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Research Paper

Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 12/10/2020 Graduate Case Study Writing

I attached the research question and the course textbook. The paper should mirror the chapter I8 of the textbook to design a disaster plan. Further instructions are in the question file. Due date is 10/13/2020 6PM  CST.

Category: Mathematics & Physics Subjects: Algebra Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

CISSP® Certified Information Systems Security Professional Study Guide Seventh Edition

James Michael Stewart Mike Chapple Darril Gibson

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TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. CISSP is a registered certification mark of (ISC)², Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.

Disclaimer: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., in association with (ISC)2, has prepared this study guide for general information

and for use as training for the Official (ISC)2 CISSP® CBK® and not as legal or operational advice. This is a study guide

only, and does not imply that any questions or topics from this study guide will appear on the actual (ISC)2 CISSP®

certification examination. The study guide was not prepared with writers or editors associated with developing the (ISC)2

CISSP certification examination. The study guide may contain errors and omissions. (ISC)2 does not guarantee a passing score on the exam or provide any assurance or guarantee relating to the use of this study guide and preparing for the

(ISC)2 CISSP® certification examination.

The users of the Official CISSP: Certified Information Systems Security Professional Study Guide, Seventh Edition agree

that John Wiley and Sons, Inc.. and (ISC)2 are not liable for any indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages up to and including negligence that may arise from use of these materials. Under no circumstances, including

negligence, shall John Wiley and Sons, Inc.or (ISC)2, its officers, directors, agents, author or anyone else involved in creating, producing or distributing these materials be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special or consequential damages that may result from the use of this study guide.

Whenever we look toward the future, we have to first look back and think about where we came from. Back in 1989, (ISC)2 was established by a handful of passionate volunteers who wanted to create a set of standards for a new concept, not yet a full-fledged career field, called information security. In the minds of those volunteers, having the initial 500 applicants sign up to take the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP®) exam was considered quite a success. Little did they imagine that 26 years later, not only would those 500 applicants grow to a cadre of 100,000 CISSP credential holders across more than 160 countries, the CISSP would also become recognized as the standard certification for the information security industry.

Advancements in technology bring about the need for updates, and we work tirelessly to ensure that our content is always relevant to the industry. As the information security industry continues to transition, and cybersecurity becomes a global focus, the CISSP Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) is even more relevant to today's challenges.

The new (ISC)² CISSP Study Guide is part of a concerted effort to enhance and increase our education and training offerings. The CISSP Study Guide reflects the most relevant topics in our ever-changing field and is a learning tool for (ISC)² certification exam candidates. It provides a comprehensive study guide to the eight CISSP domains and the most current topics in the industry.

If you are on the path to getting certified, you have no doubt heard of the (ISC)2 Official Guides to the CBK. While our Official Guides to the CBK are the authoritative references to the Common Body of Knowledge, the new study guides are learning tools focused on educating the reader in preparation for exams. As an ANSI accredited certification body under the ISO/IEC 17024 standard, (ISC)² does not teach the CISSP exam. Rather, we strive to generate or endorse content that teaches the CISSP's CBK. Candidates who have a strong understanding of the CBK are best prepared for success with the exam and within the profession.

(ISC)2 is also breaking new ground by partnering with Wiley, a recognized industry leading brand. Developing a partnership with renowned content provider Wiley allows (ISC)2 to grow its offerings on the scale required to keep our content fresh and aligned with the constantly changing environment. The power of combining the expertise of our two organizations benefits certification candidates and the industry alike.

I look forward to your feedback on the (ISC)2 CISSP Study Guide. Congratulations on

taking the first step toward earning the certification that SC Magazine named “Best Professional Certification Program.” Good luck with your studies!

Best Regards,

David P. Shearer, CISSP, PMP

CEO

(ISC)2

To Cathy, your perspective on the world and life often surprises me, challenges me, and makes me love you even more.

—James Michael Stewart

To Dewitt Latimer, my mentor, friend, and colleague. I miss you dearly.

—Mike Chapple

To Nimfa: Thanks for sharing your life with me for the past 23 years and letting me share mine with you.

—Darril Gibson

Acknowledgments I’d like to express my thanks to Sybex for continuing to support this project. Thanks to Mike Chapple and Darril Gibson for continuing to contribute to this project. Thanks also to all my CISSP course students who have provided their insight and input to improve my training courseware and ultimately this tome. Extra thanks to the seventh edition developmental editor, Alexa Murphy, and technical editor, David Seidl, who performed amazing feats in guiding us to improve this book. Thanks as well to my agent, Carole Jelen, for continuing to assist in nailing down these projects.

To my adoring wife, Cathy: Building a life and a family together has been more wonderful than I could have ever imagined. To Slayde and Remi: You are growing up so fast and learning at an outstanding pace, and you continue to delight and impress me daily. You are both growing into amazing individuals. To my mom, Johnnie: It is wonderful to have you close by. To Mark: No matter how much time has passed or how little we see each other, I have been and always will be your friend. And finally, as always, to Elvis: You were way ahead of the current bacon obsession, with your peanut butter-banana-bacon sandwich; I think that’s proof you traveled through time!

—James Michael Stewart

Special thanks go to the information security team at the University of Notre Dame, who provided hours of interesting conversation and debate on security issues that inspired and informed much of the material in this book.

I would like to thank the team at Wiley who provided invaluable assistance throughout the book development process. I also owe a debt of gratitude to my literary agent, Carole Jelen of Waterside Productions. My coauthors, James Michael Stewart and Darril Gibson, were great collaborators. David Seidl, our diligent and knowledgeable technical editor, provided valuable insight as we brought this edition to press.

I’d also like to thank the many people who participated in the production of this book but whom I never had the chance to meet: the graphics team, the production staff, and all of those involved in bringing this book to press.

—Mike Chapple

Thanks to Carol Long and Carole Jelen for helping get this update in place before (ISC)2 released the objectives. This helped us get a head start on this new edition and we appreciate your efforts. It’s been a pleasure working with talented people like James Michael Stewart and Mike Chapple. Thanks to both of you for all your work and collaborative efforts on this project. The technical editor, Dave Seidl, provided us with some outstanding feedback and this book is better because of his efforts. Thanks again, David. Last, thanks to the team at Sybex (including project managers, editors, and

graphics artists) for all the work you did helping us get this book to print.

—Darril Gibson

About the Authors James Michael Stewart, CISSP, has been writing and training for more than 20 years, with a current focus on security. He has been teaching CISSP training courses since 2002, not to mention other courses on Internet security and ethical hacking/penetration testing. He is the author of and contributor to more than 75 books and numerous courseware sets on security certification, Microsoft topics, and network administration. More information about Michael can be found at his website:www.impactonline.com.

Mike Chapple, CISSP, Ph.D., is Senior Director for IT Service Delivery at the University of Notre Dame. In the past, he was chief information officer of Brand Institute and an information security researcher with the National Security Agency and the U.S. Air Force. His primary areas of expertise include network intrusion detection and access controls. Mike is a frequent contributor to TechTarget’s SearchSecurity site and the author of more than 25 books including CompTIA Security+ Training Kit and Information Security Illuminated. Mike can be found on Twitter @mchapple.

Darril Gibson, CISSP, is the CEO of YCDA, LLC (short for You Can Do Anything) and he has authored or coauthored more than 35 books. Darril regularly writes, consults, and teaches on a wide variety of technical and security topics and holds several certifications. He regularly posts blog articles at http://blogs.getcertifiedgetahead.com/ about certification topics and uses that site to help people stay abreast of changes in certification exams. He loves hearing from readers, especially when they pass an exam after using one of his books, and you can contact him through the blogging site.

Contents Introduction Assessment Test Chapter 1 Security Governance Through Principles and Policies

Understand and Apply Concepts of Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability Apply Security Governance Principles Develop and Implement Documented Security Policy, Standards, Procedures, and Guidelines Understand and Apply Threat Modeling Integrate Security Risk Considerations into Acquisition Strategy and Practice Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 2 Personnel Security and Risk Management Concepts Contribute to Personnel Security Policies Security Governance Understand and Apply Risk Management Concepts Establish and Manage Information Security Education, Training, and Awareness Manage the Security Function Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 3 Business Continuity Planning Planning for Business Continuity Project Scope and Planning Business Impact Assessment Continuity Planning BCP Documentation Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 4 Laws, Regulations, and Compliance Categories of Laws Laws Compliance Contracting and Procurement Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 5 Protecting Security of Assets Classifying and Labeling Assets Identifying Data Roles Protecting Privacy Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 6 Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms Historical Milestones in Cryptography Cryptographic Basics Modern Cryptography Symmetric Cryptography Cryptographic Life Cycle Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 7 PKI and Cryptographic Applications Asymmetric Cryptography Hash Functions Digital Signatures Public Key Infrastructure Asymmetric Key Management Applied Cryptography Cryptographic Attacks

Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 8 Principles of Security Models, Design, and Capabilities Implement and Manage Engineering Processes Using Secure Design Principles Understand the Fundamental Concepts of Security Models Select Controls and Countermeasures Based on Systems Security Evaluation Models Understand Security Capabilities of Information Systems Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 9 Security Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Countermeasures Assess and Mitigate Security Vulnerabilities Client-Based Server-Based Database Security Distributed Systems Industrial Control Systems Assess and Mitigate Vulnerabilities in Web-Based Systems Assess and Mitigate Vulnerabilities in Mobile Systems Assess and Mitigate Vulnerabilities in Embedded Devices and Cyber-Physical Systems Essential Security Protection Mechanisms Common Architecture Flaws and Security Issues Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 10 Physical Security Requirements Apply Secure Principles to Site and Facility Design Design and Implement Physical Security Implement and Manage Physical Security

Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 11 Secure Network Architecture and Securing Network Components OSI Model TCP/IP Model Converged Protocols Wireless Networks General Wi-Fi Security Procedure Cabling, Wireless, Topology, and Communications Technology Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 12 Secure Communications and Network Attacks Network and Protocol Security Mechanisms Secure Voice Communications Multimedia Collaboration Manage Email Security Remote Access Security Management Virtual Private Network Virtualization Network Address Translation Switching Technologies WAN Technologies Miscellaneous Security Control Characteristics Security Boundaries Prevent or Mitigate Network Attacks Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 13 Managing Identity and Authentication Controlling Access to Assets

Comparing Identification and Authentication Implementing Identity Management Managing the Identity and Access Provisioning Life Cycle Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 14 Controlling and Monitoring Access Comparing Access Control Models Understanding Access Control Attacks Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 15 Security Assessment and Testing Building a Security Assessment and Testing Program Performing Vulnerability Assessments Testing Your Software Implementing Security Management Processes Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 16 Managing Security Operations Applying Security Operations Concepts Provisioning and Managing Resources Managing Configuration Managing Change Managing Patches and Reducing Vulnerabilities Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 17 Preventing and Responding to Incidents Managing Incident Response

Implementing Preventive Measures Logging, Monitoring, and Auditing Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 18 Disaster Recovery Planning The Nature of Disaster Understand System Resilience and Fault Tolerance Recovery Strategy Recovery Plan Development Training, Awareness, and Documentation Testing and Maintenance Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 19 Incidents and Ethics Investigations Major Categories of Computer Crime Incident Handling Ethics Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 20 Software Development Security Introducing Systems Development Controls Establishing Databases and Data Warehousing Storing Data and Information Understanding Knowledge-Based Systems Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Chapter 21 Malicious Code and Application Attacks Malicious Code Password Attacks Application Attacks Web Application Security Reconnaissance Attacks Masquerading Attacks Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions

Appendix A Answers to Review Questions Chapter 1: Security Governance Through Principles and Policies Chapter 2: Personnel Security and Risk Management Concepts Chapter 3: Business Continuity Planning Chapter 4: Laws, Regulations, and Compliance Chapter 5: Protecting Security of Assets Chapter 6: Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms Chapter 7: PKI and Cryptographic Applications Chapter 8: Principles of Security Models, Design, and Capabilities Chapter 9: Security Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Countermeasures Chapter 10: Physical Security Requirements Chapter 11: Secure Network Architecture and Securing Network Components Chapter 12: Secure Communications and Network Attacks Chapter 13: Managing Identity and Authentication Chapter 14: Controlling and Monitoring Access Chapter 15: Security Assessment and Testing Chapter 16: Managing Security Operations Chapter 17: Preventing and Responding to Incidents Chapter 18: Disaster Recovery Planning Chapter 19: Incidents and Ethics Chapter 20: Software Development Security Chapter 21: Malicious Code and Application Attacks

Appendix B Answers to Written Labs Chapter 1: Security Governance Through Principles and Policies

Chapter 2: Personnel Security and Risk Management Concepts Chapter 3: Business Continuity Planning Chapter 4: Laws, Regulations, and Compliance Chapter 5: Protecting Security of Assets Chapter 6: Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms Chapter 7: PKI and Cryptographic Applications Chapter 8: Principles of Security Models, Design, and Capabilities Chapter 9: Security Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Countermeasures Chapter 10: Physical Security Requirements Chapter 11: Secure Network Architecture and Securing Network Components Chapter 12: Secure Communications and Network Attacks Chapter 13: Managing Identity and Authentication Chapter 14: Controlling and Monitoring Access Chapter 15: Security Assessment and Testing Chapter 16: Managing Security Operations Chapter 17: Preventing and Responding to Incidents Chapter 18: Disaster Recovery Planning Chapter 19: Incidents and Ethics Chapter 20: Software Development Security Chapter 21: Malicious Code and Application Attacks

Appendix C About the Additional Study Tools Additional Study Tools System Requirements Using the Study Tools Troubleshooting

Comprehensive Online Learning Environment EULA

List of Tables Chapter 2

Table 2.1

Table 2.2

Chapter 5

Table 5.1

Table 5.2

Chapter 6

Table 6.1

Table 6.2

Chapter 7

Table 7.1

Chapter 8

Table 8.1

Table 8.2

Table 8.3

Table 8.4

Chapter 9

Table 9.1

Chapter 10

Table 10.1

Table 10.2

Chapter 11

Table 11.1

Table 11.2

Table 11.3

Table 11.4

Table 11.5

Table 11.6

Table 11.7

Table 11.8

Table 11.9

Chapter 12

Table 12.1

Table 12.2

Table 12.3

Chapter 18

Table 18.1

List of Illustrations Chapter 1

Figure 1.1 The CIA Triad

Figure 1.2 The five elements of AAA services

Figure 1.3 Strategic, tactical, and operational plan timeline comparison

Figure 1.4 Levels of government/military classification

Figure 1.5 Commercial business/private sector classification levels

Figure 1.6 The comparative relationships of security policy components

Figure 1.7 An example of diagramming to reveal threat concerns

Chapter 2

Figure 2.1 An example of separation of duties related to five admin tasks and seven administrators

Figure 2.2 An example of job rotation among management positions

Figure 2.3 Ex-employees must return all company property.

Figure 2.4 The elements of risk

Figure 2.5 The six major elements of quantitative risk analysis

Figure 2.6 The categories of security controls in a defense-in-depth implementation

Figure 2.7 The six steps of the risk management framework

Chapter 3

Figure 3.1 Earthquake hazard map of the United States

Chapter 5

Figure 5.1 Data classifications

Figure 5.2 Clearing a hard drive

Chapter 6

Figure 6.1 Challenge-response authentication protocol

Figure 6.2 The magic door

Figure 6.3 Symmetric key cryptography

Figure 6.4 Asymmetric key cryptography

Chapter 7

Figure 7.1 Asymmetric key cryptography

Figure 7.2 Steganography tool

Figure 7.3 Image with embedded message

Chapter 8

Figure 8.1 The TCB, security perimeter, and reference monitor

Figure 8.2 The Take Grant model’s directed graph

Figure 8.3 The Bell-LaPadula model

Figure 8.4 The Biba model

Figure 8.5 The Clark-Wilson model

Figure 8.6 The levels of TCSEC

Chapter 9

Figure 9.1 In the commonly used four-ring model, protection rings segregate the operating system into kernel, components, and drivers in rings 0 through 2 and applications and programs run at ring 3.

Figure 9.2 The process scheduler

Chapter 10

Figure 10.1 A typical wiring closet

Figure 10.2 The fire triangle

Figure 10.3 The four primary stages of fire

Figure 10.4 A secure physical boundary with a mantrap and a turnstile

Chapter 11

Figure 11.1 Representation of the OSI model

Figure 11.2 Representation of OSI model encapsulation

Figure 11.3 Representation of the OSI model peer layer logical channels

Figure 11.4 OSI model data names

Figure 11.5 Comparing the OSI model with the TCP/IP model

Figure 11.6 The four layers of TCP/IP and its component protocols

Figure 11.7 The TCP three-way handshake

Figure 11.8 Single-, two-, and three-tier firewall deployment architectures

Figure 11.9 A ring topology

Figure 11.10 A linear bus topology and a tree bus topology

Figure 11.11 A star topology

Figure 11.12 A mesh topology

Chapter 13

Figure 13.1 Graph of FRR and FAR errors indicating the CER point

Chapter 14

Figure 14.1 Defense in depth with layered security

Figure 14.2 Role-based access controls

Figure 14.3 A representation of the boundaries provided by lattice-based access controls

Figure 14.4 Wireshark capture

Chapter 15

Figure 15.1 Nmap scan of a web server run from a Linux system

Figure 15.2 Default Apache server page running on the server scanned in Figure 15.1

Figure 15.3 Nmap scan of a large network run from a Mac system using the Terminal utility

Figure 15.4 Network vulnerability scan of the same web server that was port scanned in Figure 15.1

Figure 15.5 Web application vulnerability scan of the same web server that was port scanned in Figure 15.1 and network vulnerability scanned in Figure 15.4

Figure 15.6 The Metasploit automated system exploitation tool allows attackers to quickly execute common attacks against target systems.

Figure 15.7 Fagan inspections follow a rigid formal process, with defined entry and exit criteria that must be met before transitioning between stages.

Figure 15.8 Prefuzzing input file containing a series of 1s

Figure 15.9 :The input file from Figure 15.8 after being run through the zzuf mutation fuzzing tool

Chapter 16

Figure 16.1 A segregation of duties control matrix

Figure 16.2 Creating and deploying images

Figure 16.3 Web server and database server

Chapter 17

Figure 17.1 Incident response

Figure 17.2 SYN flood attack

Figure 17.3 A man-in-the-middle attack

Figure 17.4 Intrusion prevention system

Figure 17.5 Viewing a log entry

Chapter 18

Figure 18.1 Flood hazard map for Miami–Dade County, Florida

Figure 18.2 Failover cluster with network load balancing

Chapter 20

Figure 20.1 Security vs. user-friendliness vs. functionality

Figure 20.2 The waterfall life cycle model

Figure 20.3 The spiral life cycle model

Figure 20.4 The IDEAL model

Figure 20.5 Gantt chart

Figure 20.6 The DevOps model

Figure 20.7 Hierarchical data model

Figure 20.8 Customers table from a relational database

Figure 20.9 ODBC as the interface between applications and a backend database system

Chapter 21

Figure 21.1 Typical database-driven website architecture

Introduction The CISSP: Certified Information Systems Security Professional Study Guide, Seventh Edition, offers you a solid foundation for the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) exam. By purchasing this book, you’ve shown a willingness to learn and a desire to develop the skills you need to achieve this certification. This introduction provides you with a basic overview of this book and the CISSP exam.

This book is designed for readers and students who want to study for the CISSP certification exam. If your goal is to become a certified security professional, then the CISSP certification and this study guide are for you. The purpose of this book is to adequately prepare you to take the CISSP exam.

Before you dive into this book, you need to have accomplished a few tasks on your own. You need to have a general understanding of IT and of security. You should have the necessary five years of full-time paid work experience (or four years if you have a college degree) in two or more of the eight domains covered by the CISSP exam. If you are qualified to take the CISSP exam according to (ISC)2, then you are sufficiently prepared to use this book to study for it. For more information on (ISC)2, see the next section.

(ISC)2

The CISSP exam is governed by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC)2. (ISC)2 is a global not-for-profit organization. It has four primary mission goals:

Maintain the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) for the field of information systems security.

Provide certification for information systems security professionals and practitioners.

Conduct certification training and administer the certification exams.

Oversee the ongoing accreditation of qualified certification candidates through continued education.

The (ISC)2 is operated by a board of directors elected from the ranks of its certified practitioners.

(ISC)2 supports and provides a wide variety of certifications, including CISSP, SSCP, CAP, CSSLP, CCFP, HCISPP, and CCSP. These certifications are designed to verify the knowledge and skills of IT security professionals across all industries. You can obtain more information about (ISC)2 and its other certifications from its website at www.isc2.org.

The Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) credential is for security professionals responsible for designing and maintaining security infrastructure within an

organization.

Topical Domains The CISSP certification covers material from the eight topical domains. These eight domains are as follows:

Security and Risk Management

Asset Security

Security Engineering

Communication and Network Security

Identity and Access Management

Security Assessment and Testing

Security Operations

Software Development Security

These eight domains provide a vendor-independent overview of a common security framework. This framework is the basis for a discussion on security practices that can be supported in all type of organizations worldwide.

The topical domains underwent a major revision as of April 2015. The domains were reduced from ten to eight, and many topics and concepts were re-organized. For a complete view of the breadth of topics covered on the CISSP exam from these eight new domain groupings, visit the (ISC)2 website at www.isc2.org to request a copy of the Candidate Information Bulletin. This document includes a complete exam outline as well as other relevant facts about the certification.

Prequalifications (ISC)2 has defined the qualification requirements you must meet to become a CISSP. First, you must be a practicing security professional with at least five years’ full-time paid work experience or with four years’ experience and a recent IT or IS degree. Professional experience is defined as security work performed for salary or commission within two or more of the eight CBK domains.

Second, you must agree to adhere to a formal code of ethics. The CISSP Code of Ethics is a set of guidelines the (ISC)2 wants all CISSP candidates to follow to maintain professionalism in the field of information systems security. You can find it in the Information section on the (ISC)2 website at www.isc2.org.

(ISC)2 also offers an entry program known as an Associate of (ISC)2. This program allows someone without any or enough experience to qualify as a CISSP to take the CISSP exam anyway and then obtain experience afterward. Associates are granted six years to obtain

five years’ of security experience. Only after providing proof of such experience, usually by means of endorsement and a resume, can the individual be awarded CISSP certification.

Overview of the CISSP Exam The CISSP exam focuses on security from a 30,000-foot view; it deals more with theory and concept than implementation and procedure. It is very broad but not very deep. To successfully complete this exam, you’ll need to be familiar with every domain but not necessarily be a master of each domain.

The CISSP exam consists of 250 questions, and you have six hours to complete it. The exam can be taken in PBT (paper-based test) form or in CBT (computer-based test) form. You’ll need to register for the exam through the (ISC)2 website at www.isc2.org for the PBT form or at www.pearsonvue.com/isc2 for the CBT form. The CBT form of the exam is administered at a Pearson Vue testing facility (www.pearsonvue.com/isc2).

The PBT form of the exam is administered using a paper booklet and answer sheet. This means you’ll be using a pencil to fill in answer bubbles. If you take a PBT exam, be sure to arrive at the testing center around 8 a.m., and keep in mind that absolutely no one will be admitted into the exam after 8:30 a.m. Once all test takers are signed in and seated, the exam proctors will pass out the testing materials and read a few pages of instructions. This may take 30 minutes or more. Once that process is finished, the six-hour window for taking the test will begin.

CISSP Exam Question Types Most of the questions on the CISSP exam are four-option, multiple-choice questions with a single correct answer. Some are straightforward, such as asking you to select a definition. Some are a bit more involved, asking you to select the appropriate concept or best practice. And some questions present you with a scenario or situation and ask you to select the best response. Here’s an example:

1. What is the most important goal and top priority of a security solution?

A. Preventing disclosure

B. Maintaining integrity

C. Maintaining human safety

D. Sustaining availability

You must select the one correct or best answer and mark it on your answer sheet. In some cases, the correct answer will be very obvious to you. In other cases, several answers may seem correct. In these instances, you must choose the best answer for the question asked. Watch for general, specific, universal, superset, and subset answer selections. In other cases, none of the answers will seem correct. In these instances, you’ll need to select the

least incorrect answer.

By the way, the correct answer for this sample question is C. Maintaining human safety is always your first priority.

In addition to the standard multiple-choice question format, ISC2 has added in a few new question formats. These include drag-and-drop and hotspot questions. The drag-and-drop questions require the test taker to move labels or icons to mark items on an image. The hotspot questions require the test taker to pinpoint a location on an image with a cross- hair marker. Both of these question concepts are easy to work with and understand, but be careful about your accuracy of dropping or marking.

To see live examples of these new question types, access the Exam Outline: Candidate Information Bulletin. In a later section titled “Sample Exam Questions,” a URL is provided that leads to a tutorial of these question formats.

Advice on Taking the Exam The CISSP exam consists of two key elements. First, you need to know the material from the eight domains. Second, you must have good test-taking skills. With six hours to complete a 250-question exam, you have just less than 90 seconds for each question. Thus, it is important to work quickly, without rushing but also without wasting time.

One key factor to remember is that guessing is better than not answering a question. If you don’t answer a question, you will not get any credit. But if you guess, you have at least a chance of improving your score. Wrong answers are not counted against you. So, near the end of the sixth hour, be sure you’ve selected an answer for every question.

In the PBT form of the exam, you can write on the test booklet, but nothing written on it will count for or against your score. Use the booklet to make notes and keep track of your progress. We recommend circling your selected answer in the question booklet before you mark it on your answer sheet.

In the CBT form of the exam, you will be provided a dry-erase board and a marker to jot down thoughts and make notes. But nothing written on that board will be used to alter your score. And that board must be returned to the test administrator prior to departing the test facility.

To maximize your test-taking activities, here are some general guidelines:

Answer easy questions first.

Skip harder questions, and return to them later. Either use the CBT bookmarking feature or jot down a list of question numbers in a PBT.

Eliminate wrong answers before selecting the correct one.

Watch for double negatives.

Be sure you understand what the question is asking.

Manage your time. You should try to complete about 50 questions per hour. This will leave you with about an hour to focus on skipped questions and double-check your work. Be sure to bring food and drink to the test site. You will not be allowed to leave to obtain sustenance. Your food and drink will be stored for you away from the testing area. You can eat and drink at any time, but that break time will count against your total time limit. Be sure to bring any medications or other essential items, but leave all things electronic at home or in your car. Wear a watch, but make sure it is not a programmable one. If you are taking a PBT, bring pencils, a manual pencil sharpener, and an eraser. We also recommend bringing foam ear plugs, wearing comfortable clothes, and taking a light jacket with you (some testing locations are a bit chilly).

If English is not your first language, you can register for one of several other language versions of the exam. Or, if you choose to use the English version of the exam, a translation dictionary is allowed. You must be able to prove that you need such a dictionary; this is usually accomplished with your birth certificate or your passport.

Occasionally, small changes are made to the exam or exam objectives. When that happens, Sybex will post updates to its website. Visit www.sybex.com/go/cissp7e before you sit for the exam to make sure you have the latest information.

Study and Exam Preparation Tips We recommend planning for a month or so of nightly intensive study for the CISSP exam. Here are some suggestions to maximize your learning time; you can modify them as necessary based on your own learning habits:

Take one or two evenings to read each chapter in this book and work through its review material.

Answer all the review questions and take the practice exams provided in the book and in the test engine. Complete the written labs from each chapter, and use the review questions for each chapter to help guide you to topics for which more study or time spent working through key concepts and strategies might be beneficial.

Review the (ISC)2’s Exam Outline: Candidate Information Bulletin from www.isc2.org.

Use the flashcards included with the study tools to reinforce your understanding of concepts.

We recommend spending about half of your study time reading and reviewing concepts and the other half taking practice exams. Students have reported that the more time they spent taking practice exams, the better they retained test topics. You might also consider visiting online resources such as www.cccure.org and other CISSP-focused websites.

Completing the Certification Process Once you have been informed that you successfully passed the CISSP certification, there is one final step before you are actually awarded the CISSP certification. That final step is known as endorsement. Basically, this involves getting someone who is a CISSP, or other (ISC)2 certification holder, in good standing and familiar with your work history to submit an endorsement form on your behalf. The endorsement form is accessible through the email notifying you of your achievement in passing the exam. The endorser must review your resume, ensure that you have sufficient experience in the eight CISSP domains, and then submit the signed form to (ISC)2 digitally or via fax or post mail. You must have submitted the endorsement files to (ISC)2 within 90 days after receiving the confirmation-of-passing email. Once (ISC)2 receives your endorsement form, the certification process will be completed and you will be sent a welcome packet via USPS.

If you happen to fail the exam, you may take the exam a second time, but you must wait 30 days. If a third attempt is needed, you must wait 90 days. If a fourth attempt is needed, you must wait 180 days. You can attempt the exam only three times in any calendar year. You will need to pay full price for each additional exam attempt.

Post-CISSP Concentrations (ISC)2 has three concentrations offered only to CISSP certificate holders. The (ISC)2 has taken the concepts introduced on the CISSP exam and focused on specific areas, namely, architecture, management, and engineering. These three concentrations are as follows:

Information Systems Security Architecture Professional (ISSAP) Aimed at those who specialize in information security architecture. Key domains covered here include access control systems and methodology; cryptography; physical security

integration; requirements analysis and security standards, guidelines, and criteria; technology-related aspects of business continuity planning and disaster recovery planning; and telecommunications and network security. This is a credential for those who design security systems or infrastructure or for those who audit and analyze such structures.

Information Systems Security Management Professional (ISSMP) Aimed at those who focus on management of information security policies, practices, principles, and procedures. Key domains covered here include enterprise security management practices; enterprise-wide system development security; law, investigations, forensics, and ethics; oversight for operations security compliance; and understanding business continuity planning, disaster recovery planning, and continuity of operations planning. This is a credential for professionals who are responsible for security infrastructures, particularly where mandated compliance comes into the picture.

Information Systems Security Engineering Professional (ISSEP) Aimed at those who focus on the design and engineering of secure hardware and software information systems, components, or applications. Key domains covered include certification and accreditation, systems security engineering, technical management, and U.S. government information assurance rules and regulations. Most ISSEPs work for the U.S. government or for a government contractor that manages government security clearances.

For more details about these concentration exams and certifications, please see the (ISC)2 website at www.isc2.org.

Notes on This Book’s Organization This book is designed to cover each of the eight CISSP Common Body of Knowledge domains in sufficient depth to provide you with a clear understanding of the material. The main body of this book comprises 21 chapters. The domain/chapter breakdown is as follows:

Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4: Security and Risk Management

Chapter 5: Asset Security

Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10: Security Engineering

Chapters 11 and 12: Communication and Network Security

Chapters 13 and 14: Identity and Access Management

Chapters 15: Security Assessment and Testing

Chapters 16, 17, 18, and 19: Security Operations

Chapters 20 and 21: Software Development Security

Each chapter includes elements to help you focus your studies and test your knowledge,

detailed in the following sections. Note: please see the table of contents and chapter introductions for a detailed list of domain topics covered in each chapter.

The Elements of This Study Guide You’ll see many recurring elements as you read through this study guide. Here are descriptions of some of those elements:

Summaries The summary is a brief review of the chapter to sum up what was covered.

Exam Essentials The Exam Essentials highlight topics that could appear on the exam in some form. While we obviously do not know exactly what will be included in a particular exam, this section reinforces significant concepts that are key to understanding the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) area and the test specs for the CISSP exam.

Chapter Review Questions Each chapter includes practice questions that have been designed to measure your knowledge of key ideas that were discussed in the chapter. After you finish each chapter, answer the questions; if some of your answers are incorrect, it’s an indication that you need to spend some more time studying the corresponding topics. The answers to the practice questions can be found at the end of each chapter.

Written Labs Each chapter includes written labs that synthesize various concepts and topics that appear in the chapter. These raise questions that are designed to help you put together various pieces you’ve encountered individually in the chapter and assemble them to propose or describe potential security strategies or solutions.

Real-World Scenarios As you work through each chapter, you’ll find descriptions of typical and plausible workplace situations where an understanding of the security strategies and approaches relevant to the chapter content could play a role in fixing problems or in fending off potential difficulties. This gives readers a chance to see how specific security policies, guidelines, or practices should or may be applied to the workplace.

What’s Included with the Additional Study Tools Readers of this book can get access to a number of additional study tools. We worked really hard to provide some essential tools to help you with your certification process. All of the following gear should be loaded on your workstation when studying for the test.

Readers can get access to the following tools by visiting www.sybex.com/go/cissp7e.

The Sybex Test Preparation Software

The test preparation software, made by experts at Sybex, prepares you for the CISSP exam. In this test engine, you will find all the review and assessment questions from the book plus additional bonus practice exams that are included with the study tools. You can take the assessment test, test yourself by chapter, take the practice exams, or take a randomly generated exam comprising all the questions.

Electronic Flashcards Sybex’s electronic flashcards include hundreds of questions designed to challenge you further for the CISSP exam. Between the review questions, practice exams, and flashcards, you’ll have more than enough practice for the exam!

Glossary of Terms in PDF Sybex offers a robust glossary of terms in PDF format. This comprehensive glossary includes all of the key terms you should understand for the CISSP, in a searchable format.

Bonus Practice Exams Sybex includes bonus practice exams, each comprising questions meant to survey your understanding of key elements in the CISSP CBK. This book has four bonus exams, each comprising 250 full-length questions. These exams are available digitally at http://sybextestbanks.wiley.com.

How to Use This Book’s Study Tools This book has a number of features designed to guide your study efforts for the CISSP certification exam. It assists you by listing at the beginning of each chapter the CISSP Common Body of Knowledge domain topics covered in the chapter and by ensuring that each topic is fully discussed within the chapter. The review questions at the end of each chapter and the practice exams are designed to test your retention of the material you’ve read to make sure you are aware of areas in which you should spend additional study time. Here are some suggestions for using this book and study tools (found at www.sybex.com/go/cissp7e):

Take the assessment test before you start reading the material. This will give you an idea of the areas in which you need to spend additional study time as well as those areas in which you may just need a brief refresher.

Answer the review questions after you’ve read each chapter; if you answer any incorrectly, go back to the chapter and review the topic, or utilize one of the additional resources if you need more information.

Download the flashcards to your mobile device, and review them when you have a few minutes during the day.

Take every opportunity to test yourself. In addition to the assessment test and review questions, there are bonus practice exams included with the additional study tools.

Take these exams without referring to the chapters and see how well you’ve done—go back and review any topics you’ve missed until you fully understand and can apply the concepts.

Finally, find a study partner if possible. Studying for, and taking, the exam with someone else will make the process more enjoyable, and you’ll have someone to help you understand topics that are difficult for you. You’ll also be able to reinforce your own knowledge by helping your study partner in areas where they are weak.

Assessment Test 1. Which of the following types of access control seeks to discover evidence of

unwanted, unauthorized, or illicit behavior or activity?

A. Preventive

B. Deterrent

C. Detective

D. Corrective

2. Define and detail the aspects of password selection that distinguish good password choices from ultimately poor password choices.

A. Difficult to guess or unpredictable

B. Meet minimum length requirements

C. Meet specific complexity requirements

D. All of the above

3. Which of the following is most likely to detect DoS attacks?

A. Host-based IDS

B. Network-based IDS

C. Vulnerability scanner

D. Penetration testing

4. Which of the following is considered a denial of service attack?

A. Pretending to be a technical manager over the phone and asking a receptionist to change their password

B. While surfing the Web, sending to a web server a malformed URL that causes the system to consume 100 percent of the CPU

C. Intercepting network traffic by copying the packets as they pass through a specific subnet

D. Sending message packets to a recipient who did not request them simply to be annoying

5. At which layer of the OSI model does a router operate?

A. Network layer

B. Layer 1

C. Transport layer

D. Layer 5

6. Which type of firewall automatically adjusts its filtering rules based on the content of the traffic of existing sessions?

A. Static packet filtering

B. Application-level gateway

C. Stateful inspection

D. Dynamic packet filtering

7. A VPN can be established over which of the following?

A. Wireless LAN connection

B. Remote access dial-up connection

C. WAN link

D. All of the above

8. What type of malware uses social engineering to trick a victim into installing it?

A. Viruses

B. Worms

C. Trojan horse

D. Logic bomb

9. The CIA Triad comprises what elements?

A. Contiguousness, interoperable, arranged

B. Authentication, authorization, accountability

C. Capable, available, integral

D. Availability, confidentiality, integrity

10. Which of the following is not a required component in the support of accountability?

A. Auditing

B. Privacy

C. Authentication

D. Authorization

11. Which of the following is not a defense against collusion?

A. Separation of duties

B. Restricted job responsibilities

C. Group user accounts

D. Job rotation

12. A data custodian is responsible for securing resources after ________________________ has assigned the resource a security label.

A. Senior management

B. Data owner

C. Auditor

D. Security staff

13. In what phase of the Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM) are quantitative measures utilized to gain a detailed understanding of the software development process?

A. Repeatable

B. Defined

C. Managed

D. Optimizing

14. Which one of the following is a layer of the ring protection scheme that is not normally implemented in practice?

A. Layer 0

B. Layer 1

C. Layer 3

D. Layer 4

15. What is the last phase of the TCP/IP three-way handshake sequence?

A. SYN packet

B. ACK packet

C. NAK packet

D. SYN/ACK packet

16. Which one of the following vulnerabilities would best be countered by adequate parameter checking?

A. Time of check to time of use

B. Buffer overflow

C. SYN flood

D. Distributed denial of service

17. What is the value of the logical operation shown here?

X: 0 1 1 0 1 0

Y: 0 0 1 1 0 1 _________________ X ∨ Y: ?

