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Open Posted By: highheaven1 Date: 14/10/2020 High School Research Paper Writing

 

Reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Identify what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding. (10 points). 

Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:

  1. When Great Britain voted to leave the Euro- zone, the pound depreciated 17% against the dollar. It also raised fears that the Eurozone would fall apart. Explain how this fear would affect the euro/dollar exchange rate.

 Respond to the post of at least two peers, using 100 words minimum each 

[Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion].

 [Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced). Post the actual body of your paper in the discussion thread then attach a Word version of the paper for APA review].


 [Your posts must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. A peer response such as “I agree with her,” or “I liked what he said about that” is not considered substantive and will not be counted for course credit. A blank post just to review other submissions will not be tolerated]. 

Category: Engineering & Sciences Subjects: Electrical Engineering Deadline: 24 Hours Budget: $80 - $120 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Foreign Exchange, Trade, and Bubbles

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CHAPTER

In the market for foreign exchange, the supply of pounds includes everyone in Britain who wants to buy Icelandic goods, or invest in Iceland. To do so, they must “sell pounds to buy krona.” The supply of pounds is also equal to the demand for krona.

In the market for foreign exchange, the demand for pounds includes everyone in Iceland who wants to buy British goods, or invest in Britain. To do so, they must “sell krona to buy pounds.” The demand for pounds is also equal to the supply of krona.

The so-called “carry trade,” borrowing in foreign currencies to spend or invest domestically, increases demand for the domestic currency, appreciating the domestic currency. However, borrowing in foreign currency to buy imports or invest in a foreign country does not affect the exchange rates.

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Currency devaluations help suppliers because they make exports less expensive in the foreign currency; but they hurt consumers because they make imports more expensive in the domestic currency.

Once started, expectations about the future play a role in keeping bubbles going. If buyers expect a future price increase, they will accelerate their purchases to avoid it. Similarly, sellers will delay selling to take advantage of it.

You can potentially identify bubbles by using the “indifference principle” of Chapter 9 to tell you when market prices move away from their long-run equilibrium relationships.

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continued

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Iceland

In 2003, Iceland’s three banks borrowed from other banks and began investing in foreign assets.

Icelandic banks borrowed as much as they could, as fast as they could – and used the money to buy as much as they could

By 2006 it was becoming difficult for Icelandic banks to borrow. So they began accepting internet deposits – essentially borrowing money from British residents.

They offered the highest interest rate available and British consumers sold pounds to buy krona to deposit in Icelandic banks.

The expansion of the financial sector created a domestic consumption spree – mostly of imports.

And if Icelandic citizens didn’t have the cash to buy goods, they simply borrowed (from foreign banks because foreign interest rates were 3% versus domestic rates of 15.5%)

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Iceland (continued)

Normally, gov’t insurance prevents bank runs, but in this case, Iceland’s deposit guarantees were several times greater than its entire national income.

When the British depositors finally became concerned about repayment, the resulting bank run devastated the country.

The krona fell dramatically in value and domestic prices soared.

Today, Iceland is broke. Consumer debt is 8x the national income, and because the krona has depreciated, paying back foreign loans will be difficult for Iceland’s citizens.

This chapter develops tools to allow us to understand what happened in Iceland.

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Foreign Exchange

Why trade one currency for another?

To invest in a foreign country, or to buy exports from a foreign country.

This increases demand for the foreign currency.

British consumers “sold pounds to buy krona” so they could deposit krona in Icelandic banks.

Example: An Icelander buys American real estate. The krona used to purchase the house must be exchanged for dollars in order to complete the transaction

An easier way to think of this is that foreign goods can be bought only with foreign currency. The buyer must sell krona to buy dollars in order to buy the house.

Model this as an increase in Icelandic demand for dollars.

The exchange rate of krona to dollars is an equilibrium price set so that the supply of dollars equals the demand for dollars

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Exchange rate

Example: price of a British pound measured in krona, i.e., how many krona are needed to buy one pound. The appreciation of the pound is equivalent to a devaluation of the krona.

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Carry trade

The Carry trade: (from Iceland’s point of view) Icelanders borrow pounds in order to invest domestically.

Why?

When the cost of borrowing domestically (domestic interest rates) increases, Icelanders find a cheaper source of funds – they borrow from foreign countries with lower interest rates.

They then sell the borrowed pounds to buy krona

The supply of pounds in Iceland increases, and the pound depreciates.

Looking back at the graph though, the pound never fell versus the krona.

Why not?

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Krona vs. Pound

The missing piece: Iceland’s foreign borrowing was occurring at the same time as increased import consumption.

To consume imports, Icelanders sold krona to buy pounds.

The exchange rates did not change because demand for the pound was increasing at the same time supply was increasing.

The fall: In 2008, however, after the run on the Icelandic banks, many investors sold krona to buy pounds.

Demand for pounds increased – an increase in demand leads to higher prices – the pound appreciated

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The long-run: purchasing power parity

Definition: purchasing power parity means that exchange rates and/or prices adjust so that tradable goods cost the same everywhere.

If they didn’t, there would be a higher-valued use for the good, i.e., importers could make money by buying the good in one country and selling it in another. An act sometimes referred to as arbitrage.

The Economist’s Big Mac index: In July 2007, a big mac cost $7.61 in Iceland, $3.41 in the US, and $1.45 in China.

