight on April 28th, 2019 after a fairly long flight, which turned out to be quite bearable and not as exhausting as I had imagined a thirty- hour trip might be. From the flight attendants to the border control personnel and the hotel reception, my first impression was that the Uzbek people are extremely hospitable.

This impression continued when I met the Rector and Pro-Rector of the Avloni Institute for dinner, my first evening in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. They shared stories about Uzbekistan, they informed me about some customs, and they treated me to a wonderful meal that included a delicious eggplant salad followed by a mixed grill shashlick and vegetables. Dessert was a variety of tasty fresh fruits.

On Monday, the work began. As a Fulbright Specialist, I was to focus on two projects at the Avloni Institute in Tashkent. Project One was to conduct sessions on “Training the Trainer.” These sessions concentrated on adult learning theory, developing and designing training programs as well as project management. The group consisted of chosen trainers who were charged with creating training programs in their respective institutes, schools, and/or regions.

Project Two was to conduct sessions on process management as it related to management functions, leading effective teams, and team leadership. This group consisted of approximately thirty mentor school principals who would then continue the work in their respective regions.

After spending two weeks at the Avloni Institute I traveled to the outlying regions of Samarkand, Navoij, Bukhara, and Nukus to conduct similar training. Each regional training provided insight into various learning issues. However, every institute I visited had the same

SMETANA 375

question, “what is human resource development?” Each time I would reply that human resources was the umbrella expression for what used to be Personnel, which started out as a simple department that was charged with keeping employee files up to date and safe. Today, human resources includes two specific areas. On the one hand, Human Resource Management (HRM) entails different operational functions such as hiring, orientation/onboarding, compensation, benefits, safety, employment law, and training. On the other hand, Human Resource Development (HRD) includes leadership development, organizational change and development, instructional design and development, and coaching individuals. HRD encompasses a little from adult learning theory, communication theory, adult education, and psychology. Each of these fields contributes to the development of humans in the workplace. HRD helps to make this happen.

After the translator finished relating this information the room would be filled with smiles. Here I was, half way across the world teaching trainers how to design their professional development training. The ultimate goal being to improve their educational system. We covered many topics, but the importance of writing sound learning objectives was something that really stuck. We spent hours defining, reviewing, and applying objectives. At the end of the day or session, I would again be met with smiles. The attendees truly absorbed concepts presented, were fully engaged, and were enthusiastically looking forward to learning more and implementing this in their respective institutes.

It was then it struck me. Helping individuals and organizations develop is at the heart of Human Resource

humans reach their potential is highly gratifying, whether in Pittsburg Kansas or in the far reaches of Uzbekistan.

I was fortunate to have received wonderful support from the Ministry of Public Education, the US Embassy, and the Avloni Institute. I was humbled and honored to be part of

376 THE MIDWEST QUARTERLY

the Fulbright program and to serve my country as a cultural and educational ambassador. To share subject matter that I teach at Pittsburg State University’s HRD program with Uzbeks was without a doubt a once in a lifetime experience.

Copyright of Midwest Quarterly is the property of Midwest Quarterly and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Attachment 2

374 THE MIDWEST QUARTERLY

A Human Resource Development Perspective

JUDY B. SMETANA

I arrived in Tashkent around midnight on April 28th, 2019 after a fairly long flight, which turned out to be quite bearable and not as exhausting as I had imagined a thirty- hour trip might be. From the flight attendants to the border control personnel and the hotel reception, my first impression was that the Uzbek people are extremely hospitable.

This impression continued when I met the Rector and Pro-Rector of the Avloni Institute for dinner, my first evening in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. They shared stories about Uzbekistan, they informed me about some customs, and they treated me to a wonderful meal that included a delicious eggplant salad followed by a mixed grill shashlick and vegetables. Dessert was a variety of tasty fresh fruits.

On Monday, the work began. As a Fulbright Specialist, I was to focus on two projects at the Avloni Institute in Tashkent. Project One was to conduct sessions on “Training the Trainer.” These sessions concentrated on adult learning theory, developing and designing training programs as well as project management. The group consisted of chosen trainers who were charged with creating training programs in their respective institutes, schools, and/or regions.

Project Two was to conduct sessions on process management as it related to management functions, leading effective teams, and team leadership. This group consisted of approximately thirty mentor school principals who would then continue the work in their respective regions.

After spending two weeks at the Avloni Institute I traveled to the outlying regions of Samarkand, Navoij, Bukhara, and Nukus to conduct similar training. Each regional training provided insight into various learning issues. However, every institute I visited had the same

SMETANA 375

question, “what is human resource development?” Each time I would reply that human resources was the umbrella expression for what used to be Personnel, which started out as a simple department that was charged with keeping employee files up to date and safe. Today, human resources includes two specific areas. On the one hand, Human Resource Management (HRM) entails different operational functions such as hiring, orientation/onboarding, compensation, benefits, safety, employment law, and training. On the other hand, Human Resource Development (HRD) includes leadership development, organizational change and development, instructional design and development, and coaching individuals. HRD encompasses a little from adult learning theory, communication theory, adult education, and psychology. Each of these fields contributes to the development of humans in the workplace. HRD helps to make this happen.

After the translator finished relating this information the room would be filled with smiles. Here I was, half way across the world teaching trainers how to design their professional development training. The ultimate goal being to improve their educational system. We covered many topics, but the importance of writing sound learning objectives was something that really stuck. We spent hours defining, reviewing, and applying objectives. At the end of the day or session, I would again be met with smiles. The attendees truly absorbed concepts presented, were fully engaged, and were enthusiastically looking forward to learning more and implementing this in their respective institutes.

It was then it struck me. Helping individuals and organizations develop is at the heart of Human Resource

humans reach their potential is highly gratifying, whether in Pittsburg Kansas or in the far reaches of Uzbekistan.

I was fortunate to have received wonderful support from the Ministry of Public Education, the US Embassy, and the Avloni Institute. I was humbled and honored to be part of

376 THE MIDWEST QUARTERLY

the Fulbright program and to serve my country as a cultural and educational ambassador. To share subject matter that I teach at Pittsburg State University’s HRD program with Uzbeks was without a doubt a once in a lifetime experience.

Copyright of Midwest Quarterly is the property of Midwest Quarterly and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Attachment 3

374 THE MIDWEST QUARTERLY

A Human Resource Development Perspective

JUDY B. SMETANA

I arrived in Tashkent around midnight on April 28th, 2019 after a fairly long flight, which turned out to be quite bearable and not as exhausting as I had imagined a thirty- hour trip might be. From the flight attendants to the border control personnel and the hotel reception, my first impression was that the Uzbek people are extremely hospitable.

This impression continued when I met the Rector and Pro-Rector of the Avloni Institute for dinner, my first evening in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. They shared stories about Uzbekistan, they informed me about some customs, and they treated me to a wonderful meal that included a delicious eggplant salad followed by a mixed grill shashlick and vegetables. Dessert was a variety of tasty fresh fruits.

On Monday, the work began. As a Fulbright Specialist, I was to focus on two projects at the Avloni Institute in Tashkent. Project One was to conduct sessions on “Training the Trainer.” These sessions concentrated on adult learning theory, developing and designing training programs as well as project management. The group consisted of chosen trainers who were charged with creating training programs in their respective institutes, schools, and/or regions.

Project Two was to conduct sessions on process management as it related to management functions, leading effective teams, and team leadership. This group consisted of approximately thirty mentor school principals who would then continue the work in their respective regions.

After spending two weeks at the Avloni Institute I traveled to the outlying regions of Samarkand, Navoij, Bukhara, and Nukus to conduct similar training. Each regional training provided insight into various learning issues. However, every institute I visited had the same

SMETANA 375

question, “what is human resource development?” Each time I would reply that human resources was the umbrella expression for what used to be Personnel, which started out as a simple department that was charged with keeping employee files up to date and safe. Today, human resources includes two specific areas. On the one hand, Human Resource Management (HRM) entails different operational functions such as hiring, orientation/onboarding, compensation, benefits, safety, employment law, and training. On the other hand, Human Resource Development (HRD) includes leadership development, organizational change and development, instructional design and development, and coaching individuals. HRD encompasses a little from adult learning theory, communication theory, adult education, and psychology. Each of these fields contributes to the development of humans in the workplace. HRD helps to make this happen.

After the translator finished relating this information the room would be filled with smiles. Here I was, half way across the world teaching trainers how to design their professional development training. The ultimate goal being to improve their educational system. We covered many topics, but the importance of writing sound learning objectives was something that really stuck. We spent hours defining, reviewing, and applying objectives. At the end of the day or session, I would again be met with smiles. The attendees truly absorbed concepts presented, were fully engaged, and were enthusiastically looking forward to learning more and implementing this in their respective institutes.

It was then it struck me. Helping individuals and organizations develop is at the heart of Human Resource

humans reach their potential is highly gratifying, whether in Pittsburg Kansas or in the far reaches of Uzbekistan.

I was fortunate to have received wonderful support from the Ministry of Public Education, the US Embassy, and the Avloni Institute. I was humbled and honored to be part of

376 THE MIDWEST QUARTERLY

the Fulbright program and to serve my country as a cultural and educational ambassador. To share subject matter that I teach at Pittsburg State University’s HRD program with Uzbeks was without a doubt a once in a lifetime experience.

Copyright of Midwest Quarterly is the property of Midwest Quarterly and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Attachment 4

374 THE MIDWEST QUARTERLY

A Human Resource Development Perspective

JUDY B. SMETANA

I arrived in Tashkent around midnight on April 28th, 2019 after a fairly long flight, which turned out to be quite bearable and not as exhausting as I had imagined a thirty- hour trip might be. From the flight attendants to the border control personnel and the hotel reception, my first impression was that the Uzbek people are extremely hospitable.

This impression continued when I met the Rector and Pro-Rector of the Avloni Institute for dinner, my first evening in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. They shared stories about Uzbekistan, they informed me about some customs, and they treated me to a wonderful meal that included a delicious eggplant salad followed by a mixed grill shashlick and vegetables. Dessert was a variety of tasty fresh fruits.

On Monday, the work began. As a Fulbright Specialist, I was to focus on two projects at the Avloni Institute in Tashkent. Project One was to conduct sessions on “Training the Trainer.” These sessions concentrated on adult learning theory, developing and designing training programs as well as project management. The group consisted of chosen trainers who were charged with creating training programs in their respective institutes, schools, and/or regions.

Project Two was to conduct sessions on process management as it related to management functions, leading effective teams, and team leadership. This group consisted of approximately thirty mentor school principals who would then continue the work in their respective regions.

After spending two weeks at the Avloni Institute I traveled to the outlying regions of Samarkand, Navoij, Bukhara, and Nukus to conduct similar training. Each regional training provided insight into various learning issues. However, every institute I visited had the same

SMETANA 375

question, “what is human resource development?” Each time I would reply that human resources was the umbrella expression for what used to be Personnel, which started out as a simple department that was charged with keeping employee files up to date and safe. Today, human resources includes two specific areas. On the one hand, Human Resource Management (HRM) entails different operational functions such as hiring, orientation/onboarding, compensation, benefits, safety, employment law, and training. On the other hand, Human Resource Development (HRD) includes leadership development, organizational change and development, instructional design and development, and coaching individuals. HRD encompasses a little from adult learning theory, communication theory, adult education, and psychology. Each of these fields contributes to the development of humans in the workplace. HRD helps to make this happen.

After the translator finished relating this information the room would be filled with smiles. Here I was, half way across the world teaching trainers how to design their professional development training. The ultimate goal being to improve their educational system. We covered many topics, but the importance of writing sound learning objectives was something that really stuck. We spent hours defining, reviewing, and applying objectives. At the end of the day or session, I would again be met with smiles. The attendees truly absorbed concepts presented, were fully engaged, and were enthusiastically looking forward to learning more and implementing this in their respective institutes.

It was then it struck me. Helping individuals and organizations develop is at the heart of Human Resource

humans reach their potential is highly gratifying, whether in Pittsburg Kansas or in the far reaches of Uzbekistan.

I was fortunate to have received wonderful support from the Ministry of Public Education, the US Embassy, and the Avloni Institute. I was humbled and honored to be part of

376 THE MIDWEST QUARTERLY

the Fulbright program and to serve my country as a cultural and educational ambassador. To share subject matter that I teach at Pittsburg State University’s HRD program with Uzbeks was without a doubt a once in a lifetime experience.

Copyright of Midwest Quarterly is the property of Midwest Quarterly and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Attachment 5

374 THE MIDWEST QUARTERLY

A Human Resource Development Perspective

JUDY B. SMETANA

I arrived in Tashkent around midnight on April 28th, 2019 after a fairly long flight, which turned out to be quite bearable and not as exhausting as I had imagined a thirty- hour trip might be. From the flight attendants to the border control personnel and the hotel reception, my first impression was that the Uzbek people are extremely hospitable.

This impression continued when I met the Rector and Pro-Rector of the Avloni Institute for dinner, my first evening in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. They shared stories about Uzbekistan, they informed me about some customs, and they treated me to a wonderful meal that included a delicious eggplant salad followed by a mixed grill shashlick and vegetables. Dessert was a variety of tasty fresh fruits.

On Monday, the work began. As a Fulbright Specialist, I was to focus on two projects at the Avloni Institute in Tashkent. Project One was to conduct sessions on “Training the Trainer.” These sessions concentrated on adult learning theory, developing and designing training programs as well as project management. The group consisted of chosen trainers who were charged with creating training programs in their respective institutes, schools, and/or regions.

Project Two was to conduct sessions on process management as it related to management functions, leading effective teams, and team leadership. This group consisted of approximately thirty mentor school principals who would then continue the work in their respective regions.

After spending two weeks at the Avloni Institute I traveled to the outlying regions of Samarkand, Navoij, Bukhara, and Nukus to conduct similar training. Each regional training provided insight into various learning issues. However, every institute I visited had the same

SMETANA 375

question, “what is human resource development?” Each time I would reply that human resources was the umbrella expression for what used to be Personnel, which started out as a simple department that was charged with keeping employee files up to date and safe. Today, human resources includes two specific areas. On the one hand, Human Resource Management (HRM) entails different operational functions such as hiring, orientation/onboarding, compensation, benefits, safety, employment law, and training. On the other hand, Human Resource Development (HRD) includes leadership development, organizational change and development, instructional design and development, and coaching individuals. HRD encompasses a little from adult learning theory, communication theory, adult education, and psychology. Each of these fields contributes to the development of humans in the workplace. HRD helps to make this happen.

After the translator finished relating this information the room would be filled with smiles. Here I was, half way across the world teaching trainers how to design their professional development training. The ultimate goal being to improve their educational system. We covered many topics, but the importance of writing sound learning objectives was something that really stuck. We spent hours defining, reviewing, and applying objectives. At the end of the day or session, I would again be met with smiles. The attendees truly absorbed concepts presented, were fully engaged, and were enthusiastically looking forward to learning more and implementing this in their respective institutes.

It was then it struck me. Helping individuals and organizations develop is at the heart of Human Resource

humans reach their potential is highly gratifying, whether in Pittsburg Kansas or in the far reaches of Uzbekistan.

I was fortunate to have received wonderful support from the Ministry of Public Education, the US Embassy, and the Avloni Institute. I was humbled and honored to be part of

376 THE MIDWEST QUARTERLY

the Fulbright program and to serve my country as a cultural and educational ambassador. To share subject matter that I teach at Pittsburg State University’s HRD program with Uzbeks was without a doubt a once in a lifetime experience.

Copyright of Midwest Quarterly is the property of Midwest Quarterly and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Attachment 6

Talent development for top leaders: three HR initiatives for competitive advantage

Milton Mayfield, Jacqueline Mayfield and Cassandra Wheeler

Milton Mayfield and Jacqueline Mayfield are Professors of Management, both at Division of International Business and Technology Studies, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, Texas, USA. Cassandra Wheeler is Executive Director at the Office of Career Services, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, Texas, USA.

The importance of strategic human resource in organizational development

Top leaders in today’s globally turbulent environment must continually re-align and develop their organizations to achieve and sustain competitive advantage (those unique organization strengths which are inimitable). And to drive these changes, top leaders need to know if their resources – especially their employees – are capable of attaining such innovation. One such major knowledge source that is readily available to facilitate top organizational leaders in this ongoing quest is their human resource (HR) function.

Quality HR teams have vital knowledge easily available and can act on implementing needed personnel selection, development and training which promote competitive advantage. Too often, leaders ignore employee knowledge and aptitudes that are championed by their organization’s HR function – knowledge that should be integrated into a dynamic competitive strategy. In short, HR is an untapped wellspring of strong skills, knowledge and abilities that becomes more valuable when strategically integrated into all major organizational plans (Cascio, 2010). It is also ironic that HR contributions are often downplayed when numerous, reputable CEO surveys cite employee excellence as a top priority.

While there are diverse paths in which HR knowledge can be integrated with strategic vision, planning and implementation for competitive advantage, this manuscript focuses on three main avenues: talent inventories, workforce planning and training and development. These areas are all relevant for enhancing competitive advantage through organizational development processes. Such initiatives also serve as organizational feedback loops aiding the overall learning process (Mayfield, 2010). These three paths to competitive advantage through talent are presented graphically in Figure 1.

Talent inventories

Talent inventories coordinate valuable knowledge about the employee capabilities required to fulfill strategic objectives. To successfully implement a strategic plan, top leaders must ensure that organizational members have the requisite skills. An effective human resource function will identify and compile such organizational abilities as well as audit and keep track of skill development.

Talent inventories also accumulate information on employee aptitudes and interests for further development. For example, in a global enterprise an already bilingual employee may well have the proclivity to learn a new language that is dominant in a potential new market. Similarly, someone who programs code well may be a high potential candidate for a new information technology platform.

Furthermore, talent inventories can be designed to flag gaps in knowledge, skills and abilities that need to be addressed for strategic objective attainment. As a consequence,

PAGE 4 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL DIGEST VOL. 24 NO. 6 2016, pp. 4-7, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 0967-0734 DOI 10.1108/HRMID-07-2015-0120

talent inventories should be coordinated with recruitment, selection, workforce planning and training and development.

Workforce planning

Workforce planning – setting strategies and goals for shaping the future organizational workforce – is a vital component of competitive advantage. This process can rectify talent gaps (as identified through talent inventories) through appropriate adjustments so that the available workforce can meet current and future strategic challenges. Such adjustments impact recruitment, selection, development, retention, reward and internal promotion and transfer policies. Also, workforce fluctuations (adjustments such as talent availability, departures and retirements) can be closely monitored to ensure available talent.

Case in point, HR can alert top leaders to turnover issues. High turnover is a warning sign of organizational problems. Not only are replacement costs high, but high turnover often signifies a weak culture which translates into lower organizational performance and employee morale. While some departures are functional, overall turnover – especially among talented workers – is a red flag that the people are not serving as a competitive advantage. In particular, increased turnover during or after a major change signals change resistance and impediments to successful implementation.

Obviously, strategic integration of this HR function is vital. In addition, workforce planning can assess the metrics that identify the value that people contribute to organizational performance. For example, the added value of a position to organizational performance should also be identified in the workforce planning process.

Training and development

Training and development is an especially vital HR function for implementing a top leader’s strategic change plan (Speculand, 2006). Using such methods as the previously discussed talent inventories, HR can check for gaps between available employee skills/aptitudes and those needed to make a successful organizational innovations/changes. Where gaps are

Figure 1 Three major human resource initiatives that provide useful knowledge and support for strategic competitive advantage through employees

VOL. 24 NO. 6 2016 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL DIGEST PAGE 5

identified, HR can develop appropriate training programs and monitor to ensure that the skill development programs are operating successfully, especially in terms of learning transfer. Relatedly, credibly management research asserts that most employees place high value on skills development which can be used on the job. In fact, offering such training is a potential deterrent to costly turnover.

While other HR functions contribute additional benefits, these three play critical roles in determining the probable success of needed organizational change. In addition, these HR talent development pillars can be monitored to serve as a feedback loop for effective organizational innovation and change. This feedback loop also creates opportunities for better integrating HR at a strategic level and guides top leaders to more deeply understand their organizations. A graphical representation of this feedback loop is presented in Figure 2.

Figure 2 A graphical representation of the feedback loop in the strategic human resources talent development process

PAGE 6 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL DIGEST VOL. 24 NO. 6 2016

Suggestions for incorporating talent development into top leader decisions

This manuscript has put forth robust, convincing reasons for why the three talent development HR functions of talent inventories, workforce planning and training/development should be incorporated into strategic organizational change and innovation initiatives to achieve competitive advantage. In this concluding section, we will provide some tangible suggestions for such integration. First, the most fundamental step is to create an organizational climate that perceives HR as a core factor in strategic planning and resultantly integrates HR into strategic initiatives. This inclusion is embodied by having the chief HR officer as an active member of the top leadership team.

From a technological perspective, a well-developed human resource information system (HRIS) can facilitate the three HR pillars and provide vital information to top leaders. HRIS can also be used to make projections about future HR changes (Mayfield et al., 2008). Consonantly, once HR leaders have identified key metrics, an HR dashboard can be developed so that a top leader has access to critical personal data in a fashion parallel to the current practice of top leaders’ consultation of financial and inventory dashboards.

Of course, it goes without saying that these HR key metrics are tied to strategic vision and also reflect salient employee attitudes and behaviors through effective survey taking and program evaluations. Notably, the organizational reward system must reinforce HR program goals. When these proceeding steps are taken, an organization is much better primed to attain competitive advantage through the value of its people.

References

Cascio, W.F. (2010), Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Boston, MA.

Mayfield, M. (2010), “Tacit knowledge sharing: techniques for putting a powerful tool in practice”, Development and Learning in Organizations, Vol. 24 No. 1, pp. 24-26.

Mayfield, M., Mayfield, J. and Lunce, S. (2008), “Increasing tacit knowledge sharing with an HRIS”, Encyclopedia of human resources information systems: Challenges in e-HRM, p. 7.

Speculand, R. (2006), “Strategy implementation: we got the people factor wrong!: how to lead your saboteurs, groupies, double agents and mavericks”, Human Resource Management International Digest, Vol. 14 No. 6, pp. 34-37. doi: http://dx.doi.org.library.tamiu.edu:2048/10.1108/09670730610690376

Corresponding author

Milton Mayfield can be contacted at: [email protected]

For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website: www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm Or contact us for further details: [email protected]

Keywords: Strategy, Human resources, Top leaders

VOL. 24 NO. 6 2016 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL DIGEST PAGE 7

  • Talent development for top leaders: three HR initiatives for competitive advantage
    • The importance of strategic human resource in organizational development
    • Talent inventories
    • Workforce planning
    • Training and development
    • Suggestions for incorporating talent development into top leader decisions
    • References

Attachment 7

Aligning organizational culture and strategic human resource

management Teresa Harrison and Joshua D. Bazzy

Department of Management, University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, Texas, USA

Abstract Purpose – As strategic human resource management (SHRM) continues to grow as an important issue for organizations, it is imperative to examine all factors that contribute to the success and failure of the organization’s human resources (HR) and strategy implementation. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that organizational culture should be an integral factor when considering SHRM. The authors also present a model for the strategy-culture-SHRM linkage and propositions to guide future research. Design/methodology/approach – The authors present a conceptual model proposing organizational culture as a moderator of the relationship between an organization’s strategy and SHRM. Findings – In addition to the conceptual model, the authors present a number of testable propositions for determining how firm performance and effectiveness may depend on the linkage between strategy and the utilization of HR as a competitive advantage. Originality/value – Currently, there is a lack of research regarding the conceptualization of organizational culture as a moderator between an organization’s strategy and SHRM. We discuss the importance of the alignment of HR both as a source of competitive advantage and an influence on an organization’s strategy. The authors integrate the current research to create arguments for testable propositions and future research directions. The authors also argue that misalignments may occur which may prove detrimental to the organization. Keywords Organizational culture, Alignment, Strategy, Strategic human resource management Paper type Conceptual paper

Strategic human resources management (SHRM) has been defined as “the pattern of planned human resource deployments and activities intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals” (Wright and McMahan, 1992, p. 298). Within SHRM, the goals being achieved should typically be dictated by the organization’s strategy as there is an inherent connection between strategy and SHRM. However, previous research has found that there is often a discrepancy between intended and realized implementation of strategy (Mintzberg and Waters, 1985), and by extension SHRM ( Jackson et al., 2014), thereby making this connection at times tenuous at best. Moreover, research into strategy and SHRM has been hampered by level of analysis issues (Buller and McEvoy, 2012) as well as a lack of research examining factors that are unique to an organization which may result in competitive advantage ( Jackson et al., 2014). The purpose of this paper is to address these issues by examining the impact of organizational culture on the linkage between strategy and SHRM. Specifically, we propose that discrepancies between intended and realized strategies may be due, at least in part, to the culture of the organization which is an important factor to overall organizational outcomes. Therefore, this paper contributes to the SHRM literature by explaining how organizational culture moderates the relationship between organizational strategy and implementation of SHRM and how misalignment may lead to detrimental outcomes.

Organizational culture has been described as the shared values and beliefs resulting in a behavioral component (Smircich, 1983). Although organizational culture is influenced by national culture, the general consensus is that organizational culture is a separate

Journal of Management Development Vol. 36 No. 10, 2017 pp. 1260-1269 © Emerald Publishing Limited 0262-1711 DOI 10.1108/JMD-12-2016-0335

Received 31 December 2016 Revised 22 May 2017 10 July 2017 Accepted 14 July 2017

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: www.emeraldinsight.com/0262-1711.htm

1260

JMD 36,10

concept from national culture (Khilji and Wang, 2006; Sheehan et al., 2007). Within the diverse workforce that comprises organizations within the USA, for example, there are factors that bring people together toward a common goal beyond shared national values. Despite these common goals, what brings people together may, at times, detract from the overall strategy.

As we demonstrate, alignment of organizational culture may influence the successful implementation of a strategy. However, an organizational culture that is misaligned with strategy may also lead to unintended SHRM outcomes and result in negative firm performance ( Jackson et al., 2014). This strategy-organizational culture-SHRM linkage is a neglected area of research (Buller and McEvoy, 2012; Gratton and Truss, 2003; Jackson et al., 2014; Molineux, 2013). For this reason researchers have suggested that future research examine the relationship between strategy, culture, and SHRM (Boswell, 2006; Jackson et al., 2014, Panayotopoulou et al., 2003; Wei et al., 2008).

First, we present the theoretical background to explain how organizational strategy and SHRM relate to organizational culture and how examining culture would allow for a multi- level analysis of the relevant factors. Specifically, we propose that an organization’s culture will moderate the implementation of SHRM practices based on how the culture aligns with strategy, establishing congruence with SHRM. This is followed by a discussion of the factors that may contribute to the cultural alignment or misalignment. We integrate this research by presenting a model of the strategy-organizational culture-SHRM framework and testable propositions. Finally, implications for research and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Theoretical background SHRM includes various HR practices, which from the universalistic view, are considered best practices (Delery and Doty, 1996). However, it is understood that the practices that are best for one organization may differ from those that are best for another. The contingency view maintains that the best practices are dependent on the “best fit” of the organization. The configurational view introduced “bundles of practices” depending on the needs of the organization. Regarding these views, these practices will vary based on the needs of the organization (Delery and Doty, 1996). The following discussion will outline various approaches to defining fit and explain why organizations would be well-served to consider organizational culture when determining the fit in order to align their strategic and SHRM practices.

SHRM and the concept of fit There are several approaches to defining fit. Integration is concerned primarily with the potential problems between corporate offices and their foreign subsidiaries (Milliman et al., 1991). Many factors contribute to this type of fit including corporate philosophy and structure.

Fit is also discussed as the alignment of the HR functions to reinforce each other (e.g. management awareness, management of the function, and portfolio of programs to include personnel skills, information technology, and environment awareness; Baird and Meshoulam, 1988). However, in this type of fit the alignment is only concerned with the HR functions and not the alignment of the strategy, organizational culture, and SHRM linkage.

Congruence is considered the fit between strategy, structure, and resources with human capabilities and preferred strategy (Wright et al., 1995). Wright et al. (1995) discuss the value of fit particularly as the organization moves through various stages of development, but do not include the cultural component.

1261

Human resource

management

Schuler and Jackson (1987) suggested that there is a linkage between strategy-role behavior and HR practices. Although this is similar to the relations we propose between strategy, organizational culture, and SHRM, role behavior is more specific to each individual as opposed to culture which permeates the organizational as a whole. Wright and Snell (1998) move the fit concept forward by discussing the employee skills, behaviors, and HR practices and subsequent fit with strategy.

Lengnick-Hall and Lengnick-Hall (1988) also discuss fit in terms of business strategy and organization strategy and suggest that especially during an organizational change, fit may not always be desirable. We expand on this notion, suggesting that organizational alignment may not be desirable if the strategy intended does not agree with the culture and that culture should be strategy supportive in order for the intended strategy to be implemented. Lengnick- Hall and Lengnick-Hall (1988) did not address the concept of organizational culture as a strategy supportive variable within the fit and flexibility continuum.

Organizational culture alignment In terms of fit, it is surprising that the organizational culture component is lacking in when examining intended vs implemented strategies. However, some research has evaluated the alignment of organizational culture with strategy (Chan et al., 2004; Jackson et al., 2014; Wei et al., 2008); although the results are mixed.

Semler (1997) discusses systematic agreement theory and organizational alignment in particular and defines organizational alignment as “the extent to which the strategy, structure, and culture of the organization combine to create a synergistic whole that makes it possible to achieve the goals laid out in the organization’s strategy” (p. 23). We expand this concept of alignment to show how SHRM is linked to strategy and culture resulting in increased firm performance. Way and Johnson (2005) extend systematic agreement theory, including organizational culture alignment, to develop a framework of the impact of SHRM. They also support the notion of consistency between organizational goals, objectives and culture.

Cabrera and Bonache (1999) examine culture as an outcome of HR practices. They argue that organizational culture is aligned through the implementation of strategy supportive HR practices. However, this is only part of the equation. We contend that organizational culture should be strategy supportive before the implementation of SHRM, just as particular values must be in place before acceptance of the strategy will be carried out.

Organizational culture misalignment Another area of research relevant to the strategy-organizational culture-SHRM linkage involves the examination of HRs management as it relates to national culture and the discovery of an intended vs implemented discrepancy (Boswell, 2006; Khilji and Wang, 2006; Sheehan et al., 2007; also see literature review by Lengnick-Hall et al., 2009). These researchers identified the importance of national cultural differences as it impacts the interpretation (or misinterpretation) of organizational goals and the subsequent implementation of strategies across countries. As such, absent a congruent organizational and national culture, the link between organizational strategy and SHRM will be compromised. Similarly, we propose that the appropriate interpretation, understanding, and implementation of goals and strategies within a single organization are contingent upon the cultural fit between the strategies and the SHRM activities.

Researchers have generally been concerned with the internal fit of SHRM to the current organizational culture (Delery and Doty, 1996; Jackson et al., 2014; Schuler and Jackson, 1987). However, empirical research has not examined the possibility that the organizational culture is dynamic and may be misaligned with the intended strategy, which we propose often leads to the gap between intended and realized strategy implementation.

1262

JMD 36,10

For instance, Schein’s (1990) model of culture is based on a dynamic process with multiple levels (observable artifacts, values, and underlying assumptions), each impacting each other. By discussing misalignment, we also highlight the complex and dynamic nature of organizational culture and change as a result of multiple factors, some of which include market conditions, leadership, and technology.

We argue that alignment is relevant across organizations and should not be excluded simply because the organization operates in only one national setting. Wei et al. (2008) examined the role of corporate culture in the SHRM process in a Chinese context and found that national culture is an antecedent of SHRM. They suggested that HR practices are implemented based on a variety of cultures and subcultures, which are used to continually shape organizational culture. Indeed, HR practices are commonly organized in ways that are consistent with a firm’s business strategy (Block et al., 1987; MacDuffie, 1995; Osterman, 1987) although congruence with organizational culture may not be considered in advance and instead may be an afterthought.

However, organizational culture should facilitate the success of strategy and HR management systems (Panayotopoulou et al., 2003). Khilji and Wang (2006) found that when organizations had similar strategy and HRM practices but differed in performance outcomes, one of the main factors that minimized gaps between realized and intended HRM was organizational culture. Boswell (2006) brings out the idea of “line of sight” and the relation of the individual employee alignment with organization strategy and outcomes. Although Boswell’s (2006) research and the research by Chatman (1991) and O’Reilly et al. (1991) discuss fit, they do not consider the link from strategy to SHRM as impacted by organizational culture.

Strategy-organizational culture-SHRM linkage Strategy and culture. Strategies can be thought of as “the diverse approaches that organizations choose to follow in order to achieve success or a competitive advantage” (Cabrera and Bonache, 1999, p. 52). The resource-based view (RBV) is often the theory mentioned as explaining the key component for competitive advantage (Wright and McMahan, 1992). RBV theory states that in order for a firm to have a sustained competitive advantage, the resources providing the advantages must be rare, imperfectly imitable, and have no substitutable resources within the firm (Barney, 1991). Cabrera and Bonache (1999) proposed that linking organizational strategy with organizational culture could serve as a competitive advantage, but their suggestions focused on the role of HR technology in facilitating these connections.

When examining a firm’s organizational culture, the values and beliefs that make up the organizational culture also lead to the organization’s specific level of idiosyncrasy. This means an organization’s identity is developed so that all individuals in the organization are socialized into the organization’s culture and their specific role. Some organizations have a strong corporate culture, while others have a weak culture (Cabrera and Bonache, 1999). The strength of the organization’s culture is necessary, but not a sufficient condition of the linkage:

P1. The strategy-SHRM relationship is contingent upon the alignment of the organization’s culture with the strategy.

The impact of alignment vs misalignment As noted, organizational culture can be seen as the shared values and beliefs, which lead to behaviors (Smircich, 1983). This suggests that supportive internal cultures may increase the possibilities of success with the implemented strategy.

1263

Human resource

management

Schneider and Bowen (1993) suggest that organizational culture is a key factor as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, and suggest that the values held by the individuals in the organization are much more difficult for other organizations to imitate. They suggest that culture is even more important than “superiority in product or process technology, marketing or advertising, or capitalization” (Schneider and Bowen, 1993, p. 48). We agree and argue that cultural alignment or misalignment is a key factor in determining the relations between an organization’s strategy and its SHRM.

Figure 1 illustrates the conceptual model of this strategy-organizational culture-SHRM relation and the impact of the alignment and misalignment of organizational culture on SHRM, and subsequently, organizational outcomes. This depiction shows that the strategy is developed which leads to the SHRM functions and HR practice implementation. Organizational culture is a moderator in this relationship and is ultimately aligned or misaligned with strategy. As the SHRM functions are carried out, a feedback loop reinforces and develops the organizational culture based on hiring, training, and other processes. This linkage leads to strategy implementation and organizational outcomes.

When the culture is misaligned, SHRM becomes inconsistent with strategy. The lack of strategy supportive culture is, in turn, reinforced by the subsequent inconsistent SHRM practices. This may be one reason the intended vs implemented strategy and SHRM issues occur. When strategy and culture are misaligned, it creates a perpetual spiral that is detrimental to executing SHRM and ultimately organizational performance:

P2. Organizational culture positively influences the strategy-SHRM relationship when culture is aligned with strategy resulting in consistent SHRM implementation.

P3. Organizational culture negatively influences the strategy-SHRM relationship when culture is misaligned with strategy, resulting in poorly executed SHRM implementation.

Table I provides examples of the organizational culture values adapted from generic strategies that we propose could be considered strategy supportive and moderate the relation between strategy and SHRM. Previous research has mentioned the idea of strategy supportive organizational values; however, specific values have not been integrated for particular strategies (Wei et al., 2008).

Organizational outcomes Southwest Airlines provides a classic real-world example of the potential impact of an alignment between strategy, organizational culture, and SHRM. Southwest Airlines often credits their organizational culture and their HRs with maintaining their strategy of a fun, low cost airline (O’Reilly and Pfeffer, 1995). Through socialization of the organizational

Improved organizational

outcomes

Consistent SHRM

implementation

Aligned organizational culture

Organization strategy

Weakened organizational

outcomes

Misaligned organizational culture

Inconsistent SHRM

implementation

Figure 1. Conceptualization of aligned or misaligned organizational culture within the organization strategy- SHRM linkage

1264

JMD 36,10

members and a strong corporate culture aligned with the strategy, they have established a high performance outcome. It merits noting that this is also consistent with RBV theory.

On the other hand, Arthur Andersen is another example. This company had a long history of strong corporate culture and profitability before it was discovered that their methods of business were less-than-desirable (i.e. Ferrell et al., n.d.). This is an instance where the organizational culture became misaligned with the corporate strategy. Organizational culture somehow became misaligned when the strategy shifted away from its once strong ethical convictions resulting in detrimental organizational outcomes.

Therefore, we propose that the outcomes of organizations are, in part, dependent upon the congruence between their strategies, cultures, and SHRM (see Figure 1):

P4. Organizations with aligned strategy and culture will experience increased organizational outcomes than those with a misaligned strategy-culture relation.

Alternatively, if a strategy is developed that is lacking the supportive organizational culture (see Table I), then misalignment may occur where the HR continue to operate in a fashion that they have grown accustomed. In addition, if the unsupportive organizational culture determines the functions of the HR, misalignment will continue to occur and negative outcomes may result (see Figure 1).

Multi-level theory In addition to considering the alignment between strategy, culture, and SHRM, researchers must also consider additional levels of analysis. Individuals throughout hierarchical levels of the organization, not only the top management team, must be considered to develop the organizational culture and whether it is congruent with the strategy and SHRM.

Ostroff and Bowen (2000) suggest that little research has been conducted to determine the factors that contribute most to HR system alignment and instead of focusing on particular HR practices used to achieve goals researchers should also examine organizational climate. In agreement and by extension, we suggest that one must consider organizational culture. Ostroff and Bowen (2000) discuss an alignment between strategy and climate (e.g. focusing on innovation skills if the climate is one of implementation of innovation).

Schneider et al. (2003) suggest that the reason alignment in organizations has not been thoroughly studied, especially regarding HR functions, is because the responses are usually

Strategy Organizational culture values (strategy supportive) SHRM focus

Low cost leadership Following rules Employment security Efficiency/productivity

Administrative/cost orientation Hire from within Internal training

Differentiation Being flexible Taking risks Innovation

Creative orientation Hire from outside Less training

Superior customer service Customer experiences Quality Company reputation

Service quality orientation Extensive training Rewards for service

Innovation Entrepreneurial behaviors Knowledge workers

Learning orientation Creativity coaching Risk taking rewards

Sources: Adapted from Jackson et al. (2014), Mathis and Jackson (2000), also see Porter (1980), Thompson and Strickland (1998)

Table I. Organizational culture values moderating the

strategy-SHRM linkage

1265

Human resource

management

from one source, an HR executive, rather than the employees within the firm. In addition, they suggest that the surveyed practices are often too general and could be applicable to many firms regardless of strategy. Finally, Rousseau (1990) suggests using both qualitative and quantitative methods to determine the level of approval and agreement of values within the organization.

Discussion, implications, and future research Because SHRM is typically studied as its fit with strategy, an important moderating variable, organizational culture, may be overlooked. Importantly, culture may impact the discrepancy between intended and realized strategy. When mismatch occurs, organizational culture should be examined to determine corresponding organizational outcomes.

One critical future research issue to the proposed linkage is the assumption that the organizational leaders have selected an appropriate strategy. For instance, the top management team wishes to implement a strategy that is not congruent with the organization’s culture. The strategy may be inappropriate for the organization, and organizational performance would be expected to be low. However, once a proper strategy is selected which is aligned with the culture, the organization could turn itself around with minimal impact, depending on the timing of the reaction.

Another area for future research is the organizational values in Table I. These are far from exhaustive and cannot encompass every conceivable situation. Additional strategies and values that are strategy supportive should be developed to include the resulting SHRM practices that would promote alignment.

Future research should be conducted to determine the extent to which organizations that have had intended vs implemented strategy and SHRM incongruence and also lacked alignment with organizational culture. This could be a key indicator to the top management team to take a leadership role in establishing and developing the supportive culture and values needed first in order to implement a current strategy to continue success through the SHRM functions. This may also uncover a timeframe to be utilized for a more successful execution of the HR practice implementation and positive organizational outcomes.

Conclusion We examined a gap in the literature regarding the impact of the organization’s strategy on SHRM when taking into account organizational culture in order to develop propositions for future research. In addition, a model was developed to show the resulting outcomes when alignment or misalignment of culture is present in the strategy-SHRM linkage. We further extend the literature by presenting a table of suggested organizational culture values necessary to encourage a strategy-supportive culture.