A. 0 1 1 1 1 1

B. 0 1 1 0 1 0

C. 0 0 1 0 0 0

D. 0 0 1 1 0 1

18. In what type of cipher are the letters of the plain-text message rearranged to form the cipher text?

A. Substitution cipher

B. Block cipher

C. Transposition cipher

D. One-time pad

19. What is the length of a message digest produced by the MD5 algorithm?

A. 64 bits

B. 128 bits

C. 256 bits

D. 384 bits

20. If Renee receives a digitally signed message from Mike, what key does she use to verify that the message truly came from Mike?

A. Renee’s public key

B. Renee’s private key

C. Mike’s public key

D. Mike’s private key

21. Which of the following is not a composition theory related to security models?

A. Cascading

B. Feedback

C. Iterative

D. Hookup

22. The collection of components in the TCB that work together to implement reference monitor functions is called the ____________________.

A. Security perimeter

B. Security kernel

C. Access matrix

D. Constrained interface

23. Which of the following statements is true?

A. The less complex a system, the more vulnerabilities it has.

B. The more complex a system, the less assurance it provides.

C. The less complex a system, the less trust it provides.

D. The more complex a system, the less attack surface it generates.

24. Ring 0, from the design architecture security mechanism known as protection rings, can also be referred to as all but which of the following?

A. Privileged mode

B. Supervisory mode

C. System mode

D. User mode

25. Audit trails, logs, CCTV, intrusion detection systems, antivirus software, penetration testing, password crackers, performance monitoring, and cyclic redundancy checks (CRCs) are examples of what?

A. Directive controls

B. Preventive controls

C. Detective controls

D. Corrective controls

26. System architecture, system integrity, covert channel analysis, trusted facility management, and trusted recovery are elements of what security criteria?

A. Quality assurance

B. Operational assurance

C. Life cycle assurance

D. Quantity assurance

27. Which of the following is a procedure designed to test and perhaps bypass a system’s security controls?

A. Logging usage data

B. War dialing

C. Penetration testing

D. Deploying secured desktop workstations

28. Auditing is a required factor to sustain and enforce what?

A. Accountability

B. Confidentiality

C. Accessibility

D. Redundancy

29. What is the formula used to compute the ALE?

A. ALE = AV * EF * ARO

B. ALE = ARO * EF

C. ALE = AV * ARO

D. ALE = EF * ARO

30. What is the first step of the business impact assessment process?

A. Identification of priorities

B. Likelihood assessment

C. Risk identification

D. Resource prioritization

31. Which of the following represent natural events that can pose a threat or risk to an organization?

A. Earthquake

B. Flood

C. Tornado

D. All of the above

32. What kind of recovery facility enables an organization to resume operations as quickly as possible, if not immediately, upon failure of the primary facility?

A. Hot site

B. Warm site

C. Cold site

D. All of the above

33. What form of intellectual property is used to protect words, slogans, and logos?

A. Patent

B. Copyright

C. Trademark

D. Trade secret

34. What type of evidence refers to written documents that are brought into court to prove a fact?

A. Best evidence

B. Payroll evidence

C. Documentary evidence

D. Testimonial evidence

35. Why are military and intelligence attacks among the most serious computer crimes?

A. The use of information obtained can have far-reaching detrimental strategic effects on national interests in an enemy’s hands.

B. Military information is stored on secure machines, so a successful attack can be embarrassing.

C. The long-term political use of classified information can impact a country’s leadership.

D. The military and intelligence agencies have ensured that the laws protecting their information are the most severe.

36. What type of detected incident allows the most time for an investigation?

A. Compromise

B. Denial of service

C. Malicious code

D. Scanning

37. If you want to restrict access into or out of a facility, which would you choose?

A. Gate

B. Turnstile

C. Fence

D. Mantrap

38. What is the point of a secondary verification system?

A. To verify the identity of a user

B. To verify the activities of a user

C. To verify the completeness of a system

D. To verify the correctness of a system

39. Spamming attacks occur when numerous unsolicited messages are sent to a victim. Because enough data is sent to the victim to prevent legitimate activity, it is also known as what?

A. Sniffing

B. Denial of service

C. Brute-force attack

D. Buffer overflow attack

40. Which type of intrusion detection system (IDS) can be considered an expert system?

A. Host-based

B. Network-based

C. Knowledge-based

D. Behavior-based

Answers to Assessment Test 1. C. Detective access controls are used to discover (and document) unwanted or

unauthorized activity.

2. D. Strong password choices are difficult to guess, unpredictable, and of specified minimum lengths to ensure that password entries cannot be computationally determined. They may be randomly generated and utilize all the alphabetic, numeric, and punctuation characters; they should never be written down or shared; they should not be stored in publicly accessible or generally readable locations; and they shouldn’t be transmitted in the clear.

3. B. Network-based IDSs are usually able to detect the initiation of an attack or the ongoing attempts to perpetrate an attack (including denial of service, or DoS). They are, however, unable to provide information about whether an attack was successful or which specific systems, user accounts, files, or applications were affected. Host- based IDSs have some difficulty with detecting and tracking down DoS attacks. Vulnerability scanners don’t detect DoS attacks; they test for possible vulnerabilities. Penetration testing may cause a DoS or test for DoS vulnerabilities, but it is not a detection tool.

4. B. Not all instances of DoS are the result of a malicious attack. Errors in coding OSs, services, and applications have resulted in DoS conditions. Some examples of this include a process failing to release control of the CPU or a service consuming system resources out of proportion to the service requests it is handling. Social engineering and sniffing are typically not considered DoS attacks.

5. A. Network hardware devices, including routers, function at layer 3, the Network

layer.

6. D. Dynamic packet-filtering firewalls enable the real-time modification of the filtering rules based on traffic content.

7. D. A VPN link can be established over any other network communication connection. This could be a typical LAN cable connection, a wireless LAN connection, a remote access dial-up connection, a WAN link, or even an Internet connection used by a client for access to the office LAN.

8. C. A Trojan horse is a form of malware that uses social engineering tactics to trick a victim into installing it—the trick is to make the victim believe that the only thing they have downloaded or obtained is the host file, when in fact it has a malicious hidden payload.

9. D. The components of the CIA Triad are confidentiality, availability, and integrity.

10. B. Privacy is not necessary to provide accountability.

11. C. Group user accounts allow for multiple people to log in under a single user account. This allows collusion because it prevents individual accountability.

12. B. The data owner must first assign a security label to a resource before the data custodian can secure the resource appropriately.

13. C. The Managed phase of the SW-CMM involves the use of quantitative development metrics. The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) defines the key process areas for this level as Quantitative Process Management and Software Quality Management.

14. B. Layers 1 and 2 contain device drivers but are not normally implemented in practice. Layer 0 always contains the security kernel. Layer 3 contains user applications. Layer 4 does not exist.

15. B. The SYN packet is first sent from the initiating host to the destination host. The destination host then responds with a SYN/ACK packet. The initiating host sends an ACK packet, and the connection is then established.

16. B. Parameter checking is used to prevent the possibility of buffer overflow attacks.

17. A. The ∼OR symbol represents the OR function, which is true when one or both of the input bits are true.

18. C. Transposition ciphers use an encryption algorithm to rearrange the letters of the plain-text message to form a cipher text message.

19. B. The MD5 algorithm produces a 128-bit message digest for any input.

20. C. Any recipient can use Mike’s public key to verify the authenticity of the digital signature.

21. C. Iterative is not one of the composition theories related to security models. Cascading, feedback, and hookup are the three composition theories.

22. B. The collection of components in the TCB that work together to implement reference monitor functions is called the security kernel.

23. B. The more complex a system, the less assurance it provides. More complexity means more areas for vulnerabilities to exist and more areas that must be secured against threats. More vulnerabilities and more threats mean that the subsequent security provided by the system is less trustworthy.

24. D. Ring 0 has direct access to the most resources; thus user mode is not an appropriate label because user mode requires restrictions to limit access to resources.

25. C. Examples of detective controls are audit trails, logs, CCTV, intrusion detection systems, antivirus software, penetration testing, password crackers, performance monitoring, and CRCs.

26. B. Assurance is the degree of confidence you can place in the satisfaction of security needs of a computer, network, solution, and so on. Operational assurance focuses on the basic features and architecture of a system that lend themselves to supporting security.

27. C. Penetration testing is the attempt to bypass security controls to test overall system security.

28. A. Auditing is a required factor to sustain and enforce accountability.

29. A. The annualized loss expectancy (ALE) is computed as the product of the asset value (AV) times the exposure factor (EF) times the annualized rate of occurrence (ARO). This is the longer form of the formula ALE = SLE * ARO. The other formulas displayed here do not accurately reflect this calculation.

30. A. Identification of priorities is the first step of the business impact assessment process.

31. D. Natural events that can threaten organizations include earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornados, wildfires, and other acts of nature as well. Thus options A, B, and C are correct because they are natural and not man made.

32. A. Hot sites provide backup facilities maintained in constant working order and fully capable of taking over business operations. Warm sites consist of preconfigured hardware and software to run the business, neither of which possesses the vital business information. Cold sites are simply facilities designed with power and environmental support systems but no configured hardware, software, or services. Disaster recovery services can facilitate and implement any of these sites on behalf of a company.

33. C. Trademarks are used to protect the words, slogans, and logos that represent a company and its products or services.

34. C. Written documents brought into court to prove the facts of a case are referred to as documentary evidence.

35. A. The purpose of a military and intelligence attack is to acquire classified information. The detrimental effect of using such information could be nearly unlimited in the hands of an enemy. Attacks of this type are launched by very sophisticated attackers. It is often very difficult to ascertain what documents were successfully obtained. So when a breach of this type occurs, you sometimes cannot know the full extent of the damage.

36. D. Scanning incidents are generally reconnaissance attacks. The real damage to a system comes in the subsequent attacks, so you may have some time to react if you detect the scanning attack early.

37. B. A turnstile is a form of gate that prevents more than one person from gaining entry at a time and often restricts movement to one direction. It is used to gain entry but not exit, or vice versa.

38. D. Secondary verification mechanisms are set in place to establish a means of verifying the correctness of detection systems and sensors. This often means combining several types of sensors or systems (CCTV, heat and motion sensors, and so on) to provide a more complete picture of detected events.

39. B. A spamming attack (sending massive amounts of unsolicited email) can be used as a type of denial-of-service attack. It doesn’t use eavesdropping methods so it isn’t sniffing. Brute force methods attempt to crack passwords. Buffer overflow attacks send strings of data to a system in an attempt to cause it to fail.

40. D. A behavior-based IDS can be labeled an expert system or a pseudo-artificial intelligence system because it can learn and make assumptions about events. In other words, the IDS can act like a human expert by evaluating current events against known events. A knowledge-based IDS uses a database of known attack methods to detect attacks. Both host-based and network-based systems can be either knowledge- based, behavior-based, or a combination of both.

Chapter 1 Security Governance Through Principles and Policies THE CISSP EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

✓ Security and Risk Management (e.g., Security, Risk, Compliance, Law, Regulations, Business Continuity)

A. Understand and apply concepts of confidentiality, integrity and availability

B. Apply security governance principles through:

B.1 Alignment of security function to strategy, goals, mission, and objectives (e.g., business case, budget and resources)

B.2 Organizational processes (e.g., acquisitions, divestitures, governance committees)

B.3 Security roles and responsibilities

B.4 Control frameworks

B.5 Due care

B.6 Due diligence

F. Develop and implement documented security policy, standards, procedures, and guidelines

J. Understand and apply threat modeling

J.1 Identifying threats (e.g., adversaries, contractors, employees, trusted partners)

J.2 Determining and diagramming potential attacks (e.g., social engineering, spoofing)

J.3 Performing reduction analysis

J.4 Technologies and processes to remediate threats (e.g., software architecture and operations)

K. Integrate security risk considerations into acquisition strategy and practice

K.1 Hardware, software, and services

K.2 Third-party assessment and monitoring (e.g., on-site assessment, document exchange and review, process/policy review)

K.3 Minimum security requirements

K.4 Service-level requirements

The Security and Risk Management domain of the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) for the CISSP certification exam deals with many of the foundational elements of security

solutions. These include elements essential to the design, implementation, and administration of security mechanisms. Additional elements of this domain are discussed in various chapters: Chapter 2, “Personal Security and Risk Management Concepts”; Chapter 3, “Business Continuity Planning”; and Chapter 4, “Laws, Regulations, and Compliance.” Please be sure to review all of these chapters to have a complete perspective on the topics of this domain.

Understand and Apply Concepts of Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability Security management concepts and principles are inherent elements in a security policy and solution deployment. They define the basic parameters needed for a secure environment. They also define the goals and objectives that both policy designers and system implementers must achieve to create a secure solution. It is important for real- world security professionals, as well as CISSP exam students, to understand these items thoroughly.

The primary goals and objectives of security are contained within the CIA Triad (see Figure 1.1), which is the name given to the three primary security principles:

Confidentiality

Integrity

Availability

Figure 1.1 The CIA Triad

Security controls are typically evaluated on how well they address these core information security tenets. Overall, a complete security solution should adequately address each of these tenets. Vulnerabilities and risks are also evaluated based on the threat they pose against one or more of the CIA Triad principles. Thus, it is a good idea to be familiar with these principles and use them as guidelines for judging all things related to security.

These three principles are considered the most important within the realm of security. However important each specific principle is to a specific organization depends on the organization’s security goals and requirements and on the extent to which the organization’s security might be threatened.

Confidentiality The first principle of the CIA Triad is confidentiality. If a security mechanism offers confidentiality, it offers a high level of assurance that data, objects, or resources are restricted from unauthorized subjects. If a threat exists against confidentiality, unauthorized disclosure could take place.

In general, for confidentiality to be maintained on a network, data must be protected from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while in storage, in process, and in transit. Unique and specific security controls are required for each of these states of data, resources, and objects to maintain confidentiality.

Numerous attacks focus on the violation of confidentiality. These include capturing network traffic and stealing password files as well as social engineering, port scanning, shoulder surfing, eavesdropping, sniffing, and so on.

Violations of confidentiality are not limited to directed intentional attacks. Many instances of unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential information are the result of human error, oversight, or ineptitude. Events that lead to confidentiality breaches include failing to properly encrypt a transmission, failing to fully authenticate a remote system before transferring data, leaving open otherwise secured access points, accessing malicious code that opens a back door, misrouted faxes, documents left on printers, or even walking away from an access terminal while data is displayed on the monitor. Confidentiality violations can result from the actions of an end user or a system administrator. They can also occur because of an oversight in a security policy or a misconfigured security control.

Numerous countermeasures can help ensure confidentiality against possible threats. These include encryption, network traffic padding, strict access control, rigorous authentication procedures, data classification, and extensive personnel training.

Confidentiality and integrity depend on each other. Without object integrity, confidentiality cannot be maintained. Other concepts, conditions, and aspects of confidentiality include the following:

Sensitivity Sensitivity refers to the quality of information, which could cause harm or damage if disclosed. Maintaining confidentiality of sensitive information helps to prevent

harm or damage.

Discretion Discretion is an act of decision where an operator can influence or control disclosure in order to minimize harm or damage.

Criticality The level to which information is mission critical is its measure of criticality. The higher the level of criticality, the more likely the need to maintain the confidentiality of the information. High levels of criticality are essential to the operation or function of an organization.

Concealment Concealment is the act of hiding or preventing disclosure. Often concealment is viewed as a means of cover, obfuscation, or distraction.

Secrecy Secrecy is the act of keeping something a secret or preventing the disclosure of information.

Privacy Privacy refers to keeping information confidential that is personally identifiable or that might cause harm, embarrassment, or disgrace to someone if revealed.

Seclusion Seclusion involves storing something in an out-of-the-way location. This location can also provide strict access controls. Seclusion can help enforcement confidentiality protections.

Isolation Isolation is the act of keeping something separated from others. Isolation can be used to prevent commingling of information or disclosure of information.

Each organization needs to evaluate the nuances of confidentiality they wish to enforce. Tools and technology that implements one form of confidentiality might not support or allow other forms.

Integrity The second principle of the CIA Triad is integrity. For integrity to be maintained, objects must retain their veracity and be intentionally modified by only authorized subjects. If a security mechanism offers integrity, it offers a high level of assurance that the data, objects, and resources are unaltered from their original protected state. Alterations should not occur while the object is in storage, in transit, or in process. Thus, maintaining integrity means the object itself is not altered and the operating system and programming entities that manage and manipulate the object are not compromised.

Integrity can be examined from three perspectives:

Preventing unauthorized subjects from making modifications

Preventing authorized subjects from making unauthorized modifications, such as mistakes

Maintaining the internal and external consistency of objects so that their data is a correct and true reflection of the real world and any relationship with any child, peer, or parent object is valid, consistent, and verifiable

For integrity to be maintained on a system, controls must be in place to restrict access to data, objects, and resources. Additionally, activity logging should be employed to ensure that only authorized users are able to access their respective resources. Maintaining and validating object integrity across storage, transport, and processing requires numerous variations of controls and oversight.

Numerous attacks focus on the violation of integrity. These include viruses, logic bombs, unauthorized access, errors in coding and applications, malicious modification, intentional replacement, and system back doors.

As with confidentiality, integrity violations are not limited to intentional attacks. Human error, oversight, or ineptitude accounts for many instances of unauthorized alteration of sensitive information. Events that lead to integrity breaches include accidentally deleting files; entering invalid data; altering configurations, including errors in commands, codes, and scripts; introducing a virus; and executing malicious code such as a Trojan horse. Integrity violations can occur because of the actions of any user, including administrators. They can also occur because of an oversight in a security policy or a misconfigured security control.

Numerous countermeasures can ensure integrity against possible threats. These include strict access control, rigorous authentication procedures, intrusion detection systems, object/data encryption, hash total verifications (see Chapter 6, “Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms”), interface restrictions, input/function checks, and extensive personnel training.

Integrity is dependent on confidentiality. Without confidentiality, integrity cannot be maintained. Other concepts, conditions, and aspects of integrity include accuracy, truthfulness, authenticity, validity, nonrepudiation, accountability, responsibility, completeness, and comprehensiveness.

Availability The third principle of the CIA Triad is availability, which means authorized subjects are granted timely and uninterrupted access to objects. If a security mechanism offers availability, it offers a high level of assurance that the data, objects, and resources are accessible to authorized subjects. Availability includes efficient uninterrupted access to objects and prevention of denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. Availability also implies that the supporting infrastructure—including network services, communications, and access control mechanisms—is functional and allows authorized users to gain authorized access.

For availability to be maintained on a system, controls must be in place to ensure authorized access and an acceptable level of performance, to quickly handle interruptions, to provide for redundancy, to maintain reliable backups, and to prevent data loss or destruction.

There are numerous threats to availability. These include device failure, software errors, and environmental issues (heat, static, flooding, power loss, and so on). There are also

some forms of attacks that focus on the violation of availability, including DoS attacks, object destruction, and communication interruptions.

As with confidentiality and integrity, violations of availability are not limited to intentional attacks. Many instances of unauthorized alteration of sensitive information are caused by human error, oversight, or ineptitude. Some events that lead to availability breaches include accidentally deleting files, overutilizing a hardware or software component, underallocating resources, and mislabeling or incorrectly classifying objects. Availability violations can occur because of the actions of any user, including administrators. They can also occur because of an oversight in a security policy or a misconfigured security control.

Numerous countermeasures can ensure availability against possible threats. These include designing intermediary delivery systems properly, using access controls effectively, monitoring performance and network traffic, using firewalls and routers to prevent DoS attacks, implementing redundancy for critical systems, and maintaining and testing backup systems. Most security policies, as well as business continuity planning (BCP), focus on the use of fault tolerance features at the various levels of access/storage/security (that is, disk, server, or site) with the goal of eliminating single points of failure to maintain availability of critical systems.

Availability depends on both integrity and confidentiality. Without integrity and confidentiality, availability cannot be maintained. Other concepts, conditions, and aspects of availability include usability, accessibility, and timeliness.

CIA Priority

Every organization has unique security requirements. On the CISSP exam, most security concepts are discussed in general terms, but in the real world, general concepts and best practices don’t get the job done. The management team and security team must work together to prioritize an organization’s security needs. This includes establishing a budget and spending plan, allocating expertise and hours, and focusing the IT and security staff efforts. One key aspect of this effort is to prioritize the security requirements of the organization. Knowing which tenet or asset is more important than another guides the creation of a security stance and ultimately the deployment of a security solution. Often, getting started in establishing priorities is a challenge. A possible solution to this challenge is to start with prioritizing the three primary security tenets of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Defining which of these elements is most important to the organization is essential in crafting a sufficient security solution. This establishes a pattern that can be replicated from concept through design, architecture, deployment, and finally, maintenance.

Do you know the priority your organization places on each of the components of the

CIA Triad? If not, find out.

An interesting generalization of this concept of CIA prioritization is that in many cases military and government organizations tend to prioritize confidentiality above integrity and availability, whereas private companies tend to prioritize availability above confidentiality and integrity. Although such prioritization focuses efforts on one aspect of security over another, it does not imply that the second or third prioritized items are ignored or improperly addressed.

Other Security Concepts In addition to the CIA Triad, you need to consider a plethora of other security-related concepts and principles when designing a security policy and deploying a security solution. The following sections discuss identification, authentication, authorization, auditing, accountability (see Figure 1.2), and nonrepudiation.

Figure 1.2 The five elements of AAA services

Identification Identification is the process by which a subject professes an identity and accountability is initiated. A subject must provide an identity to a system to start the process of authentication, authorization, and accountability (AAA). Providing an identity can involve typing in a username; swiping a smart card; waving a proximity device; speaking a phrase; or positioning your face, hand, or finger for a camera or scanning device. Providing a process ID number also represents the identification process. Without an identity, a system has no way to correlate an authentication factor with the subject.

Once a subject has been identified (that is, once the subject’s identity has been recognized and verified), the identity is accountable for any further actions by that subject. IT systems track activity by identities, not by the subjects themselves. A computer doesn’t

know one human from another, but it does know that your user account is different from all other user accounts. A subject’s identity is typically labeled as, or considered to be, public information. However, simply claiming an identity does not imply access or authority. The identity must be proven or verified before access to controlled resources is allowed. That process is authentication.

Authentication The process of verifying or testing that the claimed identity is valid is authentication. Authentication requires from the subject additional information that must exactly correspond to the identity indicated. The most common form of authentication is using a password (this includes the password variations of PINs and passphrases). Authentication verifies the identity of the subject by comparing one or more factors against the database of valid identities (that is, user accounts). The authentication factor used to verify identity is typically labeled as, or considered to be, private information. The capability of the subject and system to maintain the secrecy of the authentication factors for identities directly reflects the level of security of that system. If the process of illegitimately obtaining and using the authentication factor of a target user is relatively easy, then the authentication system is insecure. If that process is relatively difficult, then the authentication system is reasonably secure.

Identification and authentication are always used together as a single two-step process. Providing an identity is the first step, and providing the authentication factor(s) is the second step. Without both, a subject cannot gain access to a system—neither element alone is useful in terms of security.

A subject can provide several types of authentication (for example, something you know, something you have, and so on). Each authentication technique or factor has its unique benefits and drawbacks. Thus, it is important to evaluate each mechanism in light of the environment in which it will be deployed to determine viability. (We discuss authentication at length in Chapter 13, “Managing Identity and Authentication.”)

Authorization Once a subject is authenticated, access must be authorized. The process of authorization ensures that the requested activity or access to an object is possible given the rights and privileges assigned to the authenticated identity. In most cases, the system evaluates an access control matrix that compares the subject, the object, and the intended activity. If the specific action is allowed, the subject is authorized. If the specific action is not allowed, the subject is not authorized.

Keep in mind that just because a subject has been identified and authenticated does not mean they have been authorized to perform any function or access all resources within the controlled environment. It is possible for a subject to be logged onto a network (that is, identified and authenticated) but to be blocked from accessing a file or printing to a printer (that is, by not being authorized to perform that activity). Most network users are

authorized to perform only a limited number of activities on a specific collection of resources. Identification and authentication are all-or-nothing aspects of access control. Authorization has a wide range of variations between all or nothing for each object within the environment. A user may be able to read a file but not delete it, print a document but not alter the print queue, or log on to a system but not access any resources. Authorization is usually defined using one of the concepts of access control, such as discretionary access control (DAC), mandatory access control (MAC), or role-based access control (RBAC); see Chapter 14, “Controlling and Monitoring Access.”

AAA Services You may have heard of the concept of AAA services. The three As in this acronym refer to authentication, authorization, and accounting (or sometimes auditing). However, what is not as clear is that although there are three letters in the acronym, it actually refers to five elements: identification, authentication, authorization, auditing, and accounting. Thus, the first and the third/last A actually represent two concepts instead of just one. These five elements represent the following processes of security:

Identification claiming an identity when attempting to access a secured area or system

Authentication proving that you are that identity

Authorization defining the allows and denials of resource and object access for a specific identity

Auditing recording a log of the events and activities related to the system and subjects

Accounting (aka accountability) reviewing log files to check for compliance and violations in order to hold subjects accountable for their actions

Although AAA is often referenced in relation to authentication systems, it is in fact a foundational concept of all forms of security. As without any one of these five elements, a security mechanism would be incomplete.

Auditing Auditing, or monitoring, is the programmatic means by which a subject’s actions are tracked and recorded for the purpose of holding the subject accountable for their actions while authenticated on a system. It is also the process by which unauthorized or abnormal activities are detected on a system. Auditing is recording activities of a subject and its objects as well as recording the activities of core system functions that maintain the operating environment and the security mechanisms. The audit trails created by recording system events to logs can be used to evaluate the health and performance of a system. System crashes may indicate faulty programs, corrupt drivers, or intrusion

attempts. The event logs leading up to a crash can often be used to discover the reason a system failed. Log files provide an audit trail for re-creating the history of an event, intrusion, or system failure. Auditing is needed to detect malicious actions by subjects, attempted intrusions, and system failures and to reconstruct events, provide evidence for prosecution, and produce problem reports and analysis. Auditing is usually a native feature of operating systems and most applications and services. Thus, configuring the system to record information about specific types of events is fairly straightforward.

Accountability An organization’s security policy can be properly enforced only if accountability is maintained. In other words, you can maintain security only if subjects are held accountable for their actions. Effective accountability relies on the capability to prove a subject’s identity and track their activities. Accountability is established by linking a human to the activities of an online identity through the security services and mechanisms of auditing, authorization, authentication, and identification. Thus, human accountability is ultimately dependent on the strength of the authentication process. Without a strong authentication process, there is doubt that the human associated with a specific user account was the actual entity controlling that user account when the undesired action took place.

To have viable accountability, you must be able to support your security in a court of law. If you are unable to legally support your security efforts, then you will be unlikely to be able to hold a human accountable for actions linked to a user account. With only a password as authentication, there is significant room for doubt. Passwords are the least secure form of authentication, with dozens of different methods available to compromise them. However, with the use of multifactor authentication, such as a password, smartcard, and fingerprint scan in combination, there is very little possibility that any other human could have compromised the authentication process in order to impersonate the human responsible for the user account.

Legally Defensible Security The point of security is to keep bad things from happening while supporting the occurrence of good things. When bad things do happen, organizations often desire assistance from law enforcement and the legal system for compensation. To obtain legal restitution, you must demonstrate that a crime was committed, that the suspect committed that crime, and that you took reasonable efforts to prevent the crime. This means your organization’s security needs to be legally defensible. If you are unable to convince a court that your log files are accurate and that no other person other than the subject could have committed the crime, you will not obtain restitution. Ultimately, this requires a complete security solution that has strong multifactor authentication techniques, solid authorization mechanisms, and impeccable auditing systems. Additionally, you must show that the organization complied with all applicable laws and regulations, that proper warnings and notifications were posted,

that both logical and physical security were not otherwise compromised, and that there are no other possible reasonable interpretations of the electronic evidence. This is a fairly challenging standard to meet. If you are not going to make the effort to design and implement legally defensible security, what is the point in attempting subpar security?

Nonrepudiation Nonrepudiation ensures that the subject of an activity or event cannot deny that the event occurred. Nonrepudiation prevents a subject from claiming not to have sent a message, not to have performed an action, or not to have been the cause of an event. It is made possible through identification, authentication, authorization, accountability, and auditing. Nonrepudiation can be established using digital certificates, session identifiers, transaction logs, and numerous other transactional and access control mechanisms. If nonrepudiation is not built into a system and properly enforced, you will not be able to verify that a specific entity performed a certain action. Nonrepudiation is an essential part of accountability. A suspect cannot be held accountable if they can repudiate the claim against them.

Protection Mechanisms Another aspect of understanding and apply concepts of confidentiality, integrity, and availability is the concept of protection mechanisms. Protection mechanisms are common characteristics of security controls. Not all security controls must have them, but many controls offer their protection for confidentiality, integrity, and availability through the use of these mechanisms. These mechanisms include using multiple layers or levels of access, employing abstraction, hiding data, and using encryption.

Layering Layering, also known as defense in depth, is simply the use of multiple controls in a series. No one control can protect against all possible threats. Using a multilayered solution allows for numerous, different controls to guard against whatever threats come to pass. When security solutions are designed in layers, most threats are eliminated, mitigated, or thwarted.

Using layers in a series rather than in parallel is important. Performing security restrictions in a series means to perform one after the other in a linear fashion. Only through a series configuration will each attack be scanned, evaluated, or mitigated by every security control. In a series configuration, failure of a single security control does not render the entire solution ineffective. If security controls were implemented in parallel, a threat could pass through a single checkpoint that did not address its particular malicious activity.

Serial configurations are very narrow but very deep, whereas parallel configurations are

very wide but very shallow. Parallel systems are useful in distributed computing applications, but parallelism is not often a useful concept in the realm of security.

Think of physical entrances to buildings. A parallel configuration is used for shopping malls. There are many doors in many locations around the entire perimeter of the mall. A series configuration would most likely be used in a bank or an airport. A single entrance is provided, and that entrance is actually several gateways or checkpoints that must be passed in sequential order to gain entry into active areas of the building.

Layering also includes the concept that networks comprise numerous separate entities, each with its own unique security controls and vulnerabilities. In an effective security solution, there is a synergy between all networked systems that creates a single security front. Using separate security systems creates a layered security solution.

Abstraction Abstraction is used for efficiency. Similar elements are put into groups, classes, or roles that are assigned security controls, restrictions, or permissions as a collective. Thus, the concept of abstraction is used when classifying objects or assigning roles to subjects. The concept of abstraction also includes the definition of object and subject types or of objects themselves (that is, a data structure used to define a template for a class of entities). Abstraction is used to define what types of data an object can contain, what types of functions can be performed on or by that object, and what capabilities that object has. Abstraction simplifies security by enabling you to assign security controls to a group of objects collected by type or function.

Data Hiding Data hiding is exactly what it sounds like: preventing data from being discovered or accessed by a subject by positioning the data in a logical storage compartment that is not accessible or seen by the subject. Forms of data hiding include keeping a database from being accessed by unauthorized visitors and restricting a subject at a lower classification level from accessing data at a higher classification level. Preventing an application from accessing hardware directly is also a form of data hiding. Data hiding is often a key element in security controls as well as in programming.

Encryption Encryption is the art and science of hiding the meaning or intent of a communication from unintended recipients. Encryption can take many forms and be applied to every type of electronic communication, including text, audio, and video files as well as applications themselves. Encryption is an important element in security controls, especially in regard to the transmission of data between systems. There are various strengths of encryption, each of which is designed and/or appropriate for a specific use or purpose. Encryption is discussed at length in Chapter 6, “Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms,” and Chapter 7, “PKI and Cryptographic Applications.”

Apply Security Governance Principles Security governance is the collection of practices related to supporting, defining, and directing the security efforts of an organization. Security governance is closely related to and often intertwined with corporate and IT governance. The goals of these three governance agendas are often the same or interrelated. For example, a common goal of organizational governance is to ensure that the organization will continue to exist and will grow or expand over time. Thus, the common goal of governance is to maintain business processes while striving toward growth and resiliency.

Some aspects of governance are imposed on organizations due to legislative and regulatory compliance needs, whereas others are imposed by industry guidelines or license requirements. All forms of governance, including security governance, must be assessed and verified from time to time. Various requirements for auditing and validation may be present due to government regulations or industry best practices. Governance compliance issues often vary from industry to industry and from country to country. As many organizations expand and adapt to deal with a global market, governance issues become more complex. This is especially problematic when laws in different countries differ or in fact conflict. The organization as a whole should be given the direction, guidance, and tools to provide sufficient oversight and management to address threats and risks with a focus on eliminating downtime and keeping potential loss or damage to a minimum.

As you can tell, the definitions of security governance are often rather stilted and high level. Ultimately, security governance is the implementation of a security solution and a management method that are tightly interconnected. Security governance directly oversees and gets involved in all levels of security. Security is not and should not be treated as an IT issue only. Instead, security affects every aspect of an organization. It is no longer just something the IT staff can handle on their own. Security is a business operations issue. Security is an organizational process, not just something the IT geeks do behind the scenes. Using the term security governance is an attempt to emphasize this point by indicating that security needs to be managed and governed throughout the organization, not just in the IT department.

Alignment of Security Function to Strategy, Goals, Mission, and Objectives Security management planning ensures proper creation, implementation, and enforcement of a security policy. Security management planning aligns the security functions to the strategy, goals, mission, and objectives of the organization. This includes designing and implementing security based on a business case, budget restrictions, or scarcity of resources. A business case is usually a documented argument or stated position in order to define a need to make a decision or take some form of action. To make a business case is to demonstrate a business-specific need to alter an existing process or choose an approach to a business task. A business case is often made to justify

the start of a new project, especially a project related to security. It is also important to consider the budget that can be allocated to a business need–based security project. Security can be expensive, but it is often an essential element of reliable and long-term business operation. In most organizations, money and resources, such as people, technology, and space, are limited. Due to resource limitations like these, the maximum benefit needs to be obtained from any endeavor.

One of the most effective ways to tackle security management planning is to use a top- down approach. Upper, or senior, management is responsible for initiating and defining policies for the organization. Security policies provide direction for all levels of the organization’s hierarchy. It is the responsibility of middle management to flesh out the security policy into standards, baselines, guidelines, and procedures. The operational managers or security professionals must then implement the configurations prescribed in the security management documentation. Finally, the end users must comply with all the security policies of the organization.

The opposite of the top-down approach is the bottom-up approach. In a bottom-up approach environment, the IT staff makes security decisions directly without input from senior management. The bottom-up approach is rarely used in organizations and is considered problematic in the IT industry.

Security management is a responsibility of upper management, not of the IT staff, and is considered a business operations issue rather than an IT administration issue. The team or department responsible for security within an organization should be autonomous. The information security (InfoSec) team should be led by a designated chief security officer (CSO) who must report directly to senior management. Placing the autonomy of the CSO and the CSO’s team outside the typical hierarchical structure in an organization can improve security management across the entire organization. It also helps to avoid cross-department and internal political issues.

Elements of security management planning include defining security roles; prescribing how security will be managed, who will be responsible for security, and how security will be tested for effectiveness; developing security policies; performing risk analysis; and requiring security education for employees. These efforts are guided through the development of management plans.

The best security plan is useless without one key factor: approval by senior management. Without senior management’s approval of and commitment to the security policy, the policy will not succeed. It is the responsibility of the policy development team to educate senior management sufficiently so it understands the risks, liabilities, and exposures that remain even after security measures prescribed in the policy are deployed. Developing and implementing a security policy is evidence of due care and due diligence on the part

of senior management. If a company does not practice due care and due diligence, managers can be held liable for negligence and held accountable for both asset and financial losses.

A security management planning team should develop three types of plans, as shown in Figure 1.3.

Figure 1.3 Strategic, tactical, and operational plan timeline comparison

Strategic Plan A strategic plan is a long-term plan that is fairly stable. It defines the organization’s security purpose. It also helps to understand security function and align it to goals, mission, and objectives of the organization. It’s useful for about five years if it is maintained and updated annually. The strategic plan also serves as the planning horizon. Long-term goals and visions for the future are discussed in a strategic plan. A strategic plan should include a risk assessment.

Tactical plan The tactical plan is a midterm plan developed to provide more details on accomplishing the goals set forth in the strategic plan or can be crafted ad-hoc based upon unpredicted events. A tactical plan is typically useful for about a year and often prescribes and schedules the tasks necessary to accomplish organizational goals. Some examples of tactical plans are project plans, acquisition plans, hiring plans, budget plans, maintenance plans, support plans, and system development plans.

Operational Plan An operational plan is a short-term, highly detailed plan based on the strategic and tactical plans. It is valid or useful only for a short time. Operational plans must be updated often (such as monthly or quarterly) to retain compliance with tactical plans. Operational plans spell out how to accomplish the various goals of the organization. They include resource allotments, budgetary requirements, staffing assignments, scheduling, and step-by-step or implementation procedures. Operational plans include details on how the implementation processes are in compliance with the organization’s security policy. Examples of operational plans are training plans, system deployment plans, and product design plans.

Security is a continuous process. Thus, the activity of security management planning may have a definitive initiation point, but its tasks and work are never fully accomplished or complete. Effective security plans focus attention on specific and achievable objectives, anticipate change and potential problems, and serve as a basis for decision making for the

entire organization. Security documentation should be concrete, well defined, and clearly stated. For a security plan to be effective, it must be developed, maintained, and actually used.

Organizational Processes Security governance needs to address every aspect of an organization. This includes the organizational processes of acquisitions, divestitures, and governance committees. Acquisitions and mergers place an organization at an increased level of risk. Such risks include inappropriate information disclosure, data loss, downtime, or failure to achieve sufficient return on investment (ROI). In addition to all the typical business and financial aspects of mergers and acquisitions, a healthy dose of security oversight and increased scrutiny is often essential to reduce the likelihood of losses during such a period of transformation.