The theory of purchasing power parity says these prices should move closer together.

Here is the mechanism: to buy Chinese Big Macs, US consumers would sell dollars to buy yuan. The yuan appreciates, and it would then take more dollars to buy a Big Mac in China.

The index thus shows which currencies are over- or under-valued relative to the dollar

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Effects of a currency devaluation

Example: golf in Tijuana and San Diego (sister towns on either side of the Mexico/US border – making golf in one city a substitute for golf in the other)

Demand for golf in Mexico:

Two sets of consumers: American and Mexicans

When the peso devalues, demand for golf in Mexico increases for both groups.

Mexicans see an increase in price of golf in the US, it takes more pesos to buy one dollar

Americans see a decrease in the price of golf in Mexico, one dollar can buy more pesos

Currency devaluations help suppliers because they make exports less expensive in the foreign currency; but they hurt consumers because they make imports more expensive in the domestic currency.

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Effects of a dollar appreciation on golf markets in Tijuana and San Diego

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Currency appreciation

Example: Icelandic fish

There are two sets of consumers:

Domestic buyers and exporters

total demand = domestic demand + export demand

When the pound appreciates, export demand increases – fewer pounds can now buy more krona which equals more fish.

Total demand increases, so the price of fish in Iceland rises.

Icelandic producers benefit because fish are cheaper in the foreign currency (representing an increase in demand for Icelandic fish), but Icelandic consumers are hurt because fish are more expensive in the domestic currency.

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Bubbles

Definition: bubbles (if they exist) are prices that cannot be explained by normal economic forces.

Here is what economists think they know about bubbles:

expectations about the future play a role in keeping bubbles going:

If buyers expect a future price increase, they will accelerate their purchases to avoid it.

Sellers will delay selling to take advantage of it.

Both changes increase price.

In this sense, expectations are self-fulfilling.

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Bubbles (cont.)

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Bubbles (cont.)

When buyers expect prices to increase faster than the interest rate, it makes sense to borrow money to expand buying now in order to sell in the future.

This contributes to the demand increase.

There are certain features of bubbles that economists have documented.

Bubbles emerge at times when investors disagree about the significance of a big economic development. Because it's more costly to bet on prices going down than up, the bullish investors dominate.

Financial bubbles are marked by huge increases in trading

Bubbles persist because no one has the firepower to successfully attack them. Only when skeptical investors act simultaneously ―a moment impossible to predict― does the bubble pop.

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Bubble example: US housing

In 1993, government policies began encouraging low-income citizens to buy houses – by reducing qualifications for home borrowing from government-sponsored lenders like Fannie Mae.

This led to an increase in demand for houses – the “big economic development” that started the bubble

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US housing (cont.)

Housing prices increased dramatically, especially where supply was limited.

Frequently in areas with strict zoning - zoning laws make supply less elastic (a steeper supply curve) which exacerbates price increases when demand increases

Many investors expected prices to continue to rise– buying continued and lenders did not seem concerned.

Two well-known economists disagreed about the existence of a housing bubble:

David Lereah believed the house price increase could be explained rationally - low inventories, low mortgage rates, and favorable demographics caused by a big increase in boomers and retirees, who often buy second homes.

Robert Shiller was wary of a bubble. He identified the bubble by noting that house prices were becoming very expensive relative to rents. In long-run equilibrium, homeowners should be indifferent between renting and buying.

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US housing (cont.)

In the end, Professor Shiller was right – prices peaked in 2006 then fell dramatically

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Popping bubbles

Why did the housing bubble pop?

If you believe the bubble-ologists, because there were enough skeptical investors who, like Professor Shiller, started betting on house prices to fall.

But the truth is that we don’t know.

Professor Shiller also predicted the internet/tech bubble in 2000

He identified the bubble by looking at the long-run equilibrium relationship between stock prices and earnings (profit). If prices are rational, then they should equal the discounted flow of future earnings.

Obviously, we cannot observe future earnings, so Professor Shiller plotted current stock prices against a 10-year trailing average of past earnings. We update his analysis using a 10-year trailing average of earnings.

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Stock price/Earnings ratio

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Back to Iceland

Looking at Shiller’s graph, we see that from 2003–2007, the stock market was very expensive.

There are only two other episodes in history where stock prices have been this high, 1929 and 2000. In both of these cases, prices crashed after reaching these heights.

Shiller’s methodology says that Icelandic banks began borrowing to invest when asset prices were very expensive.

Once the asset prices began to come down, depositors lost faith in the banks’ ability to pay them back, leading to the run on the banks.

This caused the depreciation of the krona

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Supply of Golf in Tijuana

Demand for Golf in Tijuana

Quantity

New Demand

New Demand

Demand for Golf in San Diego

Supply of Golf in San Diego

Dollars

Pesos

Quantity

Price/Earnings Ratio of U.S. Stocks, 1881–2008

(Using 10-Year, Inflation-Adjusted Earnings)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

188118861892189719031908191419191925193019361941194719521958196319691974198019851991199620022007

Year

P/E

Average: 16.3

Data and concept: Professor Robert J. Shiller, http://www.econ.yale.edu/~shiller/data.htm. Graph suggested by

Shayne & Co., LLC. The graph shows the monthly value of the U.S. stock market as measured by the S&P 500 (and

comparable predecessor indices) divided by the average of the earnings per share for the prior ten years. Graph

ends at December 2008.