Organizational culture should be studied as an important moderating variable in the strategy-SHRM-performance linkage ( Jackson et al., 2014). The alignment of organizational culture is imperative in order to determine successful HR practices that will shape the organization. Finally, although there is “no one best culture;” the value is determined by aligning the culture to achieve the best possible strategy-SHRM-outcome linkages.

References

Baird, L. and Meshoulam, I. (1988), “Managing two fits of strategic human resource management”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 656-665.

Barney, J. (1991), “Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage”, Journal of Management, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 99-120.

1266

JMD 36,10

Block, R., Kleiner, M., Roomkin, M. and Salsburg, S. (1987), “Industrial relations and the performance of the firm: an overview”, in Kleiner, M.M. (Ed.), Human Resources and the Performance of the Firm, Industrial Relations Research Association Series, Madison, WS, pp. 319-343.

Boswell, W. (2006), “Aligning employees with the organization’s strategic objectives: out of ‘line of sight’, out of mind”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 17 No. 9, pp. 1489-1511.

Buller, P. and McEvoy, G. (2012), “Strategy, human resource management and performance: sharpening line of sight”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 43-56.

Cabrera, E. and Bonache, J. (1999), “An expert HR system for aligning organizational culture and strategy”, Human Resource Planning, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 51-60.

Chan, L., Shaffer, M. and Snape, E. (2004), “In search of sustained competitive advantage: the impact of organizational culture, competitive strategy and human resource management practices on firm performance”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 17-35.

Chatman, J. (1991), “Matching people and organizations: selection and socialization in public accounting firms”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 36 No. 1, pp. 459-484.

Delery, J.E. and Doty, D.H. (1996), “Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: tests of universalistic, contingency, and configurational performance predictors”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39 No. 4, pp. 802-835.

Ferrell, O.C., Jackson, J., Sawayda, J. and Stein, H. (n.d.), “Arthur Anderson: an accounting confidence crisis”, Daniels Fund Ethics Initiative, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, available at: https://danielsethics.mgt.unm.edu/pdf/Arthur%20Andersen%20Case.pdf (accessed 30 December 2016).

Gratton, L. and Truss, C. (2003), “The three-dimensional people strategy: putting human resource policies into action”, Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 74-86.

Jackson, S., Schuler, R. and Jiang, K. (2014), “An aspirational framework for strategic human resource management”, Academy of Management Annals, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 1-56.

Khilji, S. and Wang, X. (2006), “Intended’ and ‘implemented’ HRM: the missing linchpin in strategic human resource management research”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 17 No. 7, pp. 1171-1189.

Lengnick-Hall, M. and Lengnick-Hall, C. (1988), “Strategic human resources management: a review of the literature and proposed typology”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 13 No. 3, pp. 454-470.

Lengnick-Hall, M., Lengnick-Hall, C., Andrade, L. and Drake, B. (2009), “Strategic human resource management: the evolution of the field”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 64-85.

MacDuffie, J.P. (1995), “Human resource bundles and manufacturing performance: organizational logic and flexible production systems in the world auto industry”, Industrial & Labor Relations Review, Vol. 48 No. 2, pp. 197-216.

Mathis, R. and Jackson, J. (2000), Human Resource Management, 9th ed., South Western College Publishing, Cincinnati, OH, pp. 42-47.

Milliman, J., Von Glinow, M. and Nathan, M. (1991), “Organizational life cycles and strategic international human resources management in multinational companies: implications for congruence theory”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 318-339.

Mintzberg, H. and Waters, J.A. (1985), “Of strategies, deliberate and emergent”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 6 No. 3, pp. 257-272.

Molineux, J. (2013), “Enabling organizational cultural change using systemic strategic human resource management-a longitudinal case study”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 24 No. 8, pp. 1588-1612.

O’Reilly, C. and Pfeffer, C. (1995), Southwest Airlines: Using Human Resources for Competitive Advantage, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

1267

Human resource

management

O’Reilly, C., Chatman, J. and Caldwell, D. (1991), “People and organizational culture: a profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 34 No. 3, pp. 487-516.

Osterman, P. (1987), “Choices among alternative internal labor market systems”, Industrial Relations, Vol. 27 No. 1, pp. 46-67.

Ostroff, C. and Bowen, D. (2000), “Moving HR to a higher level: HR practices and organizational effectiveness”, in Klein, K. and Kozlowski, S. (Eds), Multilevel Theory, Research, and Methods in Organizations, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, pp. 211-266.

Panayotopoulou, L., Bourantas, D. and Papalexandris, N. (2003), “Strategic human resource management and its effects on firm performance: an implementation of the competing values framework”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 680-699.

Porter, M. (1980), Competitive Strategy, Free Press, New York, NY, pp. 35-40.

Rousseau, D. (1990), “Quantitative assessment of organizational culture: the case for multiple measures”, Organizational Climate and Culture, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, pp. 153-192.

Schein, E.H. (1990), “Organizational culture”, American Psychologist, Vol. 45 No. 2, pp. 109-119.

Schneider, B. and Bowen, D. (1993), “The service organization: human resources management is crucial”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 21 No. 4, pp. 39-52.

Schneider, B., Godfrey, E., Hayes, S., Huang, M., Lim, B., Nishii, L., Raver, J. and Ziegert, J. (2003), “The human side of strategy: employee experiences of strategic alignment in a service organization”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 32 No. 2, pp. 122-141.

Schuler, R. and Jackson, S. (1987), “Linking competitive strategies with human resource management practices”, Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 207-219.

Semler, S. (1997), “Systematic agreement: a theory of organizational alignment”, Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 23-40.

Sheehan, C., Cooper, B., Holland, P. and DeCieri, H. (2007), “The relationship between HRM avenues of political influence and perceived organizational performance”, Human Resource Management, Vol. 46 No. 4, pp. 611-629.

Smircich, L. (1983), “Concepts of culture and organization analysis”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 28 No. 3, pp. 339-358.

Thompson, A. Jr and Strickland, A. III (1998), Creating and Implementing Strategy, 10th ed., Irwin McGraw Hill, Boston, MA, pp. 362-376.

Way, S.A. and Johnson, D.E. (2005), “Theorizing about the impact of strategic human resource management”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 1-19.

Wei, L., Liu, J., Zhang, Y. and Chiu, R. (2008), “The role of corporate culture in the process of strategic human resource management: evidence from Chinese enterprises”, Human Resource Management, Vol. 47 No. 4, pp. 777-794.

Wright, P. and McMahan, G. (1992), “Theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management”, Journal of Management, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 295-320.

Wright, P. and Snell, S. (1998), “Toward a unifying framework for exploring fit and flexibility in strategic human resource management”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 756-772.

Wright, P., Smart, D. and McMahan, G. (1995), “Matches between human resources and strategy among NCAA basketball teams”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38 No. 4, pp. 1052-1074.

Further reading

Harper, S. (2009), “Removing dysfunction”, Industrial Engineer, Vol. 41, February, pp. 45-49.

Kaye, L. (1999), “Strategic human resource management in Australia: the human cost”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 20 No. 8, pp. 577-587.

Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M.G. and Macey, W.H. (2013), “Organizational climate and culture”, Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 64 No. 1, pp. 361-388.

1268

JMD 36,10

About the authors Dr Teresa Harrison is an Assistant Professor in the H-E-B School of Business and Administration at the University of the Incarnate Word in San Antonio, Texas. She earned her PhD in Business Administration (concentration in Organizational Behavior) from the University of Texas at San Antonio. She has published articles in peer reviewed journals on topics such as factors influencing the utilization of electronic selection as well as diversity in entrepreneurship. Results of her research have been presented at the annual meetings of the Academy of Management, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the Southern Management Association. Dr Teresa Harrison is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: [email protected]

Dr Joshua D. Bazzy is an Assistant Professor in the H-E-B School of Business and Administration at the University of the Incarnate Word in San Antonio, Texas. He holds a PhD in Industrial and Organizational Psychology from the Haslam School of Business at the University of Tennessee. He has published articles in peer reviewed journals on topics such as integrity testing, work ethic, ego depletion, and counterproductive workplace behavior. He has also presented at Academy of Management and Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology meetings as well as other conferences.

For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website: www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm Or contact us for further details: [email protected]

1269

Human resource

management

Attachment 8

PROMOTING TRAINING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENT: THE ORIGINS AND EARLY CONTRIBUTIONS OF SPOD A. CAROL RUSAW VINTON D. FISHER

ABSTRACT

This article describes the foundations of training and professional development in government and the beginnings of the American Society for Public Administration’s (ASPA) Section on Professional and Organizational Development (SPOD). It summarizes the philosophical contributions of public sector political and economic reforms, human relations approaches to management, and socio- technical applications to organizational development and training. The article also highlights key changes in the decade between 1965 and 1975 that fostered the emergence of SPOD, such as the rapid growth of federal government and the demands for social and economic changes. It concludes with reflections on the founding of SPOD from an early member. Keywords: training, professional development, adult learning, public administration

INTRODUCTION

Professional development plays a considerably important part of employees’ skills acquisition and applications for job performance, growth in career competencies and responsibilities, and contributions to organizational health and mission achievement. Professionals in government are often delineated by pay grade and expectations for independently performing technically complex sets of tasks when outcomes are general or ill defined (Bowman, West, Berman, and Van Wart, 2004). Professionals, however, at all levels of government are particularly identified by their ethical beliefs and practices, attitudes and abilities towards collaboration an in attaining agency goals. Professional development occurs over time and across different occupations and skills-levels. Its effectiveness depends upon organizational support for learning, growth, commitment, and provisions of resources, particularly in terms

PAQ SUMMER 2017 217

of funds, technology, and opportunities for skills demonstration and feedback.

The American Society for Public Administration’s (ASPA) Section on Professional and Organizational Development (SPOD), celebrating its 40th anniversary this year, is one of the earliest and most diverse communities of learning and change among public sector employees. It is comprised of academics, professionals in federal, state, and local governments, students of public administration, consultants and change agents, and, most recently, Certified Public Managers. The SPOD provides professional development through its annual conferences, its journal (the Public Administration Quarterly), and through the Certified Public Manager Program. Its emergence was a culmination of various forces promoting progressive reforms in individual skills development, organizational change, and professionalization of careerists in the public sector.

CONTRIBUTING REFORM PHILOSOPHIES

The impetus for developing professional career public servants came with the passage of the Pendleton Act in 1883. Coming just after a disgruntled office seeker had assassinated President James A. Garfield, the Pendleton Act sought to replace the spoils system of getting and advancing in a government career. It inaugurated Merit System principles that based careers not on political favoritism, but on technical competence and neutrality in carrying out administrative functions. It proscribed open and fair competition for positions based on rational and legal standards for evaluating and classifying cabinet-level positions. The Pendleton Act spelled out the ethical assumptions that career employees place organizational mission and goals ahead of self and politically based interests.

Pragmatic Progressivism

The Pendleton Act reflected many of the reform-oriented principles of pragmatism and progressivism that characterized the late nineteenth century and extended through the 1940’s. Brom and Shields (2006) depicted pragmatic progressivism as a

218 PAQ SUMMER 2017

practical, results-oriented view of truth, meaning, and value. These principles appear in the social work reforms of Jane Addams’ Hull House work among Chicago’s poorest residents. Addams used analytic methods similar to Taylor’s (1911) scientific methods of management to study the contexts of poverty; she also applied her own skills from experience to developing solutions to the complexities of the social problems. Merriam and Brockett (1997) noted that pragmatic progressivism esteemed the use of reason informed by experience as a superior means of problem solving. Pragmatic progressivism became a key strategy for addressing the multi-faceted issues resulting from rapid industrialization and urbanization in America.

Bureau Reforms

The spirit of pragmatic progressivism also took hold of public administrative reforms in promoting training and education. One of the earliest champions for progressive reform in education, John Dewey (1938), believed that social, economic, and political improvement were possible provided that education fostered experience-based learning. One of the central assumptions in basing education reform on experience was the notion that individuals needed to have freedom to experiment with different ideas before settling on a strategy. In order for progress to occur, learners needed to have freedom to inquire as well as support for experimentation in social settings.

The principles of pragmatic progressivism in training public employees filtered through the bureau movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Stivers (2006:377) described the bureau movement of reform as more than merely “throwing the rascals out” of political positions, but also replacing them with administrators who knew and practiced “good government.” Reforming public service meant initiating a process of normative re-education: insisting that ethical behaviors and attitudes become the standards for performance and that teaching and training would reinforce their retention. The use of training to promote pragmatic progressive reform began from practitioner-based research and applications. Professionals from the New York-based National Municipal League developed training programs for members in social

PAQ SUMMER 2017 219

work, welfare, city administration, and perhaps most notably, in formulating comprehensive executive budgets. The National Municipal League based many of their reforms on economic and fiscal accountability, believing that administrative funding decisions required openness to external scrutiny and responsibility to constituents for results. Eventually, universities took up education and training by developing graduate programs in the emergent field of public administration and blending them with apprenticeships in organizations.

Professionalism, Education, and Ethics

The democratically centered idea of education and training and the demands for ethical reform of practices in public administration underscored two additional currents in professionalization of public administration. Professionalism in public service came to mean a high degree of education, competencies in performing work, sensitivity to ethical relationships with internal and external stakeholders, accountability to wider public constituencies, and unbiased judgments in making budgeting and program decisions. Professional development in government reflected the growing awareness of human relations, adult learning, and organizational change as key ingredients for undertaking government reform.

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL

SCIENCE AND PRACTICES Human Relationships in Organizations The Hawthorne Experiments in the Western Electric Plant in New York opened the door for investigating the importance of human needs, aspirations, and contributions to organizational productivity. One of the earliest scholars was Mary Parker-Follett (1924). Follett drew on the pragmatists and progressives in her belief that dialog promoted a shared understanding of the movements of power, hierarchy, and authority in organizational systems; collective participation in work-centered groups produced a dynamic means for integrating individual needs and desires as well as methods for planning, organizing, and conducting work. Employees rather than

220 PAQ SUMMER 2017

managers devised how work was actually done, and their strategies rested on a combination of situational variables, motivations, and experience-based judgment. Lewin (1947) integrated Follett’s work in-group dynamics in his study of collective decision making related to organizational development. Lewin expressed a strong moral and ethical belief in the importance of democratic institutions and values in creating knowledge that could be acted upon. He felt that group-level discussions of change and their consequent formulating of strategies were at the heart of organizational change. He observed that groups could analyze the field of forces operating in a given problem context and identify forces that could be used to leverage change as well as those preventing it from happening. Following what Lewin called force field analysis, groups could develop consensus on a means for conducting change in particular contexts. Socio-Technical Interventions Lewin’s studies of group dynamics made important contributions to the use of social science to changing organizational technical systems. The London-based Tavistock Institute advanced Lewin’s group studies by integrating psychoanalytic practice with views of organizations as systems that were open to environmental changes. The idea that organizations changed goals and strategies in response to changes in their environment posited that organization development was contextually based. Planning change required an understanding of trends that influenced changes in various organizational systems. For example, if a group had decided to create a new employee rewards system through providing financial incentives, success would depend on careful attention to several different organization systems: (a) management processes of currently rewarding employees would have to be modified; (b) new employee performance standards would need to change and be communicated for each occupational series and grade level; (c) funding allocations from the external environment (such as a state legislator or Congressional committee) would need to be contacted; and (d) changes in the current means of getting work done would have to be instituted,

PAQ SUMMER 2017 221

requiring changes in training for skills development, developmental assignments for benchmarking, and new job requirements.

The Tavistock Institute developed Lewin’s ideas into a concept of action research, in which employees participated in developing a research strategy to promote quality of work life, cultural change, and participative organizational change (Bunker and Alban, 2006). Trist and Emery (1960) further extended the idea of participatory research by adding the interdependent effects of technical operations and human systems in organizations. Trist and Emery’s (1960) research culminated in a more holistic view of intricate social and technical dynamics at play in creating organizations.

Systems Views of Organization This Socio-Technical view of organizations also based its concepts on Barnard’s earlier research on the interactions of organizations with their environments (Barnard, 1938, in Kast and Rosenzweig, 1972). A more advanced theory, however, drew on Von Bertalanffy’s biological characterization of organizations as living organizations that change in relation to their environments to grow and to survive (Von Bertalanffy, 1972). Organizations, like plants, interact with their environments to extract necessary resources for sustenance. They construct networks with their environments to sense where the status of resources and opportunities to expand or grow, and where there might be problems. In terms of public organizations, administrators continually hone their sensitivity to wide-ranging constituent needs and legal and regulatory changes and may shift strategic and operational plans as a result. Constituencies may include state, county, and local administrations, profit and non- profit based organizations, legislative and executive bodies, and a multitude of citizen-based interests and needs.

ORIGINS OF PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE CREATION IN SPOD

Over time, organizations develop caches of knowledge about environmental changes as well as techniques to managing

222 PAQ SUMMER 2017

them: each organization learns to identify subtle changes that could produce tsunamis. They also develop a common stock of knowledge that they draw from in finding ways to cope with varieties of changes. Professional organizations, such as SPOD, are repositories of organizational knowledge, and, interfused with professional ethics, offer members menus of “what works” and what does not. Professional organizations share this stock of knowledge formally, as in workshops and seminars, and informally, as through interpersonal networks, mentoring, and alliances with similar interests in groups. Professionalization, in such cases, occurs over a lifetime.

Formal skills learning through training and education produce perhaps five to 10 percent of professional knowledge (Marsick and Watkins, 1990). Informal and incidental learning occurs through relationships with others, through applications of skills to new or complex situations, or through life’s experiences (Watkins and Marsick, 1992). Most organizational learning comes from non-routine situations. To better understand the importance of informal and incidental learning in professional development, it is helpful to show their relationships to other forms of adult learning. Brief descriptions below will clarify how adults learn to develop professional skills in performing work-related tasks. Adult Learning Adult learning is distinct from learning from childhood through adolescence. Whereas the latter relies on gaining knowledge about a variety of disciplines and skills for reading, writing, computation, and self and interpersonal relationships through the direction of expert instructors, adult learning assumes that adults are self-directed in pursuing learning for particular purposes or roles (Long and Associates, 1989). Adults exercise freedom to choose when and where they wish to learn, and abstract from an event what they need to know and apply. Adult learning incorporates experiences and problem solving methods and expands when individuals share their solutions and outcomes with other adult learners (Stewart, 1987).

PAQ SUMMER 2017 223

Adult Education Traditionally, adult education has been associated with

learning basic skills and competencies for performing roles and responsibilities for adulthood. Although it has been associated mainly with basic skills, such as in literacy and computation for employability, it also includes education in skills individuals need in making life transitions. Unlike informal and non-formal education, adult education tends to be planned, achieving pre- determined competencies or goals, and is preparatory for new states of being. In this sense, professional associations may help individuals getting ready for retirement, needing interpersonal support, or moving upward.

Training and Professional Development Training is a form of adult education, but is primarily focused on acquiring or expanding job-related skills and competencies, such as new job technologies, effective interpersonal an team communications, changes in the job itself (Laird, Holton, and Naquin, 2003). While training is generally short-term and instructor led, professional development is longer, may include applications of job skills, and may or may not involve the help of others. Professional development may occur through extensive skills applications in the workplace as well as through coaching, mentoring, special assignments, rotations, and shadowing. Human Resource Development Human Resource Development (HRD) is often associated with training, but actually encompasses much more. Because it recognizes the value of contributions employees make to accomplish work, HRD regards employees as organizational assets, which must be cultivated to increase value. Human Resource Development includes support for professional development through certifications, particularly of competencies, ongoing cultivation of skills and competencies for performance improvement, opportunities for career growth and management, and the creation and cultivation of network ties and professional organization alliances. Human Resource Development not only provides for skills development, but also realizes that various

224 PAQ SUMMER 2017

organizational systems also must be aligned to promote success. Thus, HRD engages in consultation with management to identify and remove obstacles, develop motivational incentives, and promote a culture that fosters continuous learning and growth (Knowles, 1990); HRD is concerned with enabling both individual and organizational development (Lippitt and Lippitt, 1986).

CONTEXT AND EMERGENCE OF SPOD Before the Early 1960s

Until the 1950s, organization and professional development, in both public and private sector organizations was sporadic and little used. Few employees gained sufficient education, training, and certification to perform independently as professionals. In the early twentieth century, moreover, Frederick Taylor (1911) prescribed management training to ensure workers produced sufficient quantities of goods and services. With the later theories of human motivation, learning, and performance, however, management came to understand the importance of encouraging and supporting organizational learning for professional growth. The cultivation of human relations skills, coupled with the notions of interdependencies of human and organizational systems, produced a new view of developing employees: employees worked not only to earn money, but also came to find affiliations and to extract intrinsic meaning from jobs they performed (Van Riper, 1958). Professionally affiliated organizations, such as SPOD, were positioned for providing needed employee development. This came at a crucial time in which public organizations faced large- scale change. The Decade 1965-1975

Between 1965 and 1975, when SPOD emerged, profound social and economic changes occurred. In the workplace, training and development, spurred by the burgeoning ranks of professionals in large organizations, accelerated. In government, the Civil Service Commission launched management development centers to train experienced

PAQ SUMMER 2017 225

professionals as well as program administrators. It also introduced the Federal Executive Institute in 1968 to provide top-level career managers skills for developing employees, leading organizational changes, and adapting to the changing financial and mission requirements as well as political landscape (Retrieved from: http://www.opm.gov/about-us/our-mission- role-history/).

Profound and rapid societal changes also stirred the growth of the federal government, requiring a novel way of designing and administering social and economic change. Many new social welfare programs were created during the administration of Kennedy's successor, President Lyndon B. Johnson. One of the most wide-ranging reforms occurred with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1965 and 1968. Second, a hallmark of President Johnson’s “War on Poverty” was the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, which created the Office of Economic Opportunity and the Job Corps and Neighborhood Youth Corps. The Social Security Act of 1965 established Medicare and Medicaid. At the federal level, moreover, government established the National Endowments for Arts and Humanities in 1965, Public Broadcasting in 1969, and various cultural centers. It also created the Consumer Protection Agency, the National Highway Traffic Safety Board, and the Urban Mass Transit Association. The decade also exhibited a widespread concern for the preservation of the natural and human environments, particularly in the need to avoid air and water pollution (Garrett and Rhine, 2006).

During the mid-1960s to the 1970s, the number of cabinet-level agencies added to the federal government in the 20th century accounted for almost half of those added in the 20th century alone (Ward, 2008). The Office of Personnel Management records show a steady increase in the number of federal employees staffing the new offices, peaking in 1969 at 304,000, but declining to 284,000 in 1974 as the effects of two major recessions and decrease in the Vietnam Conflict outlays. In 2012, federal employment decreased to 269,700 (Retrieved from http://www.opm.gov). Ward (2008) observed that while the number of full time federal employees decreased, the amount of spending on federal programs increased to $4 trillion during the

226 PAQ SUMMER 2017

President G.W. Bush administration. However, the growth in state and local governments greatly increased during this time.

But by the end of the 1960s, economic prosperity was being eroded by persistent inflation. The 1973-1974 Arab oil embargo pushed prices rapidly higher and created shortages throughout the United States. Even after the embargo ended, prices stayed high, fueling inflation and eventually causing rising rates of unemployment. By May, 1975, the unemployment rate reached 9 percent. To address the recessions’ drain on tax revenue, the era of “New Federalism” introduced revenue sharing and block grants. The Emergency Employment Act and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act were particularly important in assisting the unemployed (Garrett and Rhine, 2006).

WHAT WAS SPOD LIKE?

The Section on Professional and Organization Development in ASPA came into being forty years ago as the twin currents of professional and organizational development were emerging in a quickly evolving social, economic, and political government milieu. What composition did SPOD assume in those early years, and what did it contribute to the theory and practice of public administration? To give some insights, Dr. Vinton Fisher, one of the earliest members, reflected on what membership was like. At the time, he was a professor at the University of Connecticut’s Institute of Public Service, and his observations connect the world of pragmatism with theory. His case study, written in his own words, tells the story of SPOD mingled with applications to teaching, consulting, and organization development.

INNOVATIONS THAT SHAPED PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: VINTON FISHER REFLECTS ON

SPOD

There were many involved in the effort to meld and strengthen the theory and practices of professional development

PAQ SUMMER 2017 227

with organization development. Pragmatism was the key: did it work?

Frank Sherwood, Chet Newland, Neely Gardner, Fred Fisher, Jim Wolf, Myron Wiener, Jerry Brown, Nesta Gallas, Dwight Waldo, and many others were involved in this fusion of professionalism in public administration with organizational change in our public institutions.

Some were the presidents of ASPA and others were both ASPA presidents as well as the Directors of the Federal Executive Institute. Many were associated with the public administration program at the University of Southern California/USC, especially its Washington-based program. Some were involved in other universities and learning centers as organizational leaders and educators who provided the support and intellectual “heft” for the transition to SPOD. There were also others who were on the front line.

However, no matter where they were located or their roles, they were united in the belief that professional development programs (training was dropped as a term) – if done without a strong relationship to social purpose, mission, organizational improvement and development – were potentially dead-end ventures: a waste of resources. One such person was Dr. Thomas Mills, who was a predecessor and colleague of Hindy Schachter at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. A Case Study and Major Learning at UCONN

At the University of Connecticut’s Institute of Public Service, I was privileged to be the manager of our international management development program. We had relationships with the Agency for International Development, the Ford foundation, and the United Nations.

We were sent three participants from India, who were supposed to learn the advanced practices of quality control. Because the basis of our educational programs was built upon on-the-job training, we had personal relationships with many of the practitioners in the best organizations in Connecticut who were involved in quality control. Therefore, we brought the three to several insurance companies as well as United Technologies. The feedback that we received from the participants was that we were not meeting their needs. I turned to the chair of quality

228 PAQ SUMMER 2017

control education at UConn’s School of Business: Dr. Joseph Emerzian sat down with the three men.

What Dr. Emerzian did helped transform part of our international management education program at UConn: he asked them a few simple questions: What was a median, what was a mode and what was a standard deviation. To my amazement, they had no answers to any of these questions.

Simply stated, I had “assumed” that they had some basic knowledge, experience and education in quality control BEFORE we took them to some of the best providers of quality control in the Greater Hartford area. They were not learning anything because they were mystified and unprepared for the information that was provided to them. I had planned a program that assumed they had come for a “topping up”; in reality, they needed to come for a basic education in quality control. The information that we had been provided about their learning objectives was misguided.

Soon thereafter we instituted in our management development programs, a pretest. How a participant did in the pretest affected the program that they would receive during the n balance of their professional development program.

Then we progressed into the cognitive and affective areas of curriculum development. What were we trying to specifically achieve in our programs? What means were more appropriate to transmit and inculcate the knowledge and skills that the learners needed? How did our educators need to tailor their methodology and curriculum to facilitate the acquisition of that knowledge and skills? This also meant that we needed to focus more on the evaluations of our instructors and their ability to achieve these objectives. Therefore, we instituted a “training of trainers” program for all of our instructors. For some we had special tutoring to enhance their presentation style and the manner in which they approached the learning process. Specifically, emphasis upon the experiential rather than lectures proved to be a better means of learning. This paid off in improved feedback from the participants and post test results improved.

It also led us to discover that we were involved in education and not in training. Education meant that we were

PAQ SUMMER 2017 229

dealing with the basic values and skills of an individual who was becoming a professional who might become certified in his/her professional designated craft. We were providing a platform for them to grow in their area of expertise. Training pertained to scripted responses that did not build upon creativity and problem solving: it was more rote. For us this attribute distinguished education from training.

As we became more involved in experiential learning through such means as case studies, individual and group exercises, on-the-job training, and simulations, we were able to distinguish more between what it means to become a professional, and what it means to be “trained”. We developed simulations that were used in international settings, and eventually became modified for use in US local regional planning and governance, especially in the area of conflict management and inter-/intra-governmental and organizational relations. All of these developments were built upon our international experience.

Around this same time, dialogue about public administration education was occurring within ASPA. Nesta Gallas, then president of ASPA, chaired a meeting designed to differentiate between education and training, particularly in the process of the Section for Professional Development, transitioning from SPA to the Section for Professional and Organization Development. She asked me to present the framework that distinguished education from training. Nesta turned to Dwight Waldo, then a certified guru within ASPA and asked: “Dwight what you think about that distinction?” My heart was in my mouth because Dwight’s insights were usually correct and, most importantly accepted. In his rather precise, clear, and reflective response Dwight said: “I think I would have to agree.”

WHAT DOES THIS HAVE TO DO WITH SPOD?

In other institutions dealing with public administration

education – both degree and non-degree – there was a shared insight and belief that public administration education needed to focus on making our public institutions more responsive. Or, as was the theme for the 2015 national conference, we were then

230 PAQ SUMMER 2017

also dedicated to “building a stronger and more equitable society.”

In this effort Neely Gardner at USC was an intellectual and experiential fountainhead and mentor. I believe that with Fred Fisher, he helped to conceive, spawn and develop the National Training and Development Service/NTDS, which was a spinoff from the International City Management Association/ICMA.

Simultaneously, within ASPA, individuals were going through the approval and legitimacy process to move from the Section for Professional Development to the Section for Professional and Organization Development. We had support from a number of internal and external individuals and organizations: our timing could not have been better. For example, during this process, we also had the support individuals within the National Association of Schools of Public Administration/NASPA who were co-members of ASPA and NASPA.

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS: 40 YEARS OF

PROFESSIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

The beginnings of SPOD rested on the theories and practices of human learning to promote more effective and efficient public organizations. In its early years, as Dr. Fisher notes, SPOD encouraged collaborative networks among various scholars and practitioners to adapt to the needs of stakeholders. The emphasis on applying skills learned in classrooms to real- time problems led to a differentiation of education and training. The further refinement of practical skills, particularly in problem-solving and conflict management, to different cultures helped international participants apply concepts and ideas from class to various international government settings. Through its innovative changes in training and organizational change, SPOD gained respect within ASPA. Its continued ability to assess, design, try out, reflect, and adapt enabled SPOD to attain status as well as continue to grow. The key to survival was, in Dr. Fisher’s words, its ability to learn, adapt and be responsive.

PAQ SUMMER 2017 231

REFERENCES

Barnard, C.I. 1938. The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Bowman, J.S., J.P. West, E.M. Berman, and M. Van Wart 2004. The Professional Edge: Competencies in Public Service, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. Brom, R. and P.M. Shields. 2006. Classical Pragmatism, the American Experiment, and Public Administration. In T.D. Lynch and P.L. Cruise (Eds.), Handbook of Organization Theory and Management: A Philosophical Approach 2nd Ed. 301-321, New York: Taylor and Francis Group. Bunker B. and B. Alban. 2006. Large group Interventions and Dynamics. In J.V. Gallos (Ed.), Organization Development: A Jossey-Bass Reader 309-321, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Dewey, J. 1938. Education and Experience. New York: Collier Books. Follett-Parker, M. 1924. Creative Experience. New York: Longmans Green. Garrett, T.A. and R.M. Rhine. 2006 On the Size and Growth of Government. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Lewis Review 88(1), 13-30. Kast, F.E. and J.E. Rosenzweig. 1972 December. General System Theory: Applications for Organization and Management. Academy of Management Journal, 15(4), 447-465. Knowles, M. 1990 The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species Revised Ed. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Co. Laird, D., E.F. Holton, and S. Naquin. 2003. Approaches to Training and Development (Revised Ed.), Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group. Lewin, K. 1947 Frontiers in Group Dynamics. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Field Theory In Social Science, London: Social Science Paperbacks. Lippitt, G.L and Lippitt, R. 1986. The Consulting Process in Action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

232 PAQ SUMMER 2017

Long, H.B. and Associates. 1989. Self-Directed Learning: Emerging Theory and Practice. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Marsick, V.J. and K.L. Watkins. 1990. Informal and Incidental Learning in the Workplace. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Merriam, S.B. and R.G. Brockett. 1997. The Profession and Practice of Adult Education: An Introduction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Office of Personnel Management. 2015. Federal Government Reports Since 1962. (Retrieved from http://www.opm.gov on March 1, 2015). Stewart, D.W. 1987. Adult Learning in America: Eduard Lindeman and His Agenda for Lifelong Learning. Malabar, FL: R.E. Krieger Publishing Company. Stivers, C. 2006. The Bureau Movement: Seedbed of Modern Public Administration. In T. D. Lynch and P.L. Cruise (Eds.), Handbook of Organization Theory and Management: A Philosophical Approach 2nd Ed. 375- 393, New York: Taylor & Francis Group. Taylor, F. 1911. The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc. Trist, E. & Emery, F. 1960. Report on the Barford Course for Bristol/Siddeley, July 10-16, 1960(Tavistock Document

No. 598). London: Tavistock Institute. Van Riper, P. 1958. History of the United States Civil Service. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson). Von Bertalanffy, L. 1972, December 1. The History and Status of General Systems Theory. Academy of Management Journal, 15(4), 407-426. Ward, J. 2008, October 14. Big Government Gets Bigger. The Washington Times. (Retrieved from http://washingtontimes.com/news/2008 on February 24, 2015. Watkins, K.E. and V.J. Marsick. 1992. Towards a Theory of Informal and Incidental Learning in Organizations. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 11(4), 287- 300.

Copyright of Public Administration Quarterly is the property of Southern Public Administration Education Foundation and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Attachment 9

Human resources challenges of military to civilian

employment transitions John C. Dexter

Sorrell College of Business, HR, MGMT and Law, Troy University, Troy, Alabama, USA

Abstract

Purpose –Upon discharge, US servicemembers experience an instantaneous immersion back into civilian life. One of the most challenging aspects of that reimmersion is the reentry/entry into the civilian workforce. As such, it is necessary to study the returning veteran’s employment experience when considering the veteran’s civilian reintegration. The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate the returning veteran’s civilian employment experience and to identify challenges faced by the veteran in the civilian onboarding experience. Design/methodology/approach – This study is a qualitative analysis in which 27 military veterans were interviewed about their experience with civilian reemployment. The results of the interviews were compiled, analyzed and grouped by common theme. This study explains some of the major issues confronted by the newly separated veteran and discusses how those challenges may influence job satisfaction and job performance. Findings – The analysis identified the following three main themes that posed challenges to the veteran to civilian employment transition: civilian employer’smilitary job knowledge deficit, veteran anxietywith civilian employer’s lack of clearly defined new-hire processes and civilian employer misunderstanding of veteran compensation, benefits and family involvement expectations. Research limitations/implications – This study is beneficial to scholars in as much as it will help to more clearly identify literature gaps, provide direction on emerging research concepts, add to the existing literature on the veteran to civilian transitions and connect research areas that have not yet been adequately studied. Future research would be well served to follow a similar program of research but by employing different research methods in order to address the limitations outlined above and further support the findings of this research. Specifically, future research should sample across a wider set of individuals as study participants (time since discharge, age, military rank at time of separation, reserve status, etc.). By doing this, future researchersmay be able to determine howperceptions change over time andwith regard tomilitary experience. A second area of future research may be to conduct related research based on civilian employment opportunities and qualifications. Specific areas of study to be considered should be focused primarily on the macro issues such asmilitary leadership and translatingmilitary experiences and skill sets to civilian contexts. Unlike other findings in this research, these two areas cannot be affected at the organizational level, and as such require concept exploration and clarity. Practical implications – This study provides guidance and direction for veterans and employers alike by outlining areas that may be challenging for new-hire military veterans and bringing to light areas where the civilian onboarding experience can improve to better accommodate veterans. Further, this study identifies areas that directly or indirectly contribute to high veteran turnover rates and ultimately high veteran unemployment rates. Originality/value – This original quantitative study conducted by the author specifically identifies several areas in the veteran to civilian employment transition that pose challenges for the returning veteran. All data for this study were gathered and analyzed using first-hand face-to-face interviews and established data analysis methods by the researcher.

Keywords Military veteran, Veteran recruiting, Veteran transition, Veteran employment, Veteran

reintegration, Military outplacement, Employee onboarding, New-hire orientation

Paper type Research paper

Background of the problem and the need for this study According to the U.S. Department of Labor (2015), former military personnel account for approximately 7.7% of the total civilian employment population in the USA. As of January 31, 2020, there were 1,358,290 active duty military personnel in the four branches of the

Military to civilian

employment transitions

481

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:

https://www.emerald.com/insight/1362-0436.htm

Received 1 February 2019 Revised 12 August 2019

4 December 2019 17 March 2020 7 April 2020 21 April 2020

Accepted 27 April 2020

Career Development International Vol. 25 No. 5, 2020

pp. 481-500 © Emerald Publishing Limited

1362-0436 DOI 10.1108/CDI-02-2019-0032

United States military (Defense Manpower Data Center, 2020) and approximately 19,209,704 veterans in the United States (United States Department of Veterans Affairs, 2020). In response to the large military active duty and veteran population, veteran transition and integration into the civilian workforce has drawn increased attention (McGregor, 2013).

The September 11 terrorist attacks facilitated a rise in patriotism in the United States (Osanloo, 2011). As a result of this rise, the employment of veterans has solicited a strong commitment from US employers to employ veterans (Rudstam et al., 2012; McGregor, 2013). ManyUS employers such as BNSFRailroad, HomeDepot andMcDonald’s have committed to aggressively pursuing and hiring veterans (Whitehouse Press Release Blog, 2014). Walmart, specifically, committed to hiring any honorably discharged veteran within two years of their discharge date (McGregor, 2013), and other major employers such as Deloitte, USAA and the Blackstone Group have also announced major veteran-hiring initiatives (Whitehouse Press Release Blog, 2014).

In 2011, AT&T Inc., Verizon, Broadridge Financial Solutions, Inc., Cisco Systems, Cushman and Wakefield, EMC Corporation, Iron Mountain Incorporated, JPMorgan Chase and Co., Modis, NCR Corporation and Universal Health Services, Inc., joined a partnership to hire 100,000 veterans by 2020. By 2014, that coalition totaled more than 175 companies and doubled their employment target to 200,000 (Curry Hall, Harrell, Bicksler, Stewart, and Fisher, 2014).

On March 24, 2014, The Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act (VEVRAA) as overseen by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)was amended to strengthen the law requiring that government contractors and subcontractors take affirmative action to employ specific classifications of veterans protected by the act. These protected veterans include Vietnam-era veterans, disabled veterans and veterans who served on active duty during a war action that qualified for a campaign badge (U.S. Department of Labor, 2015).

Given the large numbers of US veterans and the aggressive veteran-recruiting commitments by major employers, there is a strong need to evaluate veteran employment transitions. This study is such an evaluation. Specifically, this study and the associated analysis offer important perspectives to civilian employer leadership in three distinct and unique ways. First, while there are many comprehensive studies on selecting, hiring and onboarding employees, there are no existing studies that identify the challenges veterans experience when transitioning to civilian employment. Second, this study is of great importance and significance due to the large number of veterans entering the workforce and the passionate commitment of employers to hire them. Third, understanding the experiences and expectations of veteran employees as they first enter the civilian workforce will provide a solid foundation for effectively hiring, onboarding and retaining veterans regardless of industry or professional niche.

Problem statement There has been extensive research and analysis conducted on the challenges of the returning veteran’s reintegration into civilian life in general, but there has been minimal research conducted on post-military reintegration in the civilianworkforce specifically (e.g. Adler et al., 2011; Ostovary and Dapprich, 2011).

The question as to how to successfully and effectively transition the large number of exiting veterans into civilian employment has become more and more important due to the renewed commitments fromUS employers to hire veterans (Curry Hall et al., 2014; McGregor, 2013; Rudstam et al., 2012; Whitehouse Press Release Blog, 2014). Making this question more complicated is that veterans have a difficult time understanding the differences between civilian and military benefits and between familial support and general lifestyle, and these key differences are often overlooked by civilian employers (Arendt and Sapp, 2014).

CDI 25,5

482

This study analyzes and evaluates the returning veteran’s civilian employment experience and identifies some of the challenges faced by the veteran in the civilian onboarding experience. By way of qualitative research (interviews), this paper explores and compares the differences between military and civilian employment infrastructure and evaluates the similarities and differences identified in the comparison. The results of the study enable a determination to be made as to how the perceived differences affect the new veteran’s civilian work experiences.

Literature review The literature review of this study focuses on exploring some of the differences between civilian and military employment and some of the challenges returning veterans face when transitioning to civilian employment. There is considerable research on veteran employment in civilian contexts, and most of it focuses on returning veterans with significant disabilities and the challenges that they face reentering the civilian employment market (Davis et al., 2019; Harrod et al., 2017; Winters, 2018). There is also some research that generically focuses on veteran to civilian employment transitions (Burnett-Zeigler et al., 2011; Chicas et al., 2012; Keeling et al., 2019; Kirchner and Akdere, 2019; Kleycamp, 2013; Little, and Alenkin, 2011). This study, however, is unique in that the research focuses on the returning veteran’s hiring and onboarding experiences and does not differentiate among any specific personal challenges that the returning veteran may have.