Similarly, a divestiture or any form of asset or employee reduction is another time period of increased risk and thus increased need for focused security governance. Assets need to be sanitized to prevent data leakage. Storage media should be removed and destroyed, because media sanitization techniques do not guarantee against data remnant recovery. Employees released from duty need to be debriefed. This process is often called an exit interview. This process usually involves reviewing any nondisclosure agreements as well as any other binding contracts or agreements that will continue after employment has ceased.

Often, security governance is managed by a governance committee or at least a board of directors. This is the group of influential knowledge experts whose primary task is to oversee and guide the actions of security and operations for an organization. Security is a complex task. Organizations are often large and difficult to understand from a single viewpoint. Having a group of experts work together toward the goal of reliable security governance is a solid strategy.

Two additional examples of organizational processes that are essential to strong security governance are change control/change management and data classification.

Change Control/Management Another important aspect of security management is the control or management of change. Change in a secure environment can introduce loopholes, overlaps, missing objects, and oversights that can lead to new vulnerabilities. The only way to maintain security in the face of change is to systematically manage change. This usually involves extensive planning, testing, logging, auditing, and monitoring of activities related to security controls and mechanisms. The records of changes to an environment are then used to identify agents of change, whether those agents are objects, subjects, programs, communication pathways, or even the network itself.

The goal of change management is to ensure that any change does not lead to reduced or compromised security. Change management is also responsible for making it possible to

roll back any change to a previous secured state. Change management can be implemented on any system despite the level of security. It is a requirement for systems complying with the Information Technology Security Evaluation and Criteria (ITSEC) classifications of B2, B3, and A1. Ultimately, change management improves the security of an environment by protecting implemented security from unintentional, tangential, or affected diminishments. Although an important goal of change management is to prevent unwanted reductions in security, its primary purpose is to make all changes subject to detailed documentation and auditing and thus able to be reviewed and scrutinized by management.

Change management should be used to oversee alterations to every aspect of a system, including hardware configuration and OS and application software. Change management should be included in design, development, testing, evaluation, implementation, distribution, evolution, growth, ongoing operation, and modification. It requires a detailed inventory of every component and configuration. It also requires the collection and maintenance of complete documentation for every system component, from hardware to software and from configuration settings to security features.

The change control process of configuration or change management has several goals or requirements:

Implement changes in a monitored and orderly manner. Changes are always controlled.

A formalized testing process is included to verify that a change produces expected results.

All changes can be reversed (also known as backout or rollback plans/procedures).

Users are informed of changes before they occur to prevent loss of productivity.

The effects of changes are systematically analyzed.

The negative impact of changes on capabilities, functionality, and performance is minimized.

Changes are reviewed and approved by a CAB (change approval board).

One example of a change management process is a parallel run, which is a type of new system deployment testing where the new system and the old system are run in parallel. Each major or significant user process is performed on each system simultaneously to ensure that the new system supports all required business functionality that the old system supported or provided.

Data Classification Data classification, or categorization, is the primary means by which data is protected based on its need for secrecy, sensitivity, or confidentiality. It is inefficient to treat all data the same way when designing and implementing a security system because some data items need more security than others. Securing everything at a low security level means

sensitive data is easily accessible. Securing everything at a high security level is too expensive and restricts access to unclassified, noncritical data. Data classification is used to determine how much effort, money, and resources are allocated to protect the data and control access to it. Data classification, or categorization, is the process of organizing items, objects, subjects, and so on into groups, categories, or collections with similarities. These similarities could include value, cost, sensitivity, risk, vulnerability, power, privilege, possible levels of loss or damage, or need to know.

The primary objective of data classification schemes is to formalize and stratify the process of securing data based on assigned labels of importance and sensitivity. Data classification is used to provide security mechanisms for storing, processing, and transferring data. It also addresses how data is removed from a system and destroyed.

The following are benefits of using a data classification scheme:

It demonstrates an organization’s commitment to protecting valuable resources and assets.

It assists in identifying those assets that are most critical or valuable to the organization.

It lends credence to the selection of protection mechanisms.

It is often required for regulatory compliance or legal restrictions.

It helps to define access levels, types of authorized uses, and parameters for declassification and/or destruction of resources that are no longer valuable.

It helps with data life-cycle management which in part is the storage length (retention), usage, and destruction of the data.

The criteria by which data is classified vary based on the organization performing the classification. However, you can glean numerous generalities from common or standardized classification systems:

Usefulness of the data

Timeliness of the data

Value or cost of the data

Maturity or age of the data

Lifetime of the data (or when it expires)

Association with personnel

Data disclosure damage assessment (that is, how the disclosure of the data would affect the organization)

Data modification damage assessment (that is, how the modification of the data would affect the organization)

National security implications of the data

Authorized access to the data (that is, who has access to the data)

Restriction from the data (that is, who is restricted from the data)

Maintenance and monitoring of the data (that is, who should maintain and monitor the data)

Storage of the data

Using whatever criteria is appropriate for the organization, data is evaluated, and an appropriate data classification label is assigned to it. In some cases, the label is added to the data object. In other cases, labeling occurs automatically when the data is placed into a storage mechanism or behind a security protection mechanism.

To implement a classification scheme, you must perform seven major steps, or phases:

1. Identify the custodian, and define their responsibilities.

2. Specify the evaluation criteria of how the information will be classified and labeled.

3. Classify and label each resource. (The owner conducts this step, but a supervisor should review it.)

4. Document any exceptions to the classification policy that are discovered, and integrate them into the evaluation criteria.

5. Select the security controls that will be applied to each classification level to provide the necessary level of protection.

6. Specify the procedures for declassifying resources and the procedures for transferring custody of a resource to an external entity.

7. Create an enterprise-wide awareness program to instruct all personnel about the classification system.

Declassification is often overlooked when designing a classification system and documenting the usage procedures. Declassification is required once an asset no longer warrants or needs the protection of its currently assigned classification or sensitivity level. In other words, if the asset were new, it would be assigned a lower sensitivity label than it currently is assigned. When assets fail to be declassified as needed, security resources are wasted, and the value and protection of the higher sensitivity levels is degraded.

The two common classification schemes are government/military classification (Figure 1.4) and commercial business/private sector classification. There are five levels of government/military classification (listed here from highest to lowest):

Figure 1.4 Levels of government/military classification

Top Secret The highest level of classification. The unauthorized disclosure of top-secret data will have drastic effects and cause grave damage to national security.

Secret Used for data of a restricted nature. The unauthorized disclosure of data classified as secret will have significant effects and cause critical damage to national security.

Confidential Used for data of a private, sensitive, proprietary, or highly valuable nature. The unauthorized disclosure of data classified as confidential will have noticeable effects and cause serious damage to national security. This classification is used for all data between secret and sensitive but unclassified classifications.

Unclassified The lowest level of classification. This is used for data that is neither sensitive nor classified. The disclosure of unclassified data does not compromise confidentiality or cause any noticeable damage.

An easy way to remember the names of the five levels of the government or military classification scheme in least secure to most secure order is with a memorization acronym: U.S. Can Stop Terrorism. Notice that the five uppercase letters represent the five named classification levels, from least secure on the left to most secure on the right (or from bottom to top in the preceding list of items).

Items labeled as confidential, secret, and top secret are collectively known as classified.

Often, revealing the actual classification of data to unauthorized individuals is a violation of that data. Thus, the term classified is generally used to refer to any data that is ranked above the unclassified level. All classified data is exempt from the Freedom of Information Act as well as many other laws and regulations. The US military classification scheme is most concerned with the sensitivity of data and focuses on the protection of confidentiality (that is, the prevention of disclosure). You can roughly define each level or label of classification by the level of damage that would be caused in the event of a confidentiality violation. Data from the top-secret level would cause grave damage to national security, whereas data from the unclassified level would not cause any serious damage to national or localized security.

Commercial business/private sector classification systems can vary widely because they typically do not have to adhere to a standard or regulation. The CISSP exam focuses on four common or possible business classification levels (listed highest to lowest and shown in Figure 1.5):

Figure 1.5 Commercial business/private sector classification levels

Confidential The highest level of classification. This is used for data that is extremely sensitive and for internal use only. A significant negative impact could occur for a company if confidential data is disclosed. Sometimes the label proprietary is substituted for confidential. Sometimes proprietary data is considered a specific form of confidential information. If proprietary data is disclosed, it can have drastic effects on the competitive edge of an organization.

Private Used for data that is of a private or personal nature and intended for internal use only. A significant negative impact could occur for the company or individuals if private data is disclosed.

Confidential and private data in a commercial business/private sector classification scheme both require roughly the same level of security protection. The real difference between the two labels is that confidential data is company data whereas private data is data related to individuals, such as medical data.

Sensitive Used for data that is more classified than public data. A negative impact could occur for the company if sensitive data is disclosed.

Public The lowest level of classification. This is used for all data that does not fit in one of the higher classifications. Its disclosure does not have a serious negative impact on the organization.

Another consideration related to data classification or categorization is ownership. Ownership is the formal assignment of responsibility to an individual or group. Ownership can be made clear and distinct within an operating system where files or other types of objects can be assigned an owner. Often, an owner has full capabilities and privileges over the object they own. The ability to take ownership is often granted to the most powerful accounts in an operating system, such as the administrator in Windows or root in Unix or Linux. In most cases, the subject that creates a new object is by default the owner of that object. In some environments, the security policy mandates that when new objects are created, a formal change of ownership from end users to an administrator or management user is necessary. In this situation, the admin account can simply take ownership of the new objects.

Ownership of objects outside of formal IT structures is often not as obvious. A company document can define owners for the facility, business tasks, processes, assets, and so on. However, such documentation does not always “enforce” this ownership in the real world. The ownership of a file object is enforced by the operating system and file system, whereas ownership of a physical object, intangible asset, or organizational concept (such as the research department or a development project) is defined only on paper and can be more easily undermined. Additional security governance must be implemented to provide enforcement of ownership in the physical world.

Security Roles and Responsibilities A security role is the part an individual plays in the overall scheme of security implementation and administration within an organization. Security roles are not necessarily prescribed in job descriptions because they are not always distinct or static. Familiarity with security roles will help in establishing a communications and support structure within an organization. This structure will enable the deployment and enforcement of the security policy. The following six roles are presented in the logical order in which they appear in a secured environment:

Senior Manager The organizational owner (senior manager) role is assigned to the person who is ultimately responsible for the security maintained by an organization and who should be most concerned about the protection of its assets. The senior manager must sign off on all policy issues. In fact, all activities must be approved by and signed off on by the senior manager before they can be carried out. There is no effective security policy if the senior manager does not authorize and support it. The senior manager’s endorsement of the security policy indicates the accepted ownership of the implemented security within the organization. The senior manager is the person who will be held liable for the overall success or failure of a security solution and is responsible for exercising due care and due diligence in establishing security for an organization.

Even though senior managers are ultimately responsible for security, they rarely implement security solutions. In most cases, that responsibility is delegated to security professionals within the organization.

Security Professional The security professional, information security (InfoSec) officer, or computer incident response team (CIRT) role is assigned to a trained and experienced network, systems, and security engineer who is responsible for following the directives mandated by senior management. The security professional has the functional responsibility for security, including writing the security policy and implementing it. The role of security professional can be labeled as an IS/IT function role. The security professional role is often filled by a team that is responsible for designing and implementing security solutions based on the approved security policy. Security professionals are not decision makers; they are implementers. All decisions must be left to the senior manager.

Data Owner The data owner role is assigned to the person who is responsible for classifying information for placement and protection within the security solution. The data owner is typically a high-level manager who is ultimately responsible for data protection. However, the data owner usually delegates the responsibility of the actual data management tasks to a data custodian.

Data Custodian The data custodian role is assigned to the user who is responsible for the tasks of implementing the prescribed protection defined by the security policy and senior management. The data custodian performs all activities necessary to provide adequate protection for the CIA Triad (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) of data and to fulfill the requirements and responsibilities delegated from upper management. These activities can include performing and testing backups, validating data integrity, deploying security solutions, and managing data storage based on classification.

User The user (end user or operator) role is assigned to any person who has access to the secured system. A user’s access is tied to their work tasks and is limited so they have only enough access to perform the tasks necessary for their job position (the principle of least privilege). Users are responsible for understanding and upholding the security policy of an organization by following prescribed operational procedures and operating within defined security parameters.

Auditor An auditor is responsible for reviewing and verifying that the security policy is properly implemented and the derived security solutions are adequate. The auditor role may be assigned to a security professional or a trained user. The auditor produces compliance and effectiveness reports that are reviewed by the senior manager. Issues discovered through these reports are transformed into new directives assigned by the senior manager to security professionals or data custodians. However, the auditor is listed as the last or final role because the auditor needs a source of activity (that is, users or operators working in an environment) to audit or monitor.

All of these roles serve an important function within a secured environment. They are useful for identifying liability and responsibility as well as for identifying the hierarchical management and delegation scheme.

Control Frameworks Crafting a security stance for an organization often involves a lot more than just writing down a few lofty ideals. In most cases, a significant amount of planning goes into developing a solid security policy. Many Dilbert fans may recognize the seemingly absurd concept of holding a meeting to plan a meeting for a future meeting. But it turns out that planning for security must start with planning to plan, then move into planning for standards and compliance, and finally move into the actual plan development and design. Skipping any of these “planning to plan” steps can derail an organization’s security solution before it even gets started.

One of the first and most important security planning steps is to consider the overall control framework or structure of the security solution desired by the organization. You can choose from several options in regard to security concept infrastructure; however, the one covered on the CISSP exam is Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT). COBIT is a documented set of best IT security practices crafted by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA). It prescribes goals and requirements for security controls and encourages the mapping of IT security ideals to business objectives. COBIT 5 is based on five key principles for governance and management of enterprise IT: Principle 1: Meeting Stakeholder Needs, Principle 2: Covering the Enterprise End-to-End, Principle 3: Applying a Single, Integrated Framework, Principle 4: Enabling a Holistic Approach, and Principle 5: Separating Governance From Management. COBIT is used not only to plan the IT security of an organization but also as a guideline for auditors.

Fortunately, COBIT is only modestly referenced on the exam, so further details are not necessary. However, if you have interest in this concept, please visit the ISACA website (www.isaca.org), or if you want a general overview, read the COBIT entry on Wikipedia.

There are many other standards and guidelines for IT security. A few of these are Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM), ISO/IEC 27002 (which replaced ISO 17799), and the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) (see www.itlibrary.org for more information).

Due Care and Due Diligence Why is planning to plan security so important? One reason is the requirement for due care and due diligence. Due care is using reasonable care to protect the interests of an organization. Due diligence is practicing the activities that maintain the due care effort. For example, due care is developing a formalized security structure containing a security policy, standards, baselines, guidelines, and procedures. Due diligence is the continued application of this security structure onto the IT infrastructure of an organization. Operational security is the ongoing maintenance of continued due care and due diligence by all responsible parties within an organization.

In today’s business environment, prudence is mandatory. Showing due care and due diligence is the only way to disprove negligence in an occurrence of loss. Senior management must show due care and due diligence to reduce their culpability and liability when a loss occurs.

Develop and Implement Documented Security Policy, Standards, Procedures, and Guidelines For most organizations, maintaining security is an essential part of ongoing business. If their security were seriously compromised, many organizations would fail. To reduce the likelihood of a security failure, the process of implementing security has been somewhat formalized with a hierarchical organization of documentation. Each level focuses on a specific type or category of information and issues. Developing and implementing documented security policy, standards, procedures, and guidelines produces a solid and reliable security infrastructure. This formalization has greatly reduced the chaos and complexity of designing and implementing security solutions for IT infrastructures.

Security Policies The top tier of the formalization is known as a security policy. A security policy is a document that defines the scope of security needed by the organization and discusses the assets that require protection and the extent to which security solutions should go to provide the necessary protection. The security policy is an overview or generalization of an organization’s security needs. It defines the main security objectives and outlines the security framework of an organization. It also identifies the major functional areas of data processing and clarifies and defines all relevant terminology. It should clearly define why security is important and what assets are valuable. It is a strategic plan for implementing security. It should broadly outline the security goals and practices that should be employed to protect the organization’s vital interests. The document discusses the importance of security to every aspect of daily business operation and the importance of the support of the senior staff for the implementation of security. The security policy is used to assign responsibilities, define roles, specify audit requirements, outline enforcement processes, indicate compliance requirements, and define acceptable risk

levels. This document is often used as the proof that senior management has exercised due care in protecting itself against intrusion, attack, and disaster. Security policies are compulsory.

Many organizations employ several types of security policies to define or outline their overall security strategy. An organizational security policy focuses on issues relevant to every aspect of an organization. An issue-specific security policy focuses on a specific network service, department, function, or other aspect that is distinct from the organization as a whole. A system-specific security policy focuses on individual systems or types of systems and prescribes approved hardware and software, outlines methods for locking down a system, and even mandates firewall or other specific security controls.

In addition to these focused types of security policies, there are three overall categories of security policies: regulatory, advisory, and informative. A regulatory policy is required whenever industry or legal standards are applicable to your organization. This policy discusses the regulations that must be followed and outlines the procedures that should be used to elicit compliance. An advisory policy discusses behaviors and activities that are acceptable and defines consequences of violations. It explains senior management’s desires for security and compliance within an organization. Most policies are advisory. An informative policy is designed to provide information or knowledge about a specific subject, such as company goals, mission statements, or how the organization interacts with partners and customers. An informative policy provides support, research, or background information relevant to the specific elements of the overall policy.

From the security policies flow many other documents or subelements necessary for a complete security solution. Policies are broad overviews, whereas standards, baselines, guidelines, and procedures include more specific, detailed information on the actual security solution. Standards are the next level below security policies.

Security Policies and Individuals As a rule of thumb, security policies (as well as standards, guidelines, and procedures) should not address specific individuals. Instead of assigning tasks and responsibilities to a person, the policy should define tasks and responsibilities to fit a role. That role is a function of administrative control or personnel management. Thus, a security policy does not define who is to do what but rather defines what must be done by the various roles within the security infrastructure. Then these defined security roles are assigned to individuals as a job description or an assigned work task.

Acceptable Use Policy An acceptable use policy is a commonly produced document that exists as part of the overall security documentation infrastructure. The acceptable use policy is

specifically designed to assign security roles within the organization as well as ensure the responsibilities tied to those roles. This policy defines a level of acceptable performance and expectation of behavior and activity. Failure to comply with the policy may result in job action warnings, penalties, or termination.

Security Standards, Baselines, and Guidelines Once the main security policies are set, then the remaining security documentation can be crafted under the guidance of those policies. Standards define compulsory requirements for the homogenous use of hardware, software, technology, and security controls. They provide a course of action by which technology and procedures are uniformly implemented throughout an organization. Standards are tactical documents that define steps or methods to accomplish the goals and overall direction defined by security policies.

At the next level are baselines. A baseline defines a minimum level of security that every system throughout the organization must meet. All systems not complying with the baseline should be taken out of production until they can be brought up to the baseline. The baseline establishes a common foundational secure state on which all additional and more stringent security measures can be built. Baselines are usually system specific and often refer to an industry or government standard, like the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) or Information Technology Security Evaluation and Criteria (ITSEC) or NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) standards.

Guidelines are the next element of the formalized security policy structure. A guideline offers recommendations on how standards and baselines are implemented and serves as an operational guide for both security professionals and users. Guidelines are flexible so they can be customized for each unique system or condition and can be used in the creation of new procedures. They state which security mechanisms should be deployed instead of prescribing a specific product or control and detailing configuration settings. They outline methodologies, include suggested actions, and are not compulsory.

Security Procedures Procedures are the final element of the formalized security policy structure. A procedure is a detailed, step-by-step how-to document that describes the exact actions necessary to implement a specific security mechanism, control, or solution. A procedure could discuss the entire system deployment operation or focus on a single product or aspect, such as deploying a firewall or updating virus definitions. In most cases, procedures are system and software specific. They must be updated as the hardware and software of a system evolve. The purpose of a procedure is to ensure the integrity of business processes. If everything is accomplished by following a detailed procedure, then all activities should be in compliance with policies, standards, and guidelines. Procedures help ensure standardization of security across all systems.

All too often, policies, standards, baselines, guidelines, and procedures are developed only as an afterthought at the urging of a consultant or auditor. If these documents are not used and updated, the administration of a secured environment will be unable to use them as guides. And without the planning, design, structure, and oversight provided by these documents, no environment will remain secure or represent proper diligent due care.

It is also common practice to develop a single document containing aspects of all these elements. This should be avoided. Each of these structures must exist as a separate entity because each performs a different specialized function. At the top of the formalization security policy documentation structure there are fewer documents because they contain general broad discussions of overview and goals. There are more documents further down the formalization structure (in other words, guidelines and procedures) because they contain details specific to a limited number of systems, networks, divisions, and areas.

Keeping these documents as separate entities provides several benefits:

Not all users need to know the security standards, baselines, guidelines, and procedures for all security classification levels.

When changes occur, it is easier to update and redistribute only the affected material rather than updating a monolithic policy and redistributing it throughout the organization.

Crafting the totality of security policy and all supporting documentation can be a daunting task. Many organizations struggle just to define the foundational parameters of their security, much less detail every single aspect of their day-to-day activities. However, in theory, a detailed and complete security policy supports real-world security in a directed, efficient, and specific manner. Once the security policy documentation is reasonably complete, it can be used to guide decisions, train new users, respond to problems, and predict trends for future expansion. A security policy should not be an afterthought but a key part of establishing an organization.

There are a few additional perspectives to understand about the documentation that comprises a complete security policy. Figure 1.6 shows the dependencies of these components: policies, standards, guidelines, and procedures. The security policies are the foundation of the overall structure of organized security documentation. Then, standards are based on those policies as well as mandated by regulations and contracts. From these the guidelines are derived. Finally, procedures are based on the three underlying layers of the structure. The inverted pyramid is used to convey the volume or size of each of these documents. There are typically significantly more procedures than any other element in a complete security policy. Comparatively, there are fewer guidelines than policies, fewer still standards, and usually even fewer still of overarching or organization-wide security policies.

Figure 1.6 The comparative relationships of security policy components

Understand and Apply Threat Modeling Threat modeling is the security process where potential threats are identified, categorized, and analyzed. Threat modeling can be performed as a proactive measure during design and development or as a reactive measure once a product has been deployed. In either case, the process identifies the potential harm, the probability of occurrence, the priority of concern, and the means to eradicate or reduce the threat.

Threat modeling isn’t meant to be a single event. Instead it’s common for an organization to begin threat modeling early in the design process of a system and continue throughout its life cycle. For example, Microsoft uses a Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) process to consider and implement security at each stage of a product’s development. This supports the motto of “Secure by Design, Secure by Default, Secure in Deployment and Communication” (also known as SD3+C). It has two goals in mind with this process:

To reduce the number of security-related design and coding defects

To reduce the severity of any remaining defects

In other words, it attempts to reduce vulnerabilities and reduce the impact of any vulnerabilities that remain. The overall result is reduced risk.

A proactive approach to threat modeling takes place during early stages of systems development, specifically during initial design and specifications establishment. This type of threat modeling is also known as a defensive approach. This method is based on predicting threats and designing in specific defenses during the coding and crafting

process, rather than relying on postdeployment updates and patches. In most cases, integrated security solutions are more cost effective and more successful than those shoehorned in later. Unfortunately, not all threats can be predicted during the design phase, so reactive approach threat modeling is still needed to address unforeseen issues.

A reactive approach to threat modeling takes place after a product has been created and deployed. This deployment could be in a test or laboratory environment or to the general marketplace. This type of threat modeling is also known as the adversarial approach. This technique of threat modeling is the core concept behind ethical hacking, penetration testing, source code review, and fuzz testing. Although these processes are often useful in finding flaws and threats that need to be addressed, they unfortunately result in additional effort in coding to add in new countermeasures. Returning back to the design phase might produce better products in the long run, but starting over from scratch is massively expensive and causes significant time delays to product release. Thus, the shortcut is to craft updates or patches to be added to the product after deployment. This results in less effective security improvements (over-proactive threat modeling) at the cost of potentially reducing functionality and user-friendliness.

Fuzz testing is a specialized dynamic testing technique that provides many different types of input to software to stress its limits and find previously undetected flaws. Fuzz testing software supplies invalid input to the software, either randomly generated or specially crafted to trigger known software vulnerabilities. The fuzz tester then monitors the performance of the application, watching for software crashes, buffer overflows, or other undesirable and/or unpredictable outcomes. See Chapter 15, “Security Assessment and Testing,” for more on fuzz testing.

Identifying Threats There’s an almost infinite possibility of threats, so it’s important to use a structured approach to accurately identify relevant threats. For example, some organizations use one or more of the following three approaches:

Focused on Assets This method uses asset valuation results and attempts to identify threats to the valuable assets. For example, a specific asset can be evaluated to determine if it is susceptible to an attack. If the asset hosts data, access controls can be evaluated to identify threats that can bypass authentication or authorization mechanisms.

Focused on Attackers Some organizations are able to identify potential attackers and can identify the threats they represent based on the attacker’s goals. For example, a government is often able to identify potential attackers and recognize what the attackers want to achieve. They can then use this knowledge to identify and protect their relevant assets. A challenge with this approach is that new attackers can appear that weren’t

previously considered a threat.

Focused on Software If an organization develops software, it can consider potential threats against the software. Although organizations didn’t commonly develop their own software years ago, it’s common to do so today. Specifically, most organizations have a web presence, and many create their own web pages. Fancy web pages drive more traffic, but they also require more sophisticated programming and present additional threats.

If the threat is identified as an attacker (as opposed to a natural threat), threat modeling attempts to identify what the attacker may be trying to accomplish. Some attackers may want to disable a system, whereas other attackers may want to steal data. Once such threats are identified, they are categorized based on their goals or motivations. Additionally, it’s common to pair threats with vulnerabilities to identify threats that can exploit vulnerabilities and represent significant risks to the organization. An ultimate goal of threat modeling is to prioritize the potential threats against an organization’s valuable assets.

When attempting to inventory and categorize threats, it is often helpful to use a guide or reference. Microsoft developed a threat categorization scheme known as STRIDE. STRIDE is often used in relation to assessing threats against applications or operating systems. However, it can also be used in other contexts as well. STRIDE is an acronym standing for the following:

Spoofing—An attack with the goal of gaining access to a target system through the use of a falsified identity. Spoofing can be used against IP addresses, MAC address, usernames, system names, wireless network SSIDs, email addresses, and many other types of logical identification. When an attacker spoofs their identity as a valid or authorized entity, they are often able to bypass filters and blockades against unauthorized access. Once a spoofing attack has successfully granted an attacker access to a target system, subsequent attacks of abuse, data theft, or privilege escalation can be initiated.

Tampering—Any action resulting in the unauthorized changes or manipulation of data, whether in transit or in storage. Tampering is used to falsify communications or alter static information. Such attacks are a violation of integrity as well as availability.

Repudiation—The ability for a user or attacker to deny having performed an action or activity. Often attackers engage in repudiation attacks in order to maintain plausible deniability so as not to be held accountable for their actions. Repudiation attacks can also result in innocent third parties being blamed for security violations.

Information disclosure —The revelation or distribution of private, confidential, or controlled information to external or unauthorized entities. This could include customer identity information, financial information, or proprietary business operation details. Information disclosure can take advantage of system design and implementation mistakes, such as failing to remove debugging code, leaving sample applications and accounts, not sanitizing programming notes from client visible

content (such as comments in HTML documents), using hidden form fields, or allowing overly detailed error messages to be shown to users.

Denial of service (DoS)—An attack that attempts to prevent authorized use of a resource. This can be done through flaw exploitation, connection overloading, or traffic flooding. A DoS attack does not necessarily result in full interruption to a resource; it could instead reduce throughput or introduce latency in order to hamper productive use of a resource. Although most DoS attacks are temporary and last only as long as the attacker maintains the onslaught, there are some permanent DoS attacks. A permanent DoS attack might involve the destruction of a dataset, the replacement of software with malicious alternatives, or forcing a firmware flash operation that could be interrupted or that installs faulty firmware. Any of these DoS attacks would render a permanently damaged system that is not able to be restored to normal operation with a simple reboot or by waiting out the attackers. A full system repair and backup restoration would be required to recover from a permanent DoS attack.

Elevation of privilege—An attack where a limited user account is transformed into an account with greater privileges, powers, and access. This might be accomplished through theft or exploitation of the credentials of a higher-level account, such as that of an administrator or root. It also might be accomplished through a system or application exploit that temporarily or permanently grants additional powers to an otherwise limited account.

Although STRIDE is typically used to focus on application threats, it is applicable to other situations, such as network threats and host threats. Other attacks may be more specific to network and host concerns, such as sniffing and hijacking for networks and malware and arbitrary code execution for hosts, but the six threat concepts of STRIDE are fairly broadly applicable.

Generally, the purpose of STRIDE and other tools in threat modeling is to consider the range of compromise concerns and to focus on the goal or end results of an attack. Attempting to identity each and every specific attack method and technique is an impossible task—new attacks are being developed constantly. Although the goals or purposes of attacks can be loosely categorized and grouped, they remain relatively constant over time.

Be Alert for Individual Threats Competition is often a key part of business growth, but overly adversarial competition can increase the threat level from individuals. In addition to criminal hackers and disgruntled employees, adversaries, contractors, employees, and even trusted partners can be a threat to an organization if relationships go sour.

Never assume that a consultant or contractor has the same loyalty to your organization as a long-term employee. Contractors and consultants are

effectively mercenaries who will work for the highest bidder. Don’t take employee loyalty for granted either. Employees who are frustrated with their working environment or feel they’ve been treated unfairly may attempt to retaliate. An employee experiencing financial hardship may consider unethical and illegal activities that pose a threat to your business for their own gain.

A trusted partner is only a trusted partner as long as it is in your mutual self- interest to be friendly and cooperative toward each other. Eventually a partnership might sour or become adversarial; then, your former partner might take actions that pose a threat to your business.

Potential threats to your business are broad and varied. A company faces threats from nature, technology, and people. Most businesses focus on natural disasters and IT attacks in preparing for threats, but it’s also important to consider threat potential from individuals. Always consider the best and worst possible outcomes of your organization’s activities, decisions, interactions. Identifying threats is the first step toward designing defenses to help reduce or eliminate downtime, compromise, and loss.

Determining and Diagramming Potential Attacks Once an understanding has been gained in regard to the threats facing your development project or deployed infrastructure, the next step in threat modeling is to determine the potential attack concepts that could be realized. This is often accomplished through the creation of a diagram of the elements involved in a transaction along with indications of data flow and privilege boundaries (Figure 1.7).

Figure 1.7 An example of diagramming to reveal threat concerns

Such data flow diagrams are useful in gaining a better understanding of the relationships of resources and movement of data through a visual representation. This process of

diagramming is also known as crafting an architecture diagram. The creation of the diagram helps to detail the functions and purpose of each element of a business task, development process, or work activity. It is important to include users, processors, applications, datastores, and all other essential elements needed to perform the specific task or operation. This is a high-level overview and not a detailed evaluation of the coding logic. However, for more complex systems, multiple diagrams may need to be created at various focus points and at varying levels of detail magnification.

Once a diagram has been crafted, identify all of the technologies involved. This would include operating systems, applications (network service and client based), and protocols. Be specific as to the version numbers and update/patch level in use.

Next, identify attacks that could be targeted at each element of the diagram. Keep in mind that all forms of attacks should be considered, including logical/technical, physical, and social. For example, be sure to include spoofing, tampering, and social engineering. This process will quickly lead you into the next phase of threat modeling: reduction analysis.

Performing Reduction Analysis The next step in threat modeling is to perform reduction analysis. Reduction analysis is also known as decomposing the application, system, or environment. The purpose of this task is to gain a greater understanding of the logic of the product as well as its interactions with external elements. Whether an application, a system, or an entire environment, it needs to be divided into smaller containers or compartments. Those might be subroutines, modules, or objects if you’re focusing on software, computers, or operating systems; they might be protocols if you’re focusing on systems or networks; or they might be departments, tasks, and networks if you’re focusing on an entire business infrastructure. Each identified subelement should be evaluated in order to understand inputs, processing, security, data management, storage, and outputs.

In the decomposition process, you must identify five key concepts:

Trust Boundaries Any location where the level of trust or security changes

Data Flow Paths The movement of data between locations

Input Points Locations where external input is received

Privileged Operations Any activity that requires greater privileges than of a standard user account or process, typically required to make system changes or alter security

Details about Security Stance and Approach The declaration of the security policy, security foundations, and security assumptions

Breaking down a system into its constituent parts makes it much easier to identity the essential components of each element as well as take notice of vulnerabilities and points of attack. The more you understand exactly how a program, system, or environment operates, the easier it is to identity threats to it.

Prioritization and Response As threats are identified through the threat modeling procedure, additional activities are prescribed to round out the process. Next is to fully document the threats. In this documentation, you should define the means, target, and consequences of a threat. Consider including the techniques required to implement an exploitation as well as list potential countermeasures and safeguards.

After documentation, rank or rate the threats. This can be accomplished using a wide range of techniques, such as Probability × Damage Potential ranking, high/medium/low rating, or the DREAD system.

The ranking technique of Probability × Damage Potential produces a risk severity number on a scale of 1 to 100, with 100 the most severe risk possible. Each of the two initial values can be assigned numbers between 1 and 10, with 1 being lowest and 10 being highest. These rankings can be somewhat arbitrary and subjective, but since the same person or team will be assigning the numbers for their own organization, it should still result in assessment values that are accurate on a relative basis.

The high/medium/low rating process is even simpler. Each threat is assigned one of these three priority labels. Those given the high-priority label need to be addressed immediately. Those given the medium-priority label should be addressed eventually, but they don’t require immediate action. Those given the low-priority level might be addressed, but they could be deemed optional if they require too much effort or expense in comparison to the project as a whole.

The DREAD rating system is designed to provide a flexible rating solution that is based on the answers to five main questions about each threat:

Damage potential—How severe is the damage likely to be if the threat is realized?

Reproducibility—How complicated is it for attackers to reproduce the exploit?

Exploitability—How hard is it to perform the attack?

Affected users—How many users are likely to be affected by the attack (as a percentage)?

Discoverability—How hard is it for an attacker to discover the weakness?

By asking these and potentially additional customized questions, along with assigning H/M/L or 3/2/1 values to the answers, you can establish a detailed threat prioritization.

Once threat priorities are set, responses to those threats need to be determined. Technologies and processes to remediate threats should be considered and weighted according to their cost and effectiveness. Response options should include making adjustments to software architecture, altering operations and processes, as well as implementing defensive and detective components.

Integrate Security Risk Considerations into Acquisition

Integrate Security Risk Considerations into Acquisition Strategy and Practice Integrating cyber security risk management with acquisition strategies and practices is a means to ensure a more robust and successful security strategy in organizations of all sizes. When purchases are made without security considerations, the risks inherent in those products remain throughout their deployment lifespan. Minimizing inherent threats in acquired elements will reduce security management costs and likely reduce security violations.

Selecting hardware, software, and services that have resilient integrated security are often more expensive products and solutions than those that fail to have a security foundation. However, this additional initial expense is often a much more cost-effective expenditure than addressing security needs over the life of a poorly designed product. Thus, when considering the cost of acquisition, it is important to consider the total cost of ownership over the life of the product’s deployment rather than just initial purchase and implementation.

Acquisition does not relate exclusively to hardware and software. Outsourcing, contracting with suppliers, and engaging consultants are also elements of acquisition. Integrating security assessments when working with external entities is just as important as ensuring a product was designed with security in mind.

In many cases, ongoing security monitoring, management, and assessment may be required. This could be an industry best practice or a regulation. Such assessment and monitoring might be performed by the organization internally or may require the use of external auditors. When engaging third-party assessment and monitoring services, keep in mind that the external entity needs to show security-mindedness in their business operations. If an external organization is unable to manage their own internal operations on a secure basis, how can they provide reliable security management functions for yours?

When evaluating a third party for your security integration, consider the following processes:

On-Site Assessment Visit the site of the organization to interview personnel and observe their operating habits.

Document Exchange and Review Investigate the means by which datasets and documentation are exchanged as well as the formal processes by which they perform assessments and reviews.

Process/Policy Review Request copies of their security policies, processes/procedures, and documentation of incidents and responses for review.

For all acquisitions, establish minimum security requirements. These should be modeled from your existing security policy. The security requirements for new hardware, software, or services should always meet or exceed the security of your existing infrastructure.

When working with an external service, be sure to review any SLA (service-level agreements) to ensure security is a prescribed component of the contracted services. This could include customization of service-level requirements for your specific needs.

Here are some excellent resources related to security integrated with acquisition:

Improving Cybersecurity and Resilience through Acquisition. Final Report of the Department of Defense and General Services Administration, published November 2013 (www.gsa.gov/portal/getMediaData?mediaId=185371)

NIST Special Publication 800-64 Revision 2: Security Considerations in the System Development Life Cycle (http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-64- Rev2/SP800-64-Revision2.pdf)

Summary Security governance, management concepts, and principles are inherent elements in a security policy and in solution deployment. They define the basic parameters needed for a secure environment. They also define the goals and objectives that both policy designers and system implementers must achieve in order to create a secure solution.

The primary goals and objectives of security are contained within the CIA Triad: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. These three principles are considered the most important within the realm of security. Their importance to an organization depends on the organization’s security goals and requirements and on how much of a threat to security exists in its environment.

The first principle from the CIA Triad is confidentiality, the principle that objects are not disclosed to unauthorized subjects. Security mechanisms that offer confidentiality offer a high level of assurance that data, objects, or resources are not exposed to unauthorized subjects. If a threat exists against confidentiality, there is the possibility that unauthorized disclosure could take place.

The second principle from the CIA Triad is integrity, the principle that objects retain their veracity and are intentionally modified by only authorized subjects. Security mechanisms that offer integrity offer a high level of assurance that the data, objects, and resources are unaltered from their original protected state. This includes alterations occurring while the object is in storage, in transit, or in process. Maintaining integrity means the object itself is not altered and the operating system and programming entities that manage and manipulate the object are not compromised.

The third principle from the CIA Triad is availability, the principle that authorized subjects are granted timely and uninterrupted access to objects. Security mechanisms that offer availability offer a high level of assurance that the data, objects, and resources are accessible to authorized subjects. Availability includes efficient uninterrupted access to objects and prevention of denial-of-service attacks. It also implies that the supporting infrastructure is functional and allows authorized users to gain authorized access.

Other security-related concepts and principles that should be considered and addressed when designing a security policy and deploying a security solution are privacy, identification, authentication, authorization, accountability, nonrepudiation, and auditing.

Other aspects of security solution concepts and principles are the elements of protection mechanisms: layering, abstraction, data hiding, and encryption. These are common characteristics of security controls, and although not all security controls must have them, many controls use these mechanisms to protect confidentiality, integrity, and availability.

Security roles determine who is responsible for the security of an organization’s assets. Those assigned the senior management role are ultimately responsible and liable for any asset loss, and they are the ones who define security policy. Security professionals are responsible for implementing security policy, and users are responsible for complying with the security policy. The person assigned the data owner role is responsible for classifying information, and a data custodian is responsible for maintaining the secure environment and backing up data. An auditor is responsible for making sure a secure environment is properly protecting assets.

A formalized security policy structure consists of policies, standards, baselines, guidelines, and procedures. These individual documents are essential elements to the design and implementation of security in any environment.

The control or management of change is an important aspect of security management practices. When a secure environment is changed, loopholes, overlaps, missing objects, and oversights can lead to new vulnerabilities. You can, however, maintain security by systematically managing change. This typically involves extensive logging, auditing, and monitoring of activities related to security controls and security mechanisms. The resulting data is then used to identify agents of change, whether objects, subjects, programs, communication pathways, or even the network itself.

Data classification is the primary means by which data is protected based on its secrecy, sensitivity, or confidentiality. Because some data items need more security than others, it is inefficient to treat all data the same when designing and implementing a security system. If everything is secured at a low security level, sensitive data is easily accessible, but securing everything at a high security level is too expensive and restricts access to unclassified, noncritical data. Data classification is used to determine how much effort, money, and resources are allocated to protect the data and control access to it.

An important aspect of security management planning is the proper implementation of a security policy. To be effective, the approach to security management must be a top-down approach. The responsibility of initiating and defining a security policy lies with upper or senior management. Security policies provide direction for the lower levels of the organization’s hierarchy. Middle management is responsible for fleshing out the security policy into standards, baselines, guidelines, and procedures. It is the responsibility of the operational managers or security professionals to implement the configurations

prescribed in the security management documentation. Finally, the end users’ responsibility is to comply with all security policies of the organization.

Security management planning includes defining security roles, developing security policies, performing risk analysis, and requiring security education for employees. These responsibilities are guided by the developments of management plans. The security management team should develop strategic, tactical, and operational plans.

Threat modeling is the security process where potential threats are identified, categorized, and analyzed. Threat modeling can be performed as a proactive measure during design and development or as a reactive measure once a product has been deployed. In either case, the process identifies the potential harm, the probability of occurrence, the priority of concern, and the means to eradicate or reduce the threat.

Integrating cyber security risk management with acquisition strategies and practices is a means to ensure a more robust and successful security strategy in organizations of all sizes. When purchases are made without security considerations, the risks inherent in those products remain throughout their deployment lifespan.

Exam Essentials Understand the CIA Triad elements of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Confidentiality is the principle that objects are not disclosed to unauthorized subjects. Integrity is the principle that objects retain their veracity and are intentionally modified by only authorized subjects. Availability is the principle that authorized subjects are granted timely and uninterrupted access to objects. Know why these are important, the mechanisms that support them, the attacks that focus on each, and the effective countermeasures.

Be able to explain how identification works. Identification is the process by which a subject professes an identity and accountability is initiated. A subject must provide an identity to a system to start the process of authentication, authorization, and accountability.

Understand the process of authentication. Authentication is the process of verifying or testing that a claimed identity is valid. Authentication requires information from the subject that must exactly correspond to the identity indicated.

Know how authorization fits into a security plan. Once a subject is authenticated, its access must be authorized. The process of authorization ensures that the requested activity or object access is possible given the rights and privileges assigned to the authenticated identity.

Understand security governance. Security governance is the collection of practices related to supporting, defining, and directing the security efforts of an organization.

Be able to explain the auditing process. Auditing, or monitoring, is the programmatic means by which subjects are held accountable for their actions while

authenticated on a system. Auditing is also the process by which unauthorized or abnormal activities are detected on a system. Auditing is needed to detect malicious actions by subjects, attempted intrusions, and system failures and to reconstruct events, provide evidence for prosecution, and produce problem reports and analysis.

Understand the importance of accountability. An organization’s security policy can be properly enforced only if accountability is maintained. In other words, security can be maintained only if subjects are held accountable for their actions. Effective accountability relies on the capability to prove a subject’s identity and track their activities.

Be able to explain nonrepudiation. Nonrepudiation ensures that the subject of an activity or event cannot deny that the event occurred. It prevents a subject from claiming not to have sent a message, not to have performed an action, or not to have been the cause of an event.

Understand security management planning. Security management is based on three types of plans: strategic, tactical, and operational. A strategic plan is a long-term plan that is fairly stable. It defines the organization’s goals, mission, and objectives. The tactical plan is a midterm plan developed to provide more details on accomplishing the goals set forth in the strategic plan. Operational plans are short-term and highly detailed plans based on the strategic and tactical plans.

Know the elements of a formalized security policy structure. To create a comprehensive security plan, you need the following items in place: security policy, standards, baselines, guidelines, and procedures. Such documentation clearly states security requirements and creates due diligence on the part of the responsible parties.

Understand key security roles. The primary security roles are senior manager, organizational owner, upper management, security professional, user, data owner, data custodian, and auditor. By creating a security role hierarchy, you limit risk overall.

Know how to implement security awareness training. Before actual training can take place, awareness of security as a recognized entity must be created for users. Once this is accomplished, training, or teaching employees to perform their work tasks and to comply with the security policy, can begin. All new employees require some level of training so they will be able to comply with all standards, guidelines, and procedures mandated by the security policy. Education is a more detailed endeavor in which students/users learn much more than they actually need to know to perform their work tasks. Education is most often associated with users pursuing certification or seeking job promotion.

Know how layering simplifies security. Layering is the use of multiple controls in series. Using a multilayered solution allows for numerous controls to guard against threats.

Be able to explain the concept of abstraction. Abstraction is used to collect similar elements into groups, classes, or roles that are assigned security controls, restrictions, or

permissions as a collective. It adds efficiency to carrying out a security plan.

Understand data hiding. Data hiding is exactly what it sounds like: preventing data from being discovered or accessed by a subject. It is often a key element in security controls as well as in programming.

Understand the need for encryption. Encryption is the art and science of hiding the meaning or intent of a communication from unintended recipients. It can take many forms and be applied to every type of electronic communication, including text, audio, and video files, as well as programs themselves. Encryption is an important element in security controls, especially in regard to the transmission of data between systems.

Be able to explain the concepts of change control and change management. Change in a secure environment can introduce loopholes, overlaps, missing objects, and oversights that can lead to new vulnerabilities. The only way to maintain security in the face of change is to systematically manage change.

Know why and how data is classified. Data is classified to simplify the process of assigning security controls to groups of objects rather than to individual objects. The two common classification schemes are government/military and commercial business/private sector. Know the five levels of government/military classification and the four levels of commercial business/private sector classification.

Understand the importance of declassification. Declassification is required once an asset no longer warrants the protection of its currently assigned classification or sensitivity level.

Know the basics of COBIT. Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT) is a security concept infrastructure used to organize the complex security solutions of companies.

Know the basics of threat modeling. Threat modeling is the security process where potential threats are identified, categorized, and analyzed. Threat modeling can be performed as a proactive measure during design and development or as a reactive measure once a product has been deployed. Key concepts include assets/attackers/software, STRIDE, diagramming, reduction/decomposing, and DREAD.

Understand the need for security-minded acquisitions. Integrating cyber security risk management with acquisition strategies and practices is a means to ensure a more robust and successful security strategy in organizations of all sizes. When purchases are made without security considerations, the risks inherent in those products remain throughout their deployment lifespan.

Written Lab 1. Discuss and describe the CIA Triad.

2. What are the requirements to hold a person accountable for the actions of their user

account?

3. Describe the benefits of change control management.

4. What are the seven major steps or phases in the implementation of a classification scheme?

5. Name the six primary security roles as defined by (ISC)2 for CISSP.

6. What are the four components of a complete organizational security policy and their basic purpose?

Review Questions 1. Which of the following contains the primary goals and objectives of security?

A. A network’s border perimeter

B. The CIA Triad

C. A stand-alone system

D. The Internet

2. Vulnerabilities and risks are evaluated based on their threats against which of the following?

A. One or more of the CIA Triad principles

B. Data usefulness

C. Due care

D. Extent of liability

3. Which of the following is a principle of the CIA Triad that means authorized subjects are granted timely and uninterrupted access to objects?

A. Identification

B. Availability

C. Encryption

D. Layering

4. Which of the following is not considered a violation of confidentiality?

A. Stealing passwords

B. Eavesdropping

C. Hardware destruction

D. Social engineering

5. Which of the following is not true?

A. Violations of confidentiality include human error.

B. Violations of confidentiality include management oversight.

C. Violations of confidentiality are limited to direct intentional attacks.

D. Violations of confidentiality can occur when a transmission is not properly encrypted.

6. STRIDE is often used in relation to assessing threats against applications or operating systems. Which of the following is not an element of STRIDE?

A. Spoofing

B. Elevation of privilege

C. Repudiation

D. Disclosure

7. If a security mechanism offers availability, then it offers a high level of assurance that authorized subjects can _________________________ the data, objects, and resources.

A. Control

B. Audit

C. Access

D. Repudiate

8. ____________ refers to keeping information confidential that is personally identifiable or which might cause harm, embarrassment, or disgrace to someone if revealed.

A. Seclusion

B. Concealment

C. Privacy

D. Criticality

9. All but which of the following items requires awareness for all individuals affected?

A. Restricting personal email

B. Recording phone conversations

C. Gathering information about surfing habits

D. The backup mechanism used to retain email messages

10. What element of data categorization management can override all other forms of access control?

A. Classification

B. Physical access

C. Custodian responsibilities

D. Taking ownership

11. What ensures that the subject of an activity or event cannot deny that the event occurred?

A. CIA Triad

B. Abstraction

C. Nonrepudiation

D. Hash totals

12. Which of the following is the most important and distinctive concept in relation to layered security?

A. Multiple

B. Series

C. Parallel

D. Filter

13. Which of the following is not considered an example of data hiding?

A. Preventing an authorized reader of an object from deleting that object

B. Keeping a database from being accessed by unauthorized visitors

C. Restricting a subject at a lower classification level from accessing data at a higher classification level

D. Preventing an application from accessing hardware directly

14. What is the primary goal of change management?

A. Maintaining documentation

B. Keeping users informed of changes

C. Allowing rollback of failed changes

D. Preventing security compromises

15. What is the primary objective of data classification schemes?

A. To control access to objects for authorized subjects

B. To formalize and stratify the process of securing data based on assigned labels of importance and sensitivity

C. To establish a transaction trail for auditing accountability

D. To manipulate access controls to provide for the most efficient means to grant or

restrict functionality

16. Which of the following is typically not a characteristic considered when classifying data?

A. Value

B. Size of object

C. Useful lifetime

D. National security implications

17. What are the two common data classification schemes?

A. Military and private sector

B. Personal and government

C. Private sector and unrestricted sector

D. Classified and unclassified

18. Which of the following is the lowest military data classification for classified data?

A. Sensitive

B. Secret

C. Proprietary

D. Private

19. Which commercial business/private sector data classification is used to control information about individuals within an organization?

A. Confidential

B. Private

C. Sensitive

D. Proprietary

20. Data classifications are used to focus security controls over all but which of the following?

A. Storage

B. Processing

C. Layering

D. Transfer

Chapter 2 Personnel Security and Risk Management Concepts THE CISSP EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

✓ Security and Risk Management (e.g., Security, Risk, Compliance, Law, Regulations, Business Continuity)

H. Contribute to personnel security policies

H.1 Employment candidate screening (e.g., reference checks, education verification)

H.2 Employment agreements and policies

H.3 Employment termination processes

H.4 Vendor, consultant, and contractor controls

H.5 Compliance

H.6 Privacy

l. Understand and apply risk management concepts

I.1 Identify threats and vulnerabilities

I.2 Risk assessment/analysis (qualitative, quantitative, hybrid)

I.3 Risk assignment/acceptance (e.g., system authorization)

I.4 Countermeasure selection

I.5 Implementation

I.6 Types of controls (preventive, detective, corrective, etc.)

I.7 Control assessment

I.8 Monitoring and measurement

I.9 Asset valuation

I.10 Reporting

I.11 Continuous improvement

I.12 Risk frameworks

L. Establish and manage information security education, training, and awareness

L.1 Appropriate levels of awareness, training, and education required within organization

L.2 Periodic reviews for content relevancy

✓ Security Assessment and Testing (Designing, Performing, and

Analyzing Security Testing)

C.5 Training and awareness

The Security and Risk Management domain of the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) for the CISSP certification exam deals with many of the foundational elements of security solutions. These include elements essential to the design, implementation, and administration of security mechanisms.

Additional elements of this domain are discussed in various chapters: Chapter 1, “Security Governance Through Principles and Policies”; Chapter 3, “Business Continuity Planning”; and Chapter 4, “Laws, Regulations, and Compliance”. Please be sure to review all of these chapters to have a complete perspective on the topics of this domain.

Because of the complexity and importance of hardware and software controls, security management for employees is often overlooked in overall security planning. This chapter explores the human side of security, from establishing secure hiring practices and job descriptions to developing an employee infrastructure. Additionally, we look at how employee training, management, and termination practices are considered an integral part of creating a secure environment. Finally, we examine how to assess and manage security risks.

Contribute to Personnel Security Policies Humans are the weakest element in any security solution. No matter what physical or logical controls are deployed, humans can discover ways to avoid them, circumvent or subvert them, or disable them. Thus, it is important to take into account the humanity of your users when designing and deploying security solutions for your environment. To understand and apply security governance, you must address the weakest link in your security chain—namely, people.

Issues, problems, and compromises related to humans occur at all stages of a security solution development. This is because humans are involved throughout the development, deployment, and ongoing administration of any solution. Therefore, you must evaluate the effect users, designers, programmers, developers, managers, and implementers have on the process.

Hiring new staff typically involves several distinct steps: creating a job description, setting a classification for the job, screening employment candidates, and hiring and training the one best suited for the job. Without a job description, there is no consensus on what type of individual should be hired. Thus, crafting job descriptions is the first step in defining security needs related to personnel and being able to seek out new hires. Personnel should be added to an organization because there is a need for their specific skills and experience. Any job description for any position within an organization should address relevant security issues. You must consider items such as whether the position requires the handling of sensitive material or access to classified information. In effect, the job

description defines the roles to which an employee needs to be assigned to perform their work tasks. The job description should define the type and extent of access the position requires on the secured network. Once these issues have been resolved, assigning a security classification to the job description is fairly standard.

The Importance of Job Descriptions Job descriptions are important to the design and support of a security solution. However, many organizations either have overlooked this or have allowed job descriptions to become stale and out-of-sync with reality. Try to track down your job description. Do you even have one? If so, when was it last updated? Does it accurately reflect your job? Does it describe the type of security access you need to perform the prescribed job responsibilities? Some organizations must craft job descriptions to be in compliance with SOC-2, while others following ISO 27001 require annual reviews of job descriptions.

Important elements in constructing job descriptions that are in line with organizational processes include separation of duties, job responsibilities, and job rotation.

Separation of Duties Separation of duties is the security concept in which critical, significant, and sensitive work tasks are divided among several individual administrators or high-level operators (Figure 2.1). This prevents any one person from having the ability to undermine or subvert vital security mechanisms. Think of separation of duties as the application of the principle of least privilege to administrators. Separation of duties is also a protection against collusion, which is the occurrence of negative activity undertaken by two or more people, often for the purposes of fraud, theft, or espionage.

Figure 2.1 An example of separation of duties related to five admin tasks and seven administrators

Job Responsibilities Job responsibilities are the specific work tasks an employee is required to perform on a regular basis. Depending on their responsibilities, employees require access to various objects, resources, and services. On a secured network, users must be granted access privileges for those elements related to their work tasks. To maintain the greatest security, access should be assigned according to the principle of least privilege. The principle of least privilege states that in a secured environment, users should be granted the minimum amount of access necessary for them to complete their required work tasks or job responsibilities. True application of this principle requires low- level granular access control over all resources and functions.

Job Rotation Job rotation, or rotating employees among multiple job positions, is simply a means by which an organization improves its overall security (Figure 2.2). Job rotation serves two functions. First, it provides a type of knowledge redundancy. When multiple employees are all capable of performing the work tasks required by several job positions, the organization is less likely to experience serious downtime or loss in productivity if an illness or other incident keeps one or more employees out of work for an extended period of time.

Figure 2.2 An example of job rotation among management positions

Second, moving personnel around reduces the risk of fraud, data modification, theft, sabotage, and misuse of information. The longer a person works in a specific position, the more likely they are to be assigned additional work tasks and thus expand their privileges

and access. As a person becomes increasingly familiar with their work tasks, they may abuse their privileges for personal gain or malice. If misuse or abuse is committed by one employee, it will be easier to detect by another employee who knows the job position and work responsibilities. Therefore, job rotation also provides a form of peer auditing and protects against collusion.

Cross-training Cross-training is often discussed as an alternative to job rotation. In both cases, workers learn the responsibilities and tasks of multiple job positions. However, in cross-training the workers are just prepared to perform the other job positions; they are not rotated through them on a regular basis. Cross-training enables existing personnel to fill the work gap when the proper employee is unavailable as a type of emergency response procedure.

When several people work together to perpetrate a crime, it’s called collusion. Employing the principles of separation of duties, restricted job responsibilities, and job rotation reduces the likelihood that a co-worker will be willing to collaborate on an illegal or abusive scheme because of the higher risk of detection. Collusion and other privilege abuses can be reduced through strict monitoring of special privileges, such as those of an administrator, backup operator, user manager, and others.

Job descriptions are not used exclusively for the hiring process; they should be maintained throughout the life of the organization. Only through detailed job descriptions can a comparison be made between what a person should be responsible for and what they actually are responsible for. It is a managerial task to ensure that job descriptions overlap as little as possible and that one worker’s responsibilities do not drift or encroach on those of another. Likewise, managers should audit privilege assignments to ensure that workers do not obtain access that is not strictly required for them to accomplish their work tasks.

Employment Candidate Screening Employment candidate screening for a specific position is based on the sensitivity and classification defined by the job description. The sensitivity and classification of a specific position is dependent on the level of harm that could be caused by accidental or intentional violations of security by a person in the position. Thus, the thoroughness of the screening process should reflect the security of the position to be filled.

Employment candidate screening, background checks, reference checks, education verification, and security clearance validation are essential elements in proving that a candidate is adequate, qualified, and trustworthy for a secured position. Background checks include obtaining a candidate’s work and educational history; reference checks; education verification; interviewing colleagues, neighbors, and friends; checking police and government records for arrests or illegal activities; verifying identity through

fingerprints, driver’s license, and birth certificate; and holding a personal interview. This process could also include a polygraph test, drug testing, and personality testing/evaluation.

Performing online background checks and reviewing the social networking accounts of applicants has become standard practice for many organizations. If a potential employee has posted inappropriate materials to their photo sharing site, social networking biographies, or public instant messaging services, then they are not as attractive a candidate as those who did not. Our actions in the public eye become permanent when they are recorded in text, photo, or video and then posted online. A general picture of a person’s attitude, intelligence, loyalty, common sense, diligence, honesty, respect, consistency, and adherence to social norms and/or corporate culture can be gleaned quickly by viewing a person’s online identity.

Employment Agreements and Policies When a new employee is hired, they should sign an employment agreement. Such a document outlines the rules and restrictions of the organization, the security policy, the acceptable use and activities policies, details of the job description, violations and consequences, and the length of time the position is to be filled by the employee. These items might be separate documents. In such a case, the employment agreement is used to verify that the employment candidate has read and understood the associated documentation for their prospective job position.

In addition to employment agreements, there may be other security-related documentation that must be addressed. One common document is a nondisclosure agreement (NDA). An NDA is used to protect the confidential information within an organization from being disclosed by a former employee. When a person signs an NDA, they agree not to disclose any information that is defined as confidential to anyone outside the organization. Violations of an NDA are often met with strict penalties.

NCA: The NDA’s Evil Twin

The NDA has a common companion contract known as the noncompete agreement (NCA). The noncompete agreement attempts to prevent an employee with special knowledge of secrets from one organization from working in a competing organization in order to prevent that second organization from benefiting from the worker’s special knowledge of secrets. NCAs are also used to prevent workers from jumping from one company to another competing company just because of salary increases or other incentives. Often NCAs have a time limit, such as six months, one year, or even three years. The goal is to allow the original company to maintain its competitive edge by keeping its human resources working for its benefit rather than

against it.

Many companies require new hires to sign NCAs. However, fully enforcing an NCA in court is often a difficult battle. The court recognizes the need for a worker to be able to work using the skills and knowledge they have in order to provide for themselves and their families. If the NCA would prevent a person from earning a reasonable income, the courts often invalidate the NCA or prevent its consequences from being realized.

Even if an NCA is not always enforceable in court, however, that does not mean it doesn’t have benefits to the original company, such as the following:

The threat of a lawsuit because of NCA violations is often sufficient incentive to prevent a worker from violating the terms of secrecy when they seek employment with a new company.

If a worker does violate the terms of the NCA, then even without specifically defined consequences being levied by court restrictions, the time and effort, not to mention the cost, of battling the issue in court is a deterrent.

Did you sign an NCA when you were hired? If so, do you know the terms and the potential consequences if you break that NCA?

Throughout the employment lifetime of personnel, managers should regularly audit the job descriptions, work tasks, privileges, and responsibilities for every staff member. It is common for work tasks and privileges to drift over time. This can cause some tasks to be overlooked and others to be performed multiple times. Drifting can also result in security violations. Regularly reviewing the boundaries of each job description in relation to what is actually occurring aids in keeping security violations to a minimum.

A key part of this review process is enforcing mandatory vacations. In many secured environments, mandatory vacations of one to two weeks are used to audit and verify the work tasks and privileges of employees. The vacation removes the employee from the work environment and places a different worker in their position, which makes it easier to detect abuse, fraud, or negligence on the part of the original employee.

Employment Termination Processes When an employee must be terminated, numerous issues must be addressed. A strong relationship between the security department and HR is essential to maintain control and minimize risks during termination. An employee termination process or procedure policy is essential to maintaining a secure environment when a disgruntled employee must be removed from the organization. The reactions of terminated employees can range from calm, understanding acceptance to violent, destructive rage. A sensible procedure for handling terminations must be designed and implemented to reduce incidents.

The termination of an employee should be handled in a private and respectful manner.

However, this does not mean that precautions should not be taken. Terminations should take place with at least one witness, preferably a higher-level manager and/or a security guard. Once the employee has been informed of their release, they should be escorted off the premises and not allowed to return to their work area without an escort for any reason. Before the employee is released, all organization-specific identification, access, or security badges as well as cards, keys, and access tokens should be collected (Figure 2.3). Generally, the best time to terminate an employee is at the end of their shift midweek. A early to midweek termination provides the ex-employee with time to file for unemployment and/or start looking for new employment before the weekend. Also, end- of-shift terminations allow the worker to leave with other employees in a more natural departure, thus reducing stress.

Figure 2.3 Ex-employees must return all company property.

When possible, an exit interview should be performed. However, this typically depends on the mental state of the employee upon release and numerous other factors. If an exit interview is unfeasible immediately upon termination, it should be conducted as soon as possible. The primary purpose of the exit interview is to review the liabilities and restrictions placed on the former employee based on the employment agreement, nondisclosure agreement, and any other security-related documentation.

The following list includes some other issues that should be handled as soon as possible:

Make sure the employee returns any organizational equipment or supplies from their vehicle or home.

Remove or disable the employee’s network user account.

Notify human resources to issue a final paycheck, pay any unused vacation time, and terminate benefit coverage.

Arrange for a member of the security department to accompany the released employee while they gather their personal belongings from the work area.

Inform all security personnel and anyone else who watches or monitors any entrance point to ensure that the ex-employee does not attempt to reenter the building

without an escort.

In most cases, you should disable or remove an employee’s system access at the same time or just before they are notified of being terminated. This is especially true if that employee is capable of accessing confidential data or has the expertise or access to alter or damage data or services. Failing to restrict released employees’ activities can leave your organization open to a wide range of vulnerabilities, including theft and destruction of both physical property and logical data.

Firing: Not Just a Pink Slip Anymore

Firing an employee has become a complex process. Gone are the days of firing merely by placing a pink slip in an employee’s mail slot. In most IT-centric organizations, termination can create a situation in which the employee could cause harm, putting the organization at risk. That’s why you need a well-designed exit interview process.

However, just having the process isn’t enough. It has to be followed correctly every time. Unfortunately, this doesn’t always happen. You might have heard of some fiasco caused by a botched termination procedure. Common examples include performing any of the following before the employee is officially informed of their termination (thus giving the employee prior warning of their termination):

The IT department requesting the return of a notebook computer

Disabling a network account

Blocking a person’s PIN or smartcard for building entrance

Revoking a parking pass

Distributing a company reorganization chart

Positioning a new employee in the cubicle

Allowing layoff information to be leaked to the media

It should go without saying that in order for the exit interview and safe termination processes to function properly, they must be implemented in the correct order and at the correct time (that is, at the start of the exit interview), as in the following example:

Inform the person that they are relieved of their job.

Request the return of all access badges, keys, and company equipment.

Disable the person’s electronic access to all aspects of the organization.

Remind the person about the NDA obligations.

Escort the person off the premises.

Vendor, Consultant, and Contractor Controls Vendor, consultant, and contractor controls are used to define the levels of performance, expectation, compensation, and consequences for entities, persons, or organizations that are external to the primary organization. Often these controls are defined in a document or policy known as a service-level agreement (SLA).

Using SLAs is an increasingly popular way to ensure that organizations providing services to internal and/or external customers maintain an appropriate level of service agreed on by both the service provider and the vendor. It’s a wise move to put SLAs in place for any data circuits, applications, information processing systems, databases, or other critical components that are vital to your organization’s continued viability. SLAs are important when using any type of third-party service provider, which would include cloud services. The following issues are commonly addressed in SLAs:

System uptime (as a percentage of overall operating time)

Maximum consecutive downtime (in seconds/minutes/and so on)

Peak load

Average load

Responsibility for diagnostics

Failover time (if redundancy is in place)

SLAs also commonly include financial and other contractual remedies that kick in if the agreement is not maintained. For example, if a critical circuit is down for more than 15 minutes, the service provider might agree to waive all charges on that circuit for one week.

SLAs and vendor, consultant, and contractor controls are an important part of risk reduction and risk avoidance. By clearly defining the expectations and penalties for external parties, everyone involved knows what is expected of them and what the consequences are in the event of a failure to meet those expectations. Although it may be very cost effective to use outside providers for a variety of business functions or services, it does increase potential risk by expanding the potential attack surface and range of vulnerabilities. SLAs should include a focus on protecting and improving security in addition to ensuring quality and timely services at a reasonable price.

Compliance Compliance is the act of conforming to or adhering to rules, policies, regulations, standards, or requirements. Compliance is an important concern to security governance.

On a personnel level, compliance is related to whether individual employees follow company policy and perform their job tasks in accordance to defined procedures. Many organizations rely on employee compliance in order to maintain high levels of quality, consistency, efficiency, and cost savings. If employees do not maintain compliance, it could cost the organization in terms of profit, market share, recognition, and reputation. Employees need to be trained in regard to what they need to do; only then can they be held accountable for violations or lacking compliance.

Privacy Privacy can be a difficult concept to define. The term is used frequently in numerous contexts without much quantification or qualification. Here are some partial definitions of privacy:

Active prevention of unauthorized access to information that is personally identifiable (that is, data points that can be linked directly to a person or organization)

Freedom from unauthorized access to information deemed personal or confidential

Freedom from being observed, monitored, or examined without consent or knowledge

A concept that comes up frequently in discussions of privacy is personally identifiable information (PII). PII is any data item that can be easily and/or obviously traced back to the person of origin or concern. A phone number, email address, mailing address, social security number, and name are all PII. A MAC address, IP address, OS type, favorite vacation spot, name of high school mascot, and so forth are not typically PII.

When addressing privacy in the realm of IT, there is usually a balancing act between individual rights and the rights or activities of an organization. Some claim that individuals have the right to control whether information can be collected about them and what can be done with it. Others claim that any activity performed in public view— such as most activities performed over the Internet or activities performed on company equipment—can be monitored without knowledge of or permission from the individuals being watched and that the information gathered from such monitoring can be used for whatever purposes an organization deems appropriate or desirable.

Protecting individuals from unwanted observation, direct marketing, and disclosure of private, personal, or confidential details is usually considered a worthy effort. However, some organizations profess that demographic studies, information gleaning, and focused

marketing improve business models, reduce advertising waste, and save money for all parties.

There are many legislative and regulatory compliance issues in regard to privacy. Many US regulations—such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX), and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act—as well as the EU’s Directive 95/46/EC (aka the Data Protection Directive) and the contractual requirement Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)—include privacy requirements. It is important to understand all government regulations that your organization is required to adhere to and ensure compliance, especially in the areas of privacy protection.

Whatever your personal or organizational stance is on the issue of online privacy, it must be addressed in an organizational security policy. Privacy is an issue not just for external visitors to your online offerings but also for your customers, employees, suppliers, and contractors. If you gather any type of information about any person or company, you must address privacy.

In most cases, especially when privacy is being violated or restricted, the individuals and companies must be informed; otherwise, you may face legal ramifications. Privacy issues must also be addressed when allowing or restricting personal use of email, retaining email, recording phone conversations, gathering information about surfing or spending habits, and so on.

Security Governance Security governance is the collection of practices related to supporting, defining, and directing the security efforts of an organization. Security governance is closely related to and often intertwined with corporate and IT governance. The goals of these three governance agendas often interrelate or are the same. For example, a common goal of organizational governance is to ensure that the organization will continue to exist and will grow or expand over time. Thus, the goal of all three forms of governance is to maintain business processes while striving toward growth and resiliency.

Third-party governance is the system of oversight that may be mandated by law, regulation, industry standards, contractual obligation, or licensing requirements. The actual method of governance may vary, but it generally involves an outside investigator or auditor. These auditors might be designated by a governing body or might be consultants hired by the target organization.

Another aspect of third-party governance is the application of security oversight on third parties that your organization relies on. Many organizations choose to outsource various aspects of their business operations. Outsourced operations can include security guards, maintenance, technical support, and accounting services. These parties need to stay in compliance with the primary organization’s security stance. Otherwise, they present additional risks and vulnerabilities to the primary organization.

Third-party governance focuses on verifying compliance with stated security objectives, requirements, regulations, and contractual obligations. On-site assessments can provide firsthand exposure to the security mechanisms employed at a location. Those performing on-site assessment or audits need to follow auditing protocols (such as COBIT) and have a specific checklist of requirements to investigate.

In the auditing and assessment process, both the target and the governing body should participate in full and open document exchange and review. An organization needs to know the full details of all requirements it must comply with. The organization should submit security policy and self-assessment reports back to the governing body. This open document exchange ensures that all parties involved are in agreement about all the issues of concern. It reduces the chances of unknown requirements or unrealistic expectations. Document exchange does not end with the transmission of paperwork or electronic files. Instead, it leads into the process of documentation review.

Documentation review is the process of reading the exchanged materials and verifying them against standards and expectations. The documentation review is typically performed before any on-site inspection takes place. If the exchanged documentation is sufficient and meets expectations (or at least requirements), then an on-site review will be able to focus on compliance with the stated documentation. However, if the documentation is incomplete, inaccurate, or otherwise insufficient, the on-site review is postponed until the documentation can be updated and corrected. This step is important because if the documentation is not in compliance, chances are the location will not be in compliance either.

In many situations, especially related to government or military agencies or contractors, failing to provide sufficient documentation to meet requirements of third-party governance can result in a loss of or a voiding of authorization to operate (ATO). Complete and sufficient documentation can often maintain existing ATO or provide a temporary ATO (TATO). However, once an ATO is lost or revoked, a complete documentation review and on-site review showing full compliance is usually necessary to reestablish the ATO.

A portion of the documentation review is the logical and practical investigation of the business processes and organizational policies. This review ensures that the stated and implemented business tasks, systems, and methodologies are practical, efficient, and cost effective and most of all (at least in relation to security governance) that they support the goal of security through the reduction of vulnerabilities and the avoidance, reduction, or mitigation of risk. Risk management, risk assessment, and addressing risk are all methods and techniques involved in performing process/policy review.

Understand and Apply Risk Management Concepts Security is aimed at preventing loss or disclosure of data while sustaining authorized access. The possibility that something could happen to damage, destroy, or disclose data

or other resources is known as risk. Understanding risk management concepts is not only important for the CISSP exam, it’s also essential to the establishment of a sufficient security stance, proper security governance, and legal proof of due care and due diligence.

Managing risk is therefore an element of sustaining a secure environment. Risk management is a detailed process of identifying factors that could damage or disclose data, evaluating those factors in light of data value and countermeasure cost, and implementing cost-effective solutions for mitigating or reducing risk. The overall process of risk management is used to develop and implement information security strategies. The goal of these strategies is to reduce risk and to support the mission of the organization.

The primary goal of risk management is to reduce risk to an acceptable level. What that level actually is depends on the organization, the value of its assets, the size of its budget, and many other factors. What is deemed acceptable risk to one organization may be an unreasonably high level of risk to another. It is impossible to design and deploy a totally risk-free environment; however, significant risk reduction is possible, often with little effort.

Risks to an IT infrastructure are not all computer based. In fact, many risks come from noncomputer sources. It is important to consider all possible risks when performing risk evaluation for an organization. Failing to properly evaluate and respond to all forms of risk will leave a company vulnerable. Keep in mind that IT security, commonly referred to as logical or technical security, can provide protection only against logical or technical attacks. To protect IT against physical attacks, physical protections must be erected.

The process by which the goals of risk management are achieved is known as risk analysis. It includes examining an environment for risks, evaluating each threat event as to its likelihood of occurring and the cost of the damage it would cause if it did occur, assessing the cost of various countermeasures for each risk, and creating a cost/benefit report for safeguards to present to upper management. In addition to these risk-focused activities, risk management requires evaluation, assessment, and the assignment of value for all assets within the organization. Without proper asset valuations, it is not possible to prioritize and compare risks with possible losses.

Risk Terminology Risk management employs a vast terminology that must be clearly understood, especially for the CISSP exam. This section defines and discusses all the important risk-related terminology:

Asset An asset is anything within an environment that should be protected. It is anything used in a business process or task. It can be a computer file, a network service, a system resource, a process, a program, a product, an IT infrastructure, a database, a hardware device, furniture, product recipes/formulas, personnel, software, facilities, and so on. If an organization places any value on an item under its control and deems that

item important enough to protect, it is labeled an asset for the purposes of risk management and analysis. The loss or disclosure of an asset could result in an overall security compromise, loss of productivity, reduction in profits, additional expenditures, discontinuation of the organization, and numerous intangible consequences.

Asset Valuation Asset valuation is a dollar value assigned to an asset based on actual cost and nonmonetary expenses. These can include costs to develop, maintain, administer, advertise, support, repair, and replace an asset; they can also include more elusive values, such as public confidence, industry support, productivity enhancement, knowledge equity, and ownership benefits. Asset valuation is discussed in detail later in this chapter.

Threats Any potential occurrence that may cause an undesirable or unwanted outcome for an organization or for a specific asset is a threat. Threats are any action or inaction that could cause damage, destruction, alteration, loss, or disclosure of assets or that could block access to or prevent maintenance of assets. Threats can be large or small and result in large or small consequences. They can be intentional or accidental. They can originate from people, organizations, hardware, networks, structures, or nature. Threat agents intentionally exploit vulnerabilities. Threat agents are usually people, but they could also be programs, hardware, or systems. Threat events are accidental and intentional exploitations of vulnerabilities. They can also be natural or manmade. Threat events include fire, earthquake, flood, system failure, human error (due to a lack of training or ignorance), and power outage.

Vulnerability The weakness in an asset or the absence or the weakness of a safeguard or countermeasure is a vulnerability.

In other words, a vulnerability is a flaw, loophole, oversight, error, limitation, frailty, or susceptibility in the IT infrastructure or any other aspect of an organization. If a vulnerability is exploited, loss or damage to assets can occur.

Exposure Exposure is being susceptible to asset loss because of a threat; there is the possibility that a vulnerability can or will be exploited by a threat agent or event. Exposure doesn’t mean that a realized threat (an event that results in loss) is actually occurring (the exposure to a realized threat is called experienced exposure). It just means that if there is a vulnerability and a threat that can exploit it, there is the possibility that a threat event, or potential exposure, can occur.