This literature review was developed by researching keywords and their interrelationships. The main keywords were identified by utilizing the topic flow from military and civilian employment differences to their impact on the transitioning veteran’s experience. The literature review was conducted in order to identify and consider the differences between veteran and civilian employment as well as how those differences manifest themselves in the civilian context. Search topics were chosen after conducting preliminary research utilizing peer-reviewed academic journals and government agency reports since 2001. The year 2001 was chosen as the historical beginning for the research as it was the year in which the renewed commitments from US employers to aggressively pursue and hire veterans began.

Military leadership According to the U.S. Department of the Army, an Army leader as “anyone who by virtue of assumed role or assigned responsibility inspires and influences people to accomplish organizational goals. Army leaders motivate people both inside and outside the chain of command to pursue actions, focus thinking, and shape decisions for the greater good of the organization” (Department of Headquarters, Department of Army, 2006, p. 1–1).

Creech (2004) states that military leaders are role models that lead by example and are adept at leading by utilizing authority and influence. Creech’s requirements of military leadership are not different than those demonstrated by effective civilian leaders; however, military and civilian leaders are unique to one another, and each has its own strengths and weaknesses (Horn, 2014).

Weber (1947) identified six “classical attributes of bureaucracy”: specialization, meritocracy, hierarchy, separate ownership, impersonality and accountability. Military leadership is dependent primarily on one of Weber’s attributes, hierarchy. “Hierarchy is the foundation military service lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment” (Department of Army, 2006, p. 2–3). It is, therefore important to civilian employment in that it is indicative of skill sets that directly affect a veteran’s probability of success in a civilian work capacity (Horn, 2014).

Military to civilian

employment transitions

483

Military jobs and occupational specialties A Military Occupational Specialty or MOS is the military name for the titles and responsibilities of the job that a military service member holds while in the military. Every MOS is unique and is supported by more than 2,000 courses and 84,000 personnel (Kirin and Winkler, 1992). As of 2019, there were in excess of 700 specific and unique jobs in the military (Today’s Military.com, 2019).

MOSs are specific to the military and do not wholly exist in civilian contexts due to the sociopolitical mission(s) of the military as influenced by global politics and societal mandates (Bardies, 2013). As such, formal civilian education is absent and the specialized military training that the veteran received in themilitary “does not necessarily translate to the civilian world” (Pease et al., 2015, p. 84). In fact, many veterans feel as if their skills cannot translate effectively from the military to civilian employment due to the fact that their MOS provided themwith a level of responsibility, security clearance, training and supervisor experience that was no longer available to them in the civilian workforce (Harrod et al., 2017).

Military compensation and benefits According to Hosek and MacDermid-Wadsworth (2013), “service members typically earn more than civilians with a comparable level of education” (p. 41). That is primarily because service members and private sector employees are compensated for work performed in different ways. Specifically, civilian employees generally receive a base pay rate and in some instances bonuses that are generally in the form of cash or company stock. Civilian compensation models are generally aligned with industry characteristics (Baker et al., 1988). Military compensation, however, is a combination of many different pay components such as regular base compensation, professional pay, hazardous duty pay, sea duty pay, family separation pay, specialized duty assignment pay, commuted rations and enlistment/ reenlistment bonuses (Duenas, 2009).

Additionally, service members are eligible for 30 days of paid vacation annually as well as situational leave for things like pending deployments, morale building, medical, convalescent, bereavement and the birth of a child. Military benefits such as medical, dental, vision and life insurance are paid for in full by the military with no out-of pocket expenses for the service member (Department of Defense, 2011).

The military as “family” Ahern et al. (2015) state that themilitary is an organization that takes care of its members, and that former military members describe the military as family. They describe the military system as something to “hold onto in the chaos of a war zone” (p. 5) as well as a vehicle to provide an opportunity to excel. As such, the veteran returning to civilian life is facedwith the challenges of reconnection. These challenges are manifested in four reintegration themes: a) disconnection, b) unsupportive institutions c) lack of civilian structure and d) loss of purpose (Ahern, et al., 2015).

Most veterans experience conditions and events that are foreign to the civilian experience (Pease et al., 2015). In addition to the unique and often devastating effects of combat, there are military-specific environmental challenges as well. Specific examples include close-quarter living situations such as in tents or on naval vessels, prolonged exposure to natural elements, hostile environments and extensive family separation (United States Department of Defense, 2012). In order to more effectively copewith the hardships inherent to themilitary experience, veterans often view themilitary as “a ‘family’ that took care of service members and provided a structured set of expectations” (Ahern et al., 2015, p. 4).

CDI 25,5

484

Military onboarding and new hire training The military has a robust selection process that is just as important as the specific and regimented onboarding and initial military training process. According to Today’s Military.com (2019), basic enlisted selection and onboarding consists of five main steps;

(1) Satisfactory completion of theArmed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB)

(2) Satisfactory completion of a physical-readiness examination

(3) Career selection

(4) Oath of enlistment

(5) Report for basic training

The first four of these steps are completed during a single visit at an area’s Military Enlisted Processing Facility (MEPS) over a one or two day period. Generally, a new recruit has a “ship- out” date before leaving the MEPS facility.

Upon reporting for duty, both officers and enlisted personnel are engaged in a form of basic training which varies based on military branch (Military.com, 2018). Basic training is then followed by several weeks and/or months of specific job training. In some cases such as naval nuclear specialties, military training can be more than a year-and-a-half-long (Department of Defense, 1992). In contrast, civilian new hire training as provided by the employer lasts generally only a day or two, most of which is human resources orientation (Dunn, and Jasinski, 2009).

In all cases, the onboarding and training process in the military is highly structured. All new service members have a clear understanding of what the process will be as well as clear expectations of important dates, times and places (Today’s Military.com, 2019). Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for civilian employees.

Research questions The goal of this study was to analyze and evaluate the returning veteran’s civilian employment experience and to identify challenges faced by the veteran in the civilian onboarding experience. This study also evaluates how the onboarding experience(s) affects the ex-service member’s adjustment to and satisfaction with civilian employment’s way of interviews and first-hand perceptions.

Method A qualitative phenomenological research structure was determined to be the most appropriate research strategy for this study. Specifically, the qualitative design method was chosen as it allows for the subjectivity of the veteran participant and for detailed discussion on topics of concerns (Merriam, 2014). Utilizing a qualitative research method, the researcher was able to provide a richer, more in-depth analysis by utilization of detailed questioning since, as Merriam (2014) states, “individual respondents define the world in unique ways” (p. 90).

Consistent with Merriam’s observation (above), this study is designed to effectively explore the recently discharged veteran’s transition to civilian employment. Using a phenomenological approach, participants were interviewed and the interviewee’s verbatim descriptions of their personal experiences were captured in order to identify their personal experiences and their personal interpretations of those experiences.

While overall population of veterans is in excess of seven million (United States Department of Veterans Affairs, 2020), a sample of 27 recently separated veterans (within ten

Military to civilian

employment transitions

485

years) from a geographically diverse population was utilized for this study. Participants in the study were selected by way of purposive sampling that included those that (1) separated from one of the four branches of the military (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps) within ten years of this interview and (2) had been employed in a full-time civilian capacity since their military discharge.

Only veterans of the US Army, Navy, Air Force or Marine Corps were used for this study. The US Coast Guard was not utilized as it is a division of the Department of Homeland Security, and not the Department of Defense, and as such Coast Guard veteransmay not have the same military experience as veterans from the other four branches of the military. As an example of a significant difference, Coast Guard service members are not subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) except during time of war when they become a division of the US Navy (Walsh, 2018). Further, the missions of the Coast Guard primarily focus on law enforcement and homeland security; they do not identify part of their mission as being involved in overseas conflicts, although they are occasionally deployed to foreign ports. As such, deployments are generally shorter, operating units are smaller and family separation is limited as compared to the other branches of the military (Crea, 2007; Stiehm, 2012).

From a demographic research perspective, the US Coast Guard consists of approximately 41,000 active duty members, while the Army alone consists of 561,000 active duty members. When compared to the entire population of the US Military of 1.4 million, the Coast Guard makes up less than 3% of the total active duty population (Stiehm, 2012). In consideration of the Coast Guard’s relatively small percentage of the total veteran population and the potential for different experiences while on active duty which could affect the veteran’s transition experience, Coast Guard veterans were not included in this study.

Data collection and analysis The interview questions were developed by the researcher and feedback solicited from three human resource-related PhDs each with more than 20 years of practical interviewing experience. Additionally, six preliminary interviews were conducted as a vehicle to refine interview questions and identify initial codes that formed the primary themes of this research, thereby maximizing interview effectiveness (Merriam, 2014).

Participants were selected randomly from geographically diverse independent sources so as to get a representative sample of the general US veteran population. Purposive sampling was used to identify interview participants who were most likely to be able to provide meaningful contribution to the research as a result of their non-discriminatory demographic make-up (Maxwell, 2012). Since there is no set rule for the size of a qualitative sample (Kvale, 1996; Maxwell, 2012), an initial target of 30 participants was assumed to be sufficient to gather the amount of data required to address the research question at hand (Patton, 2002). That number was adjusted during the course of the research to 27, which was deemed sufficient due to similarity of the collected data (Merriam, 2014).

The recruitment sampling yielded 27 veterans from 20 different civilian employers. Six participants were working in human resource-related fields, one in health and wellness, four as retail store managers, three as school teachers, five in clinical/medical capacities, six in entry level retail capacities and two were unemployed. Sixteen of the participants were male and eleven were female. Data gathered for this study compromised demographic information including age, education andmilitary experience as well as the subject’s employer tenure and experience. Subject interviews were conducted by three independent interviewers and lasted approximately 60 min each. All interviews were conducted in a private location in order to ensure subject anonymity. Each interviewee was advised of the purpose of the research, as well as the confidentiality of the data gathered during the research. Each interview was digitally recorded and transcribed for data collection accuracy.

CDI 25,5

486

In order to minimize the impact of gender bias on this study, 16 of the participants were male and 11were female. Additionally, 25 of the 27 participantswere actively employed in the civilian workforce; 17 were between the ages of 26–35 and ten were older than 35. Sixteen of the participants had been employed by his/her current employer for between one and three years, and 15 participants had been in his/her current position for more than three years. Six participants were from theWestern US, ten from the Southern US, four from theMidwest and six from the East coast which allowed for a diverse geographical sample.

Since it is impossible to determine the relative experience and/or knowledge of civilian employment that a former service member may have from sources other than first-hand participatory experience, there was no attempt to differentiate that experience/knowledge prior to data collection.

In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with all 27 veterans. The semi- structured interview technique was chosen as it allowed for a free flow of follow-up questions and provided for flexibility of direction of the interview (Merriam, 2014). This was deemed important because the research was focused on individual experience and perceptions and was not looking for any specific areas or opinions. A single interviewer conducted, recorded and analyzed all of the interviews that he/she participated in and all three interviewers were careful to ask the written interview questions exactly the same way to each participant in order to help minimize intra-interviewer variability (Bryman and Bell, 2011). Participants were asked specific questions from the semi-structured interview guide as well as demographic-oriented questions such as age, education and military and civilian employment experience. Participants were also asked to describe their perceptions, experiences and recommendations for transitioning and onboarding veterans at their employer. The interview questions were separated into three distinct sections consistent with the themes identified in the initial pilot interviews. The researchers did, however, allow for some free-flow dialogue and unstructured discussion after gathering initial perspectives from the verbatim written questions in order to enrich the quality of the responses. Participants were encouraged to elaborate on questions that they felt were most important.

The initial phase of the interviews asked participants to reflect on their experience with the civilian employee selection process. This concept was clarified with the participants as being “all activities prior to their first day of employment.” Specifically, participants were asked to think about their experience applying for civilian jobs and reflect on their experiences (e.g. how would you describe your experience applying civilian jobs? What did you find were the biggest challenges for you in the process? What, if anything, did you find surprising?). The respondents were also asked how they overcame the challenges (e.g. How did you deal with the challenges you faced? What did the employer do to assist you?).

The second phase of the interviews focused on onboarding and integration. This section was clarified with the participant as being their first experiences “on the job,” including their first day(s), orientation, training and general preparation for successful employment. Specific questions were asked about the job offer and first day scheduling (e.g. What did the job offer experience consist of? What was challenging and/or surprising to you about the process?). Additional questions were asked about the onboarding, orientation and training experiences (e.g. What did the onboarding, orientation and training process consist of? What was challenging and/or surprising to you about the process? Was it effective? Did you feel fully prepared for your new job?).

The third and last phase of the interviews focused on compensation, benefits and family involvement. This section consisted of questions about the tangible value of civilian employment (e.g. Are you compensated hourly or by monthly salary? Describe your compensation exclusive of benefits and time off. Is your pay consistent with your expectations? Did you fully understand how you would be paid prior to your first day? Were you surprised by your compensation?). Additional questions were regarding the benefits and

Military to civilian

employment transitions

487

time-off packages (e.g. Describe the benefits package at your employer? Is it consistent with your expectations? Were you surprised or disappointed in the benefits offered to you?) and work-load/family involvement (e.g. Are you compensated fairly for your workload? Does your job meet your expectations of time off and family involvement? Describe your family’s involvement in work-related activities if any).

Each qualitative interview lasted approximately 60 min, and the interviews were conducted in various private offices and by telephone. Keeping in mind that the individuals themselves can define and elaborate on their experiences better than anyone else (Harr�e and Secord, 1976), every interview was synthesized and recapped at the end of questioning in order to ensure that the participant’s perspectives were accurately captured.

The transcriptions of all 27 participants were analyzed using thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006) and the “derived etic” approach to qualitative research (Berry, 1989). These techniques allowed the researchers to evaluate the transcripts for common themes indicating similarities in the participant’smilitary to civilian employment transition. Consistent with the recommendation of Ulin et al. (2005), the researchers familiarized themselves with the collected data and content by way of repeated reading and rereading of interview transcripts in order to determine similar response meanings and ultimately code similar responses into categorical themes and subthemes (Graneheim and Lundman, 2004). Specifically, data collected through the interviews were evaluated by breaking down each concept or thought into as many specific and unique codes as possible. These “first-level codes” were then combined, and consistent concepts were further grouped into more general “second-level codes” and ultimately into specific categories encompassing “broad analytic themes” (Bryman and Bell, 2011, p. 588).

The participant transcripts and codes were compared with the goal of establishing a discriminant coding capability greater than 80% (Miles andHuberman, 1984). This scorewas calculated using simple proportion agreement method because the qualitative nature of the analysis was designed to merely classify the responses into broad categories and because the research was an exploratory study. As such, the simple proportion agreement was deemed a satisfactory and appropriate approach (Kurasaki, 2000). As further verification of interrater reliability, Krippendorff’s alpha was calculated (87.2%) in order to further assess the accuracy of the data analysis as well as to verify the consistency of the research methods (Thomas and Magilvy, 2011). Krippendorff’s alpha was specifically chosen as it was developed to specifically “measure the agreement among observers, coders, judges, raters, or measuring instruments drawing distinctions among typically unstructured phenomena or assign computable values to them (Krippendorff, 2011, p. 1).” The Krippendorff’s alpha score of 87.2% for this analysis was deemed satisfactory as it is greater than the target score of 80% (Krippendorff, 2011).

Findings The findings of the study identified three main issues that the interviewees had with the civilian employment process: 1. civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit, 2. veteran anxiety with civilian employers lack of clearly defined new-hire processes and 3. civilian employer’s misunderstanding of veteran compensation, benefits and family involvement expectations. Respondents in this study identified challenges in all three themes and within the context of their initial military to civilian employment transition.

Theme one: civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit The respondents in this study consistently (100%) identified a lack of value for and/or a lack of understanding of how to evaluate the value of prior military service in the civilian

CDI 25,5

488

workforce. They elaborated that the lack of understanding is even more profound when considering veterans for civilian management roles. One hundred percent of the participants in this study forwarded that “leadership” occurs at all levels in the military which is consistent with Steihm (2012), that states and that most military personnel (in good standing) rise to the rank of at least anE�4 and therefor are a supervisor/manager by definition.Within the civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit theme, respondents identified two major questions for civilian employers as follows: How do we best utilize a veteran employee with significant management experience? How do we translate military experience to civilian applicability in a meaningful and realistic way?

The lack of recognition by civilian employers of themanagement/leadership experience of military veterans was illustrated by one participant as follows;

By the time youmake it out of basic and initial training, most soldiers have been promoted a couple of times. . . either as incentives for completing school or based on merit. So, by the time he/she gets to their first “real” duty station, they will be in some sort of supervisory capacity. That experience and responsibility only grows throughout their service time. So, you will routinely have 22 year old veterans with several years of supervisory experience upon completion of a military enlistment but they are not employable in a civilian supervisory capacity. It makes no sense (Male, 42, Retail Management).

The concept of the transfer of supervisory experience from the military to civilian employment becomes even more profound when comparing the different types of military leadership. Within the military, leadership and management have multiple meanings, and 100% of participants in this study stated that civilian employers should not only consider management capability but also what capacity the transitioning manager will be working in. As an example, one respondent stated;

A front line or department manager at Walmart may be more suitable for an enlisted leader while a Commissioned Officer may be more suitable for a more strategic manager role such as a logistics manager. While pure leadership experience may be similar between enlisted and commissioned officers, understanding the difference between the general and role experiences of officers and enlisted is very important (Male, 22, retail warehouse worker).

The overwhelming belief of participants interviewed (92.6%) in this study was that enlisted leadership personnel (E-4–E-9) are more effective civilian managers due to the similarities in hands-on management/leadership experiences between both military and civilian “people” management positions. Enlisted leaders were viewed as being more hands-on and participatory in their management practice. Commissioned officers, on the other hand, were viewed as being more strategic and directive.

The second main concept within the civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit theme identified by the participants in this study was the translation of skill sets from the military to civilian employment. Separate from the supervisory experiences outlined above, the military service member’s job and its relative level of responsibility were also identified.

According to the data collected and analyzed for this study, the veteran’s MOS is as important or often more important than rank when selecting a successful employee/manager for civilian employment. Further, selecting veterans who had military work responsibilities and environments similar to those in civilian employment was seen as having a higher probability of success. As one participant stated;

Some of these guys (veterans) have served as Nuclear Reactor Operators in the Navy. They had responsibility for managing a nuclear power plant when in the Navy but when they are discharged as an E-4 or E-5, they end up working at low end menial jobs with little to no real responsibility and quit after a short time (Female, 27, HR Project Manager).

Military to civilian

employment transitions

489

Theme 2: veteran anxiety with civilian employer’s lack of clearly defined new-hire processes Onboarding. Consistent with the descriptions of military onboarding by the Department of Defense (1992), and Today’s Military.com (2019), this study’s respondents clearly identified significant and challenging differences between military and civilian new-hire employment processes. Specifically, respondents expressed frustration with the lack of a clearly defined interview, selection and onboarding process during their initial transition to civilian employment. In all, 66% of the participants in the study identified that they felt “in the dark” or in “limbo”while waiting for a job offer from a civilian employer. They explained that when they joined the military, the entire process was clearly defined and took at most a few days. However, when they applied for a civilian job, they felt as if there were many interviews spread out over days or weeks and the hiring process seemed to be ad hoc and not well defined. One participant explained his perception of the civilian interview and onboarding process as follows;

It seems like hiring is a low priority and not well organized. I was invited in for an interview with the hiring manager who was not available so I met with a recruiter after I had to wait for nearly an hour. Then I had to come back and meet with the manager that I was supposed to meet with the first time. Two days later I was contacted by a lab to schedule a drug screening which I knew nothing about. Then, once everything was a “go,” I had to wait four weeks for a class date. It was a mess. (Male, 30, Medical Coordinator).

Another participant echoed the sentiment;

Once the job offer was extended, the delay for a start date was excessive . . . it took them several weeks to confirm a start date for me while they waited for a new “book of business” to be boarded. Once I started, training was shortened so the new business could be worked. (Male, 23, Sales)

New-hire training. One hundred percent of the respondents were disappointed in the civilian training and guidance they received when beginning their first civilian job. Respondents explained that formal training is only minimally available when beginning civilian employment as compared to military training. They stated that most military training programs include between six and twelve weeks of basic training followed by between ten and twenty weeks of job training specific to a service member’s military job (MOS), but that civilian “orientation” training is at most followed by “a few days of training” (3 respondents) or by less formal “on the job training” (16 respondents) which lacks structure and direction. One respondent explained her civilian experience as follows;

It is more like bumping your head in the dark until you figure it out! (Female, 22, Clerical).

Another respondent stated,

It wasweird. Themilitary taught you how to tie your shoes again then built up from there. Inmy first civilian job, they spent four hours going over benefits and paperwork then sent me to lunch. Everything about the job itself, I learned from others atwork . . .mostly peers because the supervisor was rarely available. (Male, 31, Retail).

Theme 3: civilian employer misunderstanding of veteran compensation, benefits and family involvement expectations Compensation. Respondents in this study described the various compensation opportunities in themilitary as being regular base compensation, professional pay, hazardous duty pay, sea duty pay, family separation pay, specialized duty assignment pay, commuted rations and enlistment/reenlistment bonuses as well as 30 days of paid vacation. More than half (52%) of the respondents in this study expressed their initial misunderstanding and dissatisfaction with common civilian compensation structures. Specifically, there was a feeling that there was little consideration for circumstance or adversity in civilian compensation.

CDI 25,5

490

The respondents equated civilian compensation with military “base pay,” and they felt that it was misleading that it was not communicated to them that there was no additional “add-on” pay such as the military “add-on” pay as outlined above. One participant described his experience as follows;

I never really had a job before I went in the military so the military was my only experience. I just assumed that everybody paid you like the military and I certainly never understood that my health benefits were paid for out of my paycheck! In the Army, healthcare is free so you get your whole check! (Male, 24, Retail).

Benefits.Military service members receive additional benefits that are rarely available or completely unavailable from civilian employers. Specific examples are on-base child care, no-cost (or near no-cost) dependent and service member health care, guarantee of quality educational opportunities for school-age children and college tuition reimbursement by way of the GI Bill or through various military and VA programs (Department of Defense, 2011).

The respondents to this study point out that while many of the programs and benefits offered to military service men and women are available in some form to civilians in the civilian workplace, they are cost-prohibitive as they are not significantly subsidized by the employer.

One respondent pointed out that military base pay is inclusive of the cost for benefits. As she stated,

In civilian employment, your take home pay is reduced by benefits costs such as retirement, life insurance and health/dental premiums. In the military, there is no cost for those benefits. That was surprising to say the least! (Female, 22, Clerical).

Five (19%) of this study’s respondents did not anticipate any of the pay deductions for benefits and as such felt “slighted” by the employer.

Family involvement. The participants in this study identified a significant difference in family involvement between the military and civilian employment. During times of deployment or training overseas, at sea or in other temporary duty locations, family separation can be long and difficult. However, at the service member’s assigned duty station, there are many initiatives and programs designed to enhance family support and involvement, such as Family Readiness Groups, Organized Volunteer Opportunities, Organized Team Building Activities and adjusted Work Days/Working Hours, that are all designed to help build cohesive support networks for familymembers while servicemembers are deployed.

All of the respondents in this study stated that family involvement in civilian employer activities was all but nonexistent. None of the participants in this study were able to identify any examples of where family and work came together. Several respondents identified times when their employers held barbecues or holiday parties, but those were for employees only and did not include employee’s families. The consensus of all respondents was that unlike military employment, civilian employment and “home life” are entirely separate. As one respondent stated;

The Navy is all about family. They even say that the toughest job in the Navy is the Navywife. Since you’re gone from home port so much, they make it a point to involve the family as often as they can. Your family can come eat dinner with you on the ship when you have duty. Ship picnics are family affairs and they even try to arrange housing so that ship’s families are housed nearby each other. I do not think my civilian boss even knows that I am married! (Male, 32, Finance Manager).

Military to civilian

employment transitions

491

Discussion The first six months of a new worker’s employment is paramount to his or her probability of staying with the organization (Tarquinio, 2006). Further, employment stability directly and positively impacts an organization’s performance, reduces recruiting costs and increases the retention of intellectual capital associated with job and firm knowledge (Ulrich et al., 1991).

In consideration of the costs of turnover outlined above as well as the aggressive commitments by US employers to hire veterans, it is increasingly important for practitioners to “get it right” when it comes to selecting and onboarding ex-military new hires. Understanding the unique challenges associated with hiring and onboarding veterans is an invaluable asset for employers committed to hiring veterans.

This study analyzed and evaluated the returning veteran’s civilian employment experience and identified challenges faced by the veteran in the civilian employment transition. Using qualitative research techniques, this study explored the returning veteran’s civilian employment experience and clearly outlined the challenges that veterans face when entering civilian employment for the first time. This research identified three main themes as follows; 1. civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit, 2. veteran anxiety with civilian employer’s lack of clearly defined new-hire processes and 3. civilian employer’s misunderstanding of veteran compensation, benefits and family involvement expectations.

Within the civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit theme, the results of the study as it relates to military supervisory/leadership skills are consistent with previous research by Creech (2004), Department of Army (2006), Horn (2014), Peters (2009), Weber (1947) and Williamson (1999). Additionally, the findings of this research are also consistent with previous research by Bush and Middlewood (2005), Feldman (1996), Johnson and Johnson (2000) andMaynard et al. (2006) that identify challengeswith interpreting the civilian value of MOSs. The results of this study clearly and demonstrably show that military skill sets and specific job specialties are challenging for civilian employers to interpret. The resulting affect for employers and veterans alike is an increased probability of job dissatisfaction and ultimately turnover due to the veteran’s feelings of underemployment (Feldman, 1996; Maynard et al., 2006; Johnson and Johnson, 2000; Sim and Lee, 2018; Wang, 2018). This is primarily due to the fact that negative or positive job perceptions are a result of the employee’s emotional perspective, the employment conditions, job expectations and connection to the work (Bush and Middlewood, 2005). More concisely, a veteran employee’s “perceptions of over qualification are associated with intentions to quit one’s job” (Maynard et al., 2006, p. 530) as they negatively impact job satisfaction (Johnson and Johnson, 2000). And, feelings of underemployment directly affect the veteran’s work attitudes, health (both physical and mental), job performance, organizational citizenship, absenteeism and ultimately turnover (Feldman, 1996; Johnson and Johnson, 2000).

Likewise, the theme of veteran anxiety with civilian employer’s lack of clearly defined new-hire processes such as time to board and new-hire training are supported and comparable to findings in previous research. Consistent with the descriptions of military onboarding by the Department of Defense (1992), Dunn and Jasinski (2009), and Today’s Military.com (2019), this study’s respondents clearly identified significant and challenging differences between military and civilian new-hire employment processes. Specifically, respondents expressed frustration with the lack of a clearly defined interview, selection and onboarding process during their initial transition to civilian employment. This lack of effective communication surrounding expectations results in a loss of an employee’s feelings of organizational commitment and involvement. According to Ehlers (2003) and Johlke and Duhan (2000), these feelings of disconnection will ultimately result in increased job dissatisfaction and turnover intent. As such, it can be concluded that the veteran’s perceived lack of communication and structure relating to the civilian new-hire process can result in increased veteran turnover in civilian employment. Regardless of whether these feelings are

CDI 25,5

492

the result of inadequate employer structure or the result of unreasonable expectations based on the military experience, the ultimate effect is the same . . . increased veteran turnover.

Previous research has demonstrated that training is of paramount importance to minimizing organizational turnover (Conley and Kadrlik, 2010) and has further showed that lack of effective new-hire training increases turnover probability (Versloot et al., 2001). When evaluating the veteran’s perception of the adequacy of new-hire training in the civilian context, this study demonstrates that civilian employer new-hire training is woefully absent as compared to the military training experience. In consideration that the perception of new- hire training directly impacts employee “satisfaction, performance, commitment, turnover, intent to leave, and stress” (Dunn and Jasinski, 2009, p. 1115), this research highlights the dissatisfaction of civilian new-hire training standards by military veterans.

“Service members typically earnmore than civilianswith a comparable level of education” (Hosek and MacDermid-Wadsworth, 2013, p. 41), and service members and private sector employees are compensated for work performed in different ways. This research demonstrates that the real and perceived differences between military and civilian compensation and benefits are significant and are of concern to the veteran joining the civilian workforce for the first time. These results are consistent with previous research by Baker et al. (1988); (Department of Defense, 2011) and Hosek and MacDermid-Wadsworth (2013) and confirm that there are significant differences between compensation and benefits between the military and civilian employment.

Shah (1998) and Mobley (1982) agree that compensation directly affects an employee’s work dissatisfaction, and ultimately turnover intention. Further, Adams and Jacobsen (1964) forwards that an employee’s perception of fairness of compensation is directly related to the perception of value for the applicable job performance. This research supports those concepts and further demonstrates that the feeling of pay inequity, whether real or perceived, is of significant concern to the veteran in a first civilian job.

Additionally, the results of this research follow and confirm previous research that forwards that the military is an organization that takes care of its members and that former military members describe the military as family (Ahern et al., 2015, p. 5–6). Specifically, this research translates the feelings of loss of the pseudo-familial support structures in the military as identified by Ahern et al. (2015) to the civilian employment experience. This research demonstrates that not only does the loss of the familial military structure affect the returning veteran from a general societal perspective but that it also affects that veteran in the smaller but just as significant employment perspective. The feelings expressed by the participants in this study are consistent with previous research that demonstrates that family involvement results in commitment to the organization (Wayne et al., 2013) and increased job satisfaction (Carlson et al., 2006; Wayne et al., 2013) and therefore lower veteran employee turnover (McNall et al., 2010).

Implications for practice and research The findings of this study have significant practical implications for both civilian and military organizations as well as individuals with a desire to address or at least be aware of some of the challenges with the veteran to civilian employment transition.

First, this study will assist military veterans entering the civilian workplace by bringing to their attention some of the challenges and differences that they will face in civilian employment. By making this information available to the newly separated veteran, it may allow for more comfortable transitions by eliminating surprises and clarifying civilian employment expectations. Veterans entering the civilian workforce for the first time should be aware that there will be significant differences in their civilian employment experience. The three main themes outlined in this paper as well as the subcategories will provide the

Military to civilian

employment transitions

493

newly separated veteran with a clear outline of some of the challenges that he/she is likely to face in civilian employment.

Second, the results of this study will assist human resources and recruiting/staffing professionals in developing strategies to assist veterans in their transition to civilian employment. This assistance will improve the veteran’s likelihood of success and ultimately limit an employer’s exposure to the increased costs associated with low morale and high turnover. Practitioners will be able to apply some of the learnings in this study to enhance an employee’s “fit” in the job and the employer community, thereby increasing the likelihood of retention (Mitchell et al., 2001). Further, organizations will benefit from this research by understanding the differences and potentially making the work environment more “veteran friendly” by considering changes to compensation, benefits and family involvement.

Finally, this study is beneficial to scholars in asmuch as it will help tomore clearly identify literature gaps, provide direction on emerging research concepts, add to the existing literature on the veteran to civilian transitions and connect research areas that have not yet been adequately studied. Future research would be well served to follow a similar program of research but by employing different research methods in order to address the limitations outlined above and further support the findings of this research. Specifically, future research should sample across a wider set of individuals as study participants (time since discharge, age, military rank at time of separation, reserve status, etc.). By doing this, future researchers may be able to determine how perceptions change over time and with regard to military experience. A second area of future research may be to conduct related research based on civilian employment opportunities and qualifications. Specific areas of study to be considered should be focused primarily on the macro issues such as military leadership and translating military experiences and skill sets to civilian contexts. Unlike other findings in this research, these two areas cannot be affected at the organizational level, and as such require concept exploration and clarity.

Additional research should be conducted by way of a quantitative study in order to statistically support this research while identifying andminimizing the effects of inputs from sources external to the study.

Limitations Asmall sample size of 27 subjects was used for this study. As such, there is concern that there may not be sufficient relevant data gathered and a representative sample of behavioral indicators may not have been collected. Further, this study may suffer from the limitations inherent to self-reporting and the vehicle for data collection (Breakwell, 2006). Also, since the researchers are the exclusive collectors and analyzers of the collected data, the results are somewhat dependent on their abilities, perspectives, integrity and predispositions (Hamel, 1993). As Guba and Lincoln (1981, p. 378) state, “An unethical case writer could so select from among available data that virtually anything he wished could be illustrated.”

Conclusions Although the US Military and the Veterans Administration offer a large number of government programs designed to assist veterans as they prepare for civilian “life,” they are not all-encompassing and not all veteranswill have utilized them. Although post-9/11 veteran hiring initiatives have markedly decreased the overall veteran unemployment rate to less than the national average (Dunne and Blank, 2018), this study demonstrates that it is imperative that employers have a thorough understanding of the veteran employment transition experience if they intend on maximizing the opportunity for the veteran’s success.

CDI 25,5

494

By utilizing a qualitative research approach, this study is the first to identify and elaborate on the challenges faced by veterans entering civilian employment for the first time. This study identified several areas of onboarding and the initial employment experience that are markedly different between the military and civilian employment experience. Further, this research also identified and outlined some of the challenges to the onboarding process that could be revised in order tomake the veteran’s civilian employment transition experience less challenging and more rewarding.

In conclusion, this paper serves to remind employers and returning veterans that while there are many similarities between military and civilian employment, they can be very different. As such, veteran new hires may not fully understand what unexpected challenges await them and employers may not fully understand how these challenges may affect their veteran new hires. This study offers an invitation for returning service members, practitioners and academics alike to take a proactive role in considering the differences and challenges veterans face when transitioning from the military to civilian employment for the first time.

References

Adams, J.S. and Jacobsen, P.R. (1964), “Effects of wage inequities on work quality”, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 69 No. 1, p. 19.

Adler, A.B., Zamorski, M. and Britt, T.W. (2011), “The psychological of transition: adapting to home after deployment”, in Adler, A.B. and Castro, C.A. (Eds), Deployment Psychology: Evidence-Based Strategies to Promote Mental Health in the Military, American Psychological Association, Washington DC, pp. 153-174, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/12300-006.

Ahern, J., Worthen, M., Masters, J., Lippman, S.A., Ozer, E.J. and Moos, R. (2015), “The challenges of Afghanistan and Iraq veterans’ transition from military to civilian life and approaches to reconnection”, PloS One, Vol. 10 No. 7, e012859.

Arendt, C.E. and Sapp, D.A. (2014), “Analyzing r�esum�es of military veterans during transition to post- service”, Florida Communication Journal, Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 45-60.

Baker, G.P., Jensen, M.C. and Murphy, K.J. (1988), “Compensation and incentives: practice vs. theory”, Journal of Finance, Vol. 43, pp. 593-616.

Bardies, L. (2013), “La democratie et la revolution du marche cognitif: European journal of sociology european journal of sociology”, Archives Europ�eennes de Sociologie, Vol. 54 No. 3, pp. 537-544.

Berry, J.W. (1989), “Imposed etics—emics—derived etics: the operationalization of a compelling idea”, International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 24 No. 6, pp. 721-735.

Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006), “Using thematic analysis in psychology”, Qualitative Research in Psychology, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 77-101.

Breakwell, G.M. (2006), “Interviewing methods”, Research Methods in Psychology, 3rd ed., Sage Publications, pp. 232-253.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2011), Business Research Methods 3e, Oxford University Press, New York.

Burnett-Zeigler, I., Valenstein, M., Ilgen, M., Blow, A.J., Gorman, L.A. and Zivin, K. (2011), “Civilian employment among recently returning Afghanistan and Iraq National Guard veterans”, Military Medicine, Vol. 176 No. 6, pp. 639-46.

Bush, T. and Middlewood, D. (2005), Leading and Managing People in Education, Sage Publications, London.

Carlson, D.S., Kacmar, K.M., Wayne, J.H. and Grzywacz, J.G. (2006), “Measuring the positive side of the work-family interface: development and validation of a work-family enrichment scale”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 68 No. 1, pp. 131-164.

Military to civilian

employment transitions

495

Chicas, J., Maiden, P., Oh, H.,Wilcox, S. and Young, D. (2012), From War to the Workplace: Helping Veterans Transition to Civilian Work Settings. Policy Brief, USC Center for Innovation and Research onVeterans and Military Families, Los Angeles, CA.

Conley, P. and Kadrlik, D. (2010), “Using long-term incentives to retain top talent”, in Berger, L.A. and Berger, D.R. (Eds), The Talent Management Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, pp. 285-290.

Crea, V. (2007), “The US Coast Guard: a flexible force for national security”, Naval War College Review, Vol. 60 No. 1, pp. 14-23.

Creech, G.W.L. (2004), Organizational and Leadership Principles for Senior Leaders. AU- 24 Concepts for Air Force Leadership.

Curry Hall, K., Harrell, M.C., Bicksler, B., Stewart, R. and Fisher, M.P. (2014), Veteran Employment: Lessons from the 100,000 Jobs Mission, Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.

Davis, L., Resnick, S., Maieritsch, K., Weber, K., Erbes, C.R., Strom, T.Q., McCall, K.P. and Kyriakides, T.A. (2019), “Employment outcomes from VA vocational services involving transitional work for veterans with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder”, Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, Vol. 42 No. 3, pp. 257-267.

Defense Manpower Data Center (2020), available at: https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/appj/dwp/dwp_ reports.jsp.

Department of Defense (2011), Instruction 1327.06: Leave and Liberty Policy and Procedures, U.S. Department of Defense, Arlington, VA, available at: http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/ pdf/132706p.pdf.

Department of Defense, W.D. (1992), “Military Careers: A Guide to Military Occupations and Selected Military Career Paths, 1992-1994”, available at: http://libproxy.troy.edu/login?url5http://search. ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct5true&db5eric&AN5ED384836&site5eds-l.

Duenas, J.G. (2009), EvaluatingMilitary Compensation, Nova Science Publishers, New York, available at: http://search.ebscohost.com.libproxy.troy.edu/login.aspx?direct5true&db5cat05550a&AN5tr oy.666891859&site5eds-live.

Dunn, M. and Blank, A. (2018), “Job market continued to improve in 2017 as the unemployment rate declined to a 17-year low”, Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 1, p. 141.

Dunn, S. and Jasinski, D. (2009), “The role of new hire orientation programs”, Journal of Employment Counseling, Vol. 46 No. 3, pp. 115-127.

Ehlers, L.N. (2003), The Relationship of Communication Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction and Self Reported Absenteeism, Unpublished Master’s Dissertation, Department of Speech Communication, Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Feldman, D.C. (1996), “The nature, antecedents, and consequences of underemployment”, Journal of Management, Vol. 22, pp. 385-407.

Graneheim, U.H. and Lundman, B. (2004), “Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness”, Nurse Education Today, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 105-112. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001.

Guba, E.G. and Lincoln, Y.S. (1981), Effective Evaluation: Improving the Usefulness of Evaluation Results through Responsive and Naturalistic Approaches, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Hamel, J. (1993), Case Study Methods. Qualitative Research Methods, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Harre, R. and Secord, P.F. (1976), The Explanation of Social Behaviour (No. 70.02 (Sirsi) I9780631171409.

Harrod, M., Miller, E.M., Henry, J. and Zivin, K. (2017), ““I’ve never been able to stay in a job”: a qualitative study of Veterans’ experiences of maintaining employment”, Work, Vol. 57 No. 2, pp. 259-268.

Headquarters, Department of Army (2006), Army Leadership (Field Manual 22-100), Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

CDI 25,5

496

Horn, B. (2014), “A reflection on leadership: a comparative analysis of military and civilian approaches”, Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, Vol. 15 No. 3.

Hosek, J. and MacDermid Wadsworth, S. (2013), “Economic conditions of military families”, Future of Children, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 41-59.

Johlke, M.C. and Duhan, D.F. (2000), “Supervisor communication practices and service employee job outcomes”, Journal of Service Research, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 154-165.

Johnson, G.J. and Johnson, W.R. (2000), “Perceived over-qualification and dimensions of job satisfaction: a longitudinal analysis”, Journal of Psychology, Vol. 134 No. 5, pp. 537-555.

Keeling, M.E., Ozuna, S.M., Kintzle, S. and Castro, C.A. (2019), “Veterans’ civilian employment experiences: lessons learnt from focus groups”, Journal of Career Development, Vol. 46 No. 6, pp. 692-705.