Risk Risk is the possibility or likelihood that a threat will exploit a vulnerability to cause harm to an asset. It is an assessment of probability, possibility, or chance. The more likely it is that a threat event will occur, the greater the risk. Every instance of exposure is a risk. When written as a formula, risk can be defined as follows:

risk = threat * vulnerability

Thus, reducing either the threat agent or the vulnerability directly results in a reduction in risk.

When a risk is realized, a threat agent or a threat event has taken advantage of a vulnerability and caused harm to or disclosure of one or more assets. The whole purpose of security is to prevent risks from becoming realized by removing vulnerabilities and blocking threat agents and threat events from jeopardizing assets. As a risk management tool, security is the implementation of safeguards.

Safeguards A safeguard, or countermeasure, is anything that removes or reduces a vulnerability or protects against one or more specific threats. A safeguard can be installing a software patch, making a configuration change, hiring security guards, altering the infrastructure, modifying processes, improving the security policy, training personnel more effectively, electrifying a perimeter fence, installing lights, and so on. It is any action or product that reduces risk through the elimination or lessening of a threat or a vulnerability anywhere within an organization. Safeguards are the only means by which risk is mitigated or removed. It is important to remember that a safeguard, security control, or countermeasure need not involve the purchase of a new product; reconfiguring existing elements and even removing elements from the infrastructure are also valid safeguards.

Attack An attack is the exploitation of a vulnerability by a threat agent. In other words, an attack is any intentional attempt to exploit a vulnerability of an organization’s security infrastructure to cause damage, loss, or disclosure of assets. An attack can also be viewed as any violation or failure to adhere to an organization’s security policy.

Breach A breach is the occurrence of a security mechanism being bypassed or thwarted by a threat agent. When a breach is combined with an attack, a penetration, or intrusion, can result. A penetration is the condition in which a threat agent has gained access to an organization’s infrastructure through the circumvention of security controls and is able to directly imperil assets.

The elements asset, threat, vulnerability, exposure, risk, and safeguard are related, as shown in Figure 2.4. Threats exploit vulnerabilities, which results in exposure. Exposure is risk, and risk is mitigated by safeguards. Safeguards protect assets that are endangered by threats.

Figure 2.4 The elements of risk

Identify Threats and Vulnerabilities An essential part of risk management is identifying and examining threats. This involves creating an exhaustive list of all possible threats for the organization’s identified assets. The list should include threat agents as well as threat events. It is important to keep in mind that threats can come from anywhere. Threats to IT are not limited to IT sources. When compiling a list of threats, be sure to consider the following:

Viruses

Cascade errors (a series of escalating errors) and dependency faults (caused by relying on events or items that don’t exist)

Criminal activities by authorized users

Movement (vibrations, jarring, etc.)

Intentional attacks

Reorganization

Authorized user illness or epidemics

Malicious hackers

Disgruntled employees

User errors

Natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, fire, volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis, and so on)

Physical damage (crushing, projectiles, cable severing, and so on)

Misuse of data, resources, or services

Changes or compromises to data classification or security policies

Government, political, or military intrusions or restrictions

Processing errors, buffer overflows

Personnel privilege abuse

Temperature extremes

Energy anomalies (static, EM pulses, radio frequencies [RFs], power loss, power surges, and so on)

Loss of data

Information warfare

Bankruptcy or alteration/interruption of business activity

Coding/programming errors

Intruders (physical and logical)

Environmental factors (presence of gases, liquids, organisms, and so on)

Equipment failure

Physical theft

Social engineering

In most cases, a team rather than a single individual should perform risk assessment and analysis. Also, the team members should be from various departments within the organization. It is not usually a requirement that all team members be security professionals or even network/system administrators. The diversity of the team based on the demographics of the organization will help to exhaustively identify and address all possible threats and risks.

The Consultant Cavalry Risk assessment is a highly involved, detailed, complex, and lengthy process. Often risk analysis cannot be properly handled by existing employees because of the size, scope, or liability of the risk; thus, many organizations bring in risk management consultants to perform this work. This provides a high level of expertise, does not bog down employees, and can be a more reliable measurement of real-world risk. But even risk management consultants do not perform risk assessment and analysis on paper only; they typically employ complex and expensive risk assessment software. This software streamlines the overall task, provides more reliable results, and produces standardized reports that are acceptable to insurance companies, boards of directors, and so on.

Risk Assessment/Analysis Risk management/analysis is primarily an exercise for upper management. It is their responsibility to initiate and support risk analysis and assessment by defining the scope and purpose of the endeavor. The actual processes of performing risk analysis are often delegated to security professionals or an evaluation team. However, all risk assessments, results, decisions, and outcomes must be understood and approved by upper management as an element in providing prudent due care.

All IT systems have risk. There is no way to eliminate 100 percent of all risks. Instead, upper management must decide which risks are acceptable and which are not. Determining which risks are acceptable requires detailed and complex asset and risk assessments.

Once you develop a list of threats, you must individually evaluate each threat and its related risk. There are two risk assessment methodologies: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative risk analysis assigns real dollar figures to the loss of an asset. Qualitative risk analysis assigns subjective and intangible values to the loss of an asset. Both methods are necessary for a complete risk analysis. Most environments employ a hybrid of both risk assessment methodologies in order to gain a balanced view of their security concerns.

Quantitative Risk Analysis The quantitative method results in concrete probability percentages. That means the end result is a report that has dollar figures for levels of risk, potential loss, cost of countermeasures, and value of safeguards. This report is usually fairly easy to understand, especially for anyone with knowledge of spreadsheets and budget reports. Think of quantitative analysis as the act of assigning a quantity to risk—in other words, placing a dollar figure on each asset and threat. However, a purely quantitative analysis is not sufficient; not all elements and aspects of the analysis can be quantified because some are qualitative, subjective, or intangible.

The process of quantitative risk analysis starts with asset valuation and threat identification. Next, you estimate the potential and frequency of each risk. This information is then used to calculate various cost functions that are used to evaluate safeguards.

The six major steps or phases in quantitative risk analysis are as follows (Figure 2.5):

1. Inventory assets, and assign a value (asset value, or AV). (Asset value is detailed further in a later section of this chapter named “Asset Valuation.”)

2. Research each asset, and produce a list of all possible threats of each individual asset. For each listed threat, calculate the exposure factor (EF) and single loss expectancy (SLE).

3. Perform a threat analysis to calculate the likelihood of each threat being realized

within a single year—that is, the annualized rate of occurrence (ARO).

4. Derive the overall loss potential per threat by calculating the annualized loss expectancy (ALE).

5. Research countermeasures for each threat, and then calculate the changes to ARO and ALE based on an applied countermeasure.

6. Perform a cost/benefit analysis of each countermeasure for each threat for each asset. Select the most appropriate response to each threat.

Figure 2.5 The six major elements of quantitative risk analysis

The cost functions associated with quantitative risk analysis include the exposure factor, single loss expectancy, annualized rate of occurrence, and annualized loss expectancy:

Exposure Factor The exposure factor (EF) represents the percentage of loss that an organization would experience if a specific asset were violated by a realized risk. The EF can also be called the loss potential. In most cases, a realized risk does not result in the total loss of an asset. The EF simply indicates the expected overall asset value loss because of a single realized risk. The EF is usually small for assets that are easily replaceable, such as hardware. It can be very large for assets that are irreplaceable or proprietary, such as product designs or a database of customers. The EF is expressed as a percentage.

Single Loss Expectancy The EF is needed to calculate the SLE. The single loss expectancy (SLE) is the cost associated with a single realized risk against a specific asset.

It indicates the exact amount of loss an organization would experience if an asset were harmed by a specific threat occurring.

The SLE is calculated using the following formula:

SLE = asset value (AV) * exposure factor (EF)

or more simply:

SLE = AV * EF

The SLE is expressed in a dollar value. For example, if an asset is valued at $200,000 and it has an EF of 45 percent for a specific threat, then the SLE of the threat for that asset is $90,000.

Annualized Rate of Occurrence The annualized rate of occurrence (ARO) is the expected frequency with which a specific threat or risk will occur (that is, become realized) within a single year. The ARO can range from a value of 0.0 (zero), indicating that the threat or risk will never be realized, to a very large number, indicating that the threat or risk occurs often. Calculating the ARO can be complicated. It can be derived from historical records, statistical analysis, or guesswork. ARO calculation is also known as probability determination. The ARO for some threats or risks is calculated by multiplying the likelihood of a single occurrence by the number of users who could initiate the threat. For example, the ARO of an earthquake in Tulsa may be .00001, whereas the ARO of an email virus in an office in Tulsa may be 10,000,000.

Annualized Loss Expectancy The annualized loss expectancy (ALE) is the possible yearly cost of all instances of a specific realized threat against a specific asset.

The ALE is calculated using the following formula:

ALE = single loss expectancy (SLE) * annualized rate of occurrence (ARO)

Or more simply:

ALE = SLE * ARO

For example, if the SLE of an asset is $90,000 and the ARO for a specific threat (such as total power loss) is .5, then the ALE is $45,000. On the other hand, if the ARO for a specific threat (such as compromised user account) were 15, then the ALE would be $1,350,000.

The task of calculating EF, SLE, ARO, and ALE for every asset and every threat/risk is a daunting one. Fortunately, quantitative risk assessment software tools can simplify and automate much of this process. These tools produce an asset inventory with valuations and then, using predefined AROs along with some customizing options (that is, industry, geography, IT components, and so on), produce risk analysis reports. The following calculations are often involved:

Calculating Annualized Loss Expectancy with a Safeguard In addition to determining the annual cost of the safeguard, you must calculate the ALE for the asset if

the safeguard is implemented. This requires a new EF and ARO specific to the safeguard. In most cases, the EF to an asset remains the same even with an applied safeguard. (Recall that the EF is the amount of loss incurred if the risk becomes realized.) In other words, if the safeguard fails, how much damage does the asset receive? Think about it this way: If you have on body armor but the body armor fails to prevent a bullet from piercing your heart, you are still experiencing the same damage that would have occurred without the body armor. Thus, if the safeguard fails, the loss on the asset is usually the same as when there is no safeguard. However, some safeguards do reduce the resultant damage even when they fail to fully stop an attack. For example, though a fire might still occur and the facility may be damaged by the fire and the water from the sprinklers, the total damage is likely to be less than having the entire building burn down.

Even if the EF remains the same, a safeguard changes the ARO. In fact, the whole point of a safeguard is to reduce the ARO. In other words, a safeguard should reduce the number of times an attack is successful in causing damage to an asset. The best of all possible safeguards would reduce the ARO to zero. Although there are some perfect safeguards, most are not. Thus, many safeguards have an applied ARO that is smaller (you hope much smaller) than the nonsafeguarded ARO, but it is not often zero. With the new ARO (and possible new EF), a new ALE with the application of a safeguard is computed.

With the pre-safeguard ALE and the post-safeguard ALE calculated, there is yet one more value needed to perform a cost/benefit analysis. This additional value is the annual cost of the safeguard.

Calculating Safeguard Costs For each specific risk, you must evaluate one or more safeguards, or countermeasures, on a cost/benefit basis. To perform this evaluation, you must first compile a list of safeguards for each threat. Then you assign each safeguard a deployment value. In fact, you must measure the deployment value or the cost of the safeguard against the value of the protected asset. The value of the protected asset therefore determines the maximum expenditures for protection mechanisms. Security should be cost effective, and thus it is not prudent to spend more (in terms of cash or resources) protecting an asset than its value to the organization. If the cost of the countermeasure is greater than the value of the asset (that is, the cost of the risk), then you should accept the risk.

Numerous factors are involved in calculating the value of a countermeasure:

Cost of purchase, development, and licensing

Cost of implementation and customization

Cost of annual operation, maintenance, administration, and so on

Cost of annual repairs and upgrades

Productivity improvement or loss

Changes to environment

Cost of testing and evaluation

Once you know the potential cost of a safeguard, it is then possible to evaluate the benefit of that safeguard if applied to an infrastructure. As mentioned earlier, the annual costs of safeguards should not exceed the expected annual cost of asset loss.

Calculating Safeguard Cost/Benefit One of the final computations in this process is the cost/benefit calculation to determine whether a safeguard actually improves security without costing too much. To make the determination of whether the safeguard is financially equitable, use the following formula:

ALE before safeguard – ALE after implementing the safeguard – annual cost of safeguard (ACS) = value of the safeguard to the company

If the result is negative, the safeguard is not a financially responsible choice. If the result is positive, then that value is the annual savings your organization may reap by deploying the safeguard because the rate of occurrence is not a guarantee of occurrence.

The annual savings or loss from a safeguard should not be the only consideration when evaluating safeguards. You should also consider the issues of legal responsibility and prudent due care. In some cases, it makes more sense to lose money in the deployment of a safeguard than to risk legal liability in the event of an asset disclosure or loss.

In review, to perform the cost/benefit analysis of a safeguard, you must calculate the following three elements:

The pre-countermeasure ALE for an asset-and-threat pairing

The post-countermeasure ALE for an asset-and-threat pairing

The ACS

With those elements, you can finally obtain a value for the cost/benefit formula for this specific safeguard against a specific risk against a specific asset:

(pre-countermeasure ALE – post-countermeasure ALE) – ACS

Or, even more simply:

(ALE1 – ALE2) – ACS

The countermeasure with the greatest resulting value from this cost/benefit formula makes the most economic sense to deploy against the specific asset-and-threat pairing.

Table 2.1 illustrates the various formulas associated with quantitative risk analysis.

Table 2.1 Quantitative risk analysis formulas

Concept Formula Exposure factor (EF) % Single loss expectancy (SLE) SLE = AV * EF Annualized rate of occurrence (ARO) # / year

Annualized loss expectancy (ALE) ALE = SLE * ARO or ALE = AV * EF * ARO Annual cost of the safeguard (ACS) $ / year Value or benefit of a safeguard (ALE1 – ALE2) – ACS

Yikes, So Much Math! Yes, quantitative risk analysis involves a lot of math. Math questions on the exam are likely to involve basic multiplication. Most likely, you will be asked definition, application, and concept synthesis questions on the CISSP exam. This means you need to know the definition of the equations/formulas and values, what they mean, why they are important, and how they are used to benefit an organization. The concepts you must know are AV, EF, SLE, ARO, ALE, and the cost/benefit formula.

It is important to realize that with all the calculations used in the quantitative risk assessment process, the end values are used for prioritization and selection. The values themselves do not truly reflect real-world loss or costs due to security breaches. This should be obvious because of the level of guesswork, statistical analysis, and probability predictions required in the process.

Once you have calculated a cost/benefit for each safeguard for each risk that affects each asset, you must then sort these values. In most cases, the cost/benefit with the highest value is the best safeguard to implement for that specific risk against a specific asset. But as with all things in the real world, this is only one part of the decision-making process. Although very important and often the primary guiding factor, it is not the sole element of data. Other items include actual cost, security budget, compatibility with existing systems, skill/knowledge base of IT staff, and availability of product as well as political issues, partnerships, market trends, fads, marketing, contracts, and favoritism. As part of senior management or even the IT staff, it is your responsibility to either obtain or use all available data and information to make the best security decision for your organization.

Most organizations have a limited and all-too-finite budget to work with. Thus, obtaining the best security for the cost is an essential part of security management. To effectively manage the security function, you must assess the budget, the benefit and performance metrics, and the necessary resources of each security control. Only after a thorough evaluation can you determine which controls are essential and beneficial not only to security, but also to your bottom line.

Qualitative Risk Analysis Qualitative risk analysis is more scenario based than it is calculator based. Rather than assigning exact dollar figures to possible losses, you rank threats on a scale to evaluate their risks, costs, and effects. Since a purely quantitative risk assessment is not possible, balancing the results of a quantitative analysis is essential. The method of combining quantitative and qualitative analysis into a final assessment of organizational risk is

known as hybrid assessment or hybrid analysis. The process of performing qualitative risk analysis involves judgment, intuition, and experience. You can use many techniques to perform qualitative risk analysis:

Brainstorming

Delphi technique

Storyboarding

Focus groups

Surveys

Questionnaires

Checklists

One-on-one meetings

Interviews

Determining which mechanism to employ is based on the culture of the organization and the types of risks and assets involved. It is common for several methods to be employed simultaneously and their results compared and contrasted in the final risk analysis report to upper management.

Scenarios The basic process for all these mechanisms involves the creation of scenarios. A scenario is a written description of a single major threat. The description focuses on how a threat would be instigated and what effects its occurrence could have on the organization, the IT infrastructure, and specific assets. Generally, the scenarios are limited to one page of text to keep them manageable. For each scenario, one or more safeguards are described that would completely or partially protect against the major threat discussed in the scenario. The analysis participants then assign to the scenario a threat level, a loss potential, and the advantages of each safeguard. These assignments can be grossly simple—such as High, Medium, and Low or a basic number scale of 1 to 10—or they can be detailed essay responses. The responses from all participants are then compiled into a single report that is presented to upper management. For examples of reference ratings and levels, please see Table 3-6 and Table 3-7 in NIST SP 800-30: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-30/sp800-30.pdf

The usefulness and validity of a qualitative risk analysis improves as the number and diversity of the participants in the evaluation increases. Whenever possible, include one or more people from each level of the organizational hierarchy, from upper management to end user. It is also important to include a cross section from each major department, division, office, or branch.

Delphi Technique

The Delphi technique is probably the only mechanism on the previous list that is not immediately recognizable and understood. The Delphi technique is simply an anonymous feedback-and-response process used to enable a group to reach an anonymous consensus. Its primary purpose is to elicit honest and uninfluenced responses from all participants. The participants are usually gathered into a single meeting room. To each request for feedback, each participant writes down their response on paper anonymously. The results are compiled and presented to the group for evaluation. The process is repeated until a consensus is reached.

Both the quantitative and qualitative risk analysis mechanisms offer useful results. However, each technique involves a unique method of evaluating the same set of assets and risks. Prudent due care requires that both methods be employed. Table 2.2 describes the benefits and disadvantages of these two systems.

Table 2.2 Comparison of quantitative and qualitative risk analysis

Characteristic Qualitative Quantitative Employs complex functions No Yes Uses cost/benefit analysis No Yes Results in specific values No Yes Requires guesswork Yes No Supports automation No Yes Involves a high volume of information No Yes Is objective No Yes Uses opinions Yes No Requires significant time and effort No Yes Offers useful and meaningful results Yes Yes

Risk Assignment/Acceptance The results of risk analysis are many:

Complete and detailed valuation of all assets

An exhaustive list of all threats and risks, rate of occurrence, and extent of loss if realized

A list of threat-specific safeguards and countermeasures that identifies their effectiveness and ALE

A cost/benefit analysis of each safeguard

This information is essential for management to make educated, intelligent decisions about safeguard implementation and security policy alterations.

Once the risk analysis is complete, management must address each specific risk. There are four possible responses to risk:

Reduce or mitigate

Assign or transfer

Accept

Reject or ignore

You need to know the following information about the four responses:

Risk Mitigation Reducing risk, or risk mitigation, is the implementation of safeguards and countermeasures to eliminate vulnerabilities or block threats. Picking the most cost- effective or beneficial countermeasure is part of risk management, but it is not an element of risk assessment. In fact, countermeasure selection is a post-risk-assessment or post-risk-analysis activity. Another potential variation of risk mitigation is risk avoidance. The risk is avoided by eliminating the risk cause. A simple example is removing the FTP protocol from a server to avoid FTP attacks, and a larger example is to move to an inland location to avoid the risks from hurricanes.

Risk Assignment Assigning risk or transferring risk is the placement of the cost of loss a risk represents onto another entity or organization. Purchasing insurance and outsourcing are common forms of assigning or transferring risk.

Risk Acceptance Accepting risk, or acceptance of risk, is the valuation by management of the cost/benefit analysis of possible safeguards and the determination that the cost of the countermeasure greatly outweighs the possible cost of loss due to a risk. It also means that management has agreed to accept the consequences and the loss if the risk is realized. In most cases, accepting risk requires a clearly written statement that indicates why a safeguard was not implemented, who is responsible for the decision, and who will be responsible for the loss if the risk is realized, usually in the form of a sign-off letter. An organization’s decision to accept risk is based on its risk tolerance. Risk tolerance is the ability of an organization to absorb the losses associated with realized risks. This is also known as risk tolerance or risk appetite.

Risk Rejection A final but unacceptable possible response to risk is to reject or ignore risk. Denying that a risk exists and hoping that it will never be realized are not valid or prudent due-care responses to risk.

Once countermeasures are implemented, the risk that remains is known as residual risk. Residual risk comprises threats to specific assets against which upper management chooses not to implement a safeguard. In other words, residual risk is the risk that management has chosen to accept rather than mitigate. In most cases, the presence of residual risk indicates that the cost/benefit analysis showed that the available safeguards were not cost-effective deterrents.

Total risk is the amount of risk an organization would face if no safeguards were

implemented. A formula for total risk is as follows:

threats * vulnerabilities * asset value = total risk

(Note that the * here does not imply multiplication, but a combination function; this is not a true mathematical formula.) The difference between total risk and residual risk is known as the controls gap. The controls gap is the amount of risk that is reduced by implementing safeguards. A formula for residual risk is as follows:

total risk – controls gap = residual risk

As with risk management in general, handling risk is not a one-time process. Instead, security must be continually maintained and reaffirmed. In fact, repeating the risk assessment and analysis process is a mechanism to assess the completeness and effectiveness of the security program over time. Additionally, it helps locate deficiencies and areas where change has occurred. Because security changes over time, reassessing on a periodic basis is essential to maintaining reasonable security.

Countermeasure Selection and Assessment Selecting a countermeasure within the realm of risk management relies heavily on the cost/benefit analysis results. However, you should consider several other factors when assessing the value or pertinence of a security control:

The cost of the countermeasure should be less than the value of the asset.

The cost of the countermeasure should be less than the benefit of the countermeasure.

The result of the applied countermeasure should make the cost of an attack greater for the perpetrator than the derived benefit from an attack.

The countermeasure should provide a solution to a real and identified problem. (Don’t install countermeasures just because they are available, are advertised, or sound cool.)

The benefit of the countermeasure should not be dependent on its secrecy. This means that “security through obscurity” is not a viable countermeasure and that any viable countermeasure can withstand public disclosure and scrutiny.

The benefit of the countermeasure should be testable and verifiable.

The countermeasure should provide consistent and uniform protection across all users, systems, protocols, and so on.

The countermeasure should have few or no dependencies to reduce cascade failures.

The countermeasure should require minimal human intervention after initial deployment and configuration.

The countermeasure should be tamperproof.

The countermeasure should have overrides accessible to privileged operators only.

The countermeasure should provide fail-safe and/or fail-secure options.

Keep in mind that security should be designed to support and enable business tasks and functions. Thus countermeasures and safeguards need to be evaluated in the context of a business task.

Implementation Security controls, countermeasures, and safeguards can be implemented administratively, logically/technically, or physically. These three categories of security mechanisms should be implemented in a defense-in-depth manner in order to provide maximum benefit (Figure 2.6).

Figure 2.6 The categories of security controls in a defense-in-depth implementation

Technical Technical or logical access involves the hardware or software mechanisms used to manage access and to provide protection for resources and systems. As the name implies, it uses technology. Examples of logical or technical access controls include authentication methods (such as usernames, passwords, smartcards, and biometrics), encryption, constrained interfaces, access control lists, protocols, firewalls, routers, intrusion detection systems (IDSs), and clipping levels.

Administrative

Administrative access controls are the policies and procedures defined by an organization’s security policy and other regulations or requirements. They are sometimes referred to as management controls. These controls focus on personnel and business practices. Examples of administrative access controls include policies, procedures, hiring practices, background checks, data classifications and labeling, security awareness and training efforts, vacation history, reports and reviews, work supervision, personnel controls, and testing.

Physical Physical access controls are items you can physically touch. They include physical mechanisms deployed to prevent, monitor, or detect direct contact with systems or areas within a facility. Examples of physical access controls include guards, fences, motion detectors, locked doors, sealed windows, lights, cable protection, laptop locks, badges, swipe cards, guard dogs, video cameras, mantraps, and alarms.

Types of Controls The term access control refers to a broad range of controls that perform such tasks as ensuring that only authorized users can log on and preventing unauthorized users from gaining access to resources. Controls mitigate a wide variety of information security risks.

Whenever possible, you want to prevent any type of security problem or incident. Of course, this isn’t always possible, and unwanted events occur. When they do, you want to detect the events as soon as possible. And once you detect an event, you want to correct it.

As you read the control descriptions, notice that some are listed as examples of more than one access-control type. For example, a fence (or perimeter-defining device) placed around a building can be a preventive control (physically barring someone from gaining access to a building compound) and/or a deterrent control (discouraging someone from trying to gain access).

Deterrent A deterrent access control is deployed to discourage violation of security policies. Deterrent and preventive controls are similar, but deterrent controls often depend on individuals deciding not to take an unwanted action. In contrast, a preventive control actually blocks the action. Some examples include policies, security-awareness training, locks, fences, security badges, guards, mantraps, and security cameras.

Preventive A preventive access control is deployed to thwart or stop unwanted or unauthorized activity from occurring. Examples of preventive access controls include fences, locks, biometrics, mantraps, lighting, alarm systems, separation of duties, job rotation, data classification, penetration testing, access-control methods, encryption, auditing, presence of security cameras or CCTV, smartcards, callback procedures, security policies, security-

awareness training, antivirus software, firewalls, and intrusion prevention systems (IPSs).

Detective A detective access control is deployed to discover or detect unwanted or unauthorized activity. Detective controls operate after the fact and can discover the activity only after it has occurred. Examples of detective access controls include security guards, motion detectors, recording and reviewing of events captured by security cameras or CCTV, job rotation, mandatory vacations, audit trails, honeypots or honeynets, IDSs, violation reports, supervision and reviews of users, and incident investigations.

Compensating A compensation access control is deployed to provide various options to other existing controls to aid in enforcement and support of security policies. They can be any controls used in addition to, or in place of, another control. For example, an organizational policy may dictate that all PII must be encrypted. A review discovers that a preventive control is encrypting all PII data in databases, but PII transferred over the network is sent in cleartext. A compensation control can be added to protect the data in transit.

Corrective A corrective access control modifies the environment to return systems to normal after an unwanted or unauthorized activity has occurred. It attempts to correct any problems that occurred as a result of a security incident. Corrective controls can be simple, such as terminating malicious activity or rebooting a system. They also include antivirus solutions that can remove or quarantine a virus, backup and restore plans to ensure that lost data can be restored, and active IDs that can modify the environment to stop an attack in progress. The access control is deployed to repair or restore resources, functions, and capabilities after a violation of security policies.

Recovery Recovery controls are an extension of corrective controls but have more advanced or complex abilities. Examples of recovery access controls include backups and restores, fault-tolerant drive systems, system imaging, server clustering, antivirus software, and database or virtual machine shadowing.

Directive A directive access control is deployed to direct, confine, or control the actions of subjects to force or encourage compliance with security policies. Examples of directive access controls include security policy requirements or criteria, posted notifications, escape route exit signs, monitoring, supervision, and procedures.

Monitoring and Measurement

Security controls should provide benefits that can be monitored and measured. If a security control’s benefits cannot be quantified, evaluated, or compared, then it does not actually provide any security. A security control may provide native or internal monitoring, or external monitoring might be required. You should take this into consideration when making initial countermeasure selections.

Measuring the effectiveness of a countermeasure is not always an absolute value. Many countermeasures offer degrees of improvement rather than specific hard numbers as to the number of breaches prevented or attack attempts thwarted. Often to obtain countermeasure success or failure measurements, monitoring and recording of events both prior to and after safeguard installation is necessary. Benefits can only be accurately measured if the starting point (that is, the normal point or initial risk level) is known. Part of the cost/benefit equation takes countermeasure monitoring and measurement into account. Just because a security control provides some level of increased security does not necessarily mean that the benefit gained is cost effective. A significant improvement in security should be identified to clearly justify the expense of new countermeasure deployment.

Asset Valuation An important step in risk analysis is to appraise the value of an organization’s assets. If an asset has no value, then there is no need to provide protection for it. A primary goal of risk analysis is to ensure that only cost-effective safeguards are deployed. It makes no sense to spend $100,000 protecting an asset that is worth only $1,000. The value of an asset directly affects and guides the level of safeguards and security deployed to protect it. As a rule, the annual costs of safeguards should not exceed the expected annual cost of asset loss.

When the cost of an asset is evaluated, there are many aspects to consider. The goal of asset valuation is to assign to an asset a specific dollar value that encompasses tangible costs as well as intangible ones. Determining an exact value is often difficult if not impossible, but nevertheless, a specific value must be established. (Note that the discussion of qualitative versus quantitative risk analysis in the next section may clarify this issue.) Improperly assigning value to assets can result in failing to properly protect an asset or implementing financially infeasible safeguards. The following list includes some of the tangible and intangible issues that contribute to the valuation of assets:

Purchase cost

Development cost

Administrative or management cost

Maintenance or upkeep cost

Cost in acquiring asset

Cost to protect or sustain asset

Value to owners and users

Value to competitors

Intellectual property or equity value

Market valuation (sustainable price)

Replacement cost

Productivity enhancement or degradation

Operational costs of asset presence and loss

Liability of asset loss

Usefulness

Assigning or determining the value of assets to an organization can fulfill numerous requirements. It serves as the foundation for performing a cost/benefit analysis of asset protection through safeguard deployment. It serves as a means for selecting or evaluating safeguards and countermeasures. It provides values for insurance purposes and establishes an overall net worth or net value for the organization. It helps senior management understand exactly what is at risk within the organization. Understanding the value of assets also helps to prevent negligence of due care and encourages compliance with legal requirements, industry regulations, and internal security policies. Risk reporting is a key task to perform at the conclusion of a risk analysis. Risk reporting involves the production of a risk report and a presentation of that report to the interested/relevant parties. For many organizations, risk reporting is an internal concern only, whereas other organizations may have regulations that mandate third-party or public reporting of their risk findings.

A risk report should be accurate, timely, comprehensive of the entire organization, clear and precise to support decision making, and updated on a regular basis.

Continuous Improvement Risk analysis is performed to provide upper management with the details necessary to decide which risks should be mitigated, which should be transferred, and which should be accepted. The result is a cost/benefit comparison between the expected cost of asset loss and the cost of deploying safeguards against threats and vulnerabilities. Risk analysis identifies risks, quantifies the impact of threats, and aids in budgeting for security. It helps integrate the needs and objectives of the security policy with the organization’s business goals and intentions. The risk analysis/risk assessment is a “point in time” metric. Threats and vulnerabilities constantly change, and the risk assessment needs to be redone periodically in order to support continuous improvement.

Security is always changing. Thus any implemented security solution requires updates and changes over time. If a continuous improvement path is not provided by a selected countermeasure, then it should be replaced with one that offers scalable improvements to

security.

Risk Frameworks A risk framework is a guideline or recipe for how risk is to be assessed, resolved, and monitored. The primary example of a risk framework referenced by the CISSP exam is that defined by NIST in Special Publication 800-37 (http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-37r1.pdf). We encourage you to review this publication in its entirety, but here are a few excerpts of relevance to CISSP:

Abstract

This publication provides guidelines for applying the Risk Management Framework (RMF) to federal information systems. The six-step RMF includes security categorization, security control selection, security control implementation, security control assessment, information system authorization, and security control monitoring. The RMF promotes the concept of near real-time risk management and ongoing information system authorization through the implementation of robust continuous monitoring processes, provides senior leaders the necessary information to make cost-effective, risk-based decisions with regard to the organizational information systems supporting their core missions and business functions, and integrates information security into the enterprise architecture and system development life cycle. Applying the RMF within enterprises links risk management processes at the information system level to risk management processes at the organization level through a risk executive (function) and establishes lines of responsibility and accountability for security controls deployed within organizational information systems and inherited by those systems (i.e., common controls). The RMF has the following characteristics:

Promotes the concept of near real-time risk management and ongoing information system authorization through the implementation of robust continuous monitoring processes;

Encourages the use of automation to provide senior leaders the necessary information to make cost-effective, risk-based decisions with regard to the organizational information systems supporting their core missions and business functions;

Integrates information security into the enterprise architecture and system development life cycle;

Provides emphasis on the selection, implementation, assessment, and monitoring of security controls, and the authorization of information systems;

Links risk management processes at the information system level to risk management processes at the organization level through a risk executive (function);

and

Establishes responsibility and accountability for security controls deployed within organizational information systems and inherited by those systems (i.e., common controls)”The RMF steps include [(see Figure 2.7)]:

Categorize the information system and the information processed, stored, and transmitted by that system based on an impact analysis.

Select an initial set of baseline security controls for the information system based on the security categorization; tailoring and supplementing the security control baseline as needed based on an organizational assessment of risk and local conditions.

Implement the security controls and describe how the controls are employed within the information system and its environment of operation.

Assess the security controls using appropriate assessment procedures to determine the extent to which the controls are implemented correctly, operating as intended, and producing the desired outcome with respect to meeting the security requirements for the system.

Authorize information system operation based on a determination of the risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation resulting from the operation of the information system and the decision that this risk is acceptable.

Monitor the security controls in the information system on an ongoing basis including assessing control effectiveness, documenting changes to the system or its environment of operation, conducting security impact analyses of the associated changes, and reporting the security state of the system to designated organizational officials.”

[From NIST SP 800-37]

Figure 2.7 The six steps of the risk management framework

There is significantly more detail about RMF in the NIST publication; please review that document for a complete perspective on risk frameworks.

The NIST RMF is the primary focus of the CISSP exam, but you might want to review other risk management frameworks for use in the real world. Please consider operationally critical threat, asset, and vulnerability evaluation (OCTAVE), factor analysis of information risk (FAIR), and threat agent risk assessment (TARA). For further research, you’ll find a useful article here: www.csoonline.com/article/2125140/metrics- budgets/it-risk-assessment-frameworks--real-world-experience.html. Understanding that there are a number of well-recognized frameworks and that selecting one that fits your organization’s requirements and style is important.

Establish and Manage Information Security Education, Training, and Awareness The successful implementation of a security solution requires changes in user behavior. These changes primarily consist of alterations in normal work activities to comply with the standards, guidelines, and procedures mandated by the security policy. Behavior modification involves some level of learning on the part of the user. To develop and manage security education, training, and awareness, all relevant items of knowledge transference must be clearly identified and programs of presentation, exposure, synergy, and implementation crafted.

A prerequisite to security training is awareness. The goal of creating awareness is to bring

security to the forefront and make it a recognized entity for users. Awareness establishes a common baseline or foundation of security understanding across the entire organization and focuses on key or basic topics and issues related to security that all employees must understand and comprehend. Awareness is not exclusively created through a classroom type of exercise but also through the work environment. Many tools can be used to create awareness, such as posters, notices, newsletter articles, screen savers, T-shirts, rally speeches by managers, announcements, presentations, mouse pads, office supplies, and memos as well as the traditional instructor-led training courses.

Awareness establishes a minimum standard common denominator or foundation of security understanding. All personnel should be fully aware of their security responsibilities and liabilities. They should be trained to know what to do and what not to do.

The issues that users need to be aware of include avoiding waste, fraud, and unauthorized activities. All members of an organization, from senior management to temporary interns, need the same level of awareness. The awareness program in an organization should be tied in with its security policy, incident-handling plan, and disaster recovery procedures. For an awareness-building program to be effective, it must be fresh, creative, and updated often. The awareness program should also be tied to an understanding of how the corporate culture will affect and impact security for individuals as well as the organization as a whole. If employees do not see enforcement of security policies and standards, especially at the awareness level, then they may not feel obligated to abide by them.

Training is teaching employees to perform their work tasks and to comply with the security policy. Training is typically hosted by an organization and is targeted to groups of employees with similar job functions. All new employees require some level of training so they will be able to comply with all standards, guidelines, and procedures mandated by the security policy. New users need to know how to use the IT infrastructure, where data is stored, and how and why resources are classified. Many organizations choose to train new employees before they are granted access to the network, whereas others will grant new users limited access until their training in their specific job position is complete. Training is an ongoing activity that must be sustained throughout the lifetime of the organization for every employee. It is considered an administrative security control.

Awareness and training are often provided in-house. That means these teaching tools are created and deployed by and within the organization itself. However, the next level of knowledge distribution is usually obtained from an external third-party source.

Education is a more detailed endeavor in which students/users learn much more than they actually need to know to perform their work tasks. Education is most often associated with users pursuing certification or seeking job promotion. It is typically a requirement for personnel seeking security professional positions. A security professional requires extensive knowledge of security and the local environment for the entire organization and not just their specific work tasks.

An assessment of the appropriate levels of awareness, training, and education required

within organization should be revised on a regular basis. Training efforts need to be updated and tuned as the organization evolves over time. Additionally, new bold and subtle means of awareness should be implemented as well to keep the content fresh and relevant. Without periodic reviews for content relevancy, materials will become stale and workers will likely being to make up their own guidelines and procedures. It is the responsibility of the security governance team to establish security rules as well as provide training and education to further the implementation of those rules.

Manage the Security Function To manage the security function, an organization must implement proper and sufficient security governance. The act of performing a risk assessment to drive the security policy is the clearest and most direct example of management of the security function.

Security must be cost effective. Organizations do not have infinite budgets and thus must allocate their funds appropriately. Additionally, an organizational budget includes a percentage of monies dedicated to security just as most other business tasks and processes require capital, not to mention payments to employees, insurance, retirement, and so on. Security should be sufficient to withstand typical or standard threats to the organization but not when such security is more expensive than the assets being protected. As discussed in “Understand and Apply Risk Management Concepts” earlier in this chapter, a countermeasure that is more costly than the value of the asset itself is not usually an effective solution.