Kirchner, M. and Akdere, M. (2019), “An empirical investigation of the acquisition of leadership KSAs in the US Army: implications for veterans’ career transitions”, Journal of Veterans Studies, Vol. 4 No. 1.

Kirin, S.J. and Winkler, J.D. (1992), The Army Military Occupational Specialty Database (No. RAND/N- 3527-A), Rand Arroyo Center, Santa Monica Ca.

Kleykamp, M. (2013), “Unemployment, earnings and enrollment among post 9/11 veterans”, Social Science Research, Vol. 42 No. 3, pp. 836-51.

Krippendorff, K. (2011), “Agreement and information in the reliability of coding”, Communication Methods and Measures, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 93-112.

Kurasaki, K.S. (2000), “Intercoder reliability from validating conclusions drawn from open-ended interview data”, Field Methods, Vol. 12, pp. 179-94.

Kvale, S. (1996), Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Little, R. and Alenkin, N. (2011), Overcoming Barriers to Employment for Veterans: Current Trends and Practical Approaches. Policy Brief, USC Center for Innovation and Research on Veterans and Military Families, Los Angeles, CA.

Maxwell, J.A. (2012), Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Maynard, D.C., Joseph, T.A. and Maynard, A.M. (2006), “Underemployment, job attitudes, and turnover intentions”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 27 No. 4, p. 509.

McGregor, J. (2013),Wal-Mart’s Promise to Veterans: Good News or Good P.R.?, The Washington Post, Washington, DC.

McNall, L.A., Masuda, A.D. and Nicklin, J.M. (2010), “Flexible work arrangements, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions: the mediating role of work-to-family enrichment”, The Journal of Psychology, Vol. 144 No. 1, pp. 61-81.

Merriam, S.B. (2014), Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Miles, M.B. and Michael Huberman, A. (1984), Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.

Military.com (2018), “Compare the jobs the military has to offer”, available at: https://www.military. com/join-armed-forces/compare-military-jobs.html.

Mitchell, T.R., Holtom, B.C., Lee, T.W., Sablynski, C.J. and Erez, M. (2001), “Why people stay: using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 44, pp. 1102-1121.

Mobley, W.H. (1982), Employee Turnover: Causes, Consequences, and Control, Addison-Wessley, Reading, MA.

Military to civilian

employment transitions

497

Osanloo, A.F. (2011), “Unburying patriotism: critical lessons in civics and leadership ten years later”, High School Journal, Vol. 95 No. 1, pp. 56-71.

Ostovary, F. and Dapprich, J. (2011), “Challenges and opportunities of operation enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi freedom veterans with disabilities transitioning into learning and workplace environments”, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, Vol. 2011 No. 132, pp. 63-73, doi: 10.1002/ace.432.

Patton, M.Q. (2002), Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods, California EU: Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Pease, J.L., Billera, M. and Gerard, G. (2015), “Military culture and the transition to civilian life: suicide risk and other considerations”, Social Work, Vol. 61 No. 1, pp. 83-86.

Peters, B.L. (2009), “The drinkers’ bonus in the military: officers versus enlisted personnel”, Applied Economics, Vol. 41 No. 17, pp. 2211-2220, doi: 10.1080/00036840701222447.

Rudstam, H., Strobel Gower, W. and Cook, L. (2012), “Beyond yellow ribbons: are employers prepared to hire, accommodate and retain returning veterans with disabilities?”, Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 87-95.

Shah, R.R. (1998), “Who are employees social referents? Using a network perspective to determine referent others”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 41, pp. 249-68.

Sim, Y. and Lee, E. (2018), “Perceived underqualification and job attitudes: the role of transformational leadership”, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, No. 8, p. 962, doi: 10.1108/LODJ- 03-2018-0127.

Stiehm, J.H. (2012), “The us military: a basic introduction”, available at: https://ebookcentral. proquest.com.

Tarquinio, M. (2006), “Onboarding benchmark report: technology drivers help improve the new hire experience”, Aberdeen Group, available at: www.silkroad.com/SiteGen/Uploads/Public/SRT/ Whitepaper/pdf.

Thomas, E. and Magilvy, J.K. (2011), “Qualitative rigor or research validity in qualitative research”, Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 151-155, doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6155. 2011.00283.x.

Today’s Military.com (2019), “How to join”, available at: https://www.todaysmilitary.com/how-to-join?.

Ulin, P.R., Robinson, E.T. and Tolley, E.E. (2005), Qualitative Methods in Public Health, 1st ed., Jossey- Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Ulrich, D., Halbrook, R., Meder, D., Stuchlik, M. and Thorpe, S. (1991), “Employee and customer attachment: synergies for competitive advantage”, Human Resource Planning, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 89-103.

United States Department of Defense (2012), Military Deployment Guide: Preparing You and Your Family for the Road Ahead.

United States Department of Labor (2015), available at: http://www.dol.gov/_sec/media/reports/ veteranslaborforce/.

United States Department of Veterans Affairs (2020), available at: http://www.va.gov/vetdata/Quick_ Facts.asp.

Versloot, B.M., Jong, J.A. and Thijssen, J.G. (2001), “Organisational context of structured on the job training”, International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 2-22.

Walsh, J.M. (2018), “On the waterfront: coast guard jurisdiction ashore”, Tulane Maritime Law Journal, Vol. 42 No. 2, pp. 293-316.

Wang, J. (2018), “Hours underemployment and employee turnover: the moderating role of human resource practices”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 29 No. 9, pp. 1565-1587.

CDI 25,5

498

Wayne, J.H., Casper, W.J., Matthews, R.A. and Allen, T.D. (2013), “Family-supportive organization perceptions and organizational commitment: the mediating role of work-family conflict and enrichment and partner attitudes”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 98 No. 4, pp. 606-623.

Weber, M. (1947), The Theory of Social and Economic Reform, Henderson and Parson, Translators, Free Press, New York, NY.

Whitehouse Press Release Blog (2014), available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2013/04/30/first- lady-michelle-obama-announces-new-hiring-commitments-veterans-and-military-spo.

Williamson, S. (1999), A Description of US Enlisted Personnel Promotion Systems, RAND, Santa Monica, CA.

Winters, J.V. (2018), “Veteran status, disability rating, and public sector employment”, Health Economics, Vol. 27 No. 6, pp. 1011-1016.

Further reading

Bass, B.M. (1990), Bass and Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Application, Free Press, New York, NY.

Bass, B. and Avolio, B.J. (2000), MLQ-multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Technical Report, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Bordieri, J.E. and Drehmer, D.E. (1984), “Vietnam veterans: fighting the employment war”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 14, pp. 341-347, doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1984.tb02242.x.

Dao, J. (2013), “Preventing domestic violence in families of veterans”, The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 74 No. 10, pp. 974-980.

Denzin, N.K. (2012), “Triangulation 2.0”, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Vol. 6, pp. 80-88, doi: 10. 1177/1558689812437186.

GAO Reports (2005), “Military personnel: reporting additional servicemember demographics could enhance congressional oversight: GAO-05-95”, GAO Reports, 1, available at: http://libproxy. troy.edu/login?url5http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct5true&db5pwh&AN518351 919&site5eds.

Griffin, K.K. (2015), “Better transitions for troops: an application of Schlossberg’s transition framework to analyses of barriers and institutional support structures for student veterans”, Journal Of Higher Education, Vol. 86 No. 1, pp. 71-97.

Horton, J.L., Jacobson, I.G., Wong, C.A., Wells, T.S., Boyko, E.J., Smith, B., Ryan, M.A. and Smith, T.C. (2013), “The impact of prior deployment experience on civilian employment after military service”, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 70 No. 6, p. 408, doi: 10.1136/oemed- 2012-101073.

Huberman, A.M. and Miles, M.B. (1983), “Drawing valid meaning from qualitative data: some techniques of data reduction and display”, Quality and Quantity, Vol. 17 No. 4, p. 281.

Lippitt, G.L. and Schmidt, W.H. (1967), Crises in a Developing Organization, Harvard Business Review, Cambridge, MA.

Lussier, R.N. and Achua, C.F. (2015), Leadership: Theory, Application, and Skill Development, Nelson Education, Toronto.

Prudential Financial (2012), Veteran Employment Challenges: Perceptions and Experiences of Transitioning from Military to Civilian Life, Prudential Financial, Newark, NJ.

Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998), Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, 2nd ed., Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Waldman, D. and Galvin, B. (2008), “Alternative perspectives of responsible leadership”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 37 No. 4, pp. 327-341.

Military to civilian

employment transitions

499

About the author Dr John C. Dexter holds a BS in psychology from the University of The State of New York, Albany, and an MS and PhD in human resource development from The University of Texas, Tyler.

Dr John C. Dexter began his career with six years in the US Navy, where, upon completion of the Naval Nuclear Power School and Prototype training, he served as a nuclear engineer on East Coast attack submarines and as an instructor at the US Submarine School in Groton, CT.

After his honorable discharge from active duty, Dr John C. Dexter served in HR leadership capacities for more than 20 years. Some of the positions he held during his practioner career include VP and Chief HR Officer for TranSouth Financial, director of HR for Global eCommerce and Catalog Businesses at Office Depot, VP and chief HR and administration officer for Hotels.com and Expedia Corp., SVP and chief HR officer for TravelCLICK and SVP and chief HR officer for Caliber Home Loans.

Dr John C. Dexter joined Troy University in April of 2016 and teaches management and human resources classes for the Sorrel College of Business. His research interests are leadership, military to civilian transitions and organizational performance. Dr John C. Dexter lives in Dallas, Texas, with his wife and two boys. John C. Dexter is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: [email protected] troy.edu

For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website: www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm Or contact us for further details: [email protected]

CDI 25,5

500

  • Human resources challenges of military to civilian employment transitions
    • Background of the problem and the need for this study
    • Problem statement
    • Literature review
      • Military leadership
      • Military jobs and occupational specialties
      • Military compensation and benefits
      • The military as “family”
      • Military onboarding and new hire training
      • Research questions
    • Method
      • Data collection and analysis
    • Findings
      • Theme one: civilian employer's military job knowledge deficit
      • Theme 2: veteran anxiety with civilian employer’s lack of clearly defined new-hire processes
        • Onboarding
        • New-hire training
      • Theme 3: civilian employer misunderstanding of veteran compensation, benefits and family involvement expectations
        • Compensation
        • Benefits
        • Family involvement
    • Discussion
    • Implications for practice and research
    • Limitations
    • Conclusions
    • References
    • Further reading

Attachment 10

Critical review on power in organization: empowerment in human resource development

Sung Jun Jo Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea, and

Sunyoung Park Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

Abstract Purpose – This paper aims to analyze current practices, discuss empowerment from the theoretical perspectives on power in organizations and suggest an empowerment model based on the type of organizational culture and the role of human resource development (HRD). Design/methodology/approach – By reviewing the classic viewpoint of power, Lukes’ three-dimensional power and Foucault’s disciplinary power, we discuss power and empowerment in organizational contexts. Findings – Power in organizations can be conceptualized based on the classic view, Foucault and critical view and Lukes’ three-dimensional power. We found that true employee empowerment is related to the third dimension of power. The role of HRD for empowerment can be categorized into enhancing motivation and commitment in terms of psychological empowerment and bringing real power to employees. The proposed empowerment model assumes that organizational culture influences the dimensions of empowerment and the role of HRD for supporting empowerment. Practical implications – HRD needs to critically assess the meaning of power in particular contexts (Morrell and Wilkinson, 2002) before planning and implementing specific training and development interventions for performance improvement and/or organization development interventions for innovation. Originality/value – This study attempts to review, analyze and discuss issues regarding employee empowerment from HRD perspectives. Implications for the roles of HRD and the empowerment model are proposed.

Keywords Organizational culture, Employee participation, Classical viewpoint of power, Employee empowerment, Foucault’s disciplinary power, Luke’s three-dimensional power

Paper type Conceptual paper

Introduction Empowerment as a research topic has been increasingly discussed in various management-related literature. As Oakland (2001) indicated, many successful organizations have placed great importance on empowerment initiatives because it is believed that they could be conducive to performance improvement by promoting employee commitment to and involvement in the decision-making process. Success stories in Japanese firms, where employers have assumed a paternalistic attitude toward labor and workers’ participation in shop-floor management, have strongly precipitated organizations’ interest in empowerment (Benton and Magnier-Watanabe, 2014; Tseo and Ramos, 1995).

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: www.emeraldinsight.com/2046-9012.htm

EJTD 40,6

390

Received 20 January 2016 Revised 18 May 2016 Accepted 27 May 2016

European Journal of Training and Development Vol. 40 No. 6, 2016 pp. 390-406 © Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2046-9012 DOI 10.1108/EJTD-01-2016-0005

One of the most frequently cited success stories of employee empowerment is in 3M where professional staff members are encouraged to suggest new ideas for products. Those whose proposals gain executive approval may have the right to recruit collaborators from other departments at their own discretion. Since those who propose new ideas do not take any risk in case of failure of the business idea, this system has spawned over 60,000 new products in the market. Inspired by such success, 3M also introduced a shop-floor participation program for blue-collar workers, allowing them to influence the production process (Garud et al., 2011; Tseo and Ramos, 1995).

The movement toward employee empowerment began with the criticism of Taylorism and scientific management, which were prevalent in the 1920s and were based on the X theory. According to Taylorism, a worker’s job was broken down into small tasks and the best method for carrying out each task was determined by a scientific work study. Workers had little discretion and were alienated from their work. They worked under tight discipline and strict supervision imposed by management. While this approach was successful in improving productivity, this type of scientific management resulted in problems such as alienation of labor leading to a high turnover rate, absenteeism and strikes. In opposition to Taylorism, a new trend represented by the Human Relations School emerged suggesting that workers’ involvement had strong business as well as moral benefits. It was claimed that workers would be self-motivated and carry out good work without close supervision (Wilkinson, 1998; Deetz, 2003).

With this new perspective, the focus began to shift from the technical aspects to human aspects of management. Scholars attempted to prove that productivity could be enhanced when workers were motivated to work, so job enrichment and job enlargement tactics were proposed to motivate workers to be immersed in their jobs. For instance, Herzberg’s (1987) two-factor theory argued that intrinsic factors (e.g. job satisfaction) are more important motivators than extrinsic ones such as economic compensation. Herzberg claimed that an intrinsic motivator could be enriched by reintegrating maintenance tasks and providing some decision-making opportunities (Wilkinson, 1998; Zhang and Bartol, 2010).

This idea has developed into the currently popular notion of empowerment in business. With an emphasis on flexibility as a substitute for the Ford mode of production management, empowerment has been a common term since the 1990s, with the introduction of the so-called “empowerment era” (Harley, 2000). Management has increasingly been interested in improving workers’ competitiveness by enhancing their participation or involvement in the decision-making process in the workplace. Union-management cooperative projects, Total Quality Management (TQM) and organizing self-management teams are typical initiatives to promote employee empowerment and have been adopted by many business firms today (Cummings and Worley, 2004). The increasing popularity of and interest in empowerment are rooted in the belief that those who work directly on any production process or directly with clients and customers tend to understand the requirements of the job better than management who are positioned further from the immediate job site (Collins, 1997).

Business firms are increasingly required to reduce the time to analyze and process the acquired information to make decisions based on that information so that they can survive in the rapidly changing environment. Thus, empowering employees is proposed as a strategic consideration rather than another human resource management tactic aimed at enhancing employee morale. However, despite the vast research on empowerment, few

391

Critical review on power in

organization

research studies have been based on rigorous theoretical models of empowerment (Heller, 2003). This fundamental shortcoming can be attributed to the conceptual confusion among interpretations of empowerment and to the lack of attention to power issues in organizations. As Conger and Kanungo (1988) argued, despite the increasing focus on empowerment as a set of management techniques, researchers have not paid sufficient attention to the nature of the concept. In particular, conceptual confusion is found in the fact that many researchers have used the term “empowerment” interchangeably with “participation”, “involvement” or “delegation” (Cunningham and Hyman, 1999; Heller, 2003; Honold, 1997; Mills and Ungson, 2003; Wilkinson, 1998).

The lexical meaning of empowerment is “giving power to someone”. Thus, empowerment is associated with the extent to which employers confer their power to employees. If there is a shift in power balance between employers and employees, understanding the factors that motivate or force employers to relinquish power should be a focus of interest. It would also be of interest to understand how this shift in the power relationship has changed the way employees work and the nature of working in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to examine these topics that have been ignored by management and human resource development (HRD) literature to find the real meaning of empowerment and ultimately how HRD can best encourage empowerment in organizations.

The concept of employee empowerment signifies that employees are given the power which was originally possessed by management. Critical theorists have related empowerment to emancipation of labor and democratic control in the workplace through the examination of power relationships in organizations (Boje and Rosile, 2001). To critically analyze the notion of empowerment in management practice, researchers have investigated the nature of power and control on which such empowerment is based (Conger and Kanungo, 1988). However, they have failed to present a clear model to analyze the extent of empowerment and its practical direction.

To overcome the limitations found in the existing literature, this study attempts to review, analyze and discuss issues regarding employee empowerment from an HRD perspective. Following the review of research trends on employee empowerment, several conceptions of power proposed by Weber (1947); Parsons (1954); Foucault (1982) and Lukes (1974) are explored. From an HRD standpoint, critical issues of empowerment are identified and discussed. Lastly, an empowerment model and three implications for the roles of HRD in terms of power relationships in organizations are proposed.

Research trends The authors’ perspectives and focuses of existing research on employee empowerment vary greatly (Cicolini et al., 2014; Honold, 1997; Maynard et al., 2012; Menon, 2001; Seibert et al., 2011; Spreitzer, 2007; Wall et al., 2004; Wilkinson, 1998). For example, Honold (1997) reviews the literature on employee empowerment based on five categories:

(1) the leader’s role in creating an empowering context; (2) the individual’s perspective of the empowered state; (3) collaborative work as empowerment; (4) structural or procedural changes as empowerment; and (5) a multi-dimensional perspective on empowerment.

EJTD 40,6

392

Wilkinson (1998) also identified five main types of employee empowerment including information sharing (downward, upward and horizontal communication), upward problem solving (autonomy and responsibility), task autonomy (team-managed or self-managing teams), shaping of attitudes (relationships and roles) and self-management (authority and involvement) based on the assumption that employees’ and employers’ interests are closely connected. Spreitzer (1996) defined psychological empowerment is defined as intrinsic task motivation in which individuals feel a sense of control in relation to their work, including meaning, competence (self-efficacy), self-determination and impact.

Although there have been numerous studies related to employee empowerment, the results of research evaluating the impact of employee empowerment on performance have been inconsistent. Some studies have discovered that one of the major effects of employee empowerment is changes in workers’ attitudes (Fernandez and Moldogaziev, 2013; Freeman and Kleiner, 2000; Kemelgor, 2015). For example, Fernandez and Moldogaziev (2013) confirmed that empowerment plays a significant role in enhancing innovative behavior, satisfaction with the job and organization and performance at both the team and organizational levels. Freeman and Kleiner (2000) also conducted a survey to determine the benefits of employee involvement practices including self-managed work teams, worker involvement, TQM, productivity committee, suggestion systems, information-sharing and opinion surveys. They found that employee involvement led to positive changes for employees such as improvement in job satisfaction and attitudes toward work, but they found little or no effect on firm-based productivity. Kemelgor (2015) emphasized that employee empowerment is effective in accomplishing organizational goals in small business contexts by enabling employees to have control over significant aspects of their work.

Other studies, however, found negative results of employee empowerment practices. Based on a case study with interviews and surveys, Cunningham and Hyman (1999) discussed the impact of empowerment by comparing employees’ views and line managers’ views. They found that both employees and managers had negative opinions about their employee empowerment programs for four reasons:

(1) lack of training and development to support the empowerment program; (2) operational pressures overriding the initiative for empowerment; (3) reduction in the role of the Personnel Department; and (4) deficiencies in cultural changes.

Heller (2003) indicated that employee involvement programs that focus on the quality of work life, quality circles, representative participation and job enrichment have not always been effective and that it has been impossible to conduct a clear assessment of the effectiveness of these programs. However, he also acknowledged that some research papers have reported positive relationships between employee participation and psychological and behavioral outcomes such as job satisfaction and lower turnover (Heller, 2003).

Several topics, issues and results regarding employee empowerment and the practical results of employee empowerment have produced diverse results. Inconsistency in the results accounts partly for stakeholders’ conceptual confusion

393

Critical review on power in

organization

about power and empowerment. For clarification, we explore these concepts through a comprehensive literature review of the key theoretical literature.

Conceptual review of power in organizations Classic view Weber (1947) and Parsons (1954) were pioneers of the classic perspectives on power. They viewed power as a social resource which can be acquired, distributed, allocated or transferred (Heiskala, 2001). Weber (1947, p. 152) defined power as “the probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance, regardless of the basis on which this probability rests”. His definition of power has been understood to reflect the distributive approach in which an increase in a party’s power means a corresponding decrease in the other’s power (Heiskala, 2001).

Parsons (1954, p. 391) defined power as “the realistic capacity of a system unit to actualize its interests within the system-interaction and to exert influence on processes in the system”. His definition notes that power is regarded as a resultant of a specific social system rather than something to be possessed regardless of the context. Weber’s and Parsons’ notions of power both refer to the resources in a social system with multiple actors in the system competing to gain power. They viewed power as separate from individuals. Based on their views of power, Lukes (1974) defined power as the organizational capacity to secure performance by binding units in a system when the obligations are legitimized with reference to their bearing on collective goals.

Despite the similarities between the two views, Heiskala (2001) indicated that the demarcation between Weber and Parsons in terms of power is found in that Weber regards it as a limited resource whereas Parsons’ attention was on its reproducibility and collective enhancement. It can be argued that Parsons’ systemic approach formed the fundamentals to analyze how power is generated and operated. However, there are limitations in both classic conceptions of power from a critical perspective. While both theorists attempted to explain and conceptualize the power they observed, the contradiction in the power relationship or systems in which the power relationship is embedded was neglected. In that sense, the classic theory of power can be evaluated as conservative because they believed the relationship and system could be maintained.

Foucault and the critical view Critical theorists equated power with domination and subordination. Although critical theorists focused on different epistemological purposes than classic mainstream theorists, most conceptions and analyses of power in organizations have been derived from the perspective of classical sociological and political science. In particular, the discussion has focused on power in relation to the influence on different people or groups in political processes and in the rights of individuals in opposition to a possible state of domination (Deetz, 1992).

Foucault (1982), on the other hand, provided an analytical perspective in which additional attributes of power were identifiable. He conceptualized disciplinary power, which is divided into norms and standard practices, as products of moral, medical, sexual and psychological regulations. In other words, disciplinary power resides in every perception, every judgment and every act. In its positive sense, disciplinary power enables and makes something possible, but it excludes and marginalizes people. Rather than analyzing power in the organization as if it were a sovereign state, the conception

EJTD 40,6

394

of power has to be reformed to account for a more massive and invisible structure of control (Deetz, 2003). Deetz (2003, p. 32) demonstrates how disciplinary power is exercised in everyday work as follows:

Disciplinary power has been present in corporations from their outset. Perhaps the clearest case is the development of the assembly line. The assembly line transformed an explicit authority relation between the worker and supervisor into a partially hidden one. Rather than the supervisor having to tell the worker how hard or fast to work and dealing with the question, “by what right?” the movement in the line already accomplished it. In doing so, the functional relation changed.

Foucault’s focus was placed on how the mechanisms of power affect everyday lives (Hassard et al., 2001). He denies the view of power being depicted as a commodity as in the classic perspectives in sociology. Power is not something that is acquired, seized, shared or transferred. Rather, power is seen as a product of relationships. It is not associated with a particular institution but with practices, techniques and procedures. Since power is employed at all levels and in many dimensions in the organization, the “how” of power, not the “what” issue, is the focus. He connects power and knowledge by saying, “power is exercised by virtue of things being known and people being seen” (Hassard et al., 2001).

Knowledge is the most critical attribute of power. If something is to be controlled, governed or managed, it must first be known. Identifying who is initiating a particular discourse indicates those with authority and the power to define the knowable and permissible. Thus, professional practices in management are constructed through these discourses and are therefore open to the possibility of change (Trehan, 2004). In particular, Foucault dissolved the traditional distinction between power and knowledge, whereby knowledge may lead to power, or power may be enhanced by the acquisition of knowledge. These two viewpoints are not depicted as having an independent existence; they co-exist (Hassard et al., 2001).

Lukes’ three-dimensional power Lukes’ conceptualization of multi-faceted power provided a synthesized discussion about the definition, function and key attributes of power. His three-dimensional model of power has played a role as the stimulus which was then followed by a series of contesting discussions.

Based on Lukes’ (1974) framework of three-dimensional power, this paper discusses the power relationship between employer and employee embedded in the notion of empowerment in current management practices. The extent to which empowerment initiatives rearrange the existing power relationship depends on the organizational contexts in which the empowerment initiatives are introduced. The three-dimensional approach provides an analytical framework which allows us to examine why empowerment is adopted, how it is operated and what it produces as outcomes.

The discussion in this paper about the power relationship between employer and employee embedded in the notion of empowerment in current management practices is based on Lukes’ (1974) framework of three-dimensional power. The extent to which empowerment initiatives rearrange the existing power relationship varies with the contexts where the empowerment initiatives are introduced in organizations. Thus, the three-dimensional approach provides an analytical framework through which we are

395

Critical review on power in

organization

able to examine why empowerment is adopted, how it is operated and what it produces as outcomes.

The first dimension of power involves a successful attempt by one party (power holder) to get the other party (subordinate) to do something the latter would not otherwise do. Thus, its analytical focus is placed on the behavior of making decisions on issues with an observable conflict of interest. In the power relationship, identifying who prevails in decision making seems to be the best way to determine which individuals and groups have more power because direct conflict between actors presents a situation most closely approximating an experimental test of their capacities to affect outcomes (Lukes, 1974).

The second dimension of power focuses on non-decision making. While a decision is a choice among alternative modes of actions, a non-decision is a decision that results in suppression or thwarting of a latent issue or it manifests a challenge to the values or interests of the decision maker (Lukes, 1974). Since this dimension of power works for potential challenges to the existing relationship with subordinates, power is exercised in conflict even though it is covert. If there is no conflict, overt or covert, it is presumed that there is a consensus on the prevailing allocation of values, in which case non-decision making is impossible (Lukes, 1974).

The third dimension of power focuses on the mechanism by which power domination can be sustained. Lukes (1974) observed that the bias of the system is not sustained simply by a series of individually chosen acts, but, most importantly, is also sustained by the socially structured and culturally patterned behavior of groups and practices of institutions, which may indeed be manifested by an individual’s inaction (Lukes, 1974). The most supreme power means “not having to act” (Lukes, 2005). Lukes (1974, p. 24) further explains:

It is the most insidious exercise of power to prevent people from having grievances by shaping their perceptions, cognitions and preferences in such a way that they accept their role in the existing order of things, either because they can see or imagine no alternative to it, or because they see it as natural and unchangeable, or because they value it as divinely ordained and beneficial.

In sum, the three-dimensional view of power involves a behavioral focus of the first two views and allows for consideration of the many ways in which potential issues are kept out of organizational politics (see Table I).

Power dimensions and empowerment Although existing literature has adopted the term “empowerment” with little critique, it is questionable whether empowerment interventions have really enhanced the power held by employees. The possible responses vary according to the perspectives of

Table I. Focuses of three- dimensional power perspectives

One-dimensional view Two-dimensional view Three-dimensional view

Decision making Decision making and non-decision making Decision making and control over agenda

(Key) Issues Issues and potential issues Issues and potential issues Observable (overt) conflicts Observable (overt or covert) conflict Observable (overt or covert)

conflict and latent conflict

EJTD 40,6

396

different dimensions of power. From the standpoint of the one-dimensional perspective of power, the answer is “yes”. Employees are given autonomy and rights to design their own work and participate in the decision-making process through self-managing teams, quality circles and management councils which were not allowed in traditional organizations. From this perspective, managerial power can be seen as transferred to and taken over by employees. This perspective is consistent with the classic perspective that power can be transferred, distributed and shared (Heiskala, 2001).

Empowerment practices initiated by management, however, do not seem to concede with the second dimension of power for employees. The empowerment policies and practices mentioned above have been utilized as a mechanism to suppress and thwart potential challenges from employees. For fear of rebellious challenges from employees, employers allow limited autonomy and participation to mitigate the potential of voices calling for radical and fundamental changes in the existing relationships between employers and employees. Being involved in some specified areas means being excluded from other unspecified areas.

Empowerment practices are also used to strengthen the third dimension of employers’ power and to intensify alienation of labor. Through empowerment interventions, management’s interests and norms are easily passed along to workers. Employees learn and accept the norms of management and regard them as corresponding to their own interests. Empowered workers create ideas to improve productivity, effectiveness and efficiency to mobilize and monitor themselves without any outside pressure. Their own interests such as emancipation and self-fulfillment are suppressed and forgotten. That is the exercise of the employer’s power which is hidden behind the illusion of empowerment.

Empowerment and the role of HRD Although there is general agreement that empowerment is an unavoidable trend and solution, the different definitions and perspectives which are found in the existing HRD literature reflect the differences in fundamental assumptions about whose interests HRD serves. In general, within the organizational context, HRD is regarded as “a process of developing and unleashing expertise for the purpose of improving individual, team, work process, and organizational system performance” (Swanson and Holton, 2009, p. 4).

The first perspective emphasizes HRD’s role of increasing performance and productivity. This perspective, as an alternative to the technical approach represented by scientific management, has its basis in the motivation theory which focuses on how workers are motivated and committed to their jobs. Allowing opportunity for employees to participate in the decision-making process (Juravich, 1996), design task allocation and access to information (Freeman and Kleiner, 2000; Hardy and Leiba-O’Sullivan, 1998) is believed to help them enhance their sense of ownership and results in high productivity and efficiency. The benefits of empowerment are attributed to employers in that if there is no advantage for the employer, empowerment would not be considered regardless of its benefits to employees. Hence, this perspective has the propensity to focus on psychological empowerment rather than an actual power shift.

The results of a survey of Fortune 1,000 companies indicate that the majority of large firms have used employee involvement programs and their practices have been successful (Ledford and Lawler, 1994). In particular, through examination of eight

397

Critical review on power in

organization

industries in India, Bhatnagar (2005) concluded that psychological empowerment has a positive relationship with organizational commitment. By adopting the four dimensions of psychological empowerment suggested by Spreitzer (1996); Bhatnagar (2005) conceptualizes psychological empowerment as changes in four cognitive aspects, impact, competence, meaning and self-determination, all of which determine the motivation of individuals. Bhatnagar’s (2005) findings reflect a Pygmalion effect in that perceived value of employees’ work changes their behavior.

Kirman and Rosen (1999) found that more empowered teams were also more productive than less empowered teams and had higher levels of customer service, job satisfaction and organizational and team commitment. Their four constructs of empowerment also involve psychological beliefs and perceptions about potency, meaningfulness, autonomy and impact. Therefore, the practical focus in terms of empowerment is placed on how to make employees feel empowered rather than how to make them actually empowered.

What are the roles of HRD for enhancing psychological empowerment? One of the most commonly used interventions for enhancing employee empowerment and involvement is quality circle activities. Honeycutt (1989) reports that training members is a key for successful quality circle activities. Specific training for understanding quality circle principles and how to apply them properly can give employees the confidence to face challenges they may not have been able to handle before and to overcome constraints in the problem-solving process.

One of the antecedents of team empowerment is a team-based HR policy (Kirman and Rosen, 1999). Specifically, a team-based HR policy includes cross training and 360 degree assessments. Cross training among team members gives them confidence in multiple job-related skills and provides more autonomy in carrying out a wider variety of jobs. Team members also feel more autonomy through 360 degree assessments among members. Rusaw (2000) described other examples of training interventions that improve psychological empowerment including enhancing assertiveness, conflict management, strengthening informal communication and developing support groups. Based on these findings, HRD can facilitate employees’ psychological empowerment through training and assessment policies.

From a critical perspective, however, criticism has been raised against the existing trend of empowerment and the role of HRD in supporting productivity and efficiency by ignoring asymmetrical power relations in organizations. Morrell and Wilkinson (2002) indicated that the term “empowerment” is framed in ambiguity that hides the fact that there is no real increase in or reconstituting of workers’ power; instead, empowerment proves to be a more insidious mechanism for control. Traditional control systems may be replaced by more sophisticated measuring systems where management delegates responsibility to workers to monitor their peers using 360 degree evaluations. Employers’ power shifts its dimension from the first to second or third dimension.

From a critical perspective, HRD should denaturalize existing power relations and help bring real power to employees. Francis (2007) asserts that HRD’s orientation should be different in nature from managers’ orientation. Rather than advocating the rhetoric of productivity and efficiency, HRD should focus on employees’ interests and individual development. Francis’ (2007) qualitative study found that HRD can play a role in restructuring existing power relations by advocating and signifying the discourse on employees’ growth, welfare, individual dignity and fairness which opposes managers’

EJTD 40,6

398

orientation. Training is no longer a tool for achieving management’s purposes. Fenwick (2005) proposes emancipatory action-learning through which denaturalizing the existing conditions and promoting life-nurturing organizations are possible even though it may not lead to a fundamental change.

The solution, however, should be discovered at the place where empowerment benefits both employers and employees. As Turner (1997) pointed out, even employer-led pseudo empowerment can be a stepping stone for true long-term empowerment. HRD should be positioned as a bridge which interprets the context and negotiates conflicting interests. Morrell and Wilkinson (2002) suggested that empowerment be viewed as a flexible term which can be interpreted along with the context. They propose five context-sensitive ways that HRD can improve empowerment in organizations by harmonizing the interests of employers and employees in different contexts: information sharing, upward problem solving, task autonomy, attitudinal shaping and self-management. HRD professionals should interpret the context and environment before they determine which solution is introduced in their organizations.

Organizational culture and empowerment Organizational culture can be defined as “the set of shared, taken-for granted, implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about and reacts to its various environments” (Schein, 1996, p. 236). Organizational culture positively influences employees’ performance and behaviors through integrated collective values, beliefs and assumptions (Hartnell et al., 2011). Since empowerment is a critical factor to improve employee performance, it has gained more attention from diverse organizations. Empowerment allows employees to enhance their autonomy and involvement in work that results in increased decision making more generally within the wider agenda and interests of the organization (Wall et al., 2004).

Scholars have explored the relationship between organizational culture and employee empowerment (e.g. Appelbaum et al., 2014; Baird and Wang, 2010; Çakar and Ertürk, 2010; Chiang and Jang, 2008; Khan and Rasli, 2015; Sadati, 2012; Sigler and Pearson, 2000; Seibert et al., 2011). Various organizational cultures react differently to employee empowerment. For instance, an organizational culture that fosters and supports innovation, creativity and organizational effectiveness contributes to enhancing employee empowerment (Sadati, 2012). An organizational culture that promotes decision making and autonomy positively and directly influences empowerment, specifically, psychological empowerment (Chiang and Jang, 2008). A team-oriented and collaborative organizational culture strongly encourages employees to participate in the decision-making process by building trust within the leader-subordinate relationship (Appelbaum et al., 2014). However, organizations that heavily rely on power-sharing organizational structures and practices are less likely to empower employees (Çakar and Ertürk, 2010; Seibert et al., 2011). Thus, considering the importance and roles of organizational culture, the different dimensions of empowerment could be observed in terms of its relationship with organizational culture.

Empowerment model in organizations Based on the power dimensions summarized in Table I, including the role of HRD in enhancing empowerment and the relationship between organizational culture and empowerment, we propose an empowerment model for organizations with different

399

Critical review on power in

organization

cultures (see Figure 1). This model assumes that the organizational culture influences the dimensions of empowerment and the role of HRD in supporting empowerment. To explain the different characteristics of organizational culture, the competing values framework (CVF) is adopted as suggested by Cameron and Quinn (1999). The CVF identifies four organizational culture types: hierarchy culture, market culture, clan culture and adhocracy culture. Organizations with a hierarchy culture emphasize the classic attributes of bureaucracy (e.g. rules, procedures and control), market culture values competitiveness, profitability and productivity, while a clan culture highlights teamwork, involvement, communication and empowerment, and an adhocracy culture accentuates creativity, innovation and adaptability (Cameron and Quinn, 1999; Cameron et al., 2006).

These features of various organizational cultures affect the level of empowerment and the role of HRD. For instance, organizations with an adhocracy culture are less likely to have centralized power or authority relationships and are more likely to have power flows from person to person or from team to team depending on what problem is being addressed at the time (Cameron and Quinn, 1999). In this culture, employees can be more empowered (toward Dimension 3 in Figure 1) and HRD can try to maximize employees’ interests by bringing them real power. However, organizations with a hierarchy culture would not allow employees to have enough autonomy and power, because a hierarchy culture highly values clear lines of decision-making authority, standardized rules and procedures and control and accountability mechanisms (Cameron and Quinn, 1999; Cameron et al., 2006). This perspective limits the role of HRD to empower employees.

Based on our empowerment model, we established the propositions which may be tested empirically in future research:

P1. The level of empowerment depends on the type of organizational culture.

In a hierarchical culture where empowerment is limited, decision authority is dominated by top management, and the discretion of lower-level employees is not the norm. In a market-oriented culture, empowerment is initiated and implemented as a method for improving productivity for the employer’s interest. In a clan culture, the self-directed team setting gives employees considerable discretion and autonomy, but the nature of empowering teams does not allow emancipation of each individual. Finally, in an adhocracy culture, a very high degree of autonomy of individual workers is conferred so

Figure 1. Empowerment model

EJTD 40,6

400

that most critical decisions are made by employees and, in contrast, management control is limited:

P2. The role of HRD varies depending on the level of empowerment and type of organizational culture.

In a hierarchical culture with a lack of empowerment, HRD’s role is restricted to training workers for the purpose of the employer. In a market-oriented culture with limited empowerment, HRD’s primary responsibility is to train employees to learn skills and knowledge that were previously only required for higher level employees. In a clan culture supported by self-directed teams, HRD tends to focus on team building so that self-directed team members operate autonomously while maintaining alignment with organizational goals. In an adhocracy culture with fully empowered employees, HRD focuses on unleashing individual worker’s potential to achieve self-actualization.

Implications for HRD practice The current paper provides a literature review on employee empowerment and presents a conceptual approach to power in organizations through the classic view, Foucault and critical view and Lukes’ three-dimensional power, and then summarizes empowerment in terms of the role of HRD. From Foucault’s perspective, power is a product of relationships including practices, techniques and procedures. He also points out that knowledge is the most critical attribute of power (Deetz, 2003). The discussion of this paper offers HRD professionals several implications for empowerment in practice. First, HRD should have a balanced perspective of empowerment and power dynamics in organizations. For example, HRD can arbitrate between managers and employees to set the performance standards, monitor performance, schedule the work, select their own equipment, participate in recruitment decisions and deal with co-worker discipline and absenteeism for self-managing teams. When managers work with employees to establish the appropriate performance standards, managers should make decisions regarding the organizational goals and types of compensation with the standards developed with employees. During this process, HRD should aim to strike a balance between the organization and individuals so at least both sides are involved in recognizing each other’s interests and needs. Elliott and Turnbull (2003) also described the growing concern about HRD practitioners’ responsibility to balance the needs of the individuals with those of the organization.

HRD also needs to critically assess the meaning of power in particular contexts (Morrell and Wilkinson, 2002) before planning and implementing specific training and development interventions for performance improvement and/or organization development interventions for innovation. Most HRD programs have focused on performance improvement through human development. For example, self-managing teams are not only designed to have responsibility for the basic work processes but should also be empowered in the stronger sense of responsibility of traditional HR functions such as recruiting, job assignments, training and evaluation (Morrell and Wilkinson, 2002). From the one-dimensional view, team members are thought to possess greater power than before. However, the training and evaluation focus for members in self-managing teams is likely to be limited to improving directly related job skills rather than developing their potential. They are more restricted in their routine jobs than ever because the behaviors and performance are monitored and evaluated by their colleagues

401

Critical review on power in

organization

who are very close to them. In this situation, workers become more performance and results oriented and pay less attention to their own self-development. Thus, HRD needs to possess a three-dimensional perspective of power and empowerment. A balanced HRD perspective should be capable of seeing the hidden side of the rhetoric of employee empowerment.

Finally, HRD needs to consider and clarify its own identity and responsibilities in the process of empowerment and in power dynamics. Several studies have explained the roles and responsibilities of HRD in the context of organizational power (Kim and Cervero, 2007; Elliott and Turnbull, 2003; May et al., 2003; Yang, 2003). Common implications of these studies are that:

• HRD should consider the interests and values of diverse stakeholders, including both the organization and employees; and

• HRD should help accomplish the given goals and meet the expectations of the organization with diverse approaches and strategies in the power context.