Security must be measurable. Measurable security means that the various aspects of the security mechanisms function, provide a clear benefit, and have one or more metrics that can be recorded and analyzed. Similar to performance metrics, security metrics are measurements of performance, function, operation, action, and so on as related to the operation of a security feature. When a countermeasure or safeguard is implemented, security metrics should show a reduction in unwanted occurrences or an increase in the detection of attempts. Otherwise, the security mechanism is not providing the expected benefit. The act of measuring and evaluating security metrics is the practice of assessing the completeness and effectiveness of the security program. This should also include measuring it against common security guidelines and tracking the success of its controls. Tracking and assessing security metrics are part of effective security governance. However, it is worth noting that choosing incorrect security metrics can cause significant problems, such as choosing to monitor or measure something the security staff has little control over or that is based on external drivers.

Resources will be consumed both by the security mechanisms themselves and by the security governance processes. Obviously, security mechanisms should consume as few resources as possible and impact the productivity or throughput of a system at as low a level as feasible. However, every hardware and software countermeasure as well as every policy and procedure users must follow will consume resources. Being aware of and evaluating resource consumption before and after countermeasure selection, deployment,

and tuning is an important part of security governance and managing the security function.

Managing the security function includes the development and implementation of information security strategies. Most of the content of the CISSP exam, and hence this book, addresses the various aspects of development and implementation of information security strategies.

Summary When planning a security solution, it’s important to consider the fact that humans are often the weakest element in organizational security. Regardless of the physical or logical controls deployed, humans can discover ways to avoid them, circumvent or subvert them, or disable them. Thus, it is important to take users into account when designing and deploying security solutions for your environment. The aspects of secure hiring practices, roles, policies, standards, guidelines, procedures, risk management, awareness training, and management planning all contribute to protecting assets. The use of these security structures provides some protection from the threat humans present against your security solutions.

Secure hiring practices require detailed job descriptions. Job descriptions are used as a guide for selecting candidates and properly evaluating them for a position. Maintaining security through job descriptions includes the use of separation of duties, job responsibilities, and job rotation.

A termination policy is needed to protect an organization and its existing employees. The termination procedure should include witnesses, return of company property, disabling network access, an exit interview, and an escort from the property.

Third-party governance is a system of oversight that is sometimes mandated by law, regulation, industry standards, or licensing requirements. The method of governance can vary, but it generally involves an outside investigator or auditor. Auditors might be designated by a governing body, or they might be consultants hired by the target organization.

The process of identifying, evaluating, and preventing or reducing risks is known as risk management. The primary goal of risk management is to reduce risk to an acceptable level. Determining this level depends on the organization, the value of its assets, and the size of its budget. Although it is impossible to design and deploy a completely risk-free environment, it is possible to significantly reduce risk with little effort. Risk analysis is the process by which risk management is achieved and includes analyzing an environment for risks, evaluating each risk as to its likelihood of occurring and the cost of the resulting damage, assessing the cost of various countermeasures for each risk, and creating a cost/benefit report for safeguards to present to upper management.

For a security solution to be successfully implemented, user behavior must change. Such

changes primarily consist of alterations in normal work activities to comply with the standards, guidelines, and procedures mandated by the security policy. Behavior modification involves some level of learning on the part of the user. There are three commonly recognized learning levels: awareness, training, and education.

Exam Essentials Know how privacy fits into the realm of IT security. Know the multiple meanings/definitions of privacy, why it is important to protect, and the issues surrounding it, especially in a work environment.

Be able to discuss third-party governance of security. Third-party governance is the system of oversight that may be mandated by law, regulation, industry standards, or licensing requirements.

Be able to define overall risk management. The process of identifying factors that could damage or disclose data, evaluating those factors in light of data value and countermeasure cost, and implementing cost-effective solutions for mitigating or reducing risk is known as risk management. By performing risk management, you lay the foundation for reducing risk overall.

Understand risk analysis and the key elements involved. Risk analysis is the process by which upper management is provided with details to make decisions about which risks are to be mitigated, which should be transferred, and which should be accepted. To fully evaluate risks and subsequently take the proper precautions, you must analyze the following: assets, asset valuation, threats, vulnerability, exposure, risk, realized risk, safeguards, countermeasures, attacks, and breaches.

Know how to evaluate threats. Threats can originate from numerous sources, including IT, humans, and nature. Threat assessment should be performed as a team effort to provide the widest range of perspectives. By fully evaluating risks from all angles, you reduce your system’s vulnerability.

Understand quantitative risk analysis. Quantitative risk analysis focuses on hard values and percentages. A complete quantitative analysis is not possible because of intangible aspects of risk. The process involves asset valuation and threat identification and then determining a threat’s potential frequency and the resulting damage; the result is a cost/benefit analysis of safeguards.

Be able to explain the concept of an exposure factor (EF). An exposure factor is an element of quantitative risk analysis that represents the percentage of loss that an organization would experience if a specific asset were violated by a realized risk. By calculating exposure factors, you are able to implement a sound risk management policy.

Know what single loss expectancy (SLE) is and how to calculate it. SLE is an element of quantitative risk analysis that represents the cost associated with a single realized risk against a specific asset. The formula is SLE = asset value (AV) * exposure

factor (EF).

Understand annualized rate of occurrence (ARO). ARO is an element of quantitative risk analysis that represents the expected frequency with which a specific threat or risk will occur (in other words, become realized) within a single year. Understanding AROs further enables you to calculate the risk and take proper precautions.

Know what annualized loss expectancy (ALE) is and how to calculate it. ALE is an element of quantitative risk analysis that represents the possible yearly cost of all instances of a specific realized threat against a specific asset. The formula is ALE = single loss expectancy (SLE) * annualized rate of occurrence (ARO).

Know the formula for safeguard evaluation. In addition to determining the annual cost of a safeguard, you must calculate the ALE for the asset if the safeguard is implemented. Use the formula: ALE before safeguard - ALE after implementing the safeguard - annual cost of safeguard = value of the safeguard to the company, or (ALE1 - ALE2) - ACS.

Understand qualitative risk analysis. Qualitative risk analysis is based more on scenarios than calculations. Exact dollar figures are not assigned to possible losses; instead, threats are ranked on a scale to evaluate their risks, costs, and effects. Such an analysis assists those responsible in creating proper risk management policies.

Understand the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is simply an anonymous feedback-and-response process used to arrive at a consensus. Such a consensus gives the responsible parties the opportunity to properly evaluate risks and implement solutions.

Know the options for handling risk. Reducing risk, or risk mitigation, is the implementation of safeguards and countermeasures. Assigning risk or transferring a risk places the cost of loss a risk represents onto another entity or organization. Purchasing insurance is one form of assigning or transferring risk. Accepting risk means the management has evaluated the cost/benefit analysis of possible safeguards and has determined that the cost of the countermeasure greatly outweighs the possible cost of loss due to a risk. It also means that management has agreed to accept the consequences and the loss if the risk is realized.

Be able to explain total risk, residual risk, and controls gap. Total risk is the amount of risk an organization would face if no safeguards were implemented. To calculate total risk, use this formula: threats * vulnerabilities * asset value = total risk. Residual risk is the risk that management has chosen to accept rather than mitigate. The difference between total risk and residual risk is the controls gap, which is the amount of risk that is reduced by implementing safeguards. To calculate residual risk, use the following formula: total risk - controls gap = residual risk.

Understand control types. The term access control refers to a broad range of controls that perform such tasks as ensuring that only authorized users can log on and preventing unauthorized users from gaining access to resources. Control types include preventive,

detective, corrective, deterrent, recovery, directive, and compensation. Controls can also be categorized by how they are implemented: administrative, logical, or physical.

Understand the security implications of hiring new employees. To properly plan for security, you must have standards in place for job descriptions, job classification, work tasks, job responsibilities, preventing collusion, candidate screening, background checks, security clearances, employment agreements, and nondisclosure agreements. By deploying such mechanisms, you ensure that new hires are aware of the required security standards, thus protecting your organization’s assets.

Be able to explain separation of duties. Separation of duties is the security concept of dividing critical, significant, sensitive work tasks among several individuals. By separating duties in this manner, you ensure that no one person can compromise system security.

Understand the principle of least privilege. The principle of least privilege states that in a secured environment, users should be granted the minimum amount of access necessary for them to complete their required work tasks or job responsibilities. By limiting user access only to those items that they need to complete their work tasks, you limit the vulnerability of sensitive information.

Know why job rotation and mandatory vacations are necessary. Job rotation serves two functions. It provides a type of knowledge redundancy, and moving personnel around reduces the risk of fraud, data modification, theft, sabotage, and misuse of information. Mandatory vacations of one to two weeks are used to audit and verify the work tasks and privileges of employees. This often results in easy detection of abuse, fraud, or negligence.

Understand vendor, consultant, and contractor controls. Vendor, consultant, and contractor controls are used to define the levels of performance, expectation, compensation, and consequences for entities, persons, or organizations that are external to the primary organization. Often these controls are defined in a document or policy known as a service-level agreement (SLA).

Be able to explain proper termination policies. A termination policy defines the procedure for terminating employees. It should include items such as always having a witness, disabling the employee’s network access, and performing an exit interview. A termination policy should also include escorting the terminated employee off the premises and requiring the return of security tokens and badges and company property.

Know how to implement security awareness training and education. Before actual training can take place, awareness of security as a recognized entity must be created for users. Once this is accomplished, training, or teaching employees to perform their work tasks and to comply with the security policy can begin. All new employees require some level of training so they will be able to comply with all standards, guidelines, and procedures mandated by the security policy. Education is a more detailed endeavor in which students/users learn much more than they actually need to know to perform their

work tasks. Education is most often associated with users pursuing certification or seeking job promotion.

Understand how to manage the security function. To manage the security function, an organization must implement proper and sufficient security governance. The act of performing a risk assessment to drive the security policy is the clearest and most direct example of management of the security function. This also relates to budget, metrics, resources, information security strategies, and assessing the completeness and effectiveness of the security program.

Know the six steps of the risk management framework. The six steps of the risk management framework are: Categorize, Select, Implement, Assess, Authorize, and Monitor.

Written Lab 1. Name six different administrative controls used to secure personnel.

2. What are the basic formulas used in quantitative risk assessment?

3. Describe the process or technique used to reach an anonymous consensus during a qualitative risk assessment?

4. Discuss the need to perform a balanced risk assessment. What are the techniques that can be used and why is this necessary?

Review Questions 1. Which of the following is the weakest element in any security solution?

A. Software products

B. Internet connections

C. Security policies

D. Humans

2. When seeking to hire new employees, what is the first step?

A. Create a job description.

B. Set position classification.

C. Screen candidates.

D. Request resumes.

3. Which of the following is a primary purpose of an exit interview?

A. To return the exiting employee’s personal belongings

B. To review the nondisclosure agreement

C. To evaluate the exiting employee’s performance

D. To cancel the exiting employee’s network access accounts

4. When an employee is to be terminated, which of the following should be done?

A. Inform the employee a few hours before they are officially terminated.

B. Disable the employee’s network access just as they are informed of the termination.

C. Send out a broadcast email informing everyone that a specific employee is to be terminated.

D. Wait until you and the employee are the only people remaining in the building before announcing the termination.

5. If an organization contracts with outside entities to provide key business functions or services, such as account or technical support, what is the process called that is used to ensure that these entities support sufficient security?

A. Asset identification

B. Third-party governance

C. Exit interview

D. Qualitative analysis

6. A portion of the ______________ is the logical and practical investigation of business processes and organizational policies. This process/policy review ensures that the stated and implemented business tasks, systems, and methodologies are practical, efficient, cost-effective, but most of all (at least in relation to security governance) that they support security through the reduction of vulnerabilities and the avoidance, reduction, or mitigation of risk.

A. Hybrid assessment

B. Risk aversion process

C. Countermeasure selection

D. Documentation review

7. Which of the following statements is not true?

A. IT security can provide protection only against logical or technical attacks.

B. The process by which the goals of risk management are achieved is known as risk analysis.

C. Risks to an IT infrastructure are all computer based.

D. An asset is anything used in a business process or task.

8. Which of the following is not an element of the risk analysis process?

A. Analyzing an environment for risks

B. Creating a cost/benefit report for safeguards to present to upper management

C. Selecting appropriate safeguards and implementing them

D. Evaluating each threat event as to its likelihood of occurring and cost of the resulting damage

9. Which of the following would generally not be considered an asset in a risk analysis?

A. A development process

B. An IT infrastructure

C. A proprietary system resource

D. Users’ personal files

10. Which of the following represents accidental or intentional exploitations of vulnerabilities?

A. Threat events

B. Risks

C. Threat agents

D. Breaches

11. When a safeguard or a countermeasure is not present or is not sufficient, what remains?

A. Vulnerability

B. Exposure

C. Risk

D. Penetration

12. Which of the following is not a valid definition for risk?

A. An assessment of probability, possibility, or chance

B. Anything that removes a vulnerability or protects against one or more specific threats

C. Risk = threat * vulnerability

D. Every instance of exposure

13. When evaluating safeguards, what is the rule that should be followed in most cases?

A. The expected annual cost of asset loss should not exceed the annual costs of safeguards.

B. The annual costs of safeguards should equal the value of the asset.

C. The annual costs of safeguards should not exceed the expected annual cost of asset loss.

D. The annual costs of safeguards should not exceed 10 percent of the security budget.

14. How is single loss expectancy (SLE) calculated?

A. Threat + vulnerability

B. Asset value ($) * exposure factor

C. Annualized rate of occurrence * vulnerability

D. Annualized rate of occurrence * asset value * exposure factor

15. How is the value of a safeguard to a company calculated?

A. ALE before safeguard - ALE after implementing the safeguard - annual cost of safeguard

B. ALE before safeguard * ARO of safeguard

C. ALE after implementing safeguard + annual cost of safeguard - controls gap

D. Total risk - controls gap

16. What security control is directly focused on preventing collusion?

A. Principle of least privilege

B. Job descriptions

C. Separation of duties

D. Qualitative risk analysis

17. What process or event is typically hosted by an organization and is targeted to groups of employees with similar job functions?

A. Education

B. Awareness

C. Training

D. Termination

18. Which of the following is not specifically or directly related to managing the security function of an organization?

A. Worker job satisfaction

B. Metrics

C. Information security strategies

D. Budget

19. While performing a risk analysis, you identify a threat of fire and a vulnerability because there are no fire extinguishers. Based on this information, which of the following is a possible risk?

A. Virus infection

B. Damage to equipment

C. System malfunction

D. Unauthorized access to confidential information

20. You’ve performed a basic quantitative risk analysis on a specific threat/vulnerability/risk relation. You select a possible countermeasure. When performing the calculations again, which of the following factors will change?

a. Exposure factor

b. Single loss expectancy

c. Asset value

d. Annualized rate of occurrence

Chapter 3 Business Continuity Planning THE CISSP EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

✓ Security and Risk Management (e.g. Security, Risk, Compliance, Law, Regulations, Business Continuity)

G. Understand business continuity requirements

G.1 Develop and document project scope and plan

G.2 Conduct business impact analysis

✓ Security Operations (e.g. Foundational Concepts, Investigations, Incident Management, Disaster Recovery)

N. Participate in business continuity planning and exercises

Despite our best wishes, disasters of one form or another eventually strike every organization. Whether it’s a natural disaster such as a hurricane or earthquake or a man- made calamity such as a building fire or burst water pipes, every organization will encounter events that threaten their operations or even their very existence.

Resilient organizations have plans and procedures in place to help mitigate the effects a disaster has on their continuing operations and to speed the return to normal operations. Recognizing the importance of planning for business continuity and disaster recovery, the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC)2 included these two processes in the Common Body of Knowledge for the CISSP program. Knowledge of these fundamental topics will help you prepare for the exam and help you prepare your organization for the unexpected.

In this chapter, we’ll explore the concepts behind business continuity planning. Chapter 18, “Disaster Recovery Planning,” will continue our discussion and delve into the specifics of what happens if business continuity controls fail and the organization needs to get its operations back up and running again after a disaster strikes.

Planning for Business Continuity Business continuity planning (BCP) involves assessing the risks to organizational processes and creating policies, plans, and procedures to minimize the impact those risks might have on the organization if they were to occur. BCP is used to maintain the continuous operation of a business in the event of an emergency situation. The goal of BCP planners is to implement a combination of policies, procedures, and processes such that a potentially disruptive event has as little impact on the business as possible.

BCP focuses on maintaining business operations with reduced or restricted infrastructure capabilities or resources. As long as the continuity of the organization’s ability to perform

its mission-critical work tasks is maintained, BCP can be used to manage and restore the environment. If the continuity is broken, then business processes have stopped and the organization is in disaster mode; thus, disaster recovery planning (DRP) takes over.

The top priority of BCP and DRP is always people. The primary concern is to get people out of harm’s way; then you can address IT recovery and restoration issues.

Business Continuity Planning vs. Disaster Recovery Planning You should understand the distinction between business continuity planning and disaster recovery planning. One easy way to remember the difference is that BCP comes first, and if the BCP efforts fail, DRP steps in to fill the gap. For example, consider the case of a datacenter located downstream from a dam. BCP efforts might involve verifying that municipal authorities perform appropriate preventive maintenance on the dam and reinforcing the datacenter to protect it from floodwaters.

Despite your best efforts, it’s possible that your business continuity efforts will fail. Pressure on the dam might increase to the point that the dam fails and the area beneath it floods. The level of those floodwaters might be too much for the datacenter reinforcements to handle, causing flooding of the datacenter and a disruption in business operations. At this point, your business continuity efforts have failed, and it’s time to invoke your disaster recovery plan.

We’ll discuss disaster recovery planning in Chapter 18. The eventual goal of those efforts is to restore business operations in the primary datacenter as quickly as possible.

The overall goal of BCP is to provide a quick, calm, and efficient response in the event of an emergency and to enhance a company’s ability to recover from a disruptive event promptly. The BCP process, as defined by (ISC)2, has four main steps:

Project scope and planning

Business impact assessment

Continuity planning

Approval and implementation

The next four sections of this chapter cover each of these phases in detail. The last portion of this chapter will introduce some of the critical elements you should consider when compiling documentation of your organization’s business continuity plan.

Project Scope and Planning As with any formalized business process, the development of a strong business continuity plan requires the use of a proven methodology. This requires the following:

Structured analysis of the business’s organization from a crisis planning point of view

The creation of a BCP team with the approval of senior management

An assessment of the resources available to participate in business continuity activities

An analysis of the legal and regulatory landscape that governs an organization’s response to a catastrophic event

The exact process you use will depend on the size and nature of your organization and its business. There isn’t a “one-size-fits-all” guide to business continuity project planning. You should consult with project planning professionals within your organization and determine the approach that will work best within your organizational culture.

Business Organization Analysis One of the first responsibilities of the individuals responsible for business continuity planning is to perform an analysis of the business organization to identify all departments and individuals who have a stake in the BCP process. Here are some areas to consider:

Operational departments that are responsible for the core services the business provides to its clients

Critical support services, such as the information technology (IT) department, plant maintenance department, and other groups responsible for the upkeep of systems that support the operational departments

Senior executives and other key individuals essential for the ongoing viability of the organization

This identification process is critical for two reasons. First, it provides the groundwork necessary to help identify potential members of the BCP team (see the next section). Second, it provides the foundation for the remainder of the BCP process.

Normally, the business organization analysis is performed by the individuals spearheading the BCP effort. This is acceptable, given that they normally use the output of the analysis to assist with the selection of the remaining BCP team members. However, a thorough review of this analysis should be one of the first tasks assigned to the full BCP team when it is convened. This step is critical because the individuals performing the original analysis may have overlooked critical business functions known to BCP team members that represent other parts of the organization. If the team were to continue without revising the organizational analysis, the entire BCP process may be negatively

affected, resulting in the development of a plan that does not fully address the emergency-response needs of the organization as a whole.

When developing a business continuity plan, be sure to account for both your headquarters location as well as any branch offices. The plan should account for a disaster that occurs at any location where your organization conducts its business.

BCP Team Selection In many organizations, the IT and/or security departments are given sole responsibility for BCP and no arrangements are made for input from other operational and support departments. In fact, those departments may not even know of the plan’s existence until disaster strikes or is imminent. This is a critical flaw! The isolated development of a business continuity plan can spell disaster in two ways. First, the plan itself may not take into account knowledge possessed only by the individuals responsible for the day-to-day operation of the business. Second, it keeps operational elements “in the dark” about plan specifics until implementation becomes necessary. This reduces the possibility that operational elements will agree with the provisions of the plan and work effectively to implement it. It also denies organizations the benefits achieved by a structured training and testing program for the plan.

To prevent these situations from adversely impacting the BCP process, the individuals responsible for the effort should take special care when selecting the BCP team. The team should include, at a minimum, the following individuals:

Representatives from each of the organization’s departments responsible for the core services performed by the business

Representatives from the key support departments identified by the organizational analysis

IT representatives with technical expertise in areas covered by the BCP

Security representatives with knowledge of the BCP process

Legal representatives familiar with corporate legal, regulatory, and contractual responsibilities

Representatives from senior management

Tips for Selecting an Effective BCP Team Select your team carefully! You need to strike a balance between representing

different points of view and creating a team with explosive personality differences. Your goal should be to create a group that is as diverse as possible and still operates in harmony.

Take some time to think about the BCP team membership and who would be appropriate for your organization’s technical, financial, and political environment. Who would you include?

Each one of the individuals mentioned in the preceding list brings a unique perspective to the BCP process and will have individual biases. For example, the representatives from each of the operational departments will often consider their department the most critical to the organization’s continued viability. Although these biases may at first seem divisive, the leader of the BCP effort should embrace them and harness them in a productive manner. If used effectively, the biases will help achieve a healthy balance in the final plan as each representative advocates the needs of their department. On the other hand, if proper leadership isn’t provided, these biases may devolve into destructive turf battles that derail the BCP effort and harm the organization as a whole.

Senior Management and BCP The role of senior management in the BCP process varies widely from organization to organization and depends on the internal culture of the business, interest in the plan from above, and the legal and regulatory environment in which the business operates. Important roles played by senior management usually include setting priorities, providing staff and financial resources, and arbitrating disputes about the criticality (i.e., relative importance) of services.

One of the authors recently completed a BCP consulting engagement with a large nonprofit institution. At the beginning of the engagement, he had a chance to sit down with one of the organization’s senior executives to discuss his goals and objectives for their work together. During that meeting, the senior executive asked him, “Is there anything you need from me to complete this engagement?”

He must have expected a perfunctory response because his eyes widened when the response began with, “Well, as a matter of fact…” He was then told that his active participation in the process was critical to its success.

When you work on a business continuity plan, you, as the BCP team leader, must seek and obtain as active a role as possible from a senior executive. This conveys the importance of the BCP process to the entire organization and fosters the active participation of individuals who might otherwise write BCP off as a waste of time better spent on operational activities. Furthermore, laws and regulations might require the active participation of those senior leaders in the planning process. If you work for a publicly traded company, you may want to remind executives that the officers and directors of the firm might be found personally liable if a disaster cripples the business and they are found not to have exercised due diligence in their

contingency planning.

You may also have to convince management that BCP and DRP spending should not be viewed as a discretionary expense. Management’s fiduciary responsibilities to the organization’s shareholders require them to at least ensure that adequate BCP measures are in place.

In the case of this BCP engagement, the executive acknowledged the importance of his support and agreed to participate. He sent an email to all employees introducing the effort and stating that it had his full backing. He also attended several of the high-level planning sessions and mentioned the effort in an organization-wide “town hall” meeting.

Resource Requirements After the team validates the business organization analysis, it should turn to an assessment of the resources required by the BCP effort. This involves the resources required by three distinct BCP phases:

BCP Development The BCP team will require some resources to perform the four elements of the BCP process (project scope and planning, business impact assessment, continuity planning, and approval and implementation). It’s more than likely that the major resource consumed by this BCP phase will be effort expended by members of the BCP team and the support staff they call on to assist in the development of the plan.

BCP Testing, Training, and Maintenance The testing, training, and maintenance phases of BCP will require some hardware and software commitments, but once again, the major commitment in this phase will be effort on the part of the employees involved in those activities.

BCP Implementation When a disaster strikes and the BCP team deems it necessary to conduct a full-scale implementation of the business continuity plan, this implementation will require significant resources. This includes a large amount of effort (BCP will likely become the focus of a large part, if not all, of the organization) and the utilization of hard resources. For this reason, it’s important that the team uses its BCP implementation powers judiciously yet decisively.

An effective business continuity plan requires the expenditure of a large amount of resources, ranging all the way from the purchase and deployment of redundant computing facilities to the pencils and paper used by team members scratching out the first drafts of the plan. However, as you saw earlier, personnel are one of the most significant resources consumed by the BCP process. Many security professionals overlook the importance of accounting for labor, but you can rest assured that senior management will not. Business leaders are keenly aware of the effect that time-consuming side activities have on the operational productivity of their organizations and the real cost of personnel in terms of salary, benefits, and lost opportunities. These concerns become

especially paramount when you are requesting the time of senior executives.

You should expect that leaders responsible for resource utilization management will put your BCP proposal under a microscope, and you should be prepared to defend the necessity of your plan with coherent, logical arguments that address the business case for BCP.

Explaining the Benefits of BCP

At a recent conference, one of the authors discussed business continuity planning with the chief information security officer (CISO) of a health system from a medium- sized U.S. city. The CISO’s attitude was shocking. His organization had not conducted a formal BCP process, and he was confident that a “seat-of-the-pants” approach would work fine in the unlikely event of a disaster.

This “seat-of-the-pants” attitude is one of the most common arguments against committing resources to BCP. In many organizations, the attitude that the business has always survived and the key leaders will figure something out in the event of a disaster pervades corporate thinking. If you encounter this objection, you might want to point out to management the costs that will be incurred by the business (both direct costs and the indirect cost of lost opportunities) for each day that the business is down. Then ask them to consider how long a “seat-of-the-pants” recovery might take when compared to an orderly, planned continuity of operations.

Legal and Regulatory Requirements Many industries may find themselves bound by federal, state, and local laws or regulations that require them to implement various degrees of BCP. We’ve already discussed one example in this chapter—the officers and directors of publicly traded firms have a fiduciary responsibility to exercise due diligence in the execution of their business continuity duties. In other circumstances, the requirements (and consequences of failure) might be more severe. Emergency services, such as police, fire, and emergency medical operations, have a responsibility to the community to continue operations in the event of a disaster. Indeed, their services become even more critical in an emergency when public safety is threatened. Failure on their part to implement a solid BCP could result in the loss of life and/or property and the decreased confidence of the population in their government.

In many countries, financial institutions, such as banks, brokerages, and the firms that process their data, are subject to strict government and international banking and securities regulations designed to facilitate their continued operation to ensure the viability of the national economy. When pharmaceutical manufacturers must produce

products in less-than-optimal circumstances following a disaster, they are required to certify the purity of their products to government regulators. There are countless other examples of industries that are required to continue operating in the event of an emergency by various laws and regulations.

Even if you’re not bound by any of these considerations, you might have contractual obligations to your clients that require you to implement sound BCP practices. If your contracts include some type of service-level agreement (SLA), you might find yourself in breach of those contracts if a disaster interrupts your ability to service your clients. Many clients may feel sorry for you and want to continue using your products/services, but their own business requirements might force them to sever the relationship and find new suppliers.

On the flip side of the coin, developing a strong, documented business continuity plan can help your organization win new clients and additional business from existing clients. If you can show your customers the sound procedures you have in place to continue serving them in the event of a disaster, they’ll place greater confidence in your firm and might be more likely to choose you as their preferred vendor. Not a bad position to be in!

All of these concerns point to one conclusion—it’s essential to include your organization’s legal counsel in the BCP process. They are intimately familiar with the legal, regulatory, and contractual obligations that apply to your organization and can help your team implement a plan that meets those requirements while ensuring the continued viability of the organization to the benefit of all—employees, shareholders, suppliers, and customers alike.

Laws regarding computing systems, business practices, and disaster management change frequently and vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Be sure to keep your attorneys involved throughout the lifetime of your BCP, including the testing and maintenance phases. If you restrict their involvement to a pre-implementation review of the plan, you may not become aware of the impact that changing laws and regulations have on your corporate responsibilities.

Business Impact Assessment Once your BCP team completes the four stages of preparing to create a business continuity plan, it’s time to dive into the heart of the work—the business impact assessment (BIA). The BIA identifies the resources that are critical to an organization’s ongoing viability and the threats posed to those resources. It also assesses the likelihood that each threat will actually occur and the impact those occurrences will have on the business. The results of the BIA provide you with quantitative measures that can help you

prioritize the commitment of business continuity resources to the various local, regional, and global risk exposures facing your organization.

It’s important to realize that there are two different types of analyses that business planners use when facing a decision:

Quantitative Decision Making Quantitative decision making involves the use of numbers and formulas to reach a decision. This type of data often expresses options in terms of the dollar value to the business.

Qualitative Decision Making Qualitative decision making takes non-numerical factors, such as emotions, investor/customer confidence, workforce stability, and other concerns, into account. This type of data often results in categories of prioritization (such as high, medium, and low).

Quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis both play an important role in the BCP process. However, most people tend to favor one type of analysis over the other. When selecting the individual members of the BCP team, try to achieve a balance between people who prefer each strategy. This will result in the development of a well-rounded BCP and benefit the organization in the long run.

The BIA process described in this chapter approaches the problem from both quantitative and qualitative points of view. However, it’s tempting for a BCP team to “go with the numbers” and perform a quantitative assessment while neglecting the somewhat more difficult qualitative assessment. It’s important that the BCP team performs a qualitative analysis of the factors affecting your BCP process. For example, if your business is highly dependent on a few very important clients, your management team is probably willing to suffer significant short-term financial loss in order to retain those clients in the long term. The BCP team must sit down and discuss (preferably with the involvement of senior management) qualitative concerns to develop a comprehensive approach that satisfies all stakeholders.

Identify Priorities The first BIA task facing the BCP team is identifying business priorities. Depending on your line of business, there will be certain activities that are most essential to your day- to-day operations when disaster strikes. The priority identification task, or criticality prioritization, involves creating a comprehensive list of business processes and ranking them in order of importance. Although this task may seem somewhat daunting, it’s not as hard as it seems.

A great way to divide the workload of this process among the team members is to assign each participant responsibility for drawing up a prioritized list that covers the business

functions for which their department is responsible. When the entire BCP team convenes, team members can use those prioritized lists to create a master prioritized list for the entire organization.

This process helps identify business priorities from a qualitative point of view. Recall that we’re describing an attempt to simultaneously develop both qualitative and quantitative BIAs. To begin the quantitative assessment, the BCP team should sit down and draw up a list of organization assets and then assign an asset value (AV) in monetary terms to each asset. These numbers will be used in the remaining BIA steps to develop a financially based BIA.

The second quantitative measure that the team must develop is the maximum tolerable downtime (MTD), sometimes also known as maximum tolerable outage (MTO). The MTD is the maximum length of time a business function can be inoperable without causing irreparable harm to the business. The MTD provides valuable information when you’re performing both BCP and DRP planning.

This leads to another metric, the recovery time objective (RTO), for each business function. This is the amount of time in which you think you can feasibly recover the function in the event of a disruption. Once you have defined your recovery objectives, you can design and plan the procedures necessary to accomplish the recovery tasks.

The goal of the BCP process is to ensure that your RTOs are less than your MTDs, resulting in a situation in which a function should never be unavailable beyond the maximum tolerable downtime.

Risk Identification The next phase of the BIA is the identification of risks posed to your organization. Some elements of this organization-specific list may come to mind immediately. The identification of other, more obscure risks might take a little creativity on the part of the BCP team.

Risks come in two forms: natural risks and man-made risks. The following list includes some events that pose natural threats:

Violent storms/hurricanes/tornadoes/blizzards

Earthquakes

Mudslides/avalanches

Volcanic eruptions

Man-made threats include the following events:

Terrorist acts/wars/civil unrest

Theft/vandalism

Fires/explosions

Prolonged power outages

Building collapses

Transportation failures

Remember, these are by no means all-inclusive lists. They merely identify some common risks that many organizations face. You may want to use them as a starting point, but a full listing of risks facing your organization will require input from all members of the BCP team.

The risk identification portion of the process is purely qualitative in nature. At this point in the process, the BCP team should not be concerned about the likelihood that each type of risk will actually materialize or the amount of damage such an occurrence would inflict upon the continued operation of the business. The results of this analysis will drive both the qualitative and quantitative portions of the remaining BIA tasks.

Business Impact Assessment and the Cloud As you conduct your business impact assessment, don’t forget to take any cloud vendors on which your organization relies into account. Depending on the nature of the cloud service, the vendor’s own business continuity arrangements may have a critical impact on your organization’s business operations as well.

Consider, for example, a firm that outsourced email and calendaring to a third-party Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) provider. Does the contract with that provider include details about the provider’s SLA and commitments for restoring operations in the event of a disaster?

Also remember that a contract is not normally sufficient due diligence when choosing a cloud provider. You should also verify that they have the controls in place to deliver on their contractual commitments. Although it may not be possible for you to physically visit the vendor’s facilities to verify their control implementation, you can always do the next best thing—send someone else!

Now, before you go off identifying an emissary and booking flights, realize that many of your vendor’s customers are probably asking the same question. For this reason, the vendor may have already hired an independent auditing firm to conduct an assessment of their controls. They can make the results of this assessment available to you in the form of a service organization control (SOC) report.

Keep in mind that there are three different versions of the SOC report. The simplest of these, a SOC-1 report, covers only internal controls over financial reporting. If you want to verify the security, privacy, and availability controls, you’ll want to review either an SOC-2 or SOC-3 report. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) sets and maintains the standards surrounding these reports to maintain consistency between auditors from different accounting firms.

Likelihood Assessment The preceding step consisted of the BCP team’s drawing up a comprehensive list of the events that can be a threat to an organization. You probably recognized that some events are much more likely to happen than others. For example, a business in Southern California is much more likely to face the risk of an earthquake than to face the risk posed by a volcanic eruption. A business based in Hawaii might have the exact opposite likelihood that each risk would occur.

To account for these differences, the next phase of the business impact assessment identifies the likelihood that each risk will occur. To keep calculations consistent, this assessment is usually expressed in terms of an annualized rate of occurrence (ARO) that reflects the number of times a business expects to experience a given disaster each year.

The BCP team should sit down and determine an ARO for each risk identified in the previous section. These numbers should be based on corporate history, professional experience of team members, and advice from experts, such as meteorologists, seismologists, fire prevention professionals, and other consultants, as needed.

In addition to the government resources identified in this chapter, insurance companies develop large repositories of risk information as part of their actuarial processes. You may be able to obtain this information from them to assist in your BCP efforts. After all, you have a mutual interest in preventing damage to your business!

In many cases, you may be able to find likelihood assessments for some risks prepared by experts at no cost to you. For example, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed the earthquake hazard map shown in Figure 3.1. This map illustrates the ARO for earthquakes in various regions of the United States. Similarly, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) coordinates the development of detailed flood maps of local communities throughout the United States. These resources are available online and offer a wealth of information to organizations performing a business impact assessment.

Figure 3.1 Earthquake hazard map of the United States

Impact Assessment As you may have surmised based on its name, the impact assessment is one of the most critical portions of the business impact assessment. In this phase, you analyze the data gathered during risk identification and likelihood assessment and attempt to determine what impact each one of the identified risks would have on the business if it were to occur.

From a quantitative point of view, we will cover three specific metrics: the exposure factor, the single loss expectancy, and the annualized loss expectancy. Each one of these values is computed for each specific risk/asset combination evaluated during the previous phases.

The exposure factor (EF) is the amount of damage that the risk poses to the asset, expressed as a percentage of the asset’s value. For example, if the BCP team consults with fire experts and determines that a building fire would cause 70 percent of the building to be destroyed, the exposure factor of the building to fire is 70 percent.

The single loss expectancy (SLE) is the monetary loss that is expected each time the risk materializes. You can compute the SLE using the following formula:

SLE = AV × EF

Continuing with the preceding example, if the building is worth $500,000, the single loss expectancy would be 70 percent of $500,000, or $350,000. You can interpret this figure to mean that a single fire in the building would be expected to cause $350,000 worth of damage.

The annualized loss expectancy (ALE) is the monetary loss that the business expects to

occur as a result of the risk harming the asset over the course of a year. You already have all the data necessary to perform this calculation. The SLE is the amount of damage you expect each time a disaster strikes, and the ARO (from the likelihood analysis) is the number of times you expect a disaster to occur each year. You compute the ALE by simply multiplying those two numbers:

ALE = SLE × ARO

Returning once again to our building example, if fire experts predict that a fire will occur in the building once every 30 years, the ARO is ~1/30, or 0.03. The ALE is then 3 percent of the $350,000 SLE, or $11,667. You can interpret this figure to mean that the business should expect to lose $11,667 each year due to a fire in the building.

Obviously, a fire will not occur each year—this figure represents the average cost over the 30 years between fires. It’s not especially useful for budgeting considerations but proves invaluable when attempting to prioritize the assignment of BCP resources to a given risk. These concepts were also covered in Chapter 2, “Personnel Security and Risk Management Concepts.”

Be certain you’re familiar with the quantitative formulas contained in this chapter and the concepts of asset value, exposure factor, annualized rate of occurrence, single loss expectancy, and annualized loss expectancy. Know the formulas and be able to work through a scenario.

From a qualitative point of view, you must consider the nonmonetary impact that interruptions might have on your business. For example, you might want to consider the following:

Loss of goodwill among your client base

Loss of employees to other jobs after prolonged downtime

Social/ethical responsibilities to the community

Negative publicity

It’s difficult to put dollar values on items like these in order to include them in the quantitative portion of the impact assessment, but they are equally important. After all, if you decimate your client base, you won’t have a business to return to when you’re ready to resume operations!