However, it seems that there is very little concern about empowerment within HRD or empowered HRD from decision makers and power holders in organization to establish a clear role of HRD in the power context, although it is taken for granted that HRD has facilitated and contributed to implementing and distributing empowerment in organizations. HRD needs to be a knowledge source for wise judgment and appropriate decisions, to recognize the current problems and situations related to empowerment and power and to be an ethical and social influencer that encourages employees to behave effectively in the context of workplace power.

Conclusions This study reviewed research trends of employee empowerment and several conceptions of power. We also discussed issues regarding employee empowerment from an HRD perspective, and suggested an empowerment model based on power dimensions and four types of organizational culture. The type of employee empowerment that focuses on management responsibilities neglects the essential questions of distribution of authority, access to resources and the capacity to mobilize in defense of worker interests, which are crucial factors in power determination (Cunningham and Hyman, 1999). From a critical point of view, researchers need to explore the fundamental characteristics of employee empowerment to overcome the invisible power controlled by employers, beyond superficial improvement of the power relationship.

There are several limitations in this study. First, empirical research was excluded to focus on the review of research trends on employee empowerment. Second, the empowerment model did not reflect other factors influencing employee empowerment such as national culture, industry type, characteristics of employees and work and the role of leaders. The empowerment model could explain diverse dynamics of empowerment according to different models of organizational culture. Third, the subject and object of empowerment were not described in detail to explore different empowerment practices and were expressed simply in terms of employers and employees. This paper contributes to expanding researchers’ and practitioners’ interest in future research on employee empowerment in terms of influence and power to

EJTD 40,6

402

employers, and in initiating research related to the power relationship of empowerment in an organizational context to seek true employee empowerment.

References Appelbaum, S.H., Karasek, R., Lapointe, F. and Quelch, K. (2014), “Employee empowerment:

factors affecting the consequent success or failure – Part I”, Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 46 No. 7, pp. 379-386.

Baird, K. and Wang, H. (2010), “Employee empowerment: extent of adoption and influential factors”, Personnel Review, Vol. 39 No. 5, pp. 574-599.

Benton, C.F. and Magnier-Watanabe, R. (2014), “The impact of commitment, empowerment, embeddedness on knowledge management in domestic and foreign-affiliated firms in Japan”, Knowledge Management Research & Practice, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 161-174.

Bhatnagar, J. (2005), “The power of psychological empowerment as an antecedent to organizational commitment in Indian managers”, Human Resource Development International, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 419-433.

Boje, D.M. and Rosile, G.A. (2001), “Where’s the power in empowerment? Answers from follett and clegg”, The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Vol. 37 No. 1, pp. 90-117.

Çakar, N.D. and Ertürk, A. (2010), “Comparing innovation capability of small and medium-sized enterprises: examining the effects of organizational culture and empowerment”, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 48 No. 3, pp. 325-359.

Cameron, K.S. and Quinn, R.E. (1999), Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Cameron, K.S., Quinn, R.E., DeGraff, J. and Thakor, A.V. (2006), Competing Values Leadership: Creating Value in Organizations, Elgar, Northampton, MA.

Chiang, C.F. and Jang, S.C.S. (2008), “The antecedents and consequences of psychological empowerment: the case of Taiwan’s hotel companies”, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp. 40-61.

Cicolini, G., Comparcini, D. and Simonetti, V. (2014), “Workplace empowerment and nurses’ job satisfaction: a systematic literature review”, Journal of Nursing Management, Vol. 22 No. 7, pp. 855-871.

Collins, D. (1997), “Two cheers for empowerment: some critical reflections”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 23-28.

Conger, J.A. and Kanungo, R.N. (1988), “The empowerment process: integrating theory and practice”, The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 13 No. 3, pp. 471-482.

Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G. (2004), Organization Development and Change, South-Western, Mason, VA.

Cunningham, I. and Hyman, J. (1999), “The poverty of empowerment? A critical case study”, Personnel Review, Vol. 28 No. 3, pp. 192-207.

Deetz, S. (1992), “Disciplinary power in the modern corporation”, in Alvesson, M. and Willmott, H. (Eds), Critical Management Studies, Sage, London, pp. 21-45.

Deetz, S. (2003), “Disciplinary power, conflict suppression and human resources management”, in Alvesson, M. and Willmott, H. (Eds), Studying Management Critically, Sage, London, pp. 23-45.

Elliott, C. and Turnbull, Sharon. (2003), “Reconciling autonomy and community: the paradoxical role of HRD”, Human Resource Development International, Vol. 6 No. 4, pp. 457-474.

403

Critical review on power in

organization

Fenwick, T. (2005), “Conceptions of critical HRD: dilemmas for theory and practice”, Human Resource Development International, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 225-238.

Fernandez, S. and Moldogaziev, T. (2013), “Employee empowerment, employee attitudes, and performance: testing a causal model”, Public Administration Review, Vol. 3 No. 73, pp. 490-506.

Foucault, M. (1982), “The subject and power”, Critical Inquiry, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 777-795. Francis, H. (2007), “Discursive struggle and the ambiguous world of HRD”, Advances in

Developing Human Resources, Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 83-96. Freeman, R.B. and Kleiner, M.M. (2000), “Who benefits most from employee involvement: firms or

workers?”, The American Economic Review, Vol. 90 No. 2, pp. 219-223. Garud, R., Gehman, J. and Kumaraswamy, A. (2011), “Complexity arrangements for sustained

innovation: lesson from 3M corporation”, Organization Studies, Vol. 32 No. 6, pp. 737-767. Hardy, C. and Leiba-O’Sullivan, S. (1998), “The power behind empowerment: implications for

research and practice”, Human Relations, Vol. 51 No. 4, pp. 451-483. Harley, B. (2000), “The myth of empowerment: work organization, hierarchy and employee

autonomy in contemporary Australian workplaces”, Work, Employment and Society, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 41-66.

Hartnell, C.A., Ou, A.Y. and Kinicki, A. (2011), “Organizational culture and organizational effectiveness: a meta-analytic investigation of the competing values framework’s theoretical suppositions”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 96 No. 4, pp. 677-694.

Hassard, J., Hogan, J. and Rowlinson, M. (2001), “From labor process theory to critical management studies”, Administrative Theory and Praxis, Vol. 23 No. 3, pp. 339-362.

Heiskala, R. (2001), “Theorizing power: weber, parsons, foucault and neostructuralism”, Social Science Information, Vol. 40 No. 2, pp. 241-264.

Heller, F. (2003), “Participation and power: a critical assessment”, Applied Psychology, Vol. 52 No. 1, pp. 144-163.

Herzberg, F. (1987), “One more time: how do you motivate employees?” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 65 No. 5, pp. 87-99.

Honeycutt, A. (1989), “The key to effective quality circles”, Training and Development Journal, Vol. 45 No. 5, pp. 81-84.

Honold, L. (1997), “A review of the literature on employee empowerment”, Empowerment in Organizations, Vol. 5 No. 4, pp. 202-212.

Juravich, T. (1996), “Empirical research on employee involvement: a critical review for labor”, Labor Studies Journal, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp. 51-70.

Kemelgor, B.H. (2015), “The impact of empowerment in small manufacturing firms”, Journal of Small Business Strategy, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 39-49.

Khan, M.M. and Rasli, A.M. (2015), “Relationship between organization culture, empowerment and conflict”, International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Vol. 5 No. 1S, pp. 324-329.

Kim, H. and Cervero, R.M. (2007), “How power relations structure the evaluation process for HRD programmes”, Human Resource Development International, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 5-20.

Kirman, B.L. and Rosen, B. (1999), “Beyond self-management: antecedents and consequences of team empowerment”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 58-74.

Ledford, G.E., Jr and Lawler, E.E., III. (1994), “Research on employee participation: beating a dead horse?”, The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 19 No. 4, pp. 633-636.

Lukes, S. (1974), Power: A Radical View, Macmillan, London.

EJTD 40,6

404

Lukes, S. (2005), “Power and the battle for hearts and minds”, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 477-494.

May, G.L., Sherlock, J.J. and Mabry, C.K. (2003), “The future: the drive for shareholder value and implications for HRD”, Advances in Developing Human Resources, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 321-333.

Maynard, M.T., Gilson, L.L. and Mathieu, J.E. (2012), “Empowerment – fad or fab? A multilevel review of the past two decades of research”, Journal of Management, Vol. 38 No. 4, pp. 1231-1281.

Menon, S.T. (2001), “Employee empowerment: an integrative psychological approach”, Applied Psychology: An International Review, Vol. 50 No. 1, pp. 153-180.

Mills, P.K. and Ungson, G.R. (2003), “Reassessing the limits of structural empowerment: organizational constitution and trust as controls”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 143-153.

Morrell, K. and Wilkinson, A. (2002), “Empowerment: through the smoke and past the mirrors?”, Human Resource Development International, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 119-130.

Oakland, S. (2001), “Current people management activities in world-class organizations”, Total Quality Management, Vol. 12 No. 6, pp. 773-788.

Parsons, T. (1954), Essays in Sociological Theory, Free Press, New York, NY. Rusaw, A.C. (2000), “Uncovering training resistance: a critical theory perspective”, Journal of

Organizational Change Management, Vol. 13 No. 3, pp. 249-263. Sadati, S. (2012), “A survey relation of organizational culture and organizational citizenship

behavior with employees’ empowerment”, Management Science Letters, Vol. 2 No. 2, pp. 2175-2186.

Schein, E.H. (1996), “Culture: the missing concept in organization studies”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 41 No. 2, pp. 229-240.

Seibert, S.E., Wang, G. and Courtright, S.H. (2011), “Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: a meta-analytic review”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 96 No. 5, pp. 981-1003.

Sigler, T.H. and Pearson, C.M. (2000), “Creating an empowering culture: examining the relationship between organizational culture and perceptions of empowerment”, Journal of Quality Management, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 27-52.

Spreitzer, G. (2007), “Taking stock: a review of more than twenty years of research on empowerment at work”, in Barling, J. and Cooper, C.L. (Eds), The Sage Handbook of Organizational Behavior, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, Vol. 1, pp. 54-72.

Spreitzer, G.M. (1996), “Social structural characteristics of psychological empowerment”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39 No. 2, pp. 483-504.

Swanson, R.A. and Holton, E.F., III. (2009), Foundations of Human Resource Development, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco, CA.

Trehan, K. (2004), “Who is not sleeping with whom? What’s not being talked about in HRD?”, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 23-38.

Tseo, G.K.Y. and Ramos, E.L. (1995), “Employee empowerment: solution to a burgeoning crisis?” Challenge, Vol. 38 No. 5, pp. 25-31.

Turner, L. (1997), “Participation, democracy and efficiency in the US workplace”, Industrial Relations Journal, Vol. 28 No. 4, pp. 309-313.

Wall, T.D., Wood, S.J. and Leach, D.J. (2004), “Empowerment and performance”, International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 19, pp. 1-46.

405

Critical review on power in

organization

Weber, M. (1947), The Theory of Social and Economic Organization (T. Parsons, Trans.), Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Wilkinson, A. (1998), “Empowerment: theory and practice”, Personnel Review, Vol. 27 No. 1, pp. 40-56.

Yang, B. (2003), “Political factors in decision making and implications for HRD”, Advances in Developing Human Resources, Vol. 5 No. 4, pp. 458-479.

Zhang, X. and Bartol, K.M. (2010), “Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: the influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 53 No. 1, pp. 107-128.

Corresponding author Sunyoung Park can be contacted at: [email protected]

For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website: www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm Or contact us for further details: [email protected]

EJTD 40,6

406

  • Critical review on power in organization: empowerment in human resource development
    • Introduction
    • Research trends
    • Conceptual review of power in organizations
    • Empowerment and the role of HRD
    • Organizational culture and empowerment
    • Empowerment model in organizations
    • Implications for HRD practice
    • Conclusions
    • References

Attachment 11

PROMOTING TRAINING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN GOVERNMENT: THE ORIGINS AND EARLY CONTRIBUTIONS OF SPOD A. CAROL RUSAW VINTON D. FISHER

ABSTRACT

This article describes the foundations of training and professional development in government and the beginnings of the American Society for Public Administration’s (ASPA) Section on Professional and Organizational Development (SPOD). It summarizes the philosophical contributions of public sector political and economic reforms, human relations approaches to management, and socio- technical applications to organizational development and training. The article also highlights key changes in the decade between 1965 and 1975 that fostered the emergence of SPOD, such as the rapid growth of federal government and the demands for social and economic changes. It concludes with reflections on the founding of SPOD from an early member. Keywords: training, professional development, adult learning, public administration

INTRODUCTION

Professional development plays a considerably important part of employees’ skills acquisition and applications for job performance, growth in career competencies and responsibilities, and contributions to organizational health and mission achievement. Professionals in government are often delineated by pay grade and expectations for independently performing technically complex sets of tasks when outcomes are general or ill defined (Bowman, West, Berman, and Van Wart, 2004). Professionals, however, at all levels of government are particularly identified by their ethical beliefs and practices, attitudes and abilities towards collaboration an in attaining agency goals. Professional development occurs over time and across different occupations and skills-levels. Its effectiveness depends upon organizational support for learning, growth, commitment, and provisions of resources, particularly in terms

PAQ SUMMER 2017 217

of funds, technology, and opportunities for skills demonstration and feedback.

The American Society for Public Administration’s (ASPA) Section on Professional and Organizational Development (SPOD), celebrating its 40th anniversary this year, is one of the earliest and most diverse communities of learning and change among public sector employees. It is comprised of academics, professionals in federal, state, and local governments, students of public administration, consultants and change agents, and, most recently, Certified Public Managers. The SPOD provides professional development through its annual conferences, its journal (the Public Administration Quarterly), and through the Certified Public Manager Program. Its emergence was a culmination of various forces promoting progressive reforms in individual skills development, organizational change, and professionalization of careerists in the public sector.

CONTRIBUTING REFORM PHILOSOPHIES

The impetus for developing professional career public servants came with the passage of the Pendleton Act in 1883. Coming just after a disgruntled office seeker had assassinated President James A. Garfield, the Pendleton Act sought to replace the spoils system of getting and advancing in a government career. It inaugurated Merit System principles that based careers not on political favoritism, but on technical competence and neutrality in carrying out administrative functions. It proscribed open and fair competition for positions based on rational and legal standards for evaluating and classifying cabinet-level positions. The Pendleton Act spelled out the ethical assumptions that career employees place organizational mission and goals ahead of self and politically based interests.

Pragmatic Progressivism

The Pendleton Act reflected many of the reform-oriented principles of pragmatism and progressivism that characterized the late nineteenth century and extended through the 1940’s. Brom and Shields (2006) depicted pragmatic progressivism as a

218 PAQ SUMMER 2017

practical, results-oriented view of truth, meaning, and value. These principles appear in the social work reforms of Jane Addams’ Hull House work among Chicago’s poorest residents. Addams used analytic methods similar to Taylor’s (1911) scientific methods of management to study the contexts of poverty; she also applied her own skills from experience to developing solutions to the complexities of the social problems. Merriam and Brockett (1997) noted that pragmatic progressivism esteemed the use of reason informed by experience as a superior means of problem solving. Pragmatic progressivism became a key strategy for addressing the multi-faceted issues resulting from rapid industrialization and urbanization in America.

Bureau Reforms

The spirit of pragmatic progressivism also took hold of public administrative reforms in promoting training and education. One of the earliest champions for progressive reform in education, John Dewey (1938), believed that social, economic, and political improvement were possible provided that education fostered experience-based learning. One of the central assumptions in basing education reform on experience was the notion that individuals needed to have freedom to experiment with different ideas before settling on a strategy. In order for progress to occur, learners needed to have freedom to inquire as well as support for experimentation in social settings.

The principles of pragmatic progressivism in training public employees filtered through the bureau movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Stivers (2006:377) described the bureau movement of reform as more than merely “throwing the rascals out” of political positions, but also replacing them with administrators who knew and practiced “good government.” Reforming public service meant initiating a process of normative re-education: insisting that ethical behaviors and attitudes become the standards for performance and that teaching and training would reinforce their retention. The use of training to promote pragmatic progressive reform began from practitioner-based research and applications. Professionals from the New York-based National Municipal League developed training programs for members in social

PAQ SUMMER 2017 219

work, welfare, city administration, and perhaps most notably, in formulating comprehensive executive budgets. The National Municipal League based many of their reforms on economic and fiscal accountability, believing that administrative funding decisions required openness to external scrutiny and responsibility to constituents for results. Eventually, universities took up education and training by developing graduate programs in the emergent field of public administration and blending them with apprenticeships in organizations.

Professionalism, Education, and Ethics

The democratically centered idea of education and training and the demands for ethical reform of practices in public administration underscored two additional currents in professionalization of public administration. Professionalism in public service came to mean a high degree of education, competencies in performing work, sensitivity to ethical relationships with internal and external stakeholders, accountability to wider public constituencies, and unbiased judgments in making budgeting and program decisions. Professional development in government reflected the growing awareness of human relations, adult learning, and organizational change as key ingredients for undertaking government reform.

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL

SCIENCE AND PRACTICES Human Relationships in Organizations The Hawthorne Experiments in the Western Electric Plant in New York opened the door for investigating the importance of human needs, aspirations, and contributions to organizational productivity. One of the earliest scholars was Mary Parker-Follett (1924). Follett drew on the pragmatists and progressives in her belief that dialog promoted a shared understanding of the movements of power, hierarchy, and authority in organizational systems; collective participation in work-centered groups produced a dynamic means for integrating individual needs and desires as well as methods for planning, organizing, and conducting work. Employees rather than

220 PAQ SUMMER 2017

managers devised how work was actually done, and their strategies rested on a combination of situational variables, motivations, and experience-based judgment. Lewin (1947) integrated Follett’s work in-group dynamics in his study of collective decision making related to organizational development. Lewin expressed a strong moral and ethical belief in the importance of democratic institutions and values in creating knowledge that could be acted upon. He felt that group-level discussions of change and their consequent formulating of strategies were at the heart of organizational change. He observed that groups could analyze the field of forces operating in a given problem context and identify forces that could be used to leverage change as well as those preventing it from happening. Following what Lewin called force field analysis, groups could develop consensus on a means for conducting change in particular contexts. Socio-Technical Interventions Lewin’s studies of group dynamics made important contributions to the use of social science to changing organizational technical systems. The London-based Tavistock Institute advanced Lewin’s group studies by integrating psychoanalytic practice with views of organizations as systems that were open to environmental changes. The idea that organizations changed goals and strategies in response to changes in their environment posited that organization development was contextually based. Planning change required an understanding of trends that influenced changes in various organizational systems. For example, if a group had decided to create a new employee rewards system through providing financial incentives, success would depend on careful attention to several different organization systems: (a) management processes of currently rewarding employees would have to be modified; (b) new employee performance standards would need to change and be communicated for each occupational series and grade level; (c) funding allocations from the external environment (such as a state legislator or Congressional committee) would need to be contacted; and (d) changes in the current means of getting work done would have to be instituted,

PAQ SUMMER 2017 221

requiring changes in training for skills development, developmental assignments for benchmarking, and new job requirements.

The Tavistock Institute developed Lewin’s ideas into a concept of action research, in which employees participated in developing a research strategy to promote quality of work life, cultural change, and participative organizational change (Bunker and Alban, 2006). Trist and Emery (1960) further extended the idea of participatory research by adding the interdependent effects of technical operations and human systems in organizations. Trist and Emery’s (1960) research culminated in a more holistic view of intricate social and technical dynamics at play in creating organizations.

Systems Views of Organization This Socio-Technical view of organizations also based its concepts on Barnard’s earlier research on the interactions of organizations with their environments (Barnard, 1938, in Kast and Rosenzweig, 1972). A more advanced theory, however, drew on Von Bertalanffy’s biological characterization of organizations as living organizations that change in relation to their environments to grow and to survive (Von Bertalanffy, 1972). Organizations, like plants, interact with their environments to extract necessary resources for sustenance. They construct networks with their environments to sense where the status of resources and opportunities to expand or grow, and where there might be problems. In terms of public organizations, administrators continually hone their sensitivity to wide-ranging constituent needs and legal and regulatory changes and may shift strategic and operational plans as a result. Constituencies may include state, county, and local administrations, profit and non- profit based organizations, legislative and executive bodies, and a multitude of citizen-based interests and needs.

ORIGINS OF PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE CREATION IN SPOD

Over time, organizations develop caches of knowledge about environmental changes as well as techniques to managing

222 PAQ SUMMER 2017

them: each organization learns to identify subtle changes that could produce tsunamis. They also develop a common stock of knowledge that they draw from in finding ways to cope with varieties of changes. Professional organizations, such as SPOD, are repositories of organizational knowledge, and, interfused with professional ethics, offer members menus of “what works” and what does not. Professional organizations share this stock of knowledge formally, as in workshops and seminars, and informally, as through interpersonal networks, mentoring, and alliances with similar interests in groups. Professionalization, in such cases, occurs over a lifetime.

Formal skills learning through training and education produce perhaps five to 10 percent of professional knowledge (Marsick and Watkins, 1990). Informal and incidental learning occurs through relationships with others, through applications of skills to new or complex situations, or through life’s experiences (Watkins and Marsick, 1992). Most organizational learning comes from non-routine situations. To better understand the importance of informal and incidental learning in professional development, it is helpful to show their relationships to other forms of adult learning. Brief descriptions below will clarify how adults learn to develop professional skills in performing work-related tasks. Adult Learning Adult learning is distinct from learning from childhood through adolescence. Whereas the latter relies on gaining knowledge about a variety of disciplines and skills for reading, writing, computation, and self and interpersonal relationships through the direction of expert instructors, adult learning assumes that adults are self-directed in pursuing learning for particular purposes or roles (Long and Associates, 1989). Adults exercise freedom to choose when and where they wish to learn, and abstract from an event what they need to know and apply. Adult learning incorporates experiences and problem solving methods and expands when individuals share their solutions and outcomes with other adult learners (Stewart, 1987).

PAQ SUMMER 2017 223

Adult Education Traditionally, adult education has been associated with

learning basic skills and competencies for performing roles and responsibilities for adulthood. Although it has been associated mainly with basic skills, such as in literacy and computation for employability, it also includes education in skills individuals need in making life transitions. Unlike informal and non-formal education, adult education tends to be planned, achieving pre- determined competencies or goals, and is preparatory for new states of being. In this sense, professional associations may help individuals getting ready for retirement, needing interpersonal support, or moving upward.

Training and Professional Development Training is a form of adult education, but is primarily focused on acquiring or expanding job-related skills and competencies, such as new job technologies, effective interpersonal an team communications, changes in the job itself (Laird, Holton, and Naquin, 2003). While training is generally short-term and instructor led, professional development is longer, may include applications of job skills, and may or may not involve the help of others. Professional development may occur through extensive skills applications in the workplace as well as through coaching, mentoring, special assignments, rotations, and shadowing. Human Resource Development Human Resource Development (HRD) is often associated with training, but actually encompasses much more. Because it recognizes the value of contributions employees make to accomplish work, HRD regards employees as organizational assets, which must be cultivated to increase value. Human Resource Development includes support for professional development through certifications, particularly of competencies, ongoing cultivation of skills and competencies for performance improvement, opportunities for career growth and management, and the creation and cultivation of network ties and professional organization alliances. Human Resource Development not only provides for skills development, but also realizes that various

224 PAQ SUMMER 2017

organizational systems also must be aligned to promote success. Thus, HRD engages in consultation with management to identify and remove obstacles, develop motivational incentives, and promote a culture that fosters continuous learning and growth (Knowles, 1990); HRD is concerned with enabling both individual and organizational development (Lippitt and Lippitt, 1986).

CONTEXT AND EMERGENCE OF SPOD Before the Early 1960s

Until the 1950s, organization and professional development, in both public and private sector organizations was sporadic and little used. Few employees gained sufficient education, training, and certification to perform independently as professionals. In the early twentieth century, moreover, Frederick Taylor (1911) prescribed management training to ensure workers produced sufficient quantities of goods and services. With the later theories of human motivation, learning, and performance, however, management came to understand the importance of encouraging and supporting organizational learning for professional growth. The cultivation of human relations skills, coupled with the notions of interdependencies of human and organizational systems, produced a new view of developing employees: employees worked not only to earn money, but also came to find affiliations and to extract intrinsic meaning from jobs they performed (Van Riper, 1958). Professionally affiliated organizations, such as SPOD, were positioned for providing needed employee development. This came at a crucial time in which public organizations faced large- scale change. The Decade 1965-1975

Between 1965 and 1975, when SPOD emerged, profound social and economic changes occurred. In the workplace, training and development, spurred by the burgeoning ranks of professionals in large organizations, accelerated. In government, the Civil Service Commission launched management development centers to train experienced

PAQ SUMMER 2017 225

professionals as well as program administrators. It also introduced the Federal Executive Institute in 1968 to provide top-level career managers skills for developing employees, leading organizational changes, and adapting to the changing financial and mission requirements as well as political landscape (Retrieved from: http://www.opm.gov/about-us/our-mission- role-history/).

Profound and rapid societal changes also stirred the growth of the federal government, requiring a novel way of designing and administering social and economic change. Many new social welfare programs were created during the administration of Kennedy's successor, President Lyndon B. Johnson. One of the most wide-ranging reforms occurred with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1965 and 1968. Second, a hallmark of President Johnson’s “War on Poverty” was the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, which created the Office of Economic Opportunity and the Job Corps and Neighborhood Youth Corps. The Social Security Act of 1965 established Medicare and Medicaid. At the federal level, moreover, government established the National Endowments for Arts and Humanities in 1965, Public Broadcasting in 1969, and various cultural centers. It also created the Consumer Protection Agency, the National Highway Traffic Safety Board, and the Urban Mass Transit Association. The decade also exhibited a widespread concern for the preservation of the natural and human environments, particularly in the need to avoid air and water pollution (Garrett and Rhine, 2006).

During the mid-1960s to the 1970s, the number of cabinet-level agencies added to the federal government in the 20th century accounted for almost half of those added in the 20th century alone (Ward, 2008). The Office of Personnel Management records show a steady increase in the number of federal employees staffing the new offices, peaking in 1969 at 304,000, but declining to 284,000 in 1974 as the effects of two major recessions and decrease in the Vietnam Conflict outlays. In 2012, federal employment decreased to 269,700 (Retrieved from http://www.opm.gov). Ward (2008) observed that while the number of full time federal employees decreased, the amount of spending on federal programs increased to $4 trillion during the

226 PAQ SUMMER 2017

President G.W. Bush administration. However, the growth in state and local governments greatly increased during this time.

But by the end of the 1960s, economic prosperity was being eroded by persistent inflation. The 1973-1974 Arab oil embargo pushed prices rapidly higher and created shortages throughout the United States. Even after the embargo ended, prices stayed high, fueling inflation and eventually causing rising rates of unemployment. By May, 1975, the unemployment rate reached 9 percent. To address the recessions’ drain on tax revenue, the era of “New Federalism” introduced revenue sharing and block grants. The Emergency Employment Act and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act were particularly important in assisting the unemployed (Garrett and Rhine, 2006).

WHAT WAS SPOD LIKE?

The Section on Professional and Organization Development in ASPA came into being forty years ago as the twin currents of professional and organizational development were emerging in a quickly evolving social, economic, and political government milieu. What composition did SPOD assume in those early years, and what did it contribute to the theory and practice of public administration? To give some insights, Dr. Vinton Fisher, one of the earliest members, reflected on what membership was like. At the time, he was a professor at the University of Connecticut’s Institute of Public Service, and his observations connect the world of pragmatism with theory. His case study, written in his own words, tells the story of SPOD mingled with applications to teaching, consulting, and organization development.

INNOVATIONS THAT SHAPED PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: VINTON FISHER REFLECTS ON

SPOD

There were many involved in the effort to meld and strengthen the theory and practices of professional development

PAQ SUMMER 2017 227

with organization development. Pragmatism was the key: did it work?

Frank Sherwood, Chet Newland, Neely Gardner, Fred Fisher, Jim Wolf, Myron Wiener, Jerry Brown, Nesta Gallas, Dwight Waldo, and many others were involved in this fusion of professionalism in public administration with organizational change in our public institutions.

Some were the presidents of ASPA and others were both ASPA presidents as well as the Directors of the Federal Executive Institute. Many were associated with the public administration program at the University of Southern California/USC, especially its Washington-based program. Some were involved in other universities and learning centers as organizational leaders and educators who provided the support and intellectual “heft” for the transition to SPOD. There were also others who were on the front line.

However, no matter where they were located or their roles, they were united in the belief that professional development programs (training was dropped as a term) – if done without a strong relationship to social purpose, mission, organizational improvement and development – were potentially dead-end ventures: a waste of resources. One such person was Dr. Thomas Mills, who was a predecessor and colleague of Hindy Schachter at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. A Case Study and Major Learning at UCONN

At the University of Connecticut’s Institute of Public Service, I was privileged to be the manager of our international management development program. We had relationships with the Agency for International Development, the Ford foundation, and the United Nations.

We were sent three participants from India, who were supposed to learn the advanced practices of quality control. Because the basis of our educational programs was built upon on-the-job training, we had personal relationships with many of the practitioners in the best organizations in Connecticut who were involved in quality control. Therefore, we brought the three to several insurance companies as well as United Technologies. The feedback that we received from the participants was that we were not meeting their needs. I turned to the chair of quality

228 PAQ SUMMER 2017

control education at UConn’s School of Business: Dr. Joseph Emerzian sat down with the three men.

What Dr. Emerzian did helped transform part of our international management education program at UConn: he asked them a few simple questions: What was a median, what was a mode and what was a standard deviation. To my amazement, they had no answers to any of these questions.

Simply stated, I had “assumed” that they had some basic knowledge, experience and education in quality control BEFORE we took them to some of the best providers of quality control in the Greater Hartford area. They were not learning anything because they were mystified and unprepared for the information that was provided to them. I had planned a program that assumed they had come for a “topping up”; in reality, they needed to come for a basic education in quality control. The information that we had been provided about their learning objectives was misguided.

Soon thereafter we instituted in our management development programs, a pretest. How a participant did in the pretest affected the program that they would receive during the n balance of their professional development program.

Then we progressed into the cognitive and affective areas of curriculum development. What were we trying to specifically achieve in our programs? What means were more appropriate to transmit and inculcate the knowledge and skills that the learners needed? How did our educators need to tailor their methodology and curriculum to facilitate the acquisition of that knowledge and skills? This also meant that we needed to focus more on the evaluations of our instructors and their ability to achieve these objectives. Therefore, we instituted a “training of trainers” program for all of our instructors. For some we had special tutoring to enhance their presentation style and the manner in which they approached the learning process. Specifically, emphasis upon the experiential rather than lectures proved to be a better means of learning. This paid off in improved feedback from the participants and post test results improved.

It also led us to discover that we were involved in education and not in training. Education meant that we were

PAQ SUMMER 2017 229

dealing with the basic values and skills of an individual who was becoming a professional who might become certified in his/her professional designated craft. We were providing a platform for them to grow in their area of expertise. Training pertained to scripted responses that did not build upon creativity and problem solving: it was more rote. For us this attribute distinguished education from training.

As we became more involved in experiential learning through such means as case studies, individual and group exercises, on-the-job training, and simulations, we were able to distinguish more between what it means to become a professional, and what it means to be “trained”. We developed simulations that were used in international settings, and eventually became modified for use in US local regional planning and governance, especially in the area of conflict management and inter-/intra-governmental and organizational relations. All of these developments were built upon our international experience.

Around this same time, dialogue about public administration education was occurring within ASPA. Nesta Gallas, then president of ASPA, chaired a meeting designed to differentiate between education and training, particularly in the process of the Section for Professional Development, transitioning from SPA to the Section for Professional and Organization Development. She asked me to present the framework that distinguished education from training. Nesta turned to Dwight Waldo, then a certified guru within ASPA and asked: “Dwight what you think about that distinction?” My heart was in my mouth because Dwight’s insights were usually correct and, most importantly accepted. In his rather precise, clear, and reflective response Dwight said: “I think I would have to agree.”

WHAT DOES THIS HAVE TO DO WITH SPOD?

In other institutions dealing with public administration

education – both degree and non-degree – there was a shared insight and belief that public administration education needed to focus on making our public institutions more responsive. Or, as was the theme for the 2015 national conference, we were then

230 PAQ SUMMER 2017

also dedicated to “building a stronger and more equitable society.”

In this effort Neely Gardner at USC was an intellectual and experiential fountainhead and mentor. I believe that with Fred Fisher, he helped to conceive, spawn and develop the National Training and Development Service/NTDS, which was a spinoff from the International City Management Association/ICMA.

Simultaneously, within ASPA, individuals were going through the approval and legitimacy process to move from the Section for Professional Development to the Section for Professional and Organization Development. We had support from a number of internal and external individuals and organizations: our timing could not have been better. For example, during this process, we also had the support individuals within the National Association of Schools of Public Administration/NASPA who were co-members of ASPA and NASPA.

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS: 40 YEARS OF

PROFESSIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

The beginnings of SPOD rested on the theories and practices of human learning to promote more effective and efficient public organizations. In its early years, as Dr. Fisher notes, SPOD encouraged collaborative networks among various scholars and practitioners to adapt to the needs of stakeholders. The emphasis on applying skills learned in classrooms to real- time problems led to a differentiation of education and training. The further refinement of practical skills, particularly in problem-solving and conflict management, to different cultures helped international participants apply concepts and ideas from class to various international government settings. Through its innovative changes in training and organizational change, SPOD gained respect within ASPA. Its continued ability to assess, design, try out, reflect, and adapt enabled SPOD to attain status as well as continue to grow. The key to survival was, in Dr. Fisher’s words, its ability to learn, adapt and be responsive.

PAQ SUMMER 2017 231

REFERENCES

Barnard, C.I. 1938. The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Bowman, J.S., J.P. West, E.M. Berman, and M. Van Wart 2004. The Professional Edge: Competencies in Public Service, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. Brom, R. and P.M. Shields. 2006. Classical Pragmatism, the American Experiment, and Public Administration. In T.D. Lynch and P.L. Cruise (Eds.), Handbook of Organization Theory and Management: A Philosophical Approach 2nd Ed. 301-321, New York: Taylor and Francis Group. Bunker B. and B. Alban. 2006. Large group Interventions and Dynamics. In J.V. Gallos (Ed.), Organization Development: A Jossey-Bass Reader 309-321, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Dewey, J. 1938. Education and Experience. New York: Collier Books. Follett-Parker, M. 1924. Creative Experience. New York: Longmans Green. Garrett, T.A. and R.M. Rhine. 2006 On the Size and Growth of Government. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Lewis Review 88(1), 13-30. Kast, F.E. and J.E. Rosenzweig. 1972 December. General System Theory: Applications for Organization and Management. Academy of Management Journal, 15(4), 447-465. Knowles, M. 1990 The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species Revised Ed. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Co. Laird, D., E.F. Holton, and S. Naquin. 2003. Approaches to Training and Development (Revised Ed.), Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group. Lewin, K. 1947 Frontiers in Group Dynamics. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Field Theory In Social Science, London: Social Science Paperbacks. Lippitt, G.L and Lippitt, R. 1986. The Consulting Process in Action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

232 PAQ SUMMER 2017

Long, H.B. and Associates. 1989. Self-Directed Learning: Emerging Theory and Practice. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Marsick, V.J. and K.L. Watkins. 1990. Informal and Incidental Learning in the Workplace. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Merriam, S.B. and R.G. Brockett. 1997. The Profession and Practice of Adult Education: An Introduction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Office of Personnel Management. 2015. Federal Government Reports Since 1962. (Retrieved from http://www.opm.gov on March 1, 2015). Stewart, D.W. 1987. Adult Learning in America: Eduard Lindeman and His Agenda for Lifelong Learning. Malabar, FL: R.E. Krieger Publishing Company. Stivers, C. 2006. The Bureau Movement: Seedbed of Modern Public Administration. In T. D. Lynch and P.L. Cruise (Eds.), Handbook of Organization Theory and Management: A Philosophical Approach 2nd Ed. 375- 393, New York: Taylor & Francis Group. Taylor, F. 1911. The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc. Trist, E. & Emery, F. 1960. Report on the Barford Course for Bristol/Siddeley, July 10-16, 1960(Tavistock Document

No. 598). London: Tavistock Institute. Van Riper, P. 1958. History of the United States Civil Service. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson). Von Bertalanffy, L. 1972, December 1. The History and Status of General Systems Theory. Academy of Management Journal, 15(4), 407-426. Ward, J. 2008, October 14. Big Government Gets Bigger. The Washington Times. (Retrieved from http://washingtontimes.com/news/2008 on February 24, 2015. Watkins, K.E. and V.J. Marsick. 1992. Towards a Theory of Informal and Incidental Learning in Organizations. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 11(4), 287- 300.

Copyright of Public Administration Quarterly is the property of Southern Public Administration Education Foundation and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Attachment 12

The role of insiders and organizational support in the

learning process of newcomers during organizational socialization

Cecilia Mornata Adult Education Department, Faculty of Psychology and Sciences of Education,

Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland

Iolanda Cassar HR Focus Point for a NGO in Geneva, Switzerland

Abstract Purpose – This study aims to focus on newcomers’ learning strategies when they perceive organizational socialization support to be lacking, and on interpersonal characteristics that insiders should possess to support the newcomers’ proactive behaviors in this context.

Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected through 14 face-to-face, in-depth semi-structured interviews and analyzed with a conventional content analysis method (Paillé and Mucchielli, 2013), involving first a thematic analysis and afterward, a conceptual analysis usingMaxQDA11©.

Findings – The authors’ analysis highlights that when newcomers perceive the formal organizational socialization support as lacking, they regulate their proactive behaviors by seeking indirect guidance, and more precisely, by engaging in informal interactions with insiders likely to help them socialize. These interactions can have a cost in terms of self-image, so newcomers regulate their proactive behaviors by looking for insiders perceived to be psychologically safe, even if they have to look for them in other working contexts.

Practical implications – Considering the regulation process of newcomers’ proactive behaviors according to their perceptions, human resources management should focus on those perceptions and develop a blended learning approach including formal learning programs, as well as individualized support to facilitate on-the-job learning and respond to personal needs. Special consideration should also be given to interpersonal skills displayed by insiders. Originality/value – The originality of the study is the use of a qualitative methodology focusing on newcomers’ main learning strategy according to their perception of organizational socialization support and the psychological safety climate. The limitations of the authors’ work are the size of the study population and the fact that part of the interviewees were successfully socialized by reaching 15 months on their new post at the point where the interviews were conducted.

Keywords Human resource development, Workplace learning

Paper type Research paper

Introduction Organizational socialization is the process by which workers learn knowledge, skills and behaviors to adjust to their new work environment (Feldman, 1976; Fisher, 1986). It is commonly operationalized into two dimensions: organizational tactics and newcomers’ proactive behaviors, with learning being identified as a mediator between these two dimensions and the adjustment outcomes (Ashforth et al., 2007b). Organizational tactics are

JWL 30,7

562

Received 9 June 2017 Revised 4 June 2018 Accepted 6 August 2018

Journal of Workplace Learning Vol. 30 No. 7, 2018 pp. 562-575 © EmeraldPublishingLimited 1366-5626 DOI 10.1108/JWL-06-2017-0045

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: www.emeraldinsight.com/1366-5626.htm

defined as the effort organizations make to socialize newcomers, and proactive behaviors are defined as the means by which newcomers socialize themselves and to adapt to their new working context (Ashforth et al., 2007b). A great number of quantitative studies focus on the impact of organizational tactics, and the impact of the newcomers’ proactive behaviors and interpersonal relationships with insiders (Ashforth et al., 2007a, 2007b; Bauer et al., 2007; Feldman, 1981; Morrison, 1993a, 2002; Cooper-Thomas, 2009; Saks and Ashforth, 1996; Saks et al., 2011). However, qualitative studies focusing on newcomers’ perceptions of their own socialization process, the difficulties they face, how they overcome them and finally socialize themselves – or not – are quite rare (Cooper-Thomas et al., 2011).

According to these elements, this exploratory study aims to examine the newcomers’ socialization process from their own point of view. On the one hand, it will explore the learning strategies they use to socialize, depending on their perception of the available organizational support. On the other hand, it will explore the newcomers’ perceptions of their interpersonal relationships with insiders. Insiders can either support and guide the newcomers or hinder and confuse them. Therefore, our study want to highlight which interpersonal characteristics insiders should possess and display to help newcomers, particularly when they are facing a lack of organizational support:

Q1. What are newcomers’ main learning strategies when they perceive organizational socialization support as essentially lacking?