Resource Prioritization The final step of the BIA is to prioritize the allocation of business continuity resources to the various risks that you identified and assessed in the preceding tasks of the BIA.

From a quantitative point of view, this process is relatively straightforward. You simply create a list of all the risks you analyzed during the BIA process and sort them in descending order according to the ALE computed during the impact assessment phase. This provides you with a prioritized list of the risks that you should address. Select as many items as you’re willing and able to address simultaneously from the top of the list and work your way down. Eventually, you’ll reach a point at which you’ve exhausted either the list of risks (unlikely!) or all your available resources (much more likely!).

Recall from the previous section that we also stressed the importance of addressing qualitatively important concerns. In previous sections about the BIA, we treated quantitative and qualitative analysis as mainly separate functions with some overlap in the analysis. Now it’s time to merge the two prioritized lists, which is more of an art than a science. You must sit down with the BCP team and representatives from the senior management team and combine the two lists into a single prioritized list.

Qualitative concerns may justify elevating or lowering the priority of risks that already exist on the ALE-sorted quantitative list. For example, if you run a fire suppression company, your number-one priority might be the prevention of a fire in your principal place of business despite the fact that an earthquake might cause more physical damage. The potential loss of reputation within the business community resulting from the destruction of a fire suppression company by fire might be too difficult to overcome and result in the eventual collapse of the business, justifying the increased priority.

Continuity Planning The first two phases of the BCP process (project scope and planning and the business impact assessment) focus on determining how the BCP process will work and prioritizing the business assets that must be protected against interruption. The next phase of BCP development, continuity planning, focuses on developing and implementing a continuity strategy to minimize the impact realized risks might have on protected assets.

In this section, you’ll learn about the subtasks involved in continuity planning:

Strategy development

Provisions and processes

Plan approval

Plan implementation

Training and education

Strategy Development The strategy development phase bridges the gap between the business impact assessment and the continuity planning phases of BCP development. The BCP team must now take the prioritized list of concerns raised by the quantitative and qualitative resource

prioritization exercises and determine which risks will be addressed by the business continuity plan. Fully addressing all the contingencies would require the implementation of provisions and processes that maintain a zero-downtime posture in the face of every possible risk. For obvious reasons, implementing a policy this comprehensive is simply impossible.

The BCP team should look back to the MTD estimates created during the early stages of the BIA and determine which risks are deemed acceptable and which must be mitigated by BCP continuity provisions. Some of these decisions are obvious—the risk of a blizzard striking an operations facility in Egypt is negligible and would be deemed an acceptable risk. The risk of a monsoon in New Delhi is serious enough that it must be mitigated by BCP provisions.

Keep in mind that there are four possible responses to a risk: reduce, assign, accept, and reject. Each may be an acceptable response based upon the circumstances.

Once the BCP team determines which risks require mitigation and the level of resources that will be committed to each mitigation task, they are ready to move on to the provisions and processes phase of continuity planning.

Provisions and Processes The provisions and processes phase of continuity planning is the meat of the entire business continuity plan. In this task, the BCP team designs the specific procedures and mechanisms that will mitigate the risks deemed unacceptable during the strategy development stage. Three categories of assets must be protected through BCP provisions and processes: people, buildings/facilities, and infrastructure. In the next three sections, we’ll explore some of the techniques you can use to safeguard these categories.

People First and foremost, you must ensure that the people within your organization are safe before, during, and after an emergency. Once you’ve achieved that goal, you must make provisions to allow your employees to conduct both their BCP and operational tasks in as normal a manner as possible given the circumstances.

Don’t lose sight of the fact that people are your most valuable asset. The safety of people must always come before the organization’s business goals. Make sure that your business continuity plan makes adequate provisions for the security of your

employees, customers, suppliers, and any other individuals who may be affected!

People should be provided with all the resources they need to complete their assigned tasks. At the same time, if circumstances dictate that people be present in the workplace for extended periods of time, arrangements must be made for shelter and food. Any continuity plan that requires these provisions should include detailed instructions for the BCP team in the event of a disaster. The organization should maintain stockpiles of provisions sufficient to feed the operational and support teams for an extended period of time in an accessible location. Plans should specify the periodic rotation of those stockpiles to prevent spoilage.

Buildings and Facilities Many businesses require specialized facilities in order to carry out their critical operations. These might include standard office facilities, manufacturing plants, operations centers, warehouses, distribution/logistics centers, and repair/maintenance depots, among others. When you perform your BIA, you will identify those facilities that play a critical role in your organization’s continued viability. Your continuity plan should address two areas for each critical facility:

Hardening Provisions Your BCP should outline mechanisms and procedures that can be put in place to protect your existing facilities against the risks defined in the strategy development phase. This might include steps as simple as patching a leaky roof or as complex as installing reinforced hurricane shutters and fireproof walls.

Alternate Sites In the event that it’s not feasible to harden a facility against a risk, your BCP should identify alternate sites where business activities can resume immediately (or at least in a period of time that’s shorter than the maximum tolerable downtime for all affected critical business functions). Chapter 18, “Disaster Recovery Planning,” describes a few of the facility types that might be useful in this stage.

Infrastructure Every business depends on some sort of infrastructure for its critical processes. For many businesses, a critical part of this infrastructure is an IT backbone of communications and computer systems that process orders, manage the supply chain, handle customer interaction, and perform other business functions. This backbone consists of a number of servers, workstations, and critical communications links between sites. The BCP must address how these systems will be protected against risks identified during the strategy development phase. As with buildings and facilities, there are two main methods of providing this protection:

Physically Hardening Systems You can protect systems against the risks by introducing protective measures such as computer-safe fire suppression systems and uninterruptible power supplies.

Alternative Systems You can also protect business functions by introducing

redundancy (either redundant components or completely redundant systems/communications links that rely on different facilities).

These same principles apply to whatever infrastructure components serve your critical business processes—transportation systems, electrical power grids, banking and financial systems, water supplies, and so on.

Plan Approval Once the BCP team completes the design phase of the BCP document, it’s time to gain top-level management endorsement of the plan. If you were fortunate enough to have senior management involvement throughout the development phases of the plan, this should be a relatively straightforward process. On the other hand, if this is your first time approaching management with the BCP document, you should be prepared to provide a lengthy explanation of the plan’s purpose and specific provisions.

Senior management approval and buy-in is essential to the success of the overall BCP effort.

If possible, you should attempt to have the plan endorsed by the top executive in your business—the chief executive officer, chairman, president, or similar business leader. This move demonstrates the importance of the plan to the entire organization and showcases the business leader’s commitment to business continuity. The signature of such an individual on the plan also gives it much greater weight and credibility in the eyes of other senior managers, who might otherwise brush it off as a necessary but trivial IT initiative.

Plan Implementation Once you’ve received approval from senior management, it’s time to dive in and start implementing your plan. The BCP team should get together and develop an implementation schedule that utilizes the resources dedicated to the program to achieve the stated process and provision goals in as prompt a manner as possible given the scope of the modifications and the organizational climate.

After all the resources are fully deployed, the BCP team should supervise the conduct of an appropriate BCP maintenance program to ensure that the plan remains responsive to evolving business needs.

Training and Education Training and education are essential elements of the BCP implementation. All personnel who will be involved in the plan (either directly or indirectly) should receive some sort of

training on the overall plan and their individual responsibilities.

Everyone in the organization should receive at least a plan overview briefing to provide them with the confidence that business leaders have considered the possible risks posed to continued operation of the business and have put a plan in place to mitigate the impact on the organization should business be disrupted.

People with direct BCP responsibilities should be trained and evaluated on their specific BCP tasks to ensure that they are able to complete them efficiently when disaster strikes. Furthermore, at least one backup person should be trained for every BCP task to ensure redundancy in the event personnel are injured or cannot reach the workplace during an emergency.

BCP Documentation Documentation is a critical step in the business continuity planning process. Committing your BCP methodology to paper provides several important benefits:

It ensures that BCP personnel have a written continuity document to reference in the event of an emergency, even if senior BCP team members are not present to guide the effort.

It provides a historical record of the BCP process that will be useful to future personnel seeking to both understand the reasoning behind various procedures and implement necessary changes in the plan.

It forces the team members to commit their thoughts to paper—a process that often facilitates the identification of flaws in the plan. Having the plan on paper also allows draft documents to be distributed to individuals not on the BCP team for a “sanity check.”

In the following sections, we’ll explore some of the important components of the written business continuity plan.

Continuity Planning Goals First, the plan should describe the goals of continuity planning as set forth by the BCP team and senior management. These goals should be decided on at or before the first BCP team meeting and will most likely remain unchanged throughout the life of the BCP.

The most common goal of the BCP is quite simple: to ensure the continuous operation of the business in the face of an emergency situation. Other goals may also be inserted in this section of the document to meet organizational needs. For example, you might have goals that your customer call center experience no more than 15 consecutive minutes of downtime or that your backup servers be able to handle 75 percent of your processing load within 1 hour of activation.

Statement of Importance

The statement of importance reflects the criticality of the BCP to the organization’s continued viability. This document commonly takes the form of a letter to the organization’s employees stating the reason that the organization devoted significant resources to the BCP development process and requesting the cooperation of all personnel in the BCP implementation phase.

Here’s where the importance of senior executive buy-in comes into play. If you can put out this letter under the signature of the CEO or an officer at a similar level, the plan will carry tremendous weight as you attempt to implement changes throughout the organization. If you have the signature of a lower-level manager, you may encounter resistance as you attempt to work with portions of the organization outside of that individual’s direct control.

Statement of Priorities The statement of priorities flows directly from the identify priorities phase of the business impact assessment. It simply involves listing the functions considered critical to continued business operations in a prioritized order. When listing these priorities, you should also include a statement that they were developed as part of the BCP process and reflect the importance of the functions to continued business operations in the event of an emergency and nothing more. Otherwise, the list of priorities could be used for unintended purposes and result in a political turf battle between competing organizations to the detriment of the business continuity plan.

Statement of Organizational Responsibility The statement of organizational responsibility also comes from a senior-level executive and can be incorporated into the same letter as the statement of importance. It basically echoes the sentiment that “business continuity is everyone’s responsibility!” The statement of organizational responsibility restates the organization’s commitment to business continuity planning and informs employees, vendors, and affiliates that they are individually expected to do everything they can to assist with the BCP process.

Statement of Urgency and Timing The statement of urgency and timing expresses the criticality of implementing the BCP and outlines the implementation timetable decided on by the BCP team and agreed to by upper management. The wording of this statement will depend on the actual urgency assigned to the BCP process by the organization’s leadership. If the statement itself is included in the same letter as the statement of priorities and statement of organizational responsibility, the timetable should be included as a separate document. Otherwise, the timetable and this statement can be put into the same document.

Risk Assessment

The risk assessment portion of the BCP documentation essentially recaps the decision- making process undertaken during the business impact assessment. It should include a discussion of all the risks considered during the BIA as well as the quantitative and qualitative analyses performed to assess these risks. For the quantitative analysis, the actual AV, EF, ARO, SLE, and ALE figures should be included. For the qualitative analysis, the thought process behind the risk analysis should be provided to the reader. It’s important to note that the risk assessment must be updated on a regular basis because it reflects a point-in-time assessment.

Risk Acceptance/Mitigation The risk acceptance/mitigation section of the BCP documentation contains the outcome of the strategy development portion of the BCP process. It should cover each risk identified in the risk analysis portion of the document and outline one of two thought processes:

For risks that were deemed acceptable, it should outline the reasons the risk was considered acceptable as well as potential future events that might warrant reconsideration of this determination.

For risks that were deemed unacceptable, it should outline the risk management provisions and processes put into place to reduce the risk to the organization’s continued viability.

It’s far too easy to look at a difficult risk mitigation challenge and say “we accept this risk” before moving on to easier things. Business continuity planners should resist these statements and ask business leaders to formally document their risk acceptance decisions. If auditors later scrutinize your business continuity plan, they will most certainly look for formal artifacts of any risk acceptance decisions made in the BCP process.

Vital Records Program The BCP documentation should also outline a vital records program for the organization. This document states where critical business records will be stored and the procedures for making and storing backup copies of those records.

One of the biggest challenges in implementing a vital records program is often identifying the vital records in the first place! As many organizations transitioned from paper-based to digital workflows, they often lost the rigor that existed around creating and maintaining formal file structures. Vital records may now be distributed among a wide

variety of IT systems and cloud services. Some may be stored on central servers accessible to groups whereas others may be located in digital repositories assigned to an individual employee.

If that messy state of affairs sounds like your current reality, you may wish to begin your vital records program by identifying the records that are truly critical to your business. Sit down with functional leaders and ask, “If we needed to rebuild the organization today in a completely new location without access to any of our computers or files, what records would you need?” Asking the question in this way forces the team to visualize the actual process of re-creating operations and, as they walk through the steps in their minds, will produce an inventory of the organization’s vital records. This inventory may evolve over time as people remember other important information sources, so you should consider using multiple conversations to finalize it.

Once you’ve identified the records that your organization considers vital, the next task is a formidable one: find them! You should be able to identify the storage locations for each record identified in your vital records inventory. Once you’ve completed this task, you can then use this vital records inventory to inform the rest of your business continuity planning efforts.

Emergency-Response Guidelines The emergency-response guidelines outline the organizational and individual responsibilities for immediate response to an emergency situation. This document provides the first employees to detect an emergency with the steps they should take to activate provisions of the BCP that do not automatically activate. These guidelines should include the following:

Immediate response procedures (security and safety procedures, fire suppression procedures, notification of appropriate emergency-response agencies, etc.)

A list of the individuals who should be notified of the incident (executives, BCP team members, etc.)

Secondary response procedures that first responders should take while waiting for the BCP team to assemble

Your guidelines should be easily accessible to everyone in the organization who may be among the first responders to a crisis incident. Any time a disruption strikes, time is of the essence. Slowdowns in activating your business continuity procedures may result in undesirable downtime for your business operations.

Maintenance The BCP documentation and the plan itself must be living documents. Every organization encounters nearly constant change, and this dynamic nature ensures that the business’s continuity requirements will also evolve. The BCP team should not be disbanded after the plan is developed but should still meet periodically to discuss the plan and review the

results of plan tests to ensure that it continues to meet organizational needs.

Obviously, minor changes to the plan do not require conducting the full BCP development process from scratch; they can simply be made at an informal meeting of the BCP team by unanimous consent. However, keep in mind that drastic changes in an organization’s mission or resources may require going back to the BCP drawing board and beginning again.

Any time you make a change to the BCP, you must practice good version control. All older versions of the BCP should be physically destroyed and replaced by the most current version so that no confusion exists as to the correct implementation of the BCP.

It is also a good practice to include BCP components in job descriptions to ensure that the BCP remains fresh and is performed correctly. Including BCP responsibilities in an employee’s job description also makes them fair game for the performance review process.

Testing and Exercises The BCP documentation should also outline a formalized exercise program to ensure that the plan remains current and that all personnel are adequately trained to perform their duties in the event of a disaster. The testing process is quite similar to that used for the disaster recovery plan, so we’ll reserve the discussion of the specific test types for Chapter 18.

Summary Every organization dependent on technological resources for its survival should have a comprehensive business continuity plan in place to ensure the sustained viability of the organization when unforeseen emergencies take place. There are a number of important concepts that underlie solid business continuity planning (BCP) practices, including project scope and planning, business impact assessment, continuity planning, and approval and implementation.

Every organization must have plans and procedures in place to help mitigate the effects a disaster has on continuing operations and to speed the return to normal operations. To determine the risks that your business faces and that require mitigation, you must conduct a business impact assessment from both quantitative and qualitative points of view. You must take the appropriate steps in developing a continuity strategy for your organization and know what to do to weather future disasters.

Finally, you must create the documentation required to ensure that your plan is effectively communicated to present and future BCP team participants. Such documentation should include continuity planning guidelines. The business continuity plan must also contain statements of importance, priorities, organizational responsibility, and urgency and timing. In addition, the documentation should include plans for risk

assessment, acceptance, and mitigation; a vital records program; emergency-response guidelines; and plans for maintenance and testing.

Chapter 18 will take this planning to the next step—developing and implementing a disaster recovery plan. The disaster recovery plan kicks in where the business continuity plan leaves off. When an emergency occurs that interrupts your business in spite of the BCP measures, the disaster recovery plan guides the recovery efforts necessary to restore your business to normal operations as quickly as possible.

Exam Essentials Understand the four steps of the business continuity planning process. Business continuity planning (BCP) involves four distinct phases: project scope and planning, business impact assessment, continuity planning, and approval and implementation. Each task contributes to the overall goal of ensuring that business operations continue uninterrupted in the face of an emergency situation.

Describe how to perform the business organization analysis. In the business organization analysis, the individuals responsible for leading the BCP process determine which departments and individuals have a stake in the business continuity plan. This analysis is used as the foundation for BCP team selection and, after validation by the BCP team, is used to guide the next stages of BCP development.

List the necessary members of the business continuity planning team. The BCP team should contain, at a minimum, representatives from each of the operational and support departments; technical experts from the IT department; security personnel with BCP skills; legal representatives familiar with corporate legal, regulatory, and contractual responsibilities; and representatives from senior management. Additional team members depend on the structure and nature of the organization.

Know the legal and regulatory requirements that face business continuity planners. Business leaders must exercise due diligence to ensure that shareholders’ interests are protected in the event disaster strikes. Some industries are also subject to federal, state, and local regulations that mandate specific BCP procedures. Many businesses also have contractual obligations to their clients that must be met, before and after a disaster.

Explain the steps of the business impact assessment process. The five steps of the business impact assessment process are identification of priorities, risk identification, likelihood assessment, impact assessment, and resource prioritization.

Describe the process used to develop a continuity strategy. During the strategy development phase, the BCP team determines which risks will be mitigated. In the provisions and processes phase, mechanisms and procedures that will mitigate the risks are designed. The plan must then be approved by senior management and implemented. Personnel must also receive training on their roles in the BCP process.

Explain the importance of fully documenting an organization’s business continuity plan. Committing the plan to writing provides the organization with a written record of the procedures to follow when disaster strikes. It prevents the “it’s in my head” syndrome and ensures the orderly progress of events in an emergency.

Written Lab 1. Why is it important to include legal representatives on your business continuity

planning team?

2. What is wrong with the “seat-of-the-pants” approach to business continuity planning?

3. What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative risk assessment?

4. What critical components should be included in your business continuity training plan?

5. What are the four main steps of the business continuity planning process?

Review Questions 1. What is the first step that individuals responsible for the development of a business

continuity plan should perform?

A. BCP team selection

B. Business organization analysis

C. Resource requirements analysis

D. Legal and regulatory assessment

2. Once the BCP team is selected, what should be the first item placed on the team’s agenda?

A. Business impact assessment

B. Business organization analysis

C. Resource requirements analysis

D. Legal and regulatory assessment

3. What is the term used to describe the responsibility of a firm’s officers and directors to ensure that adequate measures are in place to minimize the effect of a disaster on the organization’s continued viability?

A. Corporate responsibility

B. Disaster requirement

C. Due diligence

D. Going concern responsibility

4. What will be the major resource consumed by the BCP process during the BCP phase?

A. Hardware

B. Software

C. Processing time

D. Personnel

5. What unit of measurement should be used to assign quantitative values to assets in the priority identification phase of the business impact assessment?

A. Monetary

B. Utility

C. Importance

D. Time

6. Which one of the following BIA terms identifies the amount of money a business expects to lose to a given risk each year?

A. ARO

B. SLE

C. ALE

D. EF

7. What BIA metric can be used to express the longest time a business function can be unavailable without causing irreparable harm to the organization?

A. SLE

B. EF

C. MTD

D. ARO

8. You are concerned about the risk that an avalanche poses to your $3 million shipping facility. Based on expert opinion, you determine that there is a 5 percent chance that an avalanche will occur each year. Experts advise you that an avalanche would completely destroy your building and require you to rebuild on the same land. Ninety percent of the $3 million value of the facility is attributed to the building and 10 percent is attributed to the land itself. What is the single loss expectancy of your shipping facility to avalanches?

A. $3,000,000

B. $2,700,000

C. $270,000

D. $135,000

9. Referring to the scenario in question 8, what is the annualized loss expectancy?

A. $3,000,000

B. $2,700,000

C. $270,000

D. $135,000

10. You are concerned about the risk that a hurricane poses to your corporate headquarters in South Florida. The building itself is valued at $15 million. After consulting with the National Weather Service, you determine that there is a 10 percent likelihood that a hurricane will strike over the course of a year. You hired a team of architects and engineers who determined that the average hurricane would destroy approximately 50 percent of the building. What is the annualized loss expectancy (ALE)?

A. $750,000

B. $1.5 million

C. $7.5 million

D. $15 million

11. Which task of BCP bridges the gap between the business impact assessment and the continuity planning phases?

A. Resource prioritization

B. Likelihood assessment

C. Strategy development

D. Provisions and processes

12. Which resource should you protect first when designing continuity plan provisions and processes?

A. Physical plant

B. Infrastructure

C. Financial

D. People

13. Which one of the following concerns is not suitable for quantitative measurement

during the business impact assessment?

A. Loss of a plant

B. Damage to a vehicle

C. Negative publicity

D. Power outage

14. Lighter Than Air Industries expects that it would lose $10 million if a tornado struck its aircraft operations facility. It expects that a tornado might strike the facility once every 100 years. What is the single loss expectancy for this scenario?

A. 0.01

B. $10,000,000

C. $100,000

D. 0.10

15. Referring to the scenario in question 14, what is the annualized loss expectancy?

A. 0.01

B. $10,000,000

C. $100,000

D. 0.10

16. In which business continuity planning task would you actually design procedures and mechanisms to mitigate risks deemed unacceptable by the BCP team?

A. Strategy development

B. Business impact assessment

C. Provisions and processes

D. Resource prioritization

17. What type of mitigation provision is utilized when redundant communications links are installed?

A. Hardening systems

B. Defining systems

C. Reducing systems

D. Alternative systems

18. What type of plan outlines the procedures to follow when a disaster interrupts the normal operations of a business?

A. Business continuity plan

B. Business impact assessment

C. Disaster recovery plan

D. Vulnerability assessment

19. What is the formula used to compute the single loss expectancy for a risk scenario?

A. SLE = AV × EF

B. SLE = RO × EF

C. SLE = AV × ARO

D. SLE = EF × ARO

20. Of the individuals listed, who would provide the best endorsement for a business continuity plan’s statement of importance?

A. Vice president of business operations

B. Chief information officer

C. Chief executive officer

D. Business continuity manager

Chapter 4 Laws, Regulations, and Compliance THE CISSP EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

✓ Security and Risk Management (e.g., Security, Risk, Compliance, Law, Regulations, Business Continuity)

C. Compliance

C.1 Legislative and regulatory compliance

C.2 Privacy requirements compliance

D. Understand legal and regulatory issues that pertain to information security in a global context

D.1 Computer crimes

D.2 Licensing and intellectual property (e.g. copyright, trademark, digital- rights management)

D.3 Import/export controls

D.4 Trans-border data flow

D.5 Privacy

D.6 Data breaches

In the early days of computer security, information security professionals were pretty much left on their own to defend their systems against attacks. They didn’t have much help from the criminal and civil justice systems. When they did seek assistance from law enforcement, they were met with reluctance by overworked agents who didn’t have a basic understanding of how something that involved a computer could actually be a crime. The legislative branch of government hadn’t addressed the issue of computer crime, and the executive branch thought they simply didn’t have statutory authority or obligation to pursue those matters.

Fortunately, both our legal system and the men and women of law enforcement have come a long way over the past three decades. The legislative branches of governments around the world have at least attempted to address issues of computer crime. Many law enforcement agencies have full-time, well-trained computer crime investigators with advanced security training. Those who don’t usually know where to turn when they require this sort of experience.

In this chapter, we’ll cover the various types of laws that deal with computer security issues. We’ll examine the legal issues surrounding computer crime, privacy, intellectual property, and a number of other related topics. We’ll also cover basic investigative techniques, including the pros and cons of calling in assistance from law enforcement.

Categories of Laws Three main categories of laws play a role in our legal system. Each is used to cover a variety of circumstances, and the penalties for violating laws in the different categories vary widely. In the following sections, you’ll learn how criminal law, civil law, and administrative law interact to form the complex web of our justice system.

Criminal Law Criminal law forms the bedrock of the body of laws that preserve the peace and keep our society safe. Many high-profile court cases involve matters of criminal law; these are the laws that the police and other law enforcement agencies concern themselves with. Criminal law contains prohibitions against acts such as murder, assault, robbery, and arson. Penalties for violating criminal statutes fall in a range that includes mandatory hours of community service, monetary penalties in the form of fines (small and large), and deprivation of civil liberties in the form of prison sentences.

Cops Are Smart!

A good friend of one of the authors is a technology crime investigator for the local police department. He often receives cases of computer abuse involving threatening emails and website postings.

Recently, he shared a story about a bomb threat that had been emailed to a local high school. The perpetrator sent a threatening note to the school principal declaring that the bomb would explode at 1 p.m. and warning him to evacuate the school. The author’s friend received the alert at 11 a.m., leaving him with only two hours to investigate the crime and advise the principal on the best course of action.

He quickly began issuing emergency subpoenas to Internet service providers and traced the email to a computer in the school library. At 12:15 p.m., he confronted the suspect with surveillance tapes showing him at the computer in the library as well as audit logs conclusively proving that he had sent the email. The student quickly admitted that the threat was nothing more than a ploy to get out of school a couple of hours early. His explanation? “I didn’t think there was anyone around here who could trace stuff like that.”

He was wrong.

A number of criminal laws serve to protect society against computer crime. In later sections of this chapter, you’ll learn how some laws, such as the Computer Fraud and

Abuse Act, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, and the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act (among others), provide criminal penalties for serious cases of computer crime. Technically savvy prosecutors teamed with concerned law enforcement agencies have dealt serious blows to the “hacking underground” by using the court system to slap lengthy prison terms on offenders guilty of what used to be considered harmless pranks.

In the United States, legislative bodies at all levels of government establish criminal laws through elected representatives. At the federal level, both the House of Representatives and the Senate must pass criminal law bills by a majority vote (in most cases) in order for the bill to become law. Once passed, these laws then become federal law and apply in all cases where the federal government has jurisdiction (mainly cases that involve interstate commerce, cases that cross state boundaries, or cases that are offenses against the federal government itself). If federal jurisdiction does not apply, state authorities handle the case using laws passed in a similar manner by state legislators.

All federal and state laws must comply with the ultimate authority that dictates how the U.S. system of government works—the U.S. Constitution. All laws are subject to judicial review by regional courts with the right of appeal all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States. If a court finds that a law is unconstitutional, it has the power to strike it down and render it invalid.

Keep in mind that criminal law is a serious matter. If you find yourself involved—as a witness, defendant, or victim—in a matter where criminal authorities become involved, you’d be well advised to seek advice from an attorney familiar with the criminal justice system and specifically with matters of computer crime. It’s not wise to “go it alone” in such a complex system.

Civil Law Civil laws form the bulk of our body of laws. They are designed to provide for an orderly society and govern matters that are not crimes but that require an impartial arbiter to settle between individuals and organizations. Examples of the types of matters that may be judged under civil law include contract disputes, real estate transactions, employment matters, and estate/probate procedures. Civil laws also are used to create the framework of government that the executive branch uses to carry out its responsibilities. These laws provide budgets for governmental activities and lay out the authority granted to the executive branch to create administrative laws (see the next section).

Civil laws are enacted in the same manner as criminal laws. They must pass through the legislative process before enactment and are subject to the same constitutional parameters and judicial review procedures. At the federal level, both criminal and civil laws are embodied in the United States Code (USC).

The major difference between civil laws and criminal laws is the way in which they are enforced. Usually, law enforcement authorities do not become involved in matters of civil

law beyond taking action necessary to restore order. In a criminal prosecution, the government, through law enforcement investigators and prosecutors, brings action against a person accused of a crime. In civil matters, it is incumbent upon the person who thinks they have been wronged to obtain legal counsel and file a civil lawsuit against the person they think is responsible for their grievance. The government (unless it is the plaintiff or defendant) does not take sides in the dispute or argue one position or the other. The only role of the government in civil matters is to provide the judges, juries, and court facilities used to hear civil cases and to play an administrative role in managing the judicial system in accordance with the law.

As with criminal law, it is best to obtain legal assistance if you think you need to file a civil lawsuit or if someone files a civil lawsuit against you. Although civil law does not impose the threat of imprisonment, the losing party may face severe financial penalties. You don’t need to look any further than the nightly news for examples—multimillion- dollar cases against tobacco companies, major corporations, and wealthy individuals are filed every day.

Administrative Law The executive branch of our government charges numerous agencies with wide-ranging responsibilities to ensure that government functions effectively. It is the duty of these agencies to abide by and enforce the criminal and civil laws enacted by the legislative branch. However, as can be easily imagined, criminal and civil law can’t possibly lay out rules and procedures that should be followed in any possible situation. Therefore, executive branch agencies have some leeway to enact administrative law, in the form of policies, procedures, and regulations that govern the daily operations of the agency. Administrative law covers topics as mundane as the procedures to be used within a federal agency to obtain a desk telephone to more substantial issues such as the immigration policies that will be used to enforce the laws passed by Congress. Administrative law is published in the Code of Federal Regulations, often referred to as the CFR.

Although administrative law does not require an act of the legislative branch to gain the force of law, it must comply with all existing civil and criminal laws. Government agencies may not implement regulations that directly contradict existing laws passed by the legislature. Furthermore, administrative laws (and the actions of government agencies) must also comply with the U.S. Constitution and are subject to judicial review.

In order to understand compliance requirements and procedures, it is necessary to be fully versed in the complexities of the law. From administrative law to civil law to criminal law (and, in some countries, even religious law), navigating the regulatory environment is a daunting task. The CISSP exam focuses on the generalities of law, regulations, investigations, and compliance as they affect organizational security efforts. However, it is your responsibility to seek out professional help (i.e., an attorney) to guide and support you in your efforts to maintain legal and legally supportable security.

Laws Throughout these sections, we’ll examine a number of laws that relate to information technology. By necessity, this discussion is U.S.-centric, as is the material covered by the CISSP exam. We’ll look briefly at several high-profile foreign laws, such as the European Union’s data privacy act. However, if you operate in an environment that involves foreign jurisdictions, you should retain local legal counsel to guide you through the system.

Every information security professional should have a basic understanding of the law as it relates to information technology. However, the most important lesson to be learned is knowing when it’s necessary to call in an attorney. If you think you’re in a legal “gray area,” it’s best to seek professional advice.

Computer Crime The first computer security issues addressed by legislators were those involving computer crime. Early computer crime prosecutions were attempted under traditional criminal law, and many were dismissed because judges thought that applying traditional law to this modern type of crime was too far of a stretch. Legislators responded by passing specific statutes that defined computer crime and laid out specific penalties for various crimes. In the following sections, we’ll cover several of those statutes.

The U.S. laws discussed in this chapter are federal laws. But keep in mind that almost every state in the union has also enacted some form of legislation regarding computer security issues. Because of the global reach of the Internet, most computer crimes cross state lines and, therefore, fall under federal jurisdiction and are prosecuted in the federal court system. However, in some circumstances, state laws can be more restrictive than federal laws and impose harsher penalties.

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Congress first enacted computer crime law as part of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act (CCCA) of 1984, and it remains in force today, with several amendments. This law was carefully written to exclusively cover computer crimes that crossed state boundaries to avoid infringing on states’ rights and treading on thin constitutional ice. The major provisions of the act are that it is a crime to perform the following:

Access classified information or financial information in a federal system without

authorization or in excess of authorized privileges

Access a computer used exclusively by the federal government without authorization

Use a federal computer to perpetrate a fraud (unless the only object of the fraud was to gain use of the computer itself)

Cause malicious damage to a federal computer system in excess of $1,000

Modify medical records in a computer when doing so impairs or may impair the examination, diagnosis, treatment, or medical care of an individual

Traffic in computer passwords if the trafficking affects interstate commerce or involves a federal computer system

Computer crime law enacted as part of the CCCA was amended by the more well-known Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) in 1986 to change the scope of the regulation. Instead of merely covering federal computers that processed sensitive information, the act was changed to cover all “federal interest” computers. This widened the coverage of the act to include the following:

Any computer used exclusively by the U.S. government

Any computer used exclusively by a financial institution

Any computer used by the government or a financial institution when the offense impedes the ability of the government or institution to use that system

Any combination of computers used to commit an offense when they are not all located in the same state

When preparing for the CISSP exam, be sure you’re able to briefly describe the purpose of each law discussed in this chapter.

1994 CFAA Amendments In 1994, Congress recognized that the face of computer security had drastically changed since the CFAA was last amended in 1986 and made a number of sweeping changes to the act. Collectively, these changes are referred to as the Computer Abuse Amendments Act of 1994 and included the following provisions:

Outlawed the creation of any type of malicious code that might cause damage to a computer system

Modified the CFAA to cover any computer used in interstate commerce rather than just “federal interest” computer systems

Allowed for the imprisonment of offenders, regardless of whether they actually intended to cause damage

Provided legal authority for the victims of computer crime to pursue civil action to gain injunctive relief and compensation for damages

In 2015, President Barack Obama proposed significant changes to the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act that would bring computer crimes into the scope of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) statutes used to combat organized crime. That proposal was still pending as this book went to press.

Computer Security Act of 1987 After amending the CFAA in 1986 to cover a wider variety of computer systems, Congress turned its view inward and examined the current state of computer security in federal government systems. Members of Congress were not satisfied with what they saw and they enacted the Computer Security Act (CSA) of 1987 to mandate baseline security requirements for all federal agencies. In the introduction to the CSA, Congress specified four main purposes of the act:

To give the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) responsibility for developing standards and guidelines for federal computer systems. For this purpose, NIST draws on the technical advice and assistance (including work products) of the National Security Agency where appropriate.

To provide for the enactment of such standards and guidelines.

To require the establishment of security plans by all operators of federal computer systems that contain sensitive information.

To require mandatory periodic training for all people involved in management, use, or operation of federal computer systems that contain sensitive information.

This act clearly set out a number of requirements that formed the basis of federal computer security policy for many years. It also divided responsibility for computer security among two federal agencies. The National Security Agency (NSA), which formerly had authority over all computer security issues, retained authority over classified systems, but NIST gained responsibility for securing all other federal government systems. NIST produces the 800 series of Special Publications related to computer security in the federal government. These are useful for all security practitioners and are available for free online here: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsSPs.html

Federal Sentencing Guidelines The Federal Sentencing Guidelines released in 1991 provided punishment guidelines to help federal judges interpret computer crime laws. Three major provisions of these guidelines have had a lasting impact on the information security community:

The guidelines formalized the prudent man rule, which requires senior executives to take personal responsibility for ensuring the due care that ordinary, prudent individuals would exercise in the same situation. This rule, developed in the realm of fiscal responsibility, now applies to information security as well.

The guidelines allowed organizations and executives to minimize punishment for infractions by demonstrating that they used due diligence in the conduct of their information security duties.

The guidelines outlined three burdens of proof for negligence. First, the person accused of negligence must have a legally recognized obligation. Second, the person must have failed to comply with recognized standards. Finally, there must be a causal relationship between the act of negligence and subsequent damages.

National Information Infrastructure Protection Act of 1996 In 1996, Congress passed yet another set of amendments to the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act designed to further extend the protection it provides. The National Information Infrastructure Protection Act included the following main new areas of coverage:

Broadens CFAA to cover computer systems used in international commerce in addition to systems used in interstate commerce

Extends similar protections to portions of the national infrastructure other than computing systems, such as railroads, gas pipelines, electric power grids, and telecommunications circuits

Treats any intentional or reckless act that causes damage to critical portions of the national infrastructure as a felony

Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 requires that agencies obtain Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval before requesting most types of information from the public. Information collections include forms, interviews, record-keeping requirements, and a wide variety of other things. The Government Information Security Reform Act (GISRA) of 2000 amended this act, as described in the next section.

Government Information Security Reform Act of 2000 The Government Information Security Reform Act (GISRA) of 2000 amended the Paperwork Reduction Act to implement additional information security policies and procedures. In the text of the act, Congress laid out five basic purposes for establishing the GISRA:

To provide a comprehensive framework for establishing and ensuring the effectiveness of controls over information resources that support federal operations and assets

To recognize the highly networked nature of the federal computing environment, including the need for federal government interoperability, and in the implementation of improved security management measures, to assure that opportunities for interoperability are not adversely affected

To provide effective government-wide management and oversight of the related information security risks, including coordination of information security efforts throughout the civilian, national security, and law enforcement communities

To provide for development and maintenance of minimum controls required to protect federal information and information systems

To provide a mechanism for improved oversight of federal agency information security programs

The provisions of the GISRA continue to charge the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Security Agency with security oversight responsibilities for unclassified and classified information processing systems, respectively. However, GISRA places the burden of maintaining the security and integrity of government information and information systems squarely on the shoulders of individual agency leaders.

GISRA also creates a new category of computer system. A mission-critical system meets one of the following criteria:

It is defined as a national security system by other provisions of law.

It is protected by procedures established for classified information.

The loss, misuse, disclosure, or unauthorized access to or modification of any information it processes would have a debilitating impact on the mission of an agency.

GISRA provides specific evaluation and auditing authority for mission-critical systems to the secretary of defense and the director of central intelligence. This is an attempt to ensure that all government agencies, even those that do not routinely deal with classified national security information, implement adequate security controls on systems that are absolutely critical to the continued functioning of the agency.