Many studies highlight that when organizations institutionalize their socialization tactics (through collective formal training organized outside the workplace, according to a structured plan, with insiders available to support newcomers learning and recognizing the value of newcomers’ skills value), they better support newcomers’ social interactions with insiders (supervisors, experienced peers, other newcomers. . .), and hence, their proactivity behaviors and their socialization (Bauer et al., 2007; Cooper-Thomas, 2009; Ashforth et al., 2007b; Jokisaari, 2013). For Cooper-Thomas (2009), the organization can support interactions with insiders through:

� organizational systems providing support for the newcomers’ adjustment, such as mentoring or buddying programs, and formally recognizing the insiders’ efforts;

� informal organizational culture, i.e. one which supports relationships between insiders and newcomers; and

� physical layout which facilitates interactions between insiders and newcomers.

These aspects are particularly relevant to understand how the working context can support learning by facilitating interpersonal interactions. These aspects have been studied from another angle in workplace learning literature, through the concept of organizational affordances (Billett, 2001; Billett, 2010). Billett (2001) identified two main organizational affordances supporting workplace learning:

(1) Direct guidance, which is similar to the organizational system described by Cooper- Thomas, where experienced workers contribute to novices’ learning through tutoring, mentoring, coaching, supervision and collaborative activities.

(2) Indirect guidance, where social and physical environment enable the novices observing, listening and interacting with co-workers, hence thinking, acting and learning.

Therefore, learning can be supported through interpersonal interactions, as well as through the organization’s environment and the working activity itself. Affordances need to be

The role of insiders and

organizational support

563

present in the workplace and accessible to workers to effectively sustain workplace learning. As far as socialization is considered as a learning process, those affordances should support the learning aspect of organizational socialization too.

Thus, organizational support of newcomers’ socialization can occur through formal classroom-based induction training organized outside the workplace, workplace direct guidance and workplace indirect guidance. This study suggests that when newcomers perceive organizational support of their socialization to be lacking, they either quit or they modify their learning strategies to overcome the organizational lack and keep on learning.

Organizational socialization literature considers proactive behaviors to be the individuals’ learning strategies, leading to socialization (Jones, 1983; Miller and Jablin, 1991). Saks et al. (2011) list the most frequently studied: seeking information (Ashforth et al., 2007b; Morrison, 1993a, 1993b), feedback-seeking (Ashford, 1986), general socialization (Wanberg and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2000), networking (Ashford and Black, 1996), relationship and boss-relationship building (Ashford and Black, 1996) and job change negotiation (Ashford and Black, 1996). In workplace learning studies, Eraut (2007b) identifies three types of early career learning: learning processes near the workplace which are formally accredited and organized by the organization for newcomers (supervision, coaching, mentoring, shadowing, visiting other sites, conferences, short courses, preparing for a qualification and independent study), working processes with learning as a by-productwhere learning does not involve individual or organizational strategies as far as it is a side-effect of working (participation in group processes, working alongside others, consultation, tackling challenging tasks and roles, problem solving and experimenting, consolidating, extending and refining skills and working with clients) and learning activities located within work and learning processes (asking questions, requesting information, locating key resource persons, listening and observing, reflecting, learning from mistakes, giving and receiving feedback and using mediating artifacts), which occur in opportunistic episodes or within the first two types. It is, therefore, interesting to explore which of these early career types of learning newcomers will adopt according to their perception of the organizational support in place:

Q2. Which interpersonal skills should insiders display to support the newcomers’ proactive behaviors, when organizational support is perceived to be lacking?

Referring to a number of studies (Louis et al., 1983; Morrison, 1993a, 1993b; Nelson and Quick, 1991), Cooper-Thomas (2009) highlighted that co-workers are the most readily available and helpful resource during the socialization phase of newcomers, probably because of their closer role (Louis, 1990).

To fulfill this important role, insiders have to display a number of interpersonal characteristics. According to Edmondson (2003), approachability, expertise, being accepting of mistakes and the willingness to involve newcomers into work activities are the characteristics which are most likely to support the perception of a psychologically safe environment and discourage social undermining behaviors (Duffy et al., 2002a). Psychological safety is a belief shared among co-workers that neither colleagues nor management are judging others, in terms of self-image when they take the risk of being perceived as ignorant, incompetent, negative or disruptive. A psychologically safe context makes it possible to engage in pro-learning behaviors, such as requesting feedback, sharing mistakes and speaking up (Edmondson and Lei, 2014). Conversely, in a psychologically unsafe context, colleagues and management are perceived to be displaying social undermining behaviors “intended to hinder, over time, the ability to establish and maintain positive interpersonal relationships, work-related success, and favorable reputation” (Duffy et al., 2002b), all of which hampers learning. According to these elements, insiders who

JWL 30,7

564

display social undermining behaviors are hindering positive interpersonal relationships, encouraging competition and will negatively influence the newcomers’ perceptions of a psychologically safe environment, leading them to avoid proactive behaviors.

Research context and methodology We interviewed newcomers working in a department of an international humanitarian organization based in Switzerland, employing 2,500 people all over the world, whose purpose is to mobilize and coordinate humanitarian action in partnership with national and international actors. Participants were chosen based on two criteria:

(1) The time spent at their new position, which had to be no more than 15 months. (2) They had to represent three hierarchal levels: support functions, middle management,

and senior management.

The 28 participants corresponding to these criteria among the 250 employees were contacted by email, out of which 14 volunteered to participate. We conducted three exploratory interviews with top management to better understand the organizational context and three pilot interviews to improve the interview guidelines. Data were collected during 14 face-to- face, in-depth and semi-structured interviews according to the interview guideline in Table I.

Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with a conventional content analysis method (Paillé and Mucchielli, 2013) involving first a thematic analysis and afterward, a conceptual analysis usingMAXQDA11©. The categories presented in the Table II are based on the literature and these exploratory interviews. Through an iterative process, the analytical categories have gradually evolved into a more complex system.

Table I. Semi-structured

interview guideline based on concepts

Main questions – in-depth questions Main purposes

What was the most important thing that you had to learn in your new position? Can you tell us the steps you go through to learn it? What were the challenges? What were the facilitators? How did you proceed if it was difficult for you to learn or to obtain information? Why? Did you refer to anyone? Who? Why? Did you feel that your questions were welcomed? Why?

Perceived insiders characteristics Perceived organizational socialization support Newcomers’ learning strategies Perceived organizational socialization support Perceived insiders characteristics Perceived organizational socialization support Newcomers’ learning strategies Perceived organizational socialization support Perceived insiders characteristics

Who would you consider as key persons that played an important role, positively or negatively, in your learning? Was it a positive or negative role? Why?

Perceived insiders characteristics Perceived organizational socialization support

Is there an event, person, situation that has significantly contributed to your feeling as a part of your work group or the organization? Why?

Perceived insiders characteristics Perceived organizational socialization support

If you were now to repeat your integration experience would you do things differently? What and why? Newcomers’ learning strategies How does your new post differ from the previous one about organizational integration? Why? Perceived organizational socialization support Having reached the end of our interview, do you have a feeling that something important hasn’t been said that you would like to add?

The role of insiders and

organizational support

565

Table II. Analytical categories. Categories derived from data are in italic type

Categories Sub-categories I Sub-categories II

Perceived organizational support (Mikkonen et al., 2017)

Formal support Formal induction training Social events for newcomers

Perceived Direct Guidance with experienced co-workers (Billett, 2002)

Coaching (Wisker et al., 2013; Gallacher, 1997) Mentoring (Wisker et al., 2013; Gallacher, 1997) Tutoring (Wisker et al., 2013) Information management

Perceived Indirect Guidance (Billett, 2002)

Introduction to counterparts Informal discussions during coffee or lunch As references to listen to and to observe Sharing knowledge (Unwin and Fuller, 2004) Poor social support (Chan, 2016) Resources as: Tools to do the job as operational IT equipment Lack of time (Mikkonen et al., 2017) Workplace physical organization as newcomers’ desk emplacement, . . . (Billett, 2002) Poor physical support (Chan, 2016) Work activity (Billett, 2002)

Newcomers’ proactive behaviors

Self-Management (Ashford and Black, 1996)

Self-talking Self-efficiency Self-motivation

Asking questions Requesting information (Miller and Jablin, 1991; Ashforth et al., 2007a; Eraut, 2007b) Locating key resource persons (Eraut, 2007b) Listening and observing (Eraut, 2007b) Reflecting (Eraut, 2007b) Learning from mistakes, (Ostroff and Kozlowski, 1992; Eraut, 2007b) Giving and receiving feedback (Eraut, 2007b) Using mediating artefacts (Eraut, 2007b)

Perceived insiders’ characteristics

Psychological safety (Edmondson, 2004)

Ask how to do something Speak up about mistakes Ask for feed-back Questioning

Perceived supervisors’ behaviors Social undermining behaviors Approachability Expertise Being accepting of mistakes The willingness to involve newcomer

JWL 30,7

566

Results Newcomers’ learning strategies according to the perceived organizational support Regarding our first research question, from the insights gained from our interviews, it seems that newcomers’ learning strategies and their regulations depend on their perception of the organizational socialization support. When formal induction and direct guidance are available but not accessible. In this first case, formal induction training was perceived to be available. Nevertheless, poor accessibility in terms of employees’ workload and available information allowed only a few of the newcomers to attend it:

I remember that some people couldn’t attend all the courses because they had to work (N14§22).

Yes much better [if I had had the training earlier], because I was trying to find information, if I would have had it before I would have saved a lot of my time, and I would feel more comfortable (N12§108).

I missed a formal training, and guidelines they don’t exist (N12§118).

I know that they do this briefing for new people [. . .] but they do it only twice a year so I missed it and now it is not relevant anymore, and I couldn’t do it because I was traveling and when you travel a lot it is more complicated to follow courses. [. . .]. I can’t take that time of my day – look at my scheduled It is very difficult to take that time. I went through that too (online induction), I found that less relevant than I had hoped (N1§35).

It would have been very useful to have a training more complete with supporting material (N11§6).

Thus, newcomers perceived organizational socialization support as crucial, in terms of having access to the required material, skills and knowledge for their new role. However, in some cases, these resources were not available at all:

I didn’t sit down with my boss until two or three days after I started, which I thought was kind of weird [the team] is not ready to integrate them [newcomers], they just want them to start but forget that when someone starts you need actually to integrate that person! For two days I didn’t have my computer, I didn’t have my email account, so I think a lot of those preparations the organization should have prepared [. . .]. I think those first few days are quite important when people start a job and I don’t think that people realize that (N14§34).

This lack made newcomers feel being left to their own devices and responsible for their own learning process:

I think there is a lot that remains the responsibility of the staff [referring to newcomer] in terms of linking up and reaching out and making certain links (N7§8).

The absence of formal induction made the learning experience more heavily dependent on indirect guidance, and more precisely on team members, who would play an important role from newcomers’ point of view, if they felt well welcomed:

It was a lot of attention [. . .] small things about welcoming you, making sure that your office is settled, that you have whatever you need start, by team meetings when you are welcomed where everybody would present what they are doing [. . .] so they took the time to explain to me, then everybody was coming to me, asking me when do you want me to brief you and go for coffee, this type of little attention [. . .] in terms of making sure that you have what you need physically for your set up and in terms of knowledge (N6§48).

When indirect guidance is available and accessible. In this context, all the interviewed newcomers actively sought interactions with experienced co-workers to access information.

The role of insiders and

organizational support

567

Successful access to information was determined by their social abilities and sometimes required the newcomer to get out of their comfort zone:

The question of adjusting was to figure out who the people were, and then to talk to them directly, and I think that’s where your interpersonal skills stand out: either you have it or not (N8§10).

You step out [. . .] and you go and talk to people that you have not necessarily interacted with in the past, so I am not a very social person it terms of my personality (N13§4).

For instance, administrative things that seem to quiet bother them maybe for few months is OK, but after few months, it is true that before I asked I tried to search [. . .] if I don’t find it then I try the Admin Assistant so I don’t think it is not welcomed, it is more about me being embarrassed to ask about administrative things (N14 §14).

In their quest for information, some interviewees showed a preference for approaching members of the work group directly, to acquire accurate information faster:

Sometimes I received wrong answers to my questions, so what I did afterwards was to ask another person, or not ask questions anymore, [. . .] if you don’t ask, you can still go and look in the archives, or the documents where the rules are or on the intranet/internet (N11§14).

This strategy seems to involve a social cost that is evaluated in terms of self-image, for instance, being perceived as disrupting colleagues’ work, which may push newcomers to rely on themselves:

The issue is just you are taking up somebody else’s time because it is a very busy unit (N13§16).

Slowly I’m learning to what degree I should consult or shouldn’t and I can decide by myself (N5§50).

When no organizational support seems available at the moment. Self-management is a cognitive proactive behavior involving the ability to frame positively and consciously our own experiences to increase self-confidence and self-efficacy. Self-management appeared to facilitate the learning process when newcomers faced difficult moments:

Sometimes you have to keep telling yourself that it is not as easy so you don’t frustrate yourself. So if you are aware of this transformation I think it makes it easier for you to adjust (N2§6-7).

This is even more true for newcomers in a difficult interpersonal working context where no support was perceived to be available:

There were a few people who were quite difficult to work with professionally and those are relations that you can’t manage, you just have to manage yourself how to deal with them (N14§24).

I believe a good manager will have to learn how to shield his or her personal feelings and problems from the people they manage and work with (N2§18).

Newcomers contrasted their current work experience with their previous ones in terms of the nature of work, competencies, team dynamics and the culture of the organization. As such, they built their new role based on the lessons learnt from the past, and in doing so, they learned how to adapt to the new situation:

I think my previous experience helped me a lot. I managed a lot of emotions and tried to reassure people [. . .]. But also I managed teams before and I had training in leadership (N3§7).

I became the primary source of information to senior management; also, previous experience helped a lot (N8§24).

JWL 30,7

568

Insiders’ interpersonal characteristics perceived to be supportive by newcomers Regarding our second research question, we also gained some insights into the interpersonal skills insiders should display to support the newcomers’ proactive behaviors, when organizational support is lacking.

Psychological safety as a condition for learning. Newcomers value psychological safety, the belief that they can take risks without being judged, as a very important characteristic, clearly impacting their learning and their self-image:

My supervisor was a great coach by taking me through the issues and challenging me. I thought I had increasing responsibilities each day and the opportunity to try new things, take risks, and I felt I had her backing (N10§12).

There is space to be able to try things and I think in terms of learning that is very important. There is an opportunity to fail (N9§18).

The way people felt about you doesn’t get forgotten [. . .] and I think those things are really important and (the organization) is so small that it is quite critical to how you are perceived (N10§24).

According to our participants, the teammembers who engaged in learning interactions with them demonstrated expertise, accommodating behaviors and availability:

He is really helpful and takes time to explain, he has experience and I always ask him (N12§82).

People here are very friendly and I found them very approachable, so it is a very good environment, a very healthy environment (N4§22).

Oppositely, when insiders were socially undermining or not available, newcomers perceived their pro-learning behaviors to be hindered:

Sometimes I was treated like a child when I asked a question and showed that I didn’t know the answer [. . .] when you receive such an answer you can’t go and ask questions again (N11§26).

Sometimes when you ask a question, and you don’t understand (the answer), then going back to this same person is a challenge (N13§26).

I used to work in an environment where it was quite easy to talk to your boss [. . .] instead (here) [. . .]. I cannot go directly and say something. I need to ask the secretary if I could talk to the boss (N12§17).

Thus, to preserve their self-image, newcomers searched for other sources of information and moral support, building a network of different persons from inside and outside the organization, who were giving them a sense of psychological safety.

So if it is about work, my supervisor and if it is for support [moral] there are colleagues inside and outside the organization that I talk to just for advice (N3§20).

I had to ask different people, to reach one who was like that and I was like “you are my masters!” (N12§43).

In case I am not sure of something and I see it is different from what I know, then I go to different people depending on the case and ask for clarification (N4§16).

The role of insiders and

organizational support

569

These elements seem to highlight that newcomers put in place a psychological safety strategy to find “safety”when it was not available in the immediate context.

Psychological safety as a facilitator of team integration and social acceptance. Newcomers sought integration into one or more specific networks to gain social acceptance when the conditions allowed it – i.e. to share the same experience, issues, projects and interests. Thus, being part of a number of informational networks lead to further social acceptance:

I used to refer to him regularly, even up to today, when I needed some clarification and it became a friendship (N13§20).

On one hand, when a newcomer managed to gain his/her team’s social acceptance, it resulted in a positive learning experience with supportive learning conditions such as cooperation, psychological safety and social acceptance:

You are sharing a problem together; you are tackling something together, help each other out, trying to brainstorm to come up with new ideas [. . .] that really makes you feel that you are part of something bigger than you, and you are not just left up to your own devices (N13§63).

On the other hand, the absence of social acceptance was likely to affect newcomers’ psychological safety insofar as it affected self-image:

There was training, and everyone went but me, so I asked myself “what am I doing here” [. . .]. So those situations made me feel that maybe I wasn’t up for the level of work, it makes you question yourself! Although I know that I am doing a good job (N11§20).

In essence, newcomers revealed that a context perceived as psychologically safe reduced the risks related to self-image, thus enabling proactive learning behaviors. This context requires insiders who are experienced, available, accommodating, happy to share information, accepting of mistakes andwilling to involve newcomers in the work activities.

Furthermore, when these characteristics were not displayed by insiders from their close working context, newcomers strove for an informational social network enhancing psychological safety and supporting proactive behaviors, by locating key resource people, asking questions and by seeking and giving feedback. Both psychological safety and proactive behaviors may increase social acceptance.

Discussion and perspectives The aim of our study was to highlight the following:

� the newcomers’main learning strategies; and � the insiders’ interpersonal characteristics, which work to support the newcomers’

proactive behaviors to help them overcome a perceived lack of organizational socialization support.

Regulation as the newcomers’main learning strategy A number of theories (Ashforth et al., 2007b; Bauer et al., 2007; Morrison, 1995) suggest that when organizations institutionalize their socialization effort, and offer a structured, accredited and formal induction training, this will positively impact on proactive behaviors by generating an increase in social interactions between newcomers and insiders. Our study shows that newcomers perceive this kind of support as an important means of accessing information, allowing them to adjust to their new role. However, it also shows that when this formal support is perceived as lacking because it is unavailable, inaccessible or not

JWL 30,7

570

considered useful, newcomers regulate their proactive behaviors by seeking indirect guidance, and more precisely, by engaging in informal interactions with insiders likely to help them socialize. This choice can have a cost in terms of self-image if newcomers do not have social competences facilitating interactions or if the context is not perceived as psychologically safe enough. Newcomers facing those difficulties regulate their proactive behaviors by looking for insiders perceived to be psychologically safe, even if they have to look outside of their own teams. These results do not reflect organizational theories that focus on the impact of the organizational effort (tactics). Instead, our study focuses on newcomers’ perception of this effort. Our results highlight that even when the organization support is not institutionalized and formalized, newcomers employ proactive behaviors increasing their social interactions with other co-workers.

According to these elements, we can answer our first question: What are newcomers’ main learning strategies when they perceive organizational socialization support as essentially lacking? - by the following working hypothesis:

H1. Newcomers’ main learning strategy is to regulate their proactive behaviors, to interact with insiders, according to their perception of organizational socialization support and the psychological safety climate.

According to this, on a research level, we should be looking at the regulation process of proactive behaviors according to the perception of the organizational support and its psychological safety climate, instead of focusing on the type of proactive behaviors newcomers mobilize according to the kind of support the organization offers. In other words, how do newcomers regulate their proactive behaviors? Why do they perceive a particular type of organizational support as lacking, while other newcomers do not? Our study being exploratory, there is a need to examine this hypothesis in a longitudinal qualitative study, by collecting qualitative data at different points in time of the socialization process, and from a larger population. This would make it possible to study socialization processes, resulting in organizational integration or not. It would, therefore, be useful to also examine the socialization process of newcomers who couldn’t regulate their proactive behaviors and weren’t able to integrate their organization. In fact, the limitations of our work are the size of our population and the fact that part of the interviewees were successfully socialized by reaching 15 months on their new post at the point where the interviews were conducted.

Psychological safety as “a sine qua non” condition for learning Our findings highlight the fact that proactive behaviors require the presence of and interaction with insiders, which is in line with findings in organizational socialization literature (Edmondson, 2004; Brown and Lieigh, 1996; May et al., 2004), and workplace learning theories (Billett, 2004, 2000, 2001, 2010; Eraut, 2007a). Our main finding relates to the degree to which the quality of the relationships with insiders, which can be marked by either psychological safety or social undermining, had consequences on pro-learning behaviors – a finding which reflects Edmondson’s (Edmondson and Lei, 2014) and Carmeli’s research (Carmeli et al., 2012) – as well as on the overall learning experience, whether in positive or negative ways. As already mentioned, when newcomers did not perceive the context to be sufficiently safe, in terms of risks to their self-image, to ask questions, they set up a network of alternative insiders, both within and outside of their team, to secure access to information in a psychologically safer context. As said, this shows that newcomers developed strategies to compensate for a threatening context without this having a direct impact on their work quality, which means that to a certain extent they can cope with an absence of psychological safety insofar as they can find it by other means. According to

The role of insiders and

organizational support

571

these elements, we can answer our second question: Which interpersonal skills should insiders display to support the newcomers’ proactive behaviors, when organizational support is perceived to be lacking? -with the following working hypothesis:

H2. Insiders should display characteristics which support newcomers’ perception of psychological safety. If they do not present those characteristics, newcomers will have to look for them in other working contexts.

This hypothesis implies, on a theoretical level, that psychological safety is not only a team belief but also (and above all?) an individual one with individual implications. This means that individual members of a work team can perceive psychological safety differently according to individual factors and react accordingly as an individual, for example, by looking for co-workers displaying psychological safety characteristics, outside of their team. These findings are still to be fully understood by further research. Up to what point, for example, can newcomers make up for the absence of psychological safety by seeking membership of safer networks granting a better self-image?Which are the important factors in this process? We suggest that individual characteristics, such as self-efficacy, for instance, are important here, as Mornata and Bourgeois (2014) have already shown in a different context. The authors argue that employees who have strong self-efficacy will be in a better position to tolerate an undermining environment because they will be able to find psychological safety by other means (“I know I’m good at my job so undermining remarks do not affect me”), or by finding psychological safety with positively inclined colleagues. This means that, on the one hand, a psychologically threatening context does not necessarily have to be devastating and can be positively moderated with the help of individual strategies. However, on the other hand, this implies that it can be negatively moderated too. A person who has a low self-efficacy or a low self-esteem will likely be particularly sensitive to external remarks, even if those are not formulated on a self-image level. In other words, someone who is particularly vulnerable on a self-image level will likely perceive questioning about a skill or an activity by a manager or a colleague as threatening on a self-image level, even if the questioning is essentially focused on knowledge, skills or activity –what Johnson and Johnson (2002) refers to as the “epistemic level”.

How to better guide newcomers’ socialization In conclusion, despite the modest sample of our exploratory study, we suggest that human resources management should focus on newcomers’ perceptions about organizational socialization support and their own needs, to provide them with the right resources at the right moment. An interesting further line of action would be the development of a blended learning approach which would include formal learning programs focusing on procedures, rules and regulations of the organization, as well as individualized support to facilitate on- the-job learning and respond to more personal needs, which could be provided by the team surrounding the newcomer and in line with defined learning objectives.

Special consideration should be given to the interpersonal skills of newcomers, as they can either facilitate or hinder their socialization. This is conditioned not only by the newcomers’ interactions with insiders but also by the skills that the newcomers need to have prior to integrating the organization. Being able to identify the key resource persons requires to be able to analyze the context as quickly as possible, and being able to request information requires good social skills (Carmeli, 2007). Listening and observing require the ability to select and retain core information about activities, and self-management requires to have effective self-regulation behaviors (Zimmerman and Schunk, 2004) which is, in turn, impacted by self-efficacy (Schunk and Ertmer, 2000). All these proactive behaviors,

JWL 30,7

572

therefore, cannot be taken for granted and newcomers who do not master these appropriate behaviors but are skilled nonetheless should benefit from specific attention on this point.

Special consideration should be given also to the interpersonal skills of insiders, as they are the ones who assist the new recruits. It is important to support them to ensure the smooth integration of the newcomers. While organizations support newcomers, they also get feedback from them on their performance as organizations. The feedback from newcomers can then lead to new ideas and the improvement of work, and when the newcomers are productive the team performance should be enhanced. As newcomers are integrated into the organization and become insiders, they would go on to, in turn, be the facilitators assisting with the induction of future newcomers, thereby perpetuating the organization’s culture. To summarize, an organizational context which encourages learning and socialization would be a context that provides newcomers with the required time and conditions to be able to socialize, by promoting a culture that is supportive of learning and information sharing, and where psychological safety predominates.

References Ashford, S.J. (1986), “Feedback-seeking in individual adaptation: a resource perspective”, Academy of

Management Journal, Vol. 29 No. 3, pp. 465-487. Ashford, S.J. and Black, J.S. (1996), “Proactivity during organizational entry: the role of desire for

control”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 81 No. 2, p. 199. Ashforth, B.E., Sluss, D.M. and Harrison, S.H. (2007a), “Socialization in organizational contexts”,

International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 22, p. 1. Ashforth, B.E., Sluss, D.M. and Saks, A.M. (2007b), “Socialization tactics, proactive behavior, and

newcomer learning: Integrating socialization models”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 70 No. 3, pp. 447-462.

Bauer, T.N., Bodner, T., Erdogan, B., Truxillo, D.M. and Tucker, J.S. (2007), “Newcomer adjustment during organizational socialization: a meta-analytic review of antecedents, outcomes, and methods”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 92 No. 3, p. 707.

Billett, S. (2000), “Guided learning at work”, Journal ofWorkplace Learning, Vol. 12 No. 7, pp. 272-285. Billett, S. (2001), “Learning through work: workplace affordances and individual engagement”, Journal

ofWorkplace Learning, Vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 209-214. Billett, S. (2002), “Toward a workplace pedagogy: Guidance, participation, and engagement”, Adult

Education Quarterly, Vol. 53 No. 1, pp. 27-43. Billett, S. (2004), “Workplace participatory practices: conceptualising workplaces as learning

environments”, Journal ofWorkplace Learning, Vol. 16 No. 6, pp. 312-324. Billett, S. (2010), “Learning through practice”, in Billett, S. (Ed.), Learning through Practice, Springer,

New York, NY.

Brown, S.P. and Lieigh, T.W. (1996), “A new look at psychological climate and its relationship to job involvement, effort, and performance”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 81 No. 4.

Carmeli, A. (2007), “Social Capital, psychological safety and learning behaviours from failure in organisations”, Long Range Planning, Vol. 40 No. 1, pp. 30-44.

Carmeli, A., Tishler, A. and Edmondson, A.C. (2012), “CEO relational leadership and strategic decision quality in top management teams: the role of team trust and learning from failure”, Strategic Organization, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 31-54.

Chan, S. (2016), “Belonging to a workplace: first-year apprentices’ perspectives on factors determining engagement and continuation through apprenticeship”, International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 9-27.

The role of insiders and

organizational support

573

Cooper-Thomas, H. (2009), “The role of newcomer-insider relationships during organizational socialization”, in Morrison, R.L. and Wright, S.L. (Eds), Friends and Enemies in Organizations, Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Cooper-Thomas, H., Anderson, N. and Cash, M. (2011), “Investigating organizational socialization: a fresh look at newcomer adjustment strategies”, Personnel Review, Vol. 41 No. 1, pp. 41-55.

Duffy, M., Ganster, D. and Pagon, M. (2002a), “Social undermining in the workplace”, The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 45 No. 2, pp. 331-351.

Duffy, M.K., Ganster, D.C. and Pagon, M. (2002b), “Social undermining in the workplace”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 45 No. 2, pp. 331-351.

Edmondson, A. (2003), “Managing the risk of learning: psychological safety in work teams”, in West, M., Tjosvold, D. and Smith, K. (Eds), International Handbook of Organizational Teamwork and CooperativeWorking, JohnWiley and Sons, London.

Edmondson, A. (2004), “Learning in organizations: a group-Level lens”, Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Dilemmas and Approaches, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY, p. 239.

Edmondson, A. and Lei, Z. (2014), “Psychological safety: the history, renaissance, and future of an interpersonal construct”, Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 23-43.

Eraut, M. (2007a), “Learning form other people in the workplace”, Oxford Review of Education, Vol. 33 No. 4, pp. 403-422.

Eraut, M. (2007b), “Learning from other people in the workplace”, Oxford Review of Education, Vol. 33 No. 4, pp. 403-322.

Feldman, D.C. (1976), “A practical program for employee socialization”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 64-80.

Feldman, D.C. (1981), “The multiple socialization of organization members”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 309-318.

Fisher, S. (1986), “Studying socialization and learning about oneself in the classroom”, Clinical Sociology Review, Vol. 4 No. 1, p. 15.

Gallacher, K. (1997), “Supervision, mentoring and coaching”, Reforming Personnel in Early Intervention, Vol. 51, pp. 191-214.

Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R.T. (2002), “Cooperative learning and social interdependence theory”, in Scott, T.R., Heath, L., Edwards, J., Posavac, E.J., Bryant, F.B., Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Henderson- King, E. andMyers, J. (Eds),Theory and Research on Small Groups, Springer, Boston, MA.

Jokisaari, M. (2013), “The role of leader-member and social network relations in newcomers’ role performance”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 82 No. 2, pp. 96-104.

Jones, G.R. (1986), “Socialization tactics, self-efficacy, and newcomers’ adjustments to organizations”, Academy ofManagement journal, Vol. 29 No. 2, pp. 262-279.

Louis, M.R. (1990), “Acculturation in the workplace: Newcomers as lay ethnographers”, Organization climate and culture.

Louis, M.R., Posner, B.Z. and Powell, G.N. (1983), “The availability and helpfulness of socialization practices”, Personnel Psychology, Vol. 36 No. 4, pp. 857-866.

May, D.R., Gilson, R.L. and Harter, L.M. (2004), “The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 77 No. 1, pp. 11-37.

Mikkonen, S., Pylväs, L., Rintala, H., Nokelainen, P. and Postareff, L. (2017), “Guiding workplace learning in vocational education and training: a literature review”, Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training, Vol. 9 No. 1, p. 9.

Miller, V.D. and Jablin, F.M. (1991), “Information seeking during organizational entry: influences, tactics, and a model of the process”,Academy ofManagement Review, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 92-120.

JWL 30,7

574

Mornata, C. and Bourgeois, E. (2014), “Management-related and activity-related factors of psychological safety”, Earli SIG 14 Conference - European Association for Research on learning, Special interest Group on Learning and Professional Development,Oslo.

Morrison, E.W. (1993a), “Longitudinal study of the effects of information seeking on newcomer socialization”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 78 No. 2, pp. 173-183.

Morrison, E.W. (1993b), “Newcomer information seeking: exploring types, modes, sources, and outcomes”,Academy ofManagement Journal, Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 557-589.

Morrison, E.W. (1995), “Information usefulness and acquisition during organizational encounter”, Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 131-155.

Morrison, E.W. (2002), “Newcomers’ relationship: the role of social network ties during socialization”, Academy ofManagement Journal, Vol. 45 No. 6, pp. 1149-1160.

Nelson, D.L. and Quick, J.C. (1991), “Social support and newcomer adjustment in organizations: Attachment theory at work?”, Journal of organizational behavior, Vol. 12 No. 6, pp. 543-554.

Ostroff, C. and Kozlowski, S. (1992), “Organizational socialization as a learning process: the role of information acquisition”, Personnel Psychology, Vol. 45 No. 4, pp. 849-874.

Paillé, P. and Mucchielli, A. (2013), L’analyse Qualitative en Sciences Humaines et Sociales, Armand Colin, Paris.

Saks, A.M. and Ashforth, B.E. (1996), “Proactive socialization and behavioral self-management”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 48 No. 3, pp. 301-323.

Saks, A.M., Gruman, J.A. and Cooper-Thomas, H. (2011), “The neglected role of proactive behavior and outcomes in newcomer socialization”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 79 No. 1, pp. 36-46.

Schunk, D.H. and Ertmer, P.A. (2000), “Self-regulation and academic learning: Self-efficacy enhancing interventions”, in Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R. and Zeidner, M. (Eds), Handbook of Self- Regulation, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Unwin, L. and Fuller, A. (2004), “Expansive learning environments: integrating organizational and personal development”, in Rainbird, H., Fuller, A. and Munro, A. (Eds), Workplace Learning in Context, Routledge, London.

Wanberg, C.R. and Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. (2000), “Predictors and outcomes of proactivity in the socialization process”,The Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 85 No. 3, p. 373.

Wisker, G., Exley, K., Antoniou, M. and Ridley, P. (2013), Working One-to-One with Students: supervising, Coaching, Mentoring, and Personal Tutoring, Routledge, London.

Zimmerman, B.J. and Schunk, D.H. (2004), “Self-regulating intellectual processes and outcomes: a social cognitive perspective”, Motivation, Emotion, and Cognition: Integrative Perspectives on Intellectual Functioning and Development, Routledge, London, pp. 323-349.

Corresponding author Cecilia Mornata can be contacted at: [email protected]

For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website: www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm Or contact us for further details: [email protected]

The role of insiders and

organizational support

575

  • The role of insiders and organizational support in the learning process of newcomers during organizational socialization
    • Introduction
    • Research context and methodology
    • Results
      • Newcomers’ learning strategies according to the perceived organizational support
        • Undefined namespace prefix xmlXPathCompOpEval: parameter error xmlXPathEval: evaluation failed
        • Undefined namespace prefix xmlXPathCompOpEval: parameter error xmlXPathEval: evaluation failed
        • Undefined namespace prefix xmlXPathCompOpEval: parameter error xmlXPathEval: evaluation failed
    • Insiders’ interpersonal characteristics perceived to be supportive by newcomers
      • Psychological safety as a condition for learning.
      • Psychological safety as a facilitator of team integration and social acceptance.
    • Discussion and perspectives
      • Regulation as the newcomers’ main learning strategy
      • Psychological safety as “a sine qua non” condition for learning
      • How to better guide newcomers’ socialization
    • References

Attachment 13

INVITEDARTICLE

Why is organizing human resource development

so problematic? Perspectives from the learning-network

theory (Part II) Rob F. Poell

Department of Human Resource Studies, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands, and

Ferd Van Der Krogt Department of Education, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Abstract Purpose – Human resource development (HRD) is an important field within management. Developing employees is often regarded as an instrument to improve the internal labor market and support organizational change. Organizing HRD to these ends, however, is frequently a problematic affair, in terms of training effectiveness, participant motivation and added value. This study, which consists of two parts, aims to investigate the question of why this is the case. In this second part, two specific aspects of the learning- network theory are elaborated: multiple experiences in organizations forming the basis of employee learning and development, and different actor strategies for organizing HRD. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents a conceptual framework to argue that one of the main reasons why organizing HRD is problematic lies in the limited and one-sided conceptualization of organizing HRD that is often used. Findings – Organizing HRD is mostly viewed as designing training courses and instruction sessions for employees; it is also predominantly understood as a tool of management. The paper proposes a network perspective on organizing HRD, which is better able to guide organizational actors than other approaches can, by taking into account a broader set of HRD practices and viewing employees (besides managers) as key stakeholders. Originality/value – The study argues that organizing HRD needs to take into account learning experiences that employees can gain from participating in work and career development as well (besides formal training); moreover, that employees’ HRD strategies are at least as important as those used by line managers and HR practitioners.

Keywords HRD, Employee development, Workplace learning, Human resource development, Actor strategies, Learning-network theory

Paper type Conceptual paper

Introduction This paper is Part II of a two-part conceptual study. Part I outlined the core problem (“Why is organizing human resource development so problematic?”) as well as the backgrounds and key tenets of the learning-network theory to address that problem (Poell and Van Der

Learning- network theory

215

Received 9 December 2016 Revised 9 December 2016

Accepted 9 December 2016

The Learning Organization Vol. 24 No. 4, 2017

pp. 215-225 © EmeraldPublishingLimited

0969-6474 DOI 10.1108/TLO-12-2016-0094

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: www.emeraldinsight.com/0969-6474.htm

Krogt, 2017). This Part II will be devoted to elaborating two aspects where the learning- network perspective offers a broader and, to our mind, more realistic conceptualization of organizing human resource development (HRD) compared to the “single” approaches reviewed in Part I:

� the multiple experiences in organizations that form the basis of employee learning and development; and

� the different actor strategies for organizing HRD (Poell and Van Der Krogt, 2017).

Conclusions and implications from both Part I and Part II are presented at the end of the current paper.

Gaining multiple experiences as a basis for HRD Organizing HRD is more than designing and delivering training courses. From the learning- network theory perspective, employees can learn from gaining experiences in three organizational processes:

� in the primary work process; � in human resource management (HRM) processes, especially career development;

and � in explicit HRD processes.

First of all, employees can learn from gaining experiences in the primary work process, as they perform and improve their work. For example, they contribute to work innovations and start using new equipment. Together with colleagues, clients and supervisors, they do their jobs and solve problems along the way. The experiences they gain will differ from one context to the next. Routine tasks will afford employees few different types of experiences, whereas in project-based work around complex issues, that diversity will be considerable.

Second, employees can learn from gaining experiences in HRM processes, especially in the career development process. Together with other actors (e.g. HRM practitioners, career counselors, supervisors), they pay attention to their careers and employability (labor market positions). They negotiate with them about their individual labor contracts and career progress. In this respect, employees will want to gain experiences in a wider range of tasks and jobs so as to acquire competencies that can bring them interesting new job positions.

Third, and best known, employees can learn from gaining experiences in explicitly organized HRD processes, for instance, learning programs and learning paths, which are especially intended for them to learn and develop themselves. Examples of such experiences are attending a seminar, taking a training course, engaging in self-study, participating in a study group, visiting a conference and reflecting on one’s performance. There they can gain experiences relevant to their learning, again with other actors as well (e.g. HRD practitioners, colleagues, experts).

Meaningful experiences These three processes afford an employee various types of experiences; however, this does not mean that all these experiences carry meaning for the employee, that they are relevant to his or her individual learning path. In order for learning to occur, the employee needs to have the impression that the experience can contribute to his development (in some domain). Redefining work, HRM and HRD experiences into meaningful steps on one’s learning path is a crucial mechanism here. Once again, the employee can do this alone or with others, who

TLO 24,4

216

will probably hold their own ideas about what constitutes a relevant experience in a particular context. Not all actors’ opinions carry equal weight in this process of clarifying how relevant to learning an experience is. Sometimes line managers leave a heavy mark, other times colleagues are more influential and oftentimes the employee places the main emphasis. Collective notions as expressed in learning policies or the HRD climate can have an impact as well.

Directing experiences in a learning path An employee can gain experiences in work, HRM and HRD processes. In a learning path, the individual employee gains, interprets and links these different experiences. Often the learning path will not be a pre-determined route; rather, it will form along the way as the employee manages to link meaningful experiences together and starts looking for new experiences to inform the learning path. Employees can direct their experiences in several ways:

� thematizing; � problematizing; and � explicitly operating strategically (Poell and Van Der Krogt, 2014b).

Thematizing refers to establishing an explicit theme for the learning path, determining what it really is about. The traditional way of doing this is by setting learning goals. Employees can, however, do this differently as well. They may start gaining experiences with only a global notion in mind of what it is they want to learn about. Based on progressive insight, and finding out what are meaningful experiences in the learning path as it unfolds, employees can gradually develop a clearer picture of their learning theme.

Problematizing is another way to direct experiences and means working to reduce problems that occur during learning-path creation. For example, employees can feel that their learning paths are too much focused on the current job, whereas they want to emphasize their career development more. Or the experiences they gain for their learning paths may be too difficult to incorporate into their lines of thinking. In these cases, employees can attempt to solve their problems by looking for other (types of) experiences that will be more meaningful to them.

Explicitly operating strategically is a final way for employees to direct their experiences. Once again, often this is done by setting learning goals, operating strategically toward a desired end point. Employees may also, however, direct their experiences on the basis of their own values, norms and insights. Thus, the learning path emerges on the basis of the employee’s ideas about organizing HRD, about the meaningfulness of affordances and about whom to involve in the learning path, to give a few examples (see Poell and Van Der Krogt, 2014b for a detailed account).

The role of networks in learning-path creation Networks have considerable impact on learning-path creation. The organization’s network structure (relations between management and employees) influences whom employees have access to for their learning paths (Poell et al., 2016). For example, in networks with many external relations, it is much easier for employees to involve external colleagues and experts in learning-path creation.

Networks also greatly affect the experiences that employees can gain in the three processes (work, HRM and HRD). Work experiences are determined largely by the employee’s job autonomy; if there can be more experimentation and problem-solving at

Learning- network theory

217

work, richer experiences are likely. As for HRM and HRD experiences, opportunities to set the agenda of one’s own appraisal interviews and access to educational facilities are good examples of how actors’ positions in the networks affect their possible experiences.

Finally, networks impact upon the directing of relevant learning-path experiences. Thematizing, for instance, depends on which actor(s) get(s) to set learning goals, establish HRD budgets and determine the topic of an on-the-job training course. The extent to which employees can engage in problematizing is equally dependent on powerful actors in the networks.

HRD strategies of employees and line managers Organizing HRD is more than following the HRD strategies of line managers. From the learning-network theory perspective, other actors can be equally important when it comes to organizing HRD. Especially, the HRD strategies that employees use are crucial in understanding how organizing HRDworks.

All actors in and around the organization can attempt to use HRD to further their ideas and interests. Not every actor, however, has equal influence in realizing their own views about organizing HRD. Moreover, HRD processes are rather difficult to plan and direct; the idiosyncratic nature of HRD leaves it mark on the way HRD processes run. Employees have relatively much impact on HRD processes (“Who else could do the learning for them?”), while line managers have relatively little influence, certainly compared with other organizational processes (e.g. work organization, implementation of HRM practices).

Actors operate strategically by participating in HRD processes in specific ways. For instance, they can choose to engage in certain HRD processes and not or less in others; line managers might leave employees’ learning paths for what they are, while employees might engage in a pre-conceived learning program only very superficially. Another example of actors operating strategically is using specific affordances of specific HRD processes (program parts, procedures, facilities) and ignoring others, based on perceived meaningfulness and usefulness; employees might choose to leave a personal development budget untouched if they have to spend half a day applying on paper for only a small amount of money. Finally, actors can operate strategically by emphasizing specific elements in HRD processes; for instance, line managers might decide to interact mostly with other managers, withhold certain work experiences from an employee or co-direct an employee’s learning path by helping his or her thematizing.

Three functions that HRD serves for actors HRD can fulfill three functions for actors in organizations:

(1) improving work; (2) furthering one’s career and enjoyable work; and (3) encouraging personal development (Figge, 2012; Van Roekel, 2012; Poell and Van

Der Krogt, 2014a).

Improving work is the traditional function attributed to HRD, often by line managers. Career development is closely linked to employability, a key function in the contemporary labor market. Personal development entails learning themes that are not directly linked to one’s work or career but could become relevant over time in terms of qualities for “working life” (e. g. analytical ability, initiative, assertiveness). These three functions that HRD can serve for managers and employees are summarized and illustrated with examples in Table I.

TLO 24,4

218

Besides these three functions, HRD can also help actors indirectly gain more influence on specific processes. HRD is an instrument for line managers and employees to support their ideas about work organization and career development. The less direct influence they can exert on work and careers (through planning and coordinating), the more they will probably call on HRD. Line managers, for instance, will invoke the help of HRDmore often in complex and dynamic work processes (e.g. that of physicians in hospitals) than in highly standardized processes (e.g. that of operators in factories).

Line managers operating strategically HRD strategies of line managers are linked in literature to their positions and associated responsibilities; HRD is viewed as a tool of management, which they use to solve their organizational problems and to support their plans for organization development and innovation (Walton, 1999; Yorks, 2005).

The learning-network theory takes into account managers’ own views as well. How they want to use HRD and which functions they attribute to HRD in the organization affect how line managers will operate in HRD processes, which goals they will set and how they will help other actors in organizing HRD. Managers use the existing HRD structures to support their plans (Soekijad et al., 2011).

Line managers operate strategically by participating in the four HRD processes. By creating learning policies, managers can put new HRD structures in place and attempt to change other actors’ views on HRD (Soekijad et al., 2011). Learning-policy creation by line managers can be a way for them to try and influence the learning programs and learning paths that are created. Creating learning programs and supporting employees’ learning paths allowmanagers to change the existing HRD structure and culture incrementally (Poell and Van Der Krogt, 2014a). To what extent participating in individual learning processes brings line managers strategic potential is not clear; we propose this would seem unlikely in view of the largely implicit nature of individual learning processes, which makes them difficult to influence (Sitzmann and Ely, 2011; Margaryan et al., 2013).

The role of networks in line managers’ strategies. In the learning-network theory, relationships are expected between the positions of line managers in the organization and their HRD strategies. We propose that managers will use HRD interventions (e.g. learning programs) more often when they have little direct impact on the work process and internal labor market, i.e. when they are more dependent on employees to get their problems solved.

Their position in the HRD structure will also affect the way line managers operate in HRD processes. We propose that managers with little influence on learning programs and learning paths will more likely choose to direct employees’ experiences through HRD facilities (time, money) or by hiring external HRD practitioners; these managers will also

Table I. Three functions that HRD can serve for line managers and

employees

Functions served by HRD Actors

Line managers Employees

Work improvement Optimizing work processes Innovation

Fit between own qualities and work Job satisfaction

Career development Flexibility Internal labor market

Career options Labor conditions Labor contract

Personal development Commitment to organization Operating more flexibly on the labor market

Learning- network theory

219

enlist external subject matter experts more easily when they do not have such expertise at hand.

Employees operating strategically In much of the literature, the ways in which employees operate in HRD are derived from the HRD policies and plans that line managers and HRD practitioners design to push employees’ qualities in the direction deemed necessary for the organization by management (Walton, 1999; Yorks, 2005). Basically, employees are expected to operate in line with managers’HRD strategies.

The learning-network theory posits a rather different role of employees in organizing HRD. It does take into account employees’ positions (tasks and responsibilities); however, their own views will be at least as influential in how they operate. It is not taken for granted, therefore, that employees follow the HRD structures and goals proposed by line managers. What is more, employees are relatively influential when it comes to organizing HRD processes; managers and HRD practitioners are dependent on employees’ efforts, especially in learning paths and individual learning processes (“No one else can learn on the employee’s behalf”).

Employees, too, operate strategically by participating in all four HRD processes. Learning policies and plans are created (often by managers and HRD practitioners) to provide a framework for organizing HRD activities in the organization. In practice, however, employees (and sometimes even line managers and HRD practitioners) do not operate in line with these policies and plans all that much (Harrison and Kessels, 2004; Poell and Van Der Krogt, 2005; Anderson, 2009; De Jong, 2010; Boxall and Purcell, 2011; Beausaert et al., 2012). Once again, managers and HRD practitioners are highly dependent on the efforts of employees in conducting learning programs, paths and processes. Learning programs and, especially, learning paths offer employees many opportunities to operate strategically and use HRD for their own interests (Sitzmann and Ely, 2011). As for individual learning processes, which occur largely implicitly, employees can operate strategically just by responding to meaningful opportunities for gaining experiences as they arise (Van Der Sluis and Poell, 2002). This is actually a rather promising strategy, as employees usually do not have very explicit ideas about HRD and do not participate very actively in learning programs (Margaryan et al., 2013; Poell and Van Der Krogt, 2014a). Reacting to others’ initiatives as they occur in that case is a meaningful way to operate strategically for employees.

Although employees usually do not hold strong ideas about HRD, the learning-network theory emphatically assumes that they want to act in line with their own values and norms, also when it comes to organizing HRD. Hence, they will put more effort into HRD processes if these fit with their values and norms. For example, a heavily standardized learning program will not be much appreciated by an employee who values critical questioning, whereas it could actually be meaningful for an employee who is used to just following orders.

A learning path created by an employee does not have to be a full-blown, integrated whole. A modest learning path is probably much more realistic and attractive to them. For example, they could participate in a training course and then just wait to find out what effect it has on the job. Or they could draw up a personal development plan but not invest instantly in its materialization. Progressive insight will enable them to pick up where they left off when it is meaningful and relevant to them.

TLO 24,4

220

Employees thus have a choice to what extent they want to operate strategically. The learning-network theory distinguishes among four ways of operating strategically by employees:

(1) passive participation; (2) selective participation; (3) a piecemeal strategy; and (4) an integrated strategy.

Employees who opt for passive participation do so usually because they feel obliged to. For instance, their supervisor made them attend a workshop. Those who choose selective participation go along with other actors’ initiatives but do so with a keen eye for their own ideas and interests, which may not be in line with others’ plans. For example, they sign up for a training course but skip the sessions they deem irrelevant, which the trainer may view as a lack of motivation. Employees operating a piecemeal strategy take their own initiative to organize an HRD process; however, they focus on some of its aspects only (e.g. mobilizing other actors), which will most probably affect other aspects (e.g. available facilities) unintentionally. Finally, those who operate an integrated strategy explicitly develop a comprehensive HRD plan at their own initiative, encompassing many different meaningful experiences. This plan is based on their own vision of how HRD should be organized in all its aspects to further their own learning and development. The latter type, incidentally, may not be feasible for many employees.

The role of networks in employees’ strategies. The positions of employees in the networks affect how they operate strategically in HRD, according to the learning-network theory. HRD is a tool for employees, too, to realize their ideas about work processes and career development. The less direct impact they can exert on their own work and career, the more they will call upon HRD opportunities. For example, employees with little job security will probably want to take an external certified training course rather than gain on-the-job experiences. In this sense, operating strategically in HRD is a form of compensation for many employees with little job autonomy.

Conclusions and perspectives: actors organize HRD strategically from networks This study set out to investigate the question of why organizing HRD is frequently a problematic affair, in terms of training effectiveness, participant motivation and added value. It has argued that one of the main reasons lies in the limited and one-sided conceptualization of organizing HRD that is usually employed, which is no longer sufficient in contemporary organizations. Organizing HRD is often viewed, certainly in HRM literature, as designing training courses and instruction sessions for employees; it is also predominantly understood as a tool of management. Recent literature on informal workplace learning, employee self-direction, employability and lifelong learning points to a much broader picture of what organizing HRD entails, both in terms of relevant learning activities (besides training) and in terms of employee strategies (besides line manager strategies). But how can these theoretical insights about learning be deployed usefully in organizing HRD?

In this study, the possibilities to do so offered by the learning-network theory have been explored. Compared to “single” approaches to organizing HRD, this network perspective takes into account a broader set of HRD practices and views employees as key stakeholders too. Employees can gain meaningful experiences in everyday work, HRM (career

Learning- network theory

221

development) and explicit HRD processes, from which they can learn. Several actors (not least employees) operate strategically in these processes, based on their positions, views and interests. It seems plausible that the relationships among actors in the organizational and HRD networks determine to a large extent which relevant experiences employees can gain; for instance, to what extent they can improve their own work, affect their labor conditions, further their career and participate in explicit HRD processes.

Perspectives for further investigation and practical implications The learning-network theory perspective on HRD offers a number of opportunities to further investigate, analyze and ultimately impact salient management and HRD issues in organizations. Five of these will be elaborated below:

(1) employee motivation in HRD; (2) the effectiveness of HRD; (3) collective learning; (4) the idiosyncratic nature of HRD; and (5) the personal-development motive.

Employee motivation in HRD. Much of the HRD literature acknowledges the importance of employee motivation to learn (Hutchins et al., 2013). From a network perspective, however, this is not just an issue of personal motivation; it is rather a strategic issue, in that employees’ personal views are placed in the organizational context. Is an employee who skips various sessions in a training course based on perceived usefulness not motivated to learn? Or is he or she operating strategically when it comes to HRD? Moreover, learning motivation from a network perspective is not just general learning readiness or learning orientation; it is rather more tied to specific themes and functions attributed to HRD. Does an employee who refuses to go to quality circle meetings, because he or she would rather invest in career planning sessions, have no learning motivation? Or is he or she emphasizing other motives underpinning HRD efforts than themanager would like?

Besides such theoretical notions worthy of further study, some practical implications in this area can be drawn from the learning-network theory. Managers and HR(D) practitioners should recognize that employees have their own motives and interests in HRD participation, which are likely to be different from the interests of management and HR(D). Taking these differences seriously will facilitate the negotiations that (should) surround their HRD efforts.

Effectiveness of HRD. As described at the outset of this study, corporate training efforts are often not as effective as intended (Harrison and Kessels, 2004; Poell and Van Der Krogt, 2005; Anderson, 2009; De Jong, 2010; Beausaert et al., 2012), just as many intended HRM practices are not always implemented well in actual practice (Boxall and Purcell, 2011). Transfer-enhancing measures can be put in place to increase the effectiveness of training. From a network perspective, this whole issue can be analyzed in terms of gaining experiences in various types of organizational processes (explicit HRD and on-the-job experiences) (Poell, 2017). Many employees who are sent on training courses (explicit HRD) have little room to gain relevant on-the-job learning experiences. The work relationships between managers and employees in these contexts are much more vertical than their HRD relationships are (“You can force me to do this task but you cannot force me to learn from it”). Moreover, a training course that was ineffective as perceived by the line manager may have been highly meaningful to one or several of the employees who participated, so whose view of effectiveness should we be looking at?

TLO 24,4

222

In terms of practical implications, this particular notion points to the need for managers and HR(D) practitioners to acknowledge that employees have their own views of what constitutes effective HRD. It also urges them to become aware of the learning potential offered by work situations even if they were not intended for employee learning in the first place. Combining explicit HRD and on-the-job experiences is likely to be a good way of making HRD effective for all parties involved.

Collective learning. Popular themes in literature related to collective learning include knowledge management (Blankenship and Ruona, 2009), learning organizations (Swieringa and Wierdsma, 1992) and communities of practice (Wenger, 1998). Informal learning in the workplace, especially as a social process, is a key focus in most of these areas. From a network perspective, this emphasis is interesting and relevant but also rather one-sided. Where are the different interests that actors bring to the fore, also in collective learning; where is the influence of the network structure; where are the power relations among actors? With some notable exceptions (Lam, 2000; Roberts, 2006; Heizmann, 2011; Hotho et al., 2014), such critical questions are missing from the debates, even though they could shed a whole new light on the issue of why collective learning is so difficult to achieve.

Practical implications associated with this notion include making managers and HR(D) practitioners aware of the power relations involved in HRD as well as of the different network structures across organizations, which are likely to make collective learning much more difficult in some organizations than in other (especially team-based, horizontal) organizations.

Idiosyncratic nature of HRD. In the learning-network theory, HRD is largely a reflection of the standing organization (structure and culture). As indicated earlier, actors attempt to use HRD to solve their problems (e.g. related to innovation or the internal labor market). The expectation is that HRD will bring a problem-solving approach that could not be easily realized in the standing organization. The question is justified here to what extent this is possible: Can HRD processes be organized that deviate from the existing organization structure and culture (Poell and Van Der Krogt, 2014a)? From a network perspective, probably the only way this will ever work is when powerful actors in the organization develop deviant ideas about organizing HRD. For example, they could bring in external consultants or give employees ample room in the organization to operate according to their own ideas.

A practical implication of this notion is that managers and HR(D) practitioners need to be conscious of the fact that bringing about real organizational change will have to involve truly new ways of organizing HRD. HRD has the potential to act as a lever for such changes, but this is unlikely to occur if it is organized in complete accordance with the standing organization: deviance needs to be actively created.

Personal-development motive. Of the three functions that actors can attribute to HRD (Table I), personal development is the least developed or recognized in literature thus far. Improving work is a well-established function of HRD, as is contributing to career development and employability. Personal development could become a more important HRD function in the near future, with the increasing emphasis on talent development and strength-based approaches to HR (Meyers et al., 2013). Although Andersson (2012) questions whether training can bring about personal development at all, however valued a goal it may be, a worthwhile direction for further investigation would seem to be how employees (and line managers) participate in HRD processes with a view to furthering their (employees’) personal development. How does this motive relate to the motives of work and career for actors organizing HRD? How do their interpretations of the network structure affect actors’

Learning- network theory

223

emphasis on personal development in organizing HRD? The learning-network theory can be used as an analytical tool to frame and investigate these, and other, research questions.

In terms of practical implications, managers and HR(D) practitioners should ask employees, much more often than has previously been the case, to what extent they need support for personal development through HRD. This may not be relevant for all employees; however, pretending it is irrelevant for all employees does nothing to increase anyone’s understanding of why employee participation in HRD is indeed often as problematic as it is.

References Anderson, V. (2009), “Desperately seeking alignment: reflections of senior line managers and HRD

executives”,Human Resource Development International, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 263-277. Andersson, T. (2012), “Normative identity processes in managers' personal development training”,

Personnel Review, Vol. 41 No. 5, pp. 572-589. Beausaert, S., Segers, M., Fouarge, D. and Gijselaers, G. (2012), “Effect of using a personal development

plan on learning and development”, Journal ofWorkplace Learning, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 145-158. Blankenship, S.S. and Ruona, W.E. (2009), “Exploring knowledge sharing in social structures: potential

contributions to an overall knowledge management strategy”, Advances in Developing Human Resources, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 290-306.

Boxall, P. and Purcell, J. (2011), Strategy and Human Resource Management, Palgrave MacMillan, Houndmills.

De Jong, T. (2010), Linking Social Capital to Knowledge Productivity: An Explorative Study on The Relationship Between Social Capital and Learning in Knowledge-Productive Networks, Springer, Houten.

Figge, L. (2012), “To what extent are learning programs attuned to individual learning paths?” MSc thesis Human Resource Studies, Tilburg University.

Harrison, R. and Kessels, J.W.M. (2004), Human Resource Development in a Knowledge Economy: An Organisational View, PalgraveMacMillan, Basingstoke.

Heizmann, H. (2011), “Knowledge sharing in a dispersed network of HR practice: zooming in on power/ knowledge struggles”,Management Learning, Vol. 42 No. 4, pp. 379-393.

Hotho, J., Saka-Helmhout, A. and Becker-Ritterspach, F. (2014), “Bringing context and structure back into situated learning”,Management Learning, Vol. 45 No. 1, pp. 57-80.

Hutchins, H.M., Nimon, K., Bates, R. and Holton, E. (2013), “Can the LTSI predict transfer performance? Testing intent to transfer as a proximal transfer of training outcome”, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 251-263.

Lam, A. (2000), “Tacit knowledge, organizational learning and societal institutions: an integrated framework”,Organization Studies, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 487-513.

Margaryan, A., Littlejohn, A. and Milligan, C. (2013), “Self-regulated learning in the workplace: strategies and factors in the attainment of learning goals”, International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 17 No. 4, pp. 245-259.

Meyers, M.C., Van Woerkom, M. and Bakker, A.B. (2013), “The added value of the positive: a literature review of positive psychology interventions in organizations”, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 22 No. 5, pp. 618-632.

Poell, R.F. (2017), “Time to ‘flip’ the training transfer tradition: employees create learning paths strategically”,Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 9-15.

Poell, R.F., Bang, A., Justice, S., Lundgren, H., Marsick, V.J., Sauquet Rovira, A., Sung, S.Y. and Yorks, L. (2016), “How do employees’ individual learning paths differ across occupations? A review of 10 years of empirical learning-network theory research”, Paper presented at the 17th International Conference on HRDResearch and Practice across Europe, Manchester, MA, June, 2016.

TLO 24,4

224

Poell, R.F. and Van Der Krogt, F.J. (2005), “Customizing learning programs to the organization and its employees: how HRD practitioners create tailored learning programs”, International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 288-304.

Poell, R.F. and Van Der Krogt, F.J. (2014a), “The role of human resource development in organizational change: professional development strategies of employees, managers and HRD practitioners”, in Billett, S., Harteis, C. and Gruber, H. (Eds), International Handbook of Research in Professional and Practice-Based Learning, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 1043-1070.

Poell, R.F. and Van Der Krogt, F.J. (2014b), “The learning-network theory: actors organize dynamic HRD networks”, in Poell, R.F., Rocco, T.S. and Roth, G.L. (Eds), The Routledge Companion to Human Resource Development, Routledge, London, pp. 134-146.

Poell, R.F. and Van Der Krogt, F.J. (2017), “Why is organizing human resource development so problematic? perspectives from the learning-network theory (part I)”, The Learning Organization, Vol. 24 No. 3, pp. 180-193.

Roberts, J. (2006), “Limits to communities of practice”, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp. 623-639.

Sitzmann, T. and Ely, K. (2011), “A meta-analysis of self-regulated learning in work-related training and educational attainment: what we know and where we need to go”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 137 No. 3, pp. 421-442.

Soekijad, M., Van Den Hooff, B., Agterberg, M. and Huysman, M. (2011), “Leading to learn in networks of practice: two leadership strategies”,Organization Studies, Vol. 32 No. 8, pp. 1005-1027.

Swieringa, J. and Wierdsma, A.F.M. (1992), Becoming a Learning Organization, Addison-Wesley, Wokingham.

Van Der Sluis, E.C. and Poell, R.F. (2002), “Learning opportunities and learning behavior: a study amongMBAs in their early career stage”,Management Learning, Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 291-312.

Van Roekel, M. (2012), “Learning path strategies of teachers in secondary schools based on learning activities and learning motives: what is the effect of job tenure?”, MSc thesis Human Resource Studies, Tilburg University.

Walton, J. (1999), Strategic Human Resource Development, Prentice Hall, Harlow. Wenger, E. (1998), Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity, University Press,

Cambridge, MA. Yorks, L. (2005), Strategic Human Resource Development, Thomson South-Western, Mason, OH.

Corresponding author Rob F. Poell can be contacted at: [email protected]

For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website: www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm Or contact us for further details: [email protected]

Learning- network theory

225

  • Why is organizing human resource development so problematic?
    • Introduction
    • Gaining multiple experiences as a basis for HRD
      • Meaningful experiences
      • Directing experiences in a learning path
      • The role of networks in learning-path creation
    • HRD strategies of employees and line managers
      • Three functions that HRD serves for actors
      • Line managers operating strategically
        • Undefined namespace prefix xmlXPathCompOpEval: parameter error xmlXPathEval: evaluation failed
      • Employees operating strategically
        • Undefined namespace prefix xmlXPathCompOpEval: parameter error xmlXPathEval: evaluation failed
    • Conclusions and perspectives: actors organize HRD strategically from networks
      • Perspectives for further investigation and practical implications
        • Undefined namespace prefix xmlXPathCompOpEval: parameter error xmlXPathEval: evaluation failed
        • Undefined namespace prefix xmlXPathCompOpEval: parameter error xmlXPathEval: evaluation failed
        • Undefined namespace prefix xmlXPathCompOpEval: parameter error xmlXPathEval: evaluation failed
        • Undefined namespace prefix xmlXPathCompOpEval: parameter error xmlXPathEval: evaluation failed
        • Undefined namespace prefix xmlXPathCompOpEval: parameter error xmlXPathEval: evaluation failed
    • References

Attachment 14

Human resources challenges of military to civilian

employment transitions John C. Dexter

Sorrell College of Business, HR, MGMT and Law, Troy University, Troy, Alabama, USA

Abstract

Purpose –Upon discharge, US servicemembers experience an instantaneous immersion back into civilian life. One of the most challenging aspects of that reimmersion is the reentry/entry into the civilian workforce. As such, it is necessary to study the returning veteran’s employment experience when considering the veteran’s civilian reintegration. The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate the returning veteran’s civilian employment experience and to identify challenges faced by the veteran in the civilian onboarding experience. Design/methodology/approach – This study is a qualitative analysis in which 27 military veterans were interviewed about their experience with civilian reemployment. The results of the interviews were compiled, analyzed and grouped by common theme. This study explains some of the major issues confronted by the newly separated veteran and discusses how those challenges may influence job satisfaction and job performance. Findings – The analysis identified the following three main themes that posed challenges to the veteran to civilian employment transition: civilian employer’smilitary job knowledge deficit, veteran anxietywith civilian employer’s lack of clearly defined new-hire processes and civilian employer misunderstanding of veteran compensation, benefits and family involvement expectations. Research limitations/implications – This study is beneficial to scholars in as much as it will help to more clearly identify literature gaps, provide direction on emerging research concepts, add to the existing literature on the veteran to civilian transitions and connect research areas that have not yet been adequately studied. Future research would be well served to follow a similar program of research but by employing different research methods in order to address the limitations outlined above and further support the findings of this research. Specifically, future research should sample across a wider set of individuals as study participants (time since discharge, age, military rank at time of separation, reserve status, etc.). By doing this, future researchersmay be able to determine howperceptions change over time andwith regard tomilitary experience. A second area of future research may be to conduct related research based on civilian employment opportunities and qualifications. Specific areas of study to be considered should be focused primarily on the macro issues such asmilitary leadership and translatingmilitary experiences and skill sets to civilian contexts. Unlike other findings in this research, these two areas cannot be affected at the organizational level, and as such require concept exploration and clarity. Practical implications – This study provides guidance and direction for veterans and employers alike by outlining areas that may be challenging for new-hire military veterans and bringing to light areas where the civilian onboarding experience can improve to better accommodate veterans. Further, this study identifies areas that directly or indirectly contribute to high veteran turnover rates and ultimately high veteran unemployment rates. Originality/value – This original quantitative study conducted by the author specifically identifies several areas in the veteran to civilian employment transition that pose challenges for the returning veteran. All data for this study were gathered and analyzed using first-hand face-to-face interviews and established data analysis methods by the researcher.

Keywords Military veteran, Veteran recruiting, Veteran transition, Veteran employment, Veteran

reintegration, Military outplacement, Employee onboarding, New-hire orientation

Paper type Research paper

Background of the problem and the need for this study According to the U.S. Department of Labor (2015), former military personnel account for approximately 7.7% of the total civilian employment population in the USA. As of January 31, 2020, there were 1,358,290 active duty military personnel in the four branches of the

Military to civilian

employment transitions

481

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:

https://www.emerald.com/insight/1362-0436.htm

Received 1 February 2019 Revised 12 August 2019

4 December 2019 17 March 2020 7 April 2020 21 April 2020

Accepted 27 April 2020

Career Development International Vol. 25 No. 5, 2020

pp. 481-500 © Emerald Publishing Limited

1362-0436 DOI 10.1108/CDI-02-2019-0032

United States military (Defense Manpower Data Center, 2020) and approximately 19,209,704 veterans in the United States (United States Department of Veterans Affairs, 2020). In response to the large military active duty and veteran population, veteran transition and integration into the civilian workforce has drawn increased attention (McGregor, 2013).

The September 11 terrorist attacks facilitated a rise in patriotism in the United States (Osanloo, 2011). As a result of this rise, the employment of veterans has solicited a strong commitment from US employers to employ veterans (Rudstam et al., 2012; McGregor, 2013). ManyUS employers such as BNSFRailroad, HomeDepot andMcDonald’s have committed to aggressively pursuing and hiring veterans (Whitehouse Press Release Blog, 2014). Walmart, specifically, committed to hiring any honorably discharged veteran within two years of their discharge date (McGregor, 2013), and other major employers such as Deloitte, USAA and the Blackstone Group have also announced major veteran-hiring initiatives (Whitehouse Press Release Blog, 2014).

In 2011, AT&T Inc., Verizon, Broadridge Financial Solutions, Inc., Cisco Systems, Cushman and Wakefield, EMC Corporation, Iron Mountain Incorporated, JPMorgan Chase and Co., Modis, NCR Corporation and Universal Health Services, Inc., joined a partnership to hire 100,000 veterans by 2020. By 2014, that coalition totaled more than 175 companies and doubled their employment target to 200,000 (Curry Hall, Harrell, Bicksler, Stewart, and Fisher, 2014).

On March 24, 2014, The Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act (VEVRAA) as overseen by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)was amended to strengthen the law requiring that government contractors and subcontractors take affirmative action to employ specific classifications of veterans protected by the act. These protected veterans include Vietnam-era veterans, disabled veterans and veterans who served on active duty during a war action that qualified for a campaign badge (U.S. Department of Labor, 2015).

Given the large numbers of US veterans and the aggressive veteran-recruiting commitments by major employers, there is a strong need to evaluate veteran employment transitions. This study is such an evaluation. Specifically, this study and the associated analysis offer important perspectives to civilian employer leadership in three distinct and unique ways. First, while there are many comprehensive studies on selecting, hiring and onboarding employees, there are no existing studies that identify the challenges veterans experience when transitioning to civilian employment. Second, this study is of great importance and significance due to the large number of veterans entering the workforce and the passionate commitment of employers to hire them. Third, understanding the experiences and expectations of veteran employees as they first enter the civilian workforce will provide a solid foundation for effectively hiring, onboarding and retaining veterans regardless of industry or professional niche.

Problem statement There has been extensive research and analysis conducted on the challenges of the returning veteran’s reintegration into civilian life in general, but there has been minimal research conducted on post-military reintegration in the civilianworkforce specifically (e.g. Adler et al., 2011; Ostovary and Dapprich, 2011).

The question as to how to successfully and effectively transition the large number of exiting veterans into civilian employment has become more and more important due to the renewed commitments fromUS employers to hire veterans (Curry Hall et al., 2014; McGregor, 2013; Rudstam et al., 2012; Whitehouse Press Release Blog, 2014). Making this question more complicated is that veterans have a difficult time understanding the differences between civilian and military benefits and between familial support and general lifestyle, and these key differences are often overlooked by civilian employers (Arendt and Sapp, 2014).

CDI 25,5

482

This study analyzes and evaluates the returning veteran’s civilian employment experience and identifies some of the challenges faced by the veteran in the civilian onboarding experience. By way of qualitative research (interviews), this paper explores and compares the differences between military and civilian employment infrastructure and evaluates the similarities and differences identified in the comparison. The results of the study enable a determination to be made as to how the perceived differences affect the new veteran’s civilian work experiences.

Literature review The literature review of this study focuses on exploring some of the differences between civilian and military employment and some of the challenges returning veterans face when transitioning to civilian employment. There is considerable research on veteran employment in civilian contexts, and most of it focuses on returning veterans with significant disabilities and the challenges that they face reentering the civilian employment market (Davis et al., 2019; Harrod et al., 2017; Winters, 2018). There is also some research that generically focuses on veteran to civilian employment transitions (Burnett-Zeigler et al., 2011; Chicas et al., 2012; Keeling et al., 2019; Kirchner and Akdere, 2019; Kleycamp, 2013; Little, and Alenkin, 2011). This study, however, is unique in that the research focuses on the returning veteran’s hiring and onboarding experiences and does not differentiate among any specific personal challenges that the returning veteran may have.

This literature review was developed by researching keywords and their interrelationships. The main keywords were identified by utilizing the topic flow from military and civilian employment differences to their impact on the transitioning veteran’s experience. The literature review was conducted in order to identify and consider the differences between veteran and civilian employment as well as how those differences manifest themselves in the civilian context. Search topics were chosen after conducting preliminary research utilizing peer-reviewed academic journals and government agency reports since 2001. The year 2001 was chosen as the historical beginning for the research as it was the year in which the renewed commitments from US employers to aggressively pursue and hire veterans began.

Military leadership According to the U.S. Department of the Army, an Army leader as “anyone who by virtue of assumed role or assigned responsibility inspires and influences people to accomplish organizational goals. Army leaders motivate people both inside and outside the chain of command to pursue actions, focus thinking, and shape decisions for the greater good of the organization” (Department of Headquarters, Department of Army, 2006, p. 1–1).

Creech (2004) states that military leaders are role models that lead by example and are adept at leading by utilizing authority and influence. Creech’s requirements of military leadership are not different than those demonstrated by effective civilian leaders; however, military and civilian leaders are unique to one another, and each has its own strengths and weaknesses (Horn, 2014).

Weber (1947) identified six “classical attributes of bureaucracy”: specialization, meritocracy, hierarchy, separate ownership, impersonality and accountability. Military leadership is dependent primarily on one of Weber’s attributes, hierarchy. “Hierarchy is the foundation military service lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment” (Department of Army, 2006, p. 2–3). It is, therefore important to civilian employment in that it is indicative of skill sets that directly affect a veteran’s probability of success in a civilian work capacity (Horn, 2014).

Military to civilian

employment transitions

483

Military jobs and occupational specialties A Military Occupational Specialty or MOS is the military name for the titles and responsibilities of the job that a military service member holds while in the military. Every MOS is unique and is supported by more than 2,000 courses and 84,000 personnel (Kirin and Winkler, 1992). As of 2019, there were in excess of 700 specific and unique jobs in the military (Today’s Military.com, 2019).

MOSs are specific to the military and do not wholly exist in civilian contexts due to the sociopolitical mission(s) of the military as influenced by global politics and societal mandates (Bardies, 2013). As such, formal civilian education is absent and the specialized military training that the veteran received in themilitary “does not necessarily translate to the civilian world” (Pease et al., 2015, p. 84). In fact, many veterans feel as if their skills cannot translate effectively from the military to civilian employment due to the fact that their MOS provided themwith a level of responsibility, security clearance, training and supervisor experience that was no longer available to them in the civilian workforce (Harrod et al., 2017).

Military compensation and benefits According to Hosek and MacDermid-Wadsworth (2013), “service members typically earn more than civilians with a comparable level of education” (p. 41). That is primarily because service members and private sector employees are compensated for work performed in different ways. Specifically, civilian employees generally receive a base pay rate and in some instances bonuses that are generally in the form of cash or company stock. Civilian compensation models are generally aligned with industry characteristics (Baker et al., 1988). Military compensation, however, is a combination of many different pay components such as regular base compensation, professional pay, hazardous duty pay, sea duty pay, family separation pay, specialized duty assignment pay, commuted rations and enlistment/ reenlistment bonuses (Duenas, 2009).

Additionally, service members are eligible for 30 days of paid vacation annually as well as situational leave for things like pending deployments, morale building, medical, convalescent, bereavement and the birth of a child. Military benefits such as medical, dental, vision and life insurance are paid for in full by the military with no out-of pocket expenses for the service member (Department of Defense, 2011).

The military as “family” Ahern et al. (2015) state that themilitary is an organization that takes care of its members, and that former military members describe the military as family. They describe the military system as something to “hold onto in the chaos of a war zone” (p. 5) as well as a vehicle to provide an opportunity to excel. As such, the veteran returning to civilian life is facedwith the challenges of reconnection. These challenges are manifested in four reintegration themes: a) disconnection, b) unsupportive institutions c) lack of civilian structure and d) loss of purpose (Ahern, et al., 2015).

Most veterans experience conditions and events that are foreign to the civilian experience (Pease et al., 2015). In addition to the unique and often devastating effects of combat, there are military-specific environmental challenges as well. Specific examples include close-quarter living situations such as in tents or on naval vessels, prolonged exposure to natural elements, hostile environments and extensive family separation (United States Department of Defense, 2012). In order to more effectively copewith the hardships inherent to themilitary experience, veterans often view themilitary as “a ‘family’ that took care of service members and provided a structured set of expectations” (Ahern et al., 2015, p. 4).

CDI 25,5

484

Military onboarding and new hire training The military has a robust selection process that is just as important as the specific and regimented onboarding and initial military training process. According to Today’s Military.com (2019), basic enlisted selection and onboarding consists of five main steps;

(1) Satisfactory completion of theArmed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB)

(2) Satisfactory completion of a physical-readiness examination

(3) Career selection

(4) Oath of enlistment

(5) Report for basic training

The first four of these steps are completed during a single visit at an area’s Military Enlisted Processing Facility (MEPS) over a one or two day period. Generally, a new recruit has a “ship- out” date before leaving the MEPS facility.

Upon reporting for duty, both officers and enlisted personnel are engaged in a form of basic training which varies based on military branch (Military.com, 2018). Basic training is then followed by several weeks and/or months of specific job training. In some cases such as naval nuclear specialties, military training can be more than a year-and-a-half-long (Department of Defense, 1992). In contrast, civilian new hire training as provided by the employer lasts generally only a day or two, most of which is human resources orientation (Dunn, and Jasinski, 2009).

In all cases, the onboarding and training process in the military is highly structured. All new service members have a clear understanding of what the process will be as well as clear expectations of important dates, times and places (Today’s Military.com, 2019). Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for civilian employees.

Research questions The goal of this study was to analyze and evaluate the returning veteran’s civilian employment experience and to identify challenges faced by the veteran in the civilian onboarding experience. This study also evaluates how the onboarding experience(s) affects the ex-service member’s adjustment to and satisfaction with civilian employment’s way of interviews and first-hand perceptions.

Method A qualitative phenomenological research structure was determined to be the most appropriate research strategy for this study. Specifically, the qualitative design method was chosen as it allows for the subjectivity of the veteran participant and for detailed discussion on topics of concerns (Merriam, 2014). Utilizing a qualitative research method, the researcher was able to provide a richer, more in-depth analysis by utilization of detailed questioning since, as Merriam (2014) states, “individual respondents define the world in unique ways” (p. 90).

Consistent with Merriam’s observation (above), this study is designed to effectively explore the recently discharged veteran’s transition to civilian employment. Using a phenomenological approach, participants were interviewed and the interviewee’s verbatim descriptions of their personal experiences were captured in order to identify their personal experiences and their personal interpretations of those experiences.

While overall population of veterans is in excess of seven million (United States Department of Veterans Affairs, 2020), a sample of 27 recently separated veterans (within ten

Military to civilian

employment transitions

485

years) from a geographically diverse population was utilized for this study. Participants in the study were selected by way of purposive sampling that included those that (1) separated from one of the four branches of the military (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps) within ten years of this interview and (2) had been employed in a full-time civilian capacity since their military discharge.

Only veterans of the US Army, Navy, Air Force or Marine Corps were used for this study. The US Coast Guard was not utilized as it is a division of the Department of Homeland Security, and not the Department of Defense, and as such Coast Guard veteransmay not have the same military experience as veterans from the other four branches of the military. As an example of a significant difference, Coast Guard service members are not subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) except during time of war when they become a division of the US Navy (Walsh, 2018). Further, the missions of the Coast Guard primarily focus on law enforcement and homeland security; they do not identify part of their mission as being involved in overseas conflicts, although they are occasionally deployed to foreign ports. As such, deployments are generally shorter, operating units are smaller and family separation is limited as compared to the other branches of the military (Crea, 2007; Stiehm, 2012).

From a demographic research perspective, the US Coast Guard consists of approximately 41,000 active duty members, while the Army alone consists of 561,000 active duty members. When compared to the entire population of the US Military of 1.4 million, the Coast Guard makes up less than 3% of the total active duty population (Stiehm, 2012). In consideration of the Coast Guard’s relatively small percentage of the total veteran population and the potential for different experiences while on active duty which could affect the veteran’s transition experience, Coast Guard veterans were not included in this study.

Data collection and analysis The interview questions were developed by the researcher and feedback solicited from three human resource-related PhDs each with more than 20 years of practical interviewing experience. Additionally, six preliminary interviews were conducted as a vehicle to refine interview questions and identify initial codes that formed the primary themes of this research, thereby maximizing interview effectiveness (Merriam, 2014).

Participants were selected randomly from geographically diverse independent sources so as to get a representative sample of the general US veteran population. Purposive sampling was used to identify interview participants who were most likely to be able to provide meaningful contribution to the research as a result of their non-discriminatory demographic make-up (Maxwell, 2012). Since there is no set rule for the size of a qualitative sample (Kvale, 1996; Maxwell, 2012), an initial target of 30 participants was assumed to be sufficient to gather the amount of data required to address the research question at hand (Patton, 2002). That number was adjusted during the course of the research to 27, which was deemed sufficient due to similarity of the collected data (Merriam, 2014).

The recruitment sampling yielded 27 veterans from 20 different civilian employers. Six participants were working in human resource-related fields, one in health and wellness, four as retail store managers, three as school teachers, five in clinical/medical capacities, six in entry level retail capacities and two were unemployed. Sixteen of the participants were male and eleven were female. Data gathered for this study compromised demographic information including age, education andmilitary experience as well as the subject’s employer tenure and experience. Subject interviews were conducted by three independent interviewers and lasted approximately 60 min each. All interviews were conducted in a private location in order to ensure subject anonymity. Each interviewee was advised of the purpose of the research, as well as the confidentiality of the data gathered during the research. Each interview was digitally recorded and transcribed for data collection accuracy.

CDI 25,5

486

In order to minimize the impact of gender bias on this study, 16 of the participants were male and 11were female. Additionally, 25 of the 27 participantswere actively employed in the civilian workforce; 17 were between the ages of 26–35 and ten were older than 35. Sixteen of the participants had been employed by his/her current employer for between one and three years, and 15 participants had been in his/her current position for more than three years. Six participants were from theWestern US, ten from the Southern US, four from theMidwest and six from the East coast which allowed for a diverse geographical sample.