For the past 10 years, Congress failed to pass any new significant regulation of computer crime, but there has been a recent push to enact new laws. Notable failures include the Cybersecurity Act of 2012 and the Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act of 2013.

Although these bills failed to become law, it is likely that the push to enact new cybercrime law will continue, and new regulations loom on the horizon.

Federal Information Security Management Act The Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA), passed in 2002, requires that federal agencies implement an information security program that covers the agency’s operations. FISMA also requires that government agencies include the activities of contractors in their security management programs. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), responsible for developing the FISMA implementation guidelines, outlines the following elements of an effective information security program:

Periodic assessments of risk, including the magnitude of harm that could result from the unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction of information and information systems that support the operations and assets of the organization

Policies and procedures that are based on risk assessments, cost-effectively reduce information security risks to an acceptable level, and ensure that information security is addressed throughout the life cycle of each organizational information system

Subordinate plans for providing adequate information security for networks, facilities, information systems, or groups of information systems, as appropriate

Security awareness training to inform personnel (including contractors and other users of information systems that support the operations and assets of the organization) of the information security risks associated with their activities and their responsibilities in complying with organizational policies and procedures designed to reduce these risks

Periodic testing and evaluation of the effectiveness of information security policies, procedures, practices, and security controls to be performed with a frequency depending on risk, but no less than annually

A process for planning, implementing, evaluating, and documenting remedial actions to address any deficiencies in the information security policies, procedures, and practices of the organization

Procedures for detecting, reporting, and responding to security incidents

Plans and procedures to ensure continuity of operations for information systems that support the operations and assets of the organization.

FISMA places a significant burden on federal agencies and government contractors, who must develop and maintain substantial documentation of their FISMA compliance activities.

Intellectual Property America’s role in the global economy is shifting away from a manufacturer of goods and toward a provider of services. This trend also shows itself in many of the world’s large

industrialized nations. With this shift toward providing services, intellectual property takes on an increasingly important role in many firms. Indeed, it is arguable that the most valuable assets of many large multinational companies are simply the brand names that we’ve all come to recognize. Company names such as Dell, Procter & Gamble, and Merck bring instant credibility to any product. Publishing companies, movie producers, and artists depend on their creative output to earn their livelihood. Many products depend on secret recipes or production techniques—take the legendary secret formula for Coca-Cola or KFC’s secret blend of herbs and spices, for example.

These intangible assets are collectively referred to as intellectual property, and a whole host of laws exist to protect the rights of their owners. After all, it simply wouldn’t be fair if a music store bought only one copy of each artist’s CD and burned copies for all of its customers—that would deprive the artist of the benefits of their labor. In the following sections, we’ll explore the laws surrounding the four major types of intellectual property —copyrights, trademarks, patents, and trade secrets. We’ll also discuss how these concepts specifically concern information security professionals. Many countries protect (or fail to protect) these rights in different ways, but the basic concepts ring true throughout the world.

Some countries are notorious for violating intellectual property rights. The most notable example is China. China is world renowned for its blatant disregard of copyright and patent law. If you’re planning to do business in this region of the world, you should definitely consult with an attorney who specializes in this area.

Copyrights and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act Copyright law guarantees the creators of “original works of authorship” protection against the unauthorized duplication of their work. Eight broad categories of works qualify for copyright protection:

Literary works

Musical works

Dramatic works

Pantomimes and choreographic works

Pictorial, graphical, and sculptural works

Motion pictures and other audiovisual works

Sound recordings

Architectural works

There is precedent for copyrighting computer software—it’s done under the scope of literary works. However, it’s important to note that copyright law protects only the expression inherent in computer software—that is, the actual source code. It does not protect the ideas or process behind the software. There has also been some question over whether copyrights can be extended to cover the “look and feel” of a software package’s graphical user interface. Court decisions have gone in both directions on this matter; if you will be involved in this type of issue, you should consult a qualified intellectual property attorney to determine the current state of legislation and case law.

There is a formal procedure to obtain a copyright that involves sending copies of the protected work along with an appropriate registration fee to the U.S. Copyright Office. For more information on this process, visit the office’s website at www.copyright.gov. However, it is important to note that officially registering a copyright is not a prerequisite for copyright enforcement. Indeed, the law states that the creator of a work has an automatic copyright from the instant the work is created. If you can prove in court that you were the creator of a work (perhaps by publishing it), you will be protected under copyright law. Official registration merely provides the government’s acknowledgment that they received your work on a specific date.

Copyright ownership always defaults to the creator of a work. The exceptions to this policy are works for hire. A work is considered “for hire” when it is made for an employer during the normal course of an employee’s workday. For example, when an employee in a company’s public relations department writes a press release, the press release is considered a work for hire. A work may also be considered a work for hire when it is made as part of a written contract declaring it as such.

Current copyright law provides for a very lengthy period of protection. Works by one or more authors are protected until 70 years after the death of the last surviving author. Works for hire and anonymous works are provided protection for 95 years from the date of first publication or 120 years from the date of creation, whichever is shorter.

In 1998, Congress recognized the rapidly changing digital landscape that was stretching the reach of existing copyright law. To help meet this challenge, it enacted the hotly debated Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). The DMCA also serves to bring U.S. copyright law into compliance with terms of two World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) treaties.

The first major provision of the DMCA is the prohibition of attempts to circumvent copyright protection mechanisms placed on a protected work by the copyright holder. This clause was designed to protect copy-prevention mechanisms placed on digital media such as CDs and DVDs. The DMCA provides for penalties of up to $1,000,000 and 10 years in prison for repeat offenders. Nonprofit institutions such as libraries and schools are exempted from this provision.

The DMCA also limits the liability of Internet service providers when their circuits are used by criminals violating the copyright law. The DMCA recognizes that ISPs have a legal status similar to the “common carrier” status of telephone companies and does not hold

them liable for the “transitory activities” of their users. To qualify for this exemption, the service provider’s activities must meet the following requirements (quoted directly from the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, U.S. Copyright Office Summary, December 1998):

The transmission must be initiated by a person other than the provider.

The transmission, routing, provision of connections, or copying must be carried out by an automated technical process without selection of material by the service provider.

The service provider must not determine the recipients of the material.

Any intermediate copies must not ordinarily be accessible to anyone other than anticipated recipients, and must not be retained for longer than reasonably necessary.

The material must be transmitted with no modification to its content.

The DMCA also exempts activities of service providers related to system caching, search engines, and the storage of information on a network by individual users. However, in those cases, the service provider must take prompt action to remove copyrighted materials upon notification of the infringement.

Congress also included provisions in the DMCA that allow the creation of backup copies of computer software and any maintenance, testing, or routine usage activities that require software duplication. These provisions apply only if the software is licensed for use on a particular computer, the usage is in compliance with the license agreement, and any such copies are immediately deleted when no longer required for a permitted activity.

Finally, the DMCA spells out the application of copyright law principles to the emerging field of webcasting, or broadcasting audio and/or video content to recipients over the Internet. This technology is often referred to as streaming audio or streaming video. The DMCA states that these uses are to be treated as “eligible nonsubscription transmissions.” The law in this area is still under development, so if you plan to engage in this type of activity, you should contact an attorney to ensure that you are in compliance with current law.

Keep an eye on the development of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), which proposes a framework for international enforcement of intellectual property protections. As of February 2015, the treaty awaited ratification by the European Union member states, the United States, and five other nations.

Trademarks

Copyright laws are used to protect creative works; there is also protection for trademarks, which are words, slogans, and logos used to identify a company and its products or services. For example, a business might obtain a copyright on its sales brochure to ensure that competitors can’t duplicate its sales materials. That same business might also seek to obtain trademark protection for its company name and the names of specific products and services that it offers to its clients.

The main objective of trademark protection is to avoid confusion in the marketplace while protecting the intellectual property rights of people and organizations. As with copyright protection, trademarks do not need to be officially registered to gain protection under the law. If you use a trademark in the course of your public activities, you are automatically protected under any relevant trademark law and can use the ™ symbol to show that you intend to protect words or slogans as trademarks. If you want official recognition of your trademark, you can register it with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). This process generally requires an attorney to perform a due diligence comprehensive search for existing trademarks that might preclude your registration. The entire registration process can take more than a year from start to finish. Once you’ve received your registration certificate from the USPTO, you can denote your mark as a registered trademark with the ® symbol.

One major advantage of trademark registration is that you may register a trademark that you intend to use but are not necessarily already using. This type of application is called an intent to use application and conveys trademark protection as of the date of filing provided that you actually use the trademark in commerce within a certain time period. If you opt not to register your trademark with the PTO, your protection begins only when you first use the trademark.

The acceptance of a trademark application in the United States depends on two main requirements:

The trademark must not be confusingly similar to another trademark—you should determine this during your attorney’s due diligence search. There will be an open opposition period during which other companies may dispute your trademark application.

The trademark should not be descriptive of the goods and services that you will offer. For example, “Mike’s Software Company” would not be a good trademark candidate because it describes the product produced by the company. The USPTO may reject an application if it considers the trademark descriptive.

In the United States, trademarks are granted for an initial period of 10 years and can be renewed for unlimited successive 10-year periods.

Patents Patents protect the intellectual property rights of inventors. They provide a period of 20 years during which the inventor is granted exclusive rights to use the invention (whether

directly or via licensing agreements). At the end of the patent exclusivity period, the invention is in the public domain available for anyone to use.

Patents have three main requirements:

The invention must be new. Inventions are patentable only if they are original ideas.

The invention must be useful. It must actually work and accomplish some sort of task.

The invention must not be obvious. You could not, for example, obtain a patent for your idea to use a drinking cup to collect rainwater. This is an obvious solution. You might, however, be able to patent a specially designed cup that optimizes the amount of rainwater collected while minimizing evaporation.

In the technology field, patents have long been used to protect hardware devices and manufacturing processes. There is plenty of precedent on the side of inventors in those areas. Recent patents have also been issued covering software programs and similar mechanisms, but the jury is still out on whether these patents will hold up to the scrutiny of the courts.

Trade Secrets Many companies have intellectual property that is absolutely critical to their business and significant damage would result if it were disclosed to competitors and/or the public—in other words, trade secrets. We previously mentioned two examples of this type of information from popular culture—the secret formula for Coca-Cola and KFC’s “secret blend of herbs and spices.” Other examples are plentiful—a manufacturing company may want to keep secret a certain manufacturing process that only a few key employees fully understand, or a statistical analysis company might want to safeguard an advanced model developed for in-house use.

Two of the previously discussed intellectual property tools—copyrights and patents— could be used to protect this type of information, but with two major disadvantages:

Filing a copyright or patent application requires that you publicly disclose the details of your work or invention. This automatically removes the “secret” nature of your property and may harm your firm by removing the mystique surrounding a product or by allowing unscrupulous competitors to copy your property in violation of international intellectual property laws.

Copyrights and patents both provide protection for a limited period of time. Once your legal protection expires, other firms are free to use your work at will (and they have all the details from the public disclosure you made during the application process!).

There actually is an official process regarding trade secrets—by their nature you don’t register them with anyone; you keep them to yourself. To preserve trade secret status, you must implement adequate controls within your organization to ensure that only

authorized personnel with a need to know the secrets have access to them. You must also ensure that anyone who does have this type of access is bound by a nondisclosure agreement (NDA) that prohibits them from sharing the information with others and provides penalties for violating the agreement. Consult an attorney to ensure that the agreement lasts for the maximum period permitted by law. In addition, you must take steps to demonstrate that you value and protect your intellectual property. Failure to do so may result in the loss of trade secret protection.

Trade secret protection is one of the best ways to protect computer software. As discussed in the previous section, patent law does not provide adequate protection for computer software products. Copyright law protects only the actual text of the source code and doesn’t prohibit others from rewriting your code in a different form and accomplishing the same objective. If you treat your source code as a trade secret, it keeps it out of the hands of your competitors in the first place. This is the technique used by large software development companies such as Microsoft to protect its core base of intellectual property.

Economic Espionage Act of 1996 Trade secrets are very often the crown jewels of major corporations, and the U.S. government recognized the importance of protecting this type of intellectual property when Congress enacted the Economic Espionage Act of 1996. This law has two major provisions:

Anyone found guilty of stealing trade secrets from a U.S. corporation with the intention of benefiting a foreign government or agent may be fined up to $500,000 and imprisoned for up to 15 years.

Anyone found guilty of stealing trade secrets under other circumstances may be fined up to $250,000 and imprisoned for up to 10 years.

The terms of the Economic Espionage Act give true teeth to the intellectual property rights of trade secret owners. Enforcing this law requires that companies take adequate steps to ensure that their trade secrets are well protected and not accidentally placed into the public domain.

Licensing Security professionals should also be familiar with the legal issues surrounding software licensing agreements. Four common types of license agreements are in use today:

Contractual license agreements use a written contract between the software vendor and the customer, outlining the responsibilities of each. These agreements are commonly found for high-priced and/or highly specialized software packages.

Shrink-wrap license agreements are written on the outside of the software packaging. They commonly include a clause stating that you acknowledge agreement to the terms of the contract simply by breaking the shrink-wrap seal on the package.

Click-through license agreements are becoming more commonplace than shrink- wrap agreements. In this type of agreement, the contract terms are either written on the software box or included in the software documentation. During the installation process, you are required to click a button indicating that you have read the terms of the agreement and agree to abide by them. This adds an active consent to the process, ensuring that the individual is aware of the agreement’s existence prior to installation.

Cloud services license agreements take click-through agreements to the extreme. Most cloud services do not require any form of written agreement and simply flash legal terms on the screen for review. In some cases, they may simply provide a link to legal terms and a check box for users to confirm that they read and agree to the terms. Most users, in their excitement to access a new service, simply click their way through the agreement without reading it and may unwittingly bind their entire organization to onerous terms and conditions.

Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act The Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act (UCITA) is a federal law designed for adoption by each of the 50 states to provide a common framework for the conduct of computer-related business transactions. UCITA contains provisions that address software licensing. The terms of UCITA give legal backing to the previously questionable practices of shrink-wrap licensing and click-wrap licensing by giving them status as legally binding contracts. UCITA also requires that manufacturers provide software users with the option to reject the terms of the license agreement before completing the installation process and receive a full refund of the software’s purchase price.

Industry groups provide guidance and enforcement activities regarding software licensing. You can get more information from their websites. One major group is the Software Alliance at www.bsa.org.

Import/Export The federal government recognizes that the very same computers and encryption technologies that drive the Internet and e-commerce can be extremely powerful tools in the hands of a military force. For this reason, during the Cold War, the government developed a complex set of regulations governing the export of sensitive hardware and

software products to other nations. The regulations include the management of trans- border data flow of new technologies, intellectual property, and personally identifying information.

Until recently, it was very difficult to export high-powered computers outside the United States, except to a select handful of allied nations. The controls on exporting encryption software were even more severe, rendering it virtually impossible to export any encryption technology outside the country. Recent changes in federal policy have relaxed these restrictions and provided for more open commerce.

Computer Export Controls Currently, U.S. firms can export high-performance computing systems to virtually any country without receiving prior approval from the government. There are exceptions to this rule for countries designated by the Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security as countries of concern based on the fact that they pose a threat of nuclear proliferation, are classified as state sponsors of terrorism, or other concerns. These countries include India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Cuba, North Korea, the Sudan, and Syria.

You can find a list of countries and their corresponding computer export tiers on the Department of Commerce’s website at www.bis.doc.gov.

Encryption Export Controls The Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security sets forth regulations on the export of encryption products outside the United States. Under previous regulations, it was virtually impossible to export even relatively low-grade encryption technology outside the United States. This placed U.S. software manufacturers at a great competitive disadvantage to foreign firms that faced no similar regulations. After a lengthy lobbying campaign by the software industry, the president directed the Commerce Department to revise its regulations to foster the growth of the American security software industry.

Current regulations now designate the categories of retail and mass market security software. The rules now permit firms to submit these products for review by the Commerce Department, but the review will take no longer than 30 days. After successful completion of this review, companies may freely export these products.

Privacy The right to privacy has for years been a hotly contested issue in the United States. The main source of this contention is that the Constitution’s Bill of Rights does not explicitly provide for a right to privacy. However, this right has been upheld by numerous courts and is vigorously pursued by organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union

(ACLU).

Europeans have also long been concerned with their privacy. Indeed, countries such as Switzerland are world renowned for their ability to keep financial secrets. Later in this chapter, we’ll examine how the European Union data privacy laws impact companies and Internet users.

U.S. Privacy Law Although there is no constitutional guarantee of privacy, a myriad of federal laws (many enacted in recent years) are designed to protect the private information the government maintains about citizens as well as key portions of the private sector such as financial, educational, and health-care institutions. In the following sections, we’ll examine a number of these federal laws.

Fourth Amendment The basis for privacy rights is in the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It reads as follows:

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

The direct interpretation of this amendment prohibits government agents from searching private property without a warrant and probable cause. The courts have expanded their interpretation of the Fourth Amendment to include protections against wiretapping and other invasions of privacy.

Privacy Act of 1974 The Privacy Act of 1974 is perhaps the most significant piece of privacy legislation restricting the way the federal government may deal with private information about individual citizens. It severely limits the ability of federal government agencies to disclose private information to other persons or agencies without the prior written consent of the affected individual(s). It does provide for exceptions involving the census, law enforcement, the National Archives, health and safety, and court orders.

The Privacy Act mandates that agencies maintain only the records that are necessary for conducting their business and that they destroy those records when they are no longer needed for a legitimate function of government. It provides a formal procedure for individuals to gain access to records the government maintains about them and to request that incorrect records be amended.

Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 The Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) makes it a crime to invade the electronic privacy of an individual. This act broadened the Federal Wiretap Act, which previously covered communications traveling via a physical wire, to apply to any illegal interception of electronic communications or to the intentional, unauthorized access of electronically stored data. It prohibits the interception or disclosure of electronic communication and defines those situations in which disclosure is legal. It protects against the monitoring of email and

voicemail communications and prevents providers of those services from making unauthorized disclosures of their content.

One of the most notable provisions of the ECPA is that it makes it illegal to monitor mobile telephone conversations. In fact, such monitoring is punishable by a fine of up to $500 and a prison term of up to five years.

Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) of 1994 The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) of 1994 amended the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986. CALEA requires all communications carriers to make wiretaps possible for law enforcement with an appropriate court order, regardless of the technology in use.

Economic and Protection of Proprietary Information Act of 1996 The Economic and Protection of Proprietary Information Act of 1996 extends the definition of property to include proprietary economic information so that the theft of this information can be considered industrial or corporate espionage. This changed the legal definition of theft so that it was no longer restricted by physical constraints.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 In 1996, Congress passed the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which made numerous changes to the laws governing health insurance and health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Among the provisions of HIPAA are privacy and security regulations requiring strict security measures for hospitals, physicians, insurance companies, and other organizations that process or store private medical information about individuals.

HIPAA also clearly defines the rights of individuals who are the subject of medical records and requires organizations that maintain such records to disclose these rights in writing.

The HIPAA privacy and security regulations are quite complex. You should be familiar with the broad intentions of the act, as described here. If you work in the health-care industry, consider devoting time to an in-depth study of this law’s provisions.

Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 In 2009, Congress amended HIPAA by passing the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. This law updated many of HIPAA’s privacy and security requirements and was implemented through the HIPAA Omnibus Rule in 2013.

One of the changes mandated by the new regulations is a change in the way the law treats business associates (BAs), organizations who handle protected health information (PHI)

on behalf of a HIPAA covered entity. Any relationship between a covered entity and a BA must be governed by a written contract known as a business associate agreement (BAA). Under the new regulation, BAs are directly subject to HIPAA and HIPAA enforcement actions in the same manner as a covered entity.

HITECH also introduced new data breach notification requirements. Under the HITECH Breach Notification Rule, HIPAA-covered entities who experience a data breach must notify affected individuals of the breach and must also notify both the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the media when the breach affects more than 500 individuals.

Data Breach Notification Laws HITECH’s data breach notification rule is unique in that it is a federal law mandating the notification of affected individuals. Outside of this requirement for health-care records, data breach notification requirements vary widely from state to state.

In 2002, California passed SB 1386 and became the first state to immediately disclose to individuals the known or suspected breach of personally identifiable information. This includes unencrypted copies of a person’s name in conjunction with any of the following information:

Social Security number

Driver’s license number

State identification card number

Credit or debit card number

Bank account number in conjunction with the security code, access code, or password that would permit access to the account

Medical records

Health insurance information

In the years following SB 1386, many (but not all) other states passed similar laws modeled on the California data breach notification law. As of 2015, only Alabama, New Mexico, and South Dakota did not have state breach notification laws.

For a complete listing of state data breach notification laws, see www.ncsl.org/research/telecommunications-and-information-

technology/security-breach-notification-laws.aspx.

Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 In April 2000, provisions of the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) became the law of the land in the United States. COPPA makes a series of demands on websites that cater to children or knowingly collect information from children:

Websites must have a privacy notice that clearly states the types of information they collect and what it’s used for, including whether any information is disclosed to third parties. The privacy notice must also include contact information for the operators of the site.

Parents must be provided with the opportunity to review any information collected from their children and permanently delete it from the site’s records.

Parents must give verifiable consent to the collection of information about children younger than the age of 13 prior to any such collection. Exceptions in the law allow websites to collect minimal information solely for the purpose of obtaining such parental consent.

Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 Until the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) became law in 1999, there were strict governmental barriers between financial institutions. Banks, insurance companies, and credit providers were severely limited in the services they could provide and the information they could share with each other. GLBA somewhat relaxed the regulations concerning the services each organization could provide. When Congress passed this law, it realized that this increased latitude could have far-reaching privacy implications. Because of this concern, it included a number of limitations on the types of information that could be exchanged even among subsidiaries of the same corporation and required financial institutions to provide written privacy policies to all their customers by July 1, 2001.

USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 Congress passed the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001 in direct response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, DC. The PATRIOT Act greatly broadened the powers of law enforcement organizations and intelligence agencies across a number of areas, including when monitoring electronic communications.

One of the major changes prompted by the PATRIOT Act revolves around the way government agencies obtain wiretapping authorizations. Previously, police could obtain warrants for only one circuit at a time, after proving that the circuit was used by someone subject to monitoring. Provisions of the PATRIOT Act allow authorities to obtain a blanket authorization for a person and then monitor all communications to or from that person under the single warrant.

Another major change is in the way the government deals with Internet service providers (ISPs). Under the terms of the PATRIOT Act, ISPs may voluntarily provide the government with a large range of information. The PATRIOT Act also allows the government to obtain detailed information on user activity through the use of a subpoena

(as opposed to a wiretap).

Finally, the USA PATRIOT Act amends the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (yes, another set of amendments!) to provide more severe penalties for criminal acts. The PATRIOT Act provides for jail terms of up to 20 years and once again expands the coverage of the CFAA.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) is another specialized privacy bill that affects any educational institution that accepts any form of funding from the federal government (the vast majority of schools). It grants certain privacy rights to students older than 18 and the parents of minor students. Specific FERPA protections include the following:

Parents/students have the right to inspect any educational records maintained by the institution on the student.

Parents/students have the right to request correction of records they think are erroneous and the right to include a statement in the records contesting anything that is not corrected.

Schools may not release personal information from student records without written consent, except under certain circumstances.

Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act In 1998, the president signed the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act into law. In the past, the only legal victims of identity theft were the creditors who were defrauded. This act makes identity theft a crime against the person whose identity was stolen and provides severe criminal penalties (up to a 15-year prison term and/or a $250,000 fine) for anyone found guilty of violating this law.

Privacy in the Workplace

One of the authors of this book had an interesting conversation with a relative who works in an office environment. At a family Christmas party, the author’s relative casually mentioned a story he had read online about a local company that had fired several employees for abusing their Internet privileges. He was shocked and couldn’t believe that a company would violate their employees’ right to privacy.

As you’ve read in this chapter, the U.S. court system has long upheld the traditional right to privacy as an extension of basic constitutional rights. However, the courts have maintained that a key element of this right is that privacy should be guaranteed only when there is a “reasonable expectation of privacy.” For example, if you mail a letter to someone in a sealed envelope, you may reasonably expect that it will be delivered without being read along the way—you have a reasonable expectation of

privacy. On the other hand, if you send your message on a postcard, you do so with the awareness that one or more people might read your note before it arrives at the other end—you do not have a reasonable expectation of privacy.

Recent court rulings have found that employees do not have a reasonable expectation of privacy while using employer-owned communications equipment in the workplace. If you send a message using an employer’s computer, Internet connection, telephone, or other communications device, your employer can monitor it as a routine business procedure.

That said, if you’re planning to monitor the communications of your employees, you should take reasonable precautions to ensure that there is no implied expectation of privacy. Here are some common measures to consider:

Clauses in employment contracts that state the employee has no expectation of privacy while using corporate equipment

Similar written statements in corporate acceptable use and privacy policies

Logon banners warning that all communications are subject to monitoring

Warning labels on computers and telephones warning of monitoring

As with many of the issues discussed in this chapter, it’s a good idea to consult with your legal counsel before undertaking any communications-monitoring efforts.

European Union Privacy Law On October 24, 1995, the European Union (EU) Parliament passed a sweeping directive outlining privacy measures that must be in place for protecting personal data processed by information systems. The directive went into effect three years later in October 1998. The directive requires that all processing of personal data meet one of the following criteria:

Consent

Contract

Legal obligation

Vital interest of the data subject

Balance between the interests of the data holder and the interests of the data subject

The directive also outlines key rights of individuals about whom data is held and/or processed:

Right to access the data

Right to know the data’s source

Right to correct inaccurate data

Right to withhold consent to process data in some situations

Right of legal action should these rights be violated

Even organizations based outside of Europe must consider the applicability of these rules due to trans-border data flow requirements. In cases where personal information about European Union citizens leaves the EU, those sending the data must ensure that it remains protected. American companies doing business in Europe can obtain protection under a treaty between the EU and the United States that allows the Department of Commerce to certify businesses that comply with regulations and offer them “safe harbor” from prosecution.

To qualify for the safe harbor provision, U.S. companies conducting business in Europe must meet seven requirements for the processing of personal information:

Notice They must inform individuals of what information they collect about them and how the information will be used.

Choice They must allow individuals to opt out if the information will be used for any other purpose or shared with a third party. For information considered sensitive, an opt- in policy must be used.

Onward Transfer Organizations can share data only with other organizations that comply with the safe harbor principles.

Access Individuals must be granted access to any records kept containing their personal information.

Security Proper mechanisms must be in place to protect data against loss, misuse, and unauthorized disclosure.

Data Integrity Organizations must take steps to ensure the reliability of the information they maintain.

Enforcement Organizations must make a dispute resolution process available to individuals and provide certifications to regulatory agencies that they comply with the safe harbor provisions.

For more information on the safe harbor protections available to American companies, visit the Department of Commerce’s Safe Harbor website at http://export.gov/safeharbor.

Compliance Over the past decade, the regulatory environment governing information security has

grown increasingly complex. Organizations may find themselves subject to a wide variety of laws (many of which were outlined earlier in this chapter) and regulations imposed by regulatory agencies or contractual obligations.

Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard

The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is an excellent example of a compliance requirement that is not dictated by law but by contractual obligation. PCI DSS governs the security of credit card information and is enforced through the terms of a merchant agreement between a business that accepts credit cards and the bank that processes the business’s transactions.

PCI DSS has 12 main requirements:

1. Install and maintain a firewall configuration to protect cardholder data.

2. Do not use vendor-supplied defaults for system passwords and other security parameters.

3. Protect stored cardholder data.

4. Encrypt transmission of cardholder data across open, public networks.

5. Protect all systems against malware and regularly update antivirus software or programs

6. Develop and maintain secure systems and applications.

7. Restrict access to cardholder data by business need-to-know.

8. Identify and authenticate access to system components.

9. Restrict physical access to cardholder data.

10. Track and monitor all access to network resources and cardholder data.

11. Regularly test security systems and processes.

12. Maintain a policy that addresses information security for all personnel.

Each of these requirements is spelled out in detail in the full PCI DSS standard, which may be found at www.pcisecuritystandards.org/.

Dealing with the many overlapping, and sometimes contradictory, compliance requirements facing an organization requires careful planning. Many organizations employ full-time IT compliance staff responsible for tracking the regulatory environment, monitoring controls to ensure ongoing compliance, facilitating compliance audits, and

meeting the organization’s compliance reporting obligations.

Organizations who are not merchants but store, process, or transmit credit card information on behalf of merchants must also comply with PCI DSS. For example, the requirements apply to shared hosting providers who must protect the cardholder data environment.

Organizations may be subject to compliance audits, either by their standard internal and external auditors or by regulators or their agents. For example, an organization’s financial auditors may conduct an IT controls audit designed to ensure that the information security controls for an organization’s financial systems are sufficient to ensure compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Some regulations, such as PCI DSS, may require the organization to retain approved independent auditors to verify controls and provide a report directly to regulators.

In addition to formal audits, organizations often must report regulatory compliance to a number of internal and external stakeholders. For example, an organization’s Board of Directors (or, more commonly, that board’s Audit Committee) may require periodic reporting on compliance obligations and status. Similarly, PCI DSS requires organizations that are not compelled to conduct a formal third-party audit to complete and submit a self-assessment report outlining their compliance status.

Contracting and Procurement The increased use of cloud services and other external vendors to store, process, and transmit sensitive information leads organizations to a new focus on implementing security reviews and controls in their contracting and procurement processes. Security professionals should conduct reviews of the security controls put in place by vendors, both during the initial vendor selection and evaluation process, and as part of ongoing vendor governance reviews.

Some questions to cover during these vendor governance reviews include:

What types of sensitive information are stored, processed, or transmitted by the vendor?

What controls are in place to protect the organization’s information?

How is our organization’s information segregated from that of other clients?

If encryption is relied on as a security control, what encryption algorithms and key lengths are used? How is key management handled?

What types of security audits does the vendor perform and what access does the

client have to those audits?

Does the vendor rely on any other third parties to store, process, or transmit data? How do the provisions of the contract related to security extend to those third parties?

Where will data storage, processing, and transmission take place? If outside the home country of the client and/or vendor, what implications does that have?

What is the vendor’s incident response process and when will clients be notified of a potential security breach?

What provisions are in place to ensure the ongoing integrity and availability of client data?

This is just a brief listing of some of the concerns that you may have. Tailor the scope of your security review to the specific concerns of your organization, the type of service provided by the vendor, and the information that will be shared with them.

Summary Computer security necessarily entails a high degree of involvement from the legal community. In this chapter, you learned about the laws that govern security issues such as computer crime, intellectual property, data privacy, and software licensing.

There are three major categories of law that impact information security professionals. Criminal law outlines the rules and sanctions for major violations of the public trust. Civil law provides us with a framework for conducting business. Government agencies use administrative law to promulgate the day-to-day regulations that interpret existing law.

The laws governing information security activities are diverse and cover all three categories. Some, such as the Electronic Communications Privacy Act and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, are criminal laws where violations may result in criminal fines and/or prison time. Others, such as trademark and patent law, are civil laws that govern business transactions. Finally, many government agencies promulgate administrative law, such as the HIPAA Security Rule, that affects specific industries and data types.

Information security professionals should be aware of the compliance requirements specific to their industry and business activities. Tracking these requirements is a complex task and should be assigned to one or more compliance specialists who monitor changes in the law, changes in the business environment, and the intersection of those two realms.

It’s also not sufficient to simply worry about your own security and compliance. With increased adoption of cloud computing, many organizations now share sensitive and personal data with vendors who act as service providers. Security professionals must take steps to ensure that vendors treat data with as much care as the organization itself would and also meet any applicable compliance requirements.

Exam Essentials Understand the differences between criminal law, civil law, and administrative law. Criminal law protects society against acts that violate the basic principles we believe in. Violations of criminal law are prosecuted by federal and state governments. Civil law provides the framework for the transaction of business between people and organizations. Violations of civil law are brought to the court and argued by the two affected parties. Administrative law is used by government agencies to effectively carry out their day-to-day business.

Be able to explain the basic provisions of the major laws designed to protect society against computer crime. The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (as amended) protects computers used by the government or in interstate commerce from a variety of abuses. The Computer Security Act outlines steps the government must take to protect its own systems from attack. The Government Information Security Reform Act further develops the federal government information security program.

Know the differences among copyrights, trademarks, patents, and trade secrets. Copyrights protect original works of authorship, such as books, articles, poems, and songs. Trademarks are names, slogans, and logos that identify a company, product, or service. Patents provide protection to the creators of new inventions. Trade secret law protects the operating secrets of a firm.

Be able to explain the basic provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act prohibits the circumvention of copy protection mechanisms placed in digital media and limits the liability of Internet service providers for the activities of their users.

Know the basic provisions of the Economic Espionage Act of 1996. The Economic Espionage Act provides penalties for individuals found guilty of the theft of trade secrets. Harsher penalties apply when the individual knows that the information will benefit a foreign government.

Understand the various types of software license agreements. Contractual license agreements are written agreements between a software vendor and user. Shrink- wrap agreements are written on software packaging and take effect when a user opens the package. Click-wrap agreements are included in a package but require the user to accept the terms during the software installation process.

Explain the impact of the Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act on software licensing. The Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act provides a framework for the enforcement of shrink-wrap and click-wrap agreements by federal and state governments.

Understand the notification requirements placed on organizations that experience a data breach. California’s SB 1386 implemented the first statewide requirement to notify individuals of a breach of their personal information. All but three

states eventually followed suit with similar laws. Currently, federal law only requires the notification of individuals when a HIPAA-covered entity breaches their protected health information.

Understand the major laws that govern privacy of personal information in both the United States and the European Union. The United States has a number of privacy laws that affect the government’s use of information as well as the use of information by specific industries, such as financial services companies and health-care organizations that handle sensitive information. The EU has a more comprehensive directive on data privacy that regulates the use and exchange of personal information.

Explain the importance of a well-rounded compliance program. Most organizations are subject to a wide variety of legal and regulatory requirements related to information security. Building a compliance program ensures that you become and remain compliant with these often overlapping requirements.

Know how to incorporate security into the procurement and vendor governance process. The expanded use of cloud services by many organizations requires added attention to conducting reviews of information security controls during the vendor selection process and as part of ongoing vendor governance.

Written Lab 1. What are the key rights guaranteed to individuals under the European Union’s

directive on data privacy?

2. What are some common questions that organizations should ask when considering outsourcing information storage, processing, or transmission?

3. What are some common steps that employers take to notify employees of system monitoring?

Review Questions 1. Which criminal law was the first to implement penalties for the creators of viruses,

worms, and other types of malicious code that cause harm to computer system(s)?

A. Computer Security Act

B. National Infrastructure Protection Act

C. Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

D. Electronic Communications Privacy Act

2. Which law first required operators of federal interest computer systems to undergo periodic training in computer security issues?

A. Computer Security Act

B. National Infrastructure Protection Act

C. Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

D. Electronic Communications Privacy Act

3. What type of law does not require an act of Congress to implement at the federal level but rather is enacted by the executive branch in the form of regulations, policies, and procedures?

A. Criminal law

B. Common law

C. Civil law

D. Administrative law

4. Which federal government agency has responsibility for ensuring the security of government computer systems that are not used to process sensitive and/or classified information?

A. National Security Agency

B. Federal Bureau of Investigation

C. National Institute of Standards and Technology

D. Secret Service

5. What is the broadest category of computer systems protected by the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, as amended?

A. Government-owned systems

B. Federal interest systems

C. Systems used in interstate commerce

D. Systems located in the United States

6. What law protects the right of citizens to privacy by placing restrictions on the authority granted to government agencies to search private residences and facilities?

A. Privacy Act

B. Fourth Amendment

C. Second Amendment

D. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

7. Matthew recently authored an innovative algorithm for solving a mathematical problem, and he wants to share it with the world. However, prior to publishing the software code in a technical journal, he wants to obtain some sort of intellectual property protection. Which type of protection is best suited to his needs?

A. Copyright

B. Trademark

C. Patent

D. Trade secret

8. Mary is the cofounder of Acme Widgets, a manufacturing firm. Together with her partner, Joe, she has developed a special oil that will dramatically improve the widget manufacturing process. To keep the formula secret, Mary and Joe plan to make large quantities of the oil by themselves in the plant after the other workers have left. They want to protect this formula for as long as possible. What type of intellectual property protection best suits their needs?

A. Copyright

B. Trademark

C. Patent

D. Trade secret

9. Richard recently developed a great name for a new product that he plans to begin using immediately. He spoke with his attorney and filed the appropriate application to protect his product name but has not yet received a response from the government regarding his application. He wants to begin using the name immediately. What symbol should he use next to the name to indicate its protected status?

A. ©

B. ®

C. ™

D. †

10. What law prevents government agencies from disclosing personal information that an individual supplies to the government under protected circumstances?

A. Privacy Act

B. Electronic Communications Privacy Act

C. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

D. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

11. What law formalizes many licensing arrangements used by the software industry and attempts to standardize their use from state to state?

A. Computer Security Act

B. Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act

C. Digital Millennium Copyright Act

D. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

12. The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act was designed to protect the privacy of children using the Internet. What is the minimum age a child must be before companies can collect personal identifying information from them without parental consent?

A. 13

B. 14

C. 15

D. 16

13. Which one of the following is not a requirement that Internet service providers must satisfy in order to gain protection under the “transitory activities” clause of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act?

A. The service provider and the originator of the message must be located in different states.

B. The transmission, routing, provision of connections, or copying must be carried out by an automated technical process without selection of material by the service provider.

C. Any intermediate copies must not ordinarily be accessible to anyone other than anticipated recipients and must not be retained for longer than reasonably necessary.

D. The transmission must be originated by a person other than the provider.

14. Which one of the following laws is not designed to protect the privacy rights of consumers