Since it is impossible to determine the relative experience and/or knowledge of civilian employment that a former service member may have from sources other than first-hand participatory experience, there was no attempt to differentiate that experience/knowledge prior to data collection.

In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with all 27 veterans. The semi- structured interview technique was chosen as it allowed for a free flow of follow-up questions and provided for flexibility of direction of the interview (Merriam, 2014). This was deemed important because the research was focused on individual experience and perceptions and was not looking for any specific areas or opinions. A single interviewer conducted, recorded and analyzed all of the interviews that he/she participated in and all three interviewers were careful to ask the written interview questions exactly the same way to each participant in order to help minimize intra-interviewer variability (Bryman and Bell, 2011). Participants were asked specific questions from the semi-structured interview guide as well as demographic-oriented questions such as age, education and military and civilian employment experience. Participants were also asked to describe their perceptions, experiences and recommendations for transitioning and onboarding veterans at their employer. The interview questions were separated into three distinct sections consistent with the themes identified in the initial pilot interviews. The researchers did, however, allow for some free-flow dialogue and unstructured discussion after gathering initial perspectives from the verbatim written questions in order to enrich the quality of the responses. Participants were encouraged to elaborate on questions that they felt were most important.

The initial phase of the interviews asked participants to reflect on their experience with the civilian employee selection process. This concept was clarified with the participants as being “all activities prior to their first day of employment.” Specifically, participants were asked to think about their experience applying for civilian jobs and reflect on their experiences (e.g. how would you describe your experience applying civilian jobs? What did you find were the biggest challenges for you in the process? What, if anything, did you find surprising?). The respondents were also asked how they overcame the challenges (e.g. How did you deal with the challenges you faced? What did the employer do to assist you?).

The second phase of the interviews focused on onboarding and integration. This section was clarified with the participant as being their first experiences “on the job,” including their first day(s), orientation, training and general preparation for successful employment. Specific questions were asked about the job offer and first day scheduling (e.g. What did the job offer experience consist of? What was challenging and/or surprising to you about the process?). Additional questions were asked about the onboarding, orientation and training experiences (e.g. What did the onboarding, orientation and training process consist of? What was challenging and/or surprising to you about the process? Was it effective? Did you feel fully prepared for your new job?).

The third and last phase of the interviews focused on compensation, benefits and family involvement. This section consisted of questions about the tangible value of civilian employment (e.g. Are you compensated hourly or by monthly salary? Describe your compensation exclusive of benefits and time off. Is your pay consistent with your expectations? Did you fully understand how you would be paid prior to your first day? Were you surprised by your compensation?). Additional questions were regarding the benefits and

Military to civilian

employment transitions

487

time-off packages (e.g. Describe the benefits package at your employer? Is it consistent with your expectations? Were you surprised or disappointed in the benefits offered to you?) and work-load/family involvement (e.g. Are you compensated fairly for your workload? Does your job meet your expectations of time off and family involvement? Describe your family’s involvement in work-related activities if any).

Each qualitative interview lasted approximately 60 min, and the interviews were conducted in various private offices and by telephone. Keeping in mind that the individuals themselves can define and elaborate on their experiences better than anyone else (Harr�e and Secord, 1976), every interview was synthesized and recapped at the end of questioning in order to ensure that the participant’s perspectives were accurately captured.

The transcriptions of all 27 participants were analyzed using thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006) and the “derived etic” approach to qualitative research (Berry, 1989). These techniques allowed the researchers to evaluate the transcripts for common themes indicating similarities in the participant’smilitary to civilian employment transition. Consistent with the recommendation of Ulin et al. (2005), the researchers familiarized themselves with the collected data and content by way of repeated reading and rereading of interview transcripts in order to determine similar response meanings and ultimately code similar responses into categorical themes and subthemes (Graneheim and Lundman, 2004). Specifically, data collected through the interviews were evaluated by breaking down each concept or thought into as many specific and unique codes as possible. These “first-level codes” were then combined, and consistent concepts were further grouped into more general “second-level codes” and ultimately into specific categories encompassing “broad analytic themes” (Bryman and Bell, 2011, p. 588).

The participant transcripts and codes were compared with the goal of establishing a discriminant coding capability greater than 80% (Miles andHuberman, 1984). This scorewas calculated using simple proportion agreement method because the qualitative nature of the analysis was designed to merely classify the responses into broad categories and because the research was an exploratory study. As such, the simple proportion agreement was deemed a satisfactory and appropriate approach (Kurasaki, 2000). As further verification of interrater reliability, Krippendorff’s alpha was calculated (87.2%) in order to further assess the accuracy of the data analysis as well as to verify the consistency of the research methods (Thomas and Magilvy, 2011). Krippendorff’s alpha was specifically chosen as it was developed to specifically “measure the agreement among observers, coders, judges, raters, or measuring instruments drawing distinctions among typically unstructured phenomena or assign computable values to them (Krippendorff, 2011, p. 1).” The Krippendorff’s alpha score of 87.2% for this analysis was deemed satisfactory as it is greater than the target score of 80% (Krippendorff, 2011).

Findings The findings of the study identified three main issues that the interviewees had with the civilian employment process: 1. civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit, 2. veteran anxiety with civilian employers lack of clearly defined new-hire processes and 3. civilian employer’s misunderstanding of veteran compensation, benefits and family involvement expectations. Respondents in this study identified challenges in all three themes and within the context of their initial military to civilian employment transition.

Theme one: civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit The respondents in this study consistently (100%) identified a lack of value for and/or a lack of understanding of how to evaluate the value of prior military service in the civilian

CDI 25,5

488

workforce. They elaborated that the lack of understanding is even more profound when considering veterans for civilian management roles. One hundred percent of the participants in this study forwarded that “leadership” occurs at all levels in the military which is consistent with Steihm (2012), that states and that most military personnel (in good standing) rise to the rank of at least anE�4 and therefor are a supervisor/manager by definition.Within the civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit theme, respondents identified two major questions for civilian employers as follows: How do we best utilize a veteran employee with significant management experience? How do we translate military experience to civilian applicability in a meaningful and realistic way?

The lack of recognition by civilian employers of themanagement/leadership experience of military veterans was illustrated by one participant as follows;

By the time youmake it out of basic and initial training, most soldiers have been promoted a couple of times. . . either as incentives for completing school or based on merit. So, by the time he/she gets to their first “real” duty station, they will be in some sort of supervisory capacity. That experience and responsibility only grows throughout their service time. So, you will routinely have 22 year old veterans with several years of supervisory experience upon completion of a military enlistment but they are not employable in a civilian supervisory capacity. It makes no sense (Male, 42, Retail Management).

The concept of the transfer of supervisory experience from the military to civilian employment becomes even more profound when comparing the different types of military leadership. Within the military, leadership and management have multiple meanings, and 100% of participants in this study stated that civilian employers should not only consider management capability but also what capacity the transitioning manager will be working in. As an example, one respondent stated;

A front line or department manager at Walmart may be more suitable for an enlisted leader while a Commissioned Officer may be more suitable for a more strategic manager role such as a logistics manager. While pure leadership experience may be similar between enlisted and commissioned officers, understanding the difference between the general and role experiences of officers and enlisted is very important (Male, 22, retail warehouse worker).

The overwhelming belief of participants interviewed (92.6%) in this study was that enlisted leadership personnel (E-4–E-9) are more effective civilian managers due to the similarities in hands-on management/leadership experiences between both military and civilian “people” management positions. Enlisted leaders were viewed as being more hands-on and participatory in their management practice. Commissioned officers, on the other hand, were viewed as being more strategic and directive.

The second main concept within the civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit theme identified by the participants in this study was the translation of skill sets from the military to civilian employment. Separate from the supervisory experiences outlined above, the military service member’s job and its relative level of responsibility were also identified.

According to the data collected and analyzed for this study, the veteran’s MOS is as important or often more important than rank when selecting a successful employee/manager for civilian employment. Further, selecting veterans who had military work responsibilities and environments similar to those in civilian employment was seen as having a higher probability of success. As one participant stated;

Some of these guys (veterans) have served as Nuclear Reactor Operators in the Navy. They had responsibility for managing a nuclear power plant when in the Navy but when they are discharged as an E-4 or E-5, they end up working at low end menial jobs with little to no real responsibility and quit after a short time (Female, 27, HR Project Manager).

Military to civilian

employment transitions

489

Theme 2: veteran anxiety with civilian employer’s lack of clearly defined new-hire processes Onboarding. Consistent with the descriptions of military onboarding by the Department of Defense (1992), and Today’s Military.com (2019), this study’s respondents clearly identified significant and challenging differences between military and civilian new-hire employment processes. Specifically, respondents expressed frustration with the lack of a clearly defined interview, selection and onboarding process during their initial transition to civilian employment. In all, 66% of the participants in the study identified that they felt “in the dark” or in “limbo”while waiting for a job offer from a civilian employer. They explained that when they joined the military, the entire process was clearly defined and took at most a few days. However, when they applied for a civilian job, they felt as if there were many interviews spread out over days or weeks and the hiring process seemed to be ad hoc and not well defined. One participant explained his perception of the civilian interview and onboarding process as follows;

It seems like hiring is a low priority and not well organized. I was invited in for an interview with the hiring manager who was not available so I met with a recruiter after I had to wait for nearly an hour. Then I had to come back and meet with the manager that I was supposed to meet with the first time. Two days later I was contacted by a lab to schedule a drug screening which I knew nothing about. Then, once everything was a “go,” I had to wait four weeks for a class date. It was a mess. (Male, 30, Medical Coordinator).

Another participant echoed the sentiment;

Once the job offer was extended, the delay for a start date was excessive . . . it took them several weeks to confirm a start date for me while they waited for a new “book of business” to be boarded. Once I started, training was shortened so the new business could be worked. (Male, 23, Sales)

New-hire training. One hundred percent of the respondents were disappointed in the civilian training and guidance they received when beginning their first civilian job. Respondents explained that formal training is only minimally available when beginning civilian employment as compared to military training. They stated that most military training programs include between six and twelve weeks of basic training followed by between ten and twenty weeks of job training specific to a service member’s military job (MOS), but that civilian “orientation” training is at most followed by “a few days of training” (3 respondents) or by less formal “on the job training” (16 respondents) which lacks structure and direction. One respondent explained her civilian experience as follows;

It is more like bumping your head in the dark until you figure it out! (Female, 22, Clerical).

Another respondent stated,

It wasweird. Themilitary taught you how to tie your shoes again then built up from there. Inmy first civilian job, they spent four hours going over benefits and paperwork then sent me to lunch. Everything about the job itself, I learned from others atwork . . .mostly peers because the supervisor was rarely available. (Male, 31, Retail).

Theme 3: civilian employer misunderstanding of veteran compensation, benefits and family involvement expectations Compensation. Respondents in this study described the various compensation opportunities in themilitary as being regular base compensation, professional pay, hazardous duty pay, sea duty pay, family separation pay, specialized duty assignment pay, commuted rations and enlistment/reenlistment bonuses as well as 30 days of paid vacation. More than half (52%) of the respondents in this study expressed their initial misunderstanding and dissatisfaction with common civilian compensation structures. Specifically, there was a feeling that there was little consideration for circumstance or adversity in civilian compensation.

CDI 25,5

490

The respondents equated civilian compensation with military “base pay,” and they felt that it was misleading that it was not communicated to them that there was no additional “add-on” pay such as the military “add-on” pay as outlined above. One participant described his experience as follows;

I never really had a job before I went in the military so the military was my only experience. I just assumed that everybody paid you like the military and I certainly never understood that my health benefits were paid for out of my paycheck! In the Army, healthcare is free so you get your whole check! (Male, 24, Retail).

Benefits.Military service members receive additional benefits that are rarely available or completely unavailable from civilian employers. Specific examples are on-base child care, no-cost (or near no-cost) dependent and service member health care, guarantee of quality educational opportunities for school-age children and college tuition reimbursement by way of the GI Bill or through various military and VA programs (Department of Defense, 2011).

The respondents to this study point out that while many of the programs and benefits offered to military service men and women are available in some form to civilians in the civilian workplace, they are cost-prohibitive as they are not significantly subsidized by the employer.

One respondent pointed out that military base pay is inclusive of the cost for benefits. As she stated,

In civilian employment, your take home pay is reduced by benefits costs such as retirement, life insurance and health/dental premiums. In the military, there is no cost for those benefits. That was surprising to say the least! (Female, 22, Clerical).

Five (19%) of this study’s respondents did not anticipate any of the pay deductions for benefits and as such felt “slighted” by the employer.

Family involvement. The participants in this study identified a significant difference in family involvement between the military and civilian employment. During times of deployment or training overseas, at sea or in other temporary duty locations, family separation can be long and difficult. However, at the service member’s assigned duty station, there are many initiatives and programs designed to enhance family support and involvement, such as Family Readiness Groups, Organized Volunteer Opportunities, Organized Team Building Activities and adjusted Work Days/Working Hours, that are all designed to help build cohesive support networks for familymembers while servicemembers are deployed.

All of the respondents in this study stated that family involvement in civilian employer activities was all but nonexistent. None of the participants in this study were able to identify any examples of where family and work came together. Several respondents identified times when their employers held barbecues or holiday parties, but those were for employees only and did not include employee’s families. The consensus of all respondents was that unlike military employment, civilian employment and “home life” are entirely separate. As one respondent stated;

The Navy is all about family. They even say that the toughest job in the Navy is the Navywife. Since you’re gone from home port so much, they make it a point to involve the family as often as they can. Your family can come eat dinner with you on the ship when you have duty. Ship picnics are family affairs and they even try to arrange housing so that ship’s families are housed nearby each other. I do not think my civilian boss even knows that I am married! (Male, 32, Finance Manager).

Military to civilian

employment transitions

491

Discussion The first six months of a new worker’s employment is paramount to his or her probability of staying with the organization (Tarquinio, 2006). Further, employment stability directly and positively impacts an organization’s performance, reduces recruiting costs and increases the retention of intellectual capital associated with job and firm knowledge (Ulrich et al., 1991).

In consideration of the costs of turnover outlined above as well as the aggressive commitments by US employers to hire veterans, it is increasingly important for practitioners to “get it right” when it comes to selecting and onboarding ex-military new hires. Understanding the unique challenges associated with hiring and onboarding veterans is an invaluable asset for employers committed to hiring veterans.

This study analyzed and evaluated the returning veteran’s civilian employment experience and identified challenges faced by the veteran in the civilian employment transition. Using qualitative research techniques, this study explored the returning veteran’s civilian employment experience and clearly outlined the challenges that veterans face when entering civilian employment for the first time. This research identified three main themes as follows; 1. civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit, 2. veteran anxiety with civilian employer’s lack of clearly defined new-hire processes and 3. civilian employer’s misunderstanding of veteran compensation, benefits and family involvement expectations.

Within the civilian employer’s military job knowledge deficit theme, the results of the study as it relates to military supervisory/leadership skills are consistent with previous research by Creech (2004), Department of Army (2006), Horn (2014), Peters (2009), Weber (1947) and Williamson (1999). Additionally, the findings of this research are also consistent with previous research by Bush and Middlewood (2005), Feldman (1996), Johnson and Johnson (2000) andMaynard et al. (2006) that identify challengeswith interpreting the civilian value of MOSs. The results of this study clearly and demonstrably show that military skill sets and specific job specialties are challenging for civilian employers to interpret. The resulting affect for employers and veterans alike is an increased probability of job dissatisfaction and ultimately turnover due to the veteran’s feelings of underemployment (Feldman, 1996; Maynard et al., 2006; Johnson and Johnson, 2000; Sim and Lee, 2018; Wang, 2018). This is primarily due to the fact that negative or positive job perceptions are a result of the employee’s emotional perspective, the employment conditions, job expectations and connection to the work (Bush and Middlewood, 2005). More concisely, a veteran employee’s “perceptions of over qualification are associated with intentions to quit one’s job” (Maynard et al., 2006, p. 530) as they negatively impact job satisfaction (Johnson and Johnson, 2000). And, feelings of underemployment directly affect the veteran’s work attitudes, health (both physical and mental), job performance, organizational citizenship, absenteeism and ultimately turnover (Feldman, 1996; Johnson and Johnson, 2000).

Likewise, the theme of veteran anxiety with civilian employer’s lack of clearly defined new-hire processes such as time to board and new-hire training are supported and comparable to findings in previous research. Consistent with the descriptions of military onboarding by the Department of Defense (1992), Dunn and Jasinski (2009), and Today’s Military.com (2019), this study’s respondents clearly identified significant and challenging differences between military and civilian new-hire employment processes. Specifically, respondents expressed frustration with the lack of a clearly defined interview, selection and onboarding process during their initial transition to civilian employment. This lack of effective communication surrounding expectations results in a loss of an employee’s feelings of organizational commitment and involvement. According to Ehlers (2003) and Johlke and Duhan (2000), these feelings of disconnection will ultimately result in increased job dissatisfaction and turnover intent. As such, it can be concluded that the veteran’s perceived lack of communication and structure relating to the civilian new-hire process can result in increased veteran turnover in civilian employment. Regardless of whether these feelings are

CDI 25,5

492

the result of inadequate employer structure or the result of unreasonable expectations based on the military experience, the ultimate effect is the same . . . increased veteran turnover.

Previous research has demonstrated that training is of paramount importance to minimizing organizational turnover (Conley and Kadrlik, 2010) and has further showed that lack of effective new-hire training increases turnover probability (Versloot et al., 2001). When evaluating the veteran’s perception of the adequacy of new-hire training in the civilian context, this study demonstrates that civilian employer new-hire training is woefully absent as compared to the military training experience. In consideration that the perception of new- hire training directly impacts employee “satisfaction, performance, commitment, turnover, intent to leave, and stress” (Dunn and Jasinski, 2009, p. 1115), this research highlights the dissatisfaction of civilian new-hire training standards by military veterans.

“Service members typically earnmore than civilianswith a comparable level of education” (Hosek and MacDermid-Wadsworth, 2013, p. 41), and service members and private sector employees are compensated for work performed in different ways. This research demonstrates that the real and perceived differences between military and civilian compensation and benefits are significant and are of concern to the veteran joining the civilian workforce for the first time. These results are consistent with previous research by Baker et al. (1988); (Department of Defense, 2011) and Hosek and MacDermid-Wadsworth (2013) and confirm that there are significant differences between compensation and benefits between the military and civilian employment.

Shah (1998) and Mobley (1982) agree that compensation directly affects an employee’s work dissatisfaction, and ultimately turnover intention. Further, Adams and Jacobsen (1964) forwards that an employee’s perception of fairness of compensation is directly related to the perception of value for the applicable job performance. This research supports those concepts and further demonstrates that the feeling of pay inequity, whether real or perceived, is of significant concern to the veteran in a first civilian job.

Additionally, the results of this research follow and confirm previous research that forwards that the military is an organization that takes care of its members and that former military members describe the military as family (Ahern et al., 2015, p. 5–6). Specifically, this research translates the feelings of loss of the pseudo-familial support structures in the military as identified by Ahern et al. (2015) to the civilian employment experience. This research demonstrates that not only does the loss of the familial military structure affect the returning veteran from a general societal perspective but that it also affects that veteran in the smaller but just as significant employment perspective. The feelings expressed by the participants in this study are consistent with previous research that demonstrates that family involvement results in commitment to the organization (Wayne et al., 2013) and increased job satisfaction (Carlson et al., 2006; Wayne et al., 2013) and therefore lower veteran employee turnover (McNall et al., 2010).

Implications for practice and research The findings of this study have significant practical implications for both civilian and military organizations as well as individuals with a desire to address or at least be aware of some of the challenges with the veteran to civilian employment transition.

First, this study will assist military veterans entering the civilian workplace by bringing to their attention some of the challenges and differences that they will face in civilian employment. By making this information available to the newly separated veteran, it may allow for more comfortable transitions by eliminating surprises and clarifying civilian employment expectations. Veterans entering the civilian workforce for the first time should be aware that there will be significant differences in their civilian employment experience. The three main themes outlined in this paper as well as the subcategories will provide the

Military to civilian

employment transitions

493

newly separated veteran with a clear outline of some of the challenges that he/she is likely to face in civilian employment.

Second, the results of this study will assist human resources and recruiting/staffing professionals in developing strategies to assist veterans in their transition to civilian employment. This assistance will improve the veteran’s likelihood of success and ultimately limit an employer’s exposure to the increased costs associated with low morale and high turnover. Practitioners will be able to apply some of the learnings in this study to enhance an employee’s “fit” in the job and the employer community, thereby increasing the likelihood of retention (Mitchell et al., 2001). Further, organizations will benefit from this research by understanding the differences and potentially making the work environment more “veteran friendly” by considering changes to compensation, benefits and family involvement.

Finally, this study is beneficial to scholars in asmuch as it will help tomore clearly identify literature gaps, provide direction on emerging research concepts, add to the existing literature on the veteran to civilian transitions and connect research areas that have not yet been adequately studied. Future research would be well served to follow a similar program of research but by employing different research methods in order to address the limitations outlined above and further support the findings of this research. Specifically, future research should sample across a wider set of individuals as study participants (time since discharge, age, military rank at time of separation, reserve status, etc.). By doing this, future researchers may be able to determine how perceptions change over time and with regard to military experience. A second area of future research may be to conduct related research based on civilian employment opportunities and qualifications. Specific areas of study to be considered should be focused primarily on the macro issues such as military leadership and translating military experiences and skill sets to civilian contexts. Unlike other findings in this research, these two areas cannot be affected at the organizational level, and as such require concept exploration and clarity.

Additional research should be conducted by way of a quantitative study in order to statistically support this research while identifying andminimizing the effects of inputs from sources external to the study.

Limitations Asmall sample size of 27 subjects was used for this study. As such, there is concern that there may not be sufficient relevant data gathered and a representative sample of behavioral indicators may not have been collected. Further, this study may suffer from the limitations inherent to self-reporting and the vehicle for data collection (Breakwell, 2006). Also, since the researchers are the exclusive collectors and analyzers of the collected data, the results are somewhat dependent on their abilities, perspectives, integrity and predispositions (Hamel, 1993). As Guba and Lincoln (1981, p. 378) state, “An unethical case writer could so select from among available data that virtually anything he wished could be illustrated.”

Conclusions Although the US Military and the Veterans Administration offer a large number of government programs designed to assist veterans as they prepare for civilian “life,” they are not all-encompassing and not all veteranswill have utilized them. Although post-9/11 veteran hiring initiatives have markedly decreased the overall veteran unemployment rate to less than the national average (Dunne and Blank, 2018), this study demonstrates that it is imperative that employers have a thorough understanding of the veteran employment transition experience if they intend on maximizing the opportunity for the veteran’s success.

CDI 25,5

494

By utilizing a qualitative research approach, this study is the first to identify and elaborate on the challenges faced by veterans entering civilian employment for the first time. This study identified several areas of onboarding and the initial employment experience that are markedly different between the military and civilian employment experience. Further, this research also identified and outlined some of the challenges to the onboarding process that could be revised in order tomake the veteran’s civilian employment transition experience less challenging and more rewarding.

In conclusion, this paper serves to remind employers and returning veterans that while there are many similarities between military and civilian employment, they can be very different. As such, veteran new hires may not fully understand what unexpected challenges await them and employers may not fully understand how these challenges may affect their veteran new hires. This study offers an invitation for returning service members, practitioners and academics alike to take a proactive role in considering the differences and challenges veterans face when transitioning from the military to civilian employment for the first time.

References

Adams, J.S. and Jacobsen, P.R. (1964), “Effects of wage inequities on work quality”, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 69 No. 1, p. 19.

Adler, A.B., Zamorski, M. and Britt, T.W. (2011), “The psychological of transition: adapting to home after deployment”, in Adler, A.B. and Castro, C.A. (Eds), Deployment Psychology: Evidence-Based Strategies to Promote Mental Health in the Military, American Psychological Association, Washington DC, pp. 153-174, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/12300-006.

Ahern, J., Worthen, M., Masters, J., Lippman, S.A., Ozer, E.J. and Moos, R. (2015), “The challenges of Afghanistan and Iraq veterans’ transition from military to civilian life and approaches to reconnection”, PloS One, Vol. 10 No. 7, e012859.

Arendt, C.E. and Sapp, D.A. (2014), “Analyzing r�esum�es of military veterans during transition to post- service”, Florida Communication Journal, Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 45-60.

Baker, G.P., Jensen, M.C. and Murphy, K.J. (1988), “Compensation and incentives: practice vs. theory”, Journal of Finance, Vol. 43, pp. 593-616.

Bardies, L. (2013), “La democratie et la revolution du marche cognitif: European journal of sociology european journal of sociology”, Archives Europ�eennes de Sociologie, Vol. 54 No. 3, pp. 537-544.

Berry, J.W. (1989), “Imposed etics—emics—derived etics: the operationalization of a compelling idea”, International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 24 No. 6, pp. 721-735.

Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006), “Using thematic analysis in psychology”, Qualitative Research in Psychology, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 77-101.

Breakwell, G.M. (2006), “Interviewing methods”, Research Methods in Psychology, 3rd ed., Sage Publications, pp. 232-253.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2011), Business Research Methods 3e, Oxford University Press, New York.

Burnett-Zeigler, I., Valenstein, M., Ilgen, M., Blow, A.J., Gorman, L.A. and Zivin, K. (2011), “Civilian employment among recently returning Afghanistan and Iraq National Guard veterans”, Military Medicine, Vol. 176 No. 6, pp. 639-46.

Bush, T. and Middlewood, D. (2005), Leading and Managing People in Education, Sage Publications, London.

Carlson, D.S., Kacmar, K.M., Wayne, J.H. and Grzywacz, J.G. (2006), “Measuring the positive side of the work-family interface: development and validation of a work-family enrichment scale”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 68 No. 1, pp. 131-164.

Military to civilian

employment transitions

495

Chicas, J., Maiden, P., Oh, H.,Wilcox, S. and Young, D. (2012), From War to the Workplace: Helping Veterans Transition to Civilian Work Settings. Policy Brief, USC Center for Innovation and Research onVeterans and Military Families, Los Angeles, CA.

Conley, P. and Kadrlik, D. (2010), “Using long-term incentives to retain top talent”, in Berger, L.A. and Berger, D.R. (Eds), The Talent Management Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, pp. 285-290.

Crea, V. (2007), “The US Coast Guard: a flexible force for national security”, Naval War College Review, Vol. 60 No. 1, pp. 14-23.

Creech, G.W.L. (2004), Organizational and Leadership Principles for Senior Leaders. AU- 24 Concepts for Air Force Leadership.

Curry Hall, K., Harrell, M.C., Bicksler, B., Stewart, R. and Fisher, M.P. (2014), Veteran Employment: Lessons from the 100,000 Jobs Mission, Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.

Davis, L., Resnick, S., Maieritsch, K., Weber, K., Erbes, C.R., Strom, T.Q., McCall, K.P. and Kyriakides, T.A. (2019), “Employment outcomes from VA vocational services involving transitional work for veterans with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder”, Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, Vol. 42 No. 3, pp. 257-267.

Defense Manpower Data Center (2020), available at: https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/appj/dwp/dwp_ reports.jsp.

Department of Defense (2011), Instruction 1327.06: Leave and Liberty Policy and Procedures, U.S. Department of Defense, Arlington, VA, available at: http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/ pdf/132706p.pdf.

Department of Defense, W.D. (1992), “Military Careers: A Guide to Military Occupations and Selected Military Career Paths, 1992-1994”, available at: http://libproxy.troy.edu/login?url5http://search. ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct5true&db5eric&AN5ED384836&site5eds-l.

Duenas, J.G. (2009), EvaluatingMilitary Compensation, Nova Science Publishers, New York, available at: http://search.ebscohost.com.libproxy.troy.edu/login.aspx?direct5true&db5cat05550a&AN5tr oy.666891859&site5eds-live.

Dunn, M. and Blank, A. (2018), “Job market continued to improve in 2017 as the unemployment rate declined to a 17-year low”, Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 1, p. 141.

Dunn, S. and Jasinski, D. (2009), “The role of new hire orientation programs”, Journal of Employment Counseling, Vol. 46 No. 3, pp. 115-127.

Ehlers, L.N. (2003), The Relationship of Communication Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction and Self Reported Absenteeism, Unpublished Master’s Dissertation, Department of Speech Communication, Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Feldman, D.C. (1996), “The nature, antecedents, and consequences of underemployment”, Journal of Management, Vol. 22, pp. 385-407.

Graneheim, U.H. and Lundman, B. (2004), “Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness”, Nurse Education Today, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 105-112. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001.

Guba, E.G. and Lincoln, Y.S. (1981), Effective Evaluation: Improving the Usefulness of Evaluation Results through Responsive and Naturalistic Approaches, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Hamel, J. (1993), Case Study Methods. Qualitative Research Methods, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Harre, R. and Secord, P.F. (1976), The Explanation of Social Behaviour (No. 70.02 (Sirsi) I9780631171409.

Harrod, M., Miller, E.M., Henry, J. and Zivin, K. (2017), ““I’ve never been able to stay in a job”: a qualitative study of Veterans’ experiences of maintaining employment”, Work, Vol. 57 No. 2, pp. 259-268.

Headquarters, Department of Army (2006), Army Leadership (Field Manual 22-100), Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

CDI 25,5

496

Horn, B. (2014), “A reflection on leadership: a comparative analysis of military and civilian approaches”, Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, Vol. 15 No. 3.

Hosek, J. and MacDermid Wadsworth, S. (2013), “Economic conditions of military families”, Future of Children, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 41-59.

Johlke, M.C. and Duhan, D.F. (2000), “Supervisor communication practices and service employee job outcomes”, Journal of Service Research, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 154-165.

Johnson, G.J. and Johnson, W.R. (2000), “Perceived over-qualification and dimensions of job satisfaction: a longitudinal analysis”, Journal of Psychology, Vol. 134 No. 5, pp. 537-555.

Keeling, M.E., Ozuna, S.M., Kintzle, S. and Castro, C.A. (2019), “Veterans’ civilian employment experiences: lessons learnt from focus groups”, Journal of Career Development, Vol. 46 No. 6, pp. 692-705.

Kirchner, M. and Akdere, M. (2019), “An empirical investigation of the acquisition of leadership KSAs in the US Army: implications for veterans’ career transitions”, Journal of Veterans Studies, Vol. 4 No. 1.

Kirin, S.J. and Winkler, J.D. (1992), The Army Military Occupational Specialty Database (No. RAND/N- 3527-A), Rand Arroyo Center, Santa Monica Ca.

Kleykamp, M. (2013), “Unemployment, earnings and enrollment among post 9/11 veterans”, Social Science Research, Vol. 42 No. 3, pp. 836-51.

Krippendorff, K. (2011), “Agreement and information in the reliability of coding”, Communication Methods and Measures, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 93-112.

Kurasaki, K.S. (2000), “Intercoder reliability from validating conclusions drawn from open-ended interview data”, Field Methods, Vol. 12, pp. 179-94.

Kvale, S. (1996), Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Little, R. and Alenkin, N. (2011), Overcoming Barriers to Employment for Veterans: Current Trends and Practical Approaches. Policy Brief, USC Center for Innovation and Research on Veterans and Military Families, Los Angeles, CA.

Maxwell, J.A. (2012), Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Maynard, D.C., Joseph, T.A. and Maynard, A.M. (2006), “Underemployment, job attitudes, and turnover intentions”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 27 No. 4, p. 509.

McGregor, J. (2013),Wal-Mart’s Promise to Veterans: Good News or Good P.R.?, The Washington Post, Washington, DC.

McNall, L.A., Masuda, A.D. and Nicklin, J.M. (2010), “Flexible work arrangements, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions: the mediating role of work-to-family enrichment”, The Journal of Psychology, Vol. 144 No. 1, pp. 61-81.

Merriam, S.B. (2014), Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Miles, M.B. and Michael Huberman, A. (1984), Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.

Military.com (2018), “Compare the jobs the military has to offer”, available at: https://www.military. com/join-armed-forces/compare-military-jobs.html.

Mitchell, T.R., Holtom, B.C., Lee, T.W., Sablynski, C.J. and Erez, M. (2001), “Why people stay: using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 44, pp. 1102-1121.

Mobley, W.H. (1982), Employee Turnover: Causes, Consequences, and Control, Addison-Wessley, Reading, MA.

Military to civilian

employment transitions

497

Osanloo, A.F. (2011), “Unburying patriotism: critical lessons in civics and leadership ten years later”, High School Journal, Vol. 95 No. 1, pp. 56-71.

Ostovary, F. and Dapprich, J. (2011), “Challenges and opportunities of operation enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi freedom veterans with disabilities transitioning into learning and workplace environments”, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, Vol. 2011 No. 132, pp. 63-73, doi: 10.1002/ace.432.

Patton, M.Q. (2002), Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods, California EU: Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Pease, J.L., Billera, M. and Gerard, G. (2015), “Military culture and the transition to civilian life: suicide risk and other considerations”, Social Work, Vol. 61 No. 1, pp. 83-86.

Peters, B.L. (2009), “The drinkers’ bonus in the military: officers versus enlisted personnel”, Applied Economics, Vol. 41 No. 17, pp. 2211-2220, doi: 10.1080/00036840701222447.

Rudstam, H., Strobel Gower, W. and Cook, L. (2012), “Beyond yellow ribbons: are employers prepared to hire, accommodate and retain returning veterans with disabilities?”, Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 87-95.

Shah, R.R. (1998), “Who are employees social referents? Using a network perspective to determine referent others”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 41, pp. 249-68.

Sim, Y. and Lee, E. (2018), “Perceived underqualification and job attitudes: the role of transformational leadership”, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, No. 8, p. 962, doi: 10.1108/LODJ- 03-2018-0127.

Stiehm, J.H. (2012), “The us military: a basic introduction”, available at: https://ebookcentral. proquest.com.

Tarquinio, M. (2006), “Onboarding benchmark report: technology drivers help improve the new hire experience”, Aberdeen Group, available at: www.silkroad.com/SiteGen/Uploads/Public/SRT/ Whitepaper/pdf.

Thomas, E. and Magilvy, J.K. (2011), “Qualitative rigor or research validity in qualitative research”, Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 151-155, doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6155. 2011.00283.x.

Today’s Military.com (2019), “How to join”, available at: https://www.todaysmilitary.com/how-to-join?.

Ulin, P.R., Robinson, E.T. and Tolley, E.E. (2005), Qualitative Methods in Public Health, 1st ed., Jossey- Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Ulrich, D., Halbrook, R., Meder, D., Stuchlik, M. and Thorpe, S. (1991), “Employee and customer attachment: synergies for competitive advantage”, Human Resource Planning, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 89-103.

United States Department of Defense (2012), Military Deployment Guide: Preparing You and Your Family for the Road Ahead.

United States Department of Labor (2015), available at: http://www.dol.gov/_sec/media/reports/ veteranslaborforce/.

United States Department of Veterans Affairs (2020), available at: http://www.va.gov/vetdata/Quick_ Facts.asp.

Versloot, B.M., Jong, J.A. and Thijssen, J.G. (2001), “Organisational context of structured on the job training”, International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 2-22.

Walsh, J.M. (2018), “On the waterfront: coast guard jurisdiction ashore”, Tulane Maritime Law Journal, Vol. 42 No. 2, pp. 293-316.

Wang, J. (2018), “Hours underemployment and employee turnover: the moderating role of human resource practices”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 29 No. 9, pp. 1565-1587.

CDI 25,5

498

Wayne, J.H., Casper, W.J., Matthews, R.A. and Allen, T.D. (2013), “Family-supportive organization perceptions and organizational commitment: the mediating role of work-family conflict and enrichment and partner attitudes”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 98 No. 4, pp. 606-623.

Weber, M. (1947), The Theory of Social and Economic Reform, Henderson and Parson, Translators, Free Press, New York, NY.

Whitehouse Press Release Blog (2014), available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2013/04/30/first- lady-michelle-obama-announces-new-hiring-commitments-veterans-and-military-spo.

Williamson, S. (1999), A Description of US Enlisted Personnel Promotion Systems, RAND, Santa Monica, CA.

Winters, J.V. (2018), “Veteran status, disability rating, and public sector employment”, Health Economics, Vol. 27 No. 6, pp. 1011-1016.

Further reading

Bass, B.M. (1990), Bass and Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Application, Free Press, New York, NY.

Bass, B. and Avolio, B.J. (2000), MLQ-multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Technical Report, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Bordieri, J.E. and Drehmer, D.E. (1984), “Vietnam veterans: fighting the employment war”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 14, pp. 341-347, doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1984.tb02242.x.

Dao, J. (2013), “Preventing domestic violence in families of veterans”, The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 74 No. 10, pp. 974-980.

Denzin, N.K. (2012), “Triangulation 2.0”, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Vol. 6, pp. 80-88, doi: 10. 1177/1558689812437186.

GAO Reports (2005), “Military personnel: reporting additional servicemember demographics could enhance congressional oversight: GAO-05-95”, GAO Reports, 1, available at: http://libproxy. troy.edu/login?url5http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct5true&db5pwh&AN518351 919&site5eds.

Griffin, K.K. (2015), “Better transitions for troops: an application of Schlossberg’s transition framework to analyses of barriers and institutional support structures for student veterans”, Journal Of Higher Education, Vol. 86 No. 1, pp. 71-97.

Horton, J.L., Jacobson, I.G., Wong, C.A., Wells, T.S., Boyko, E.J., Smith, B., Ryan, M.A. and Smith, T.C. (2013), “The impact of prior deployment experience on civilian employment after military service”, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 70 No. 6, p. 408, doi: 10.1136/oemed- 2012-101073.

Huberman, A.M. and Miles, M.B. (1983), “Drawing valid meaning from qualitative data: some techniques of data reduction and display”, Quality and Quantity, Vol. 17 No. 4, p. 281.

Lippitt, G.L. and Schmidt, W.H. (1967), Crises in a Developing Organization, Harvard Business Review, Cambridge, MA.

Lussier, R.N. and Achua, C.F. (2015), Leadership: Theory, Application, and Skill Development, Nelson Education, Toronto.

Prudential Financial (2012), Veteran Employment Challenges: Perceptions and Experiences of Transitioning from Military to Civilian Life, Prudential Financial, Newark, NJ.

Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998), Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, 2nd ed., Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Waldman, D. and Galvin, B. (2008), “Alternative perspectives of responsible leadership”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 37 No. 4, pp. 327-341.

Military to civilian

employment transitions

499

About the author Dr John C. Dexter holds a BS in psychology from the University of The State of New York, Albany, and an MS and PhD in human resource development from The University of Texas, Tyler.

Dr John C. Dexter began his career with six years in the US Navy, where, upon completion of the Naval Nuclear Power School and Prototype training, he served as a nuclear engineer on East Coast attack submarines and as an instructor at the US Submarine School in Groton, CT.

After his honorable discharge from active duty, Dr John C. Dexter served in HR leadership capacities for more than 20 years. Some of the positions he held during his practioner career include VP and Chief HR Officer for TranSouth Financial, director of HR for Global eCommerce and Catalog Businesses at Office Depot, VP and chief HR and administration officer for Hotels.com and Expedia Corp., SVP and chief HR officer for TravelCLICK and SVP and chief HR officer for Caliber Home Loans.

Dr John C. Dexter joined Troy University in April of 2016 and teaches management and human resources classes for the Sorrel College of Business. His research interests are leadership, military to civilian transitions and organizational performance. Dr John C. Dexter lives in Dallas, Texas, with his wife and two boys. John C. Dexter is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: [email protected] troy.edu

For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website: www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm Or contact us for further details: [email protected]

CDI 25,5

500

  • Human resources challenges of military to civilian employment transitions
    • Background of the problem and the need for this study
    • Problem statement
    • Literature review
      • Military leadership
      • Military jobs and occupational specialties
      • Military compensation and benefits
      • The military as “family”
      • Military onboarding and new hire training
      • Research questions
    • Method
      • Data collection and analysis
    • Findings
      • Theme one: civilian employer's military job knowledge deficit
      • Theme 2: veteran anxiety with civilian employer’s lack of clearly defined new-hire processes
        • Onboarding
        • New-hire training
      • Theme 3: civilian employer misunderstanding of veteran compensation, benefits and family involvement expectations
        • Compensation
        • Benefits
        • Family involvement
    • Discussion
    • Implications for practice and research
    • Limitations
    • Conclusions
    • References
    • Further reading

Attachment 15

Conceptual Model of Human Resource Management

Strategic Planning

LEGAL COMPLIANCE

Employee Relations/Labor Relations

Total Rewards/Compensation

T E C H N O L O G Y

E C O N O M I C

F A C T O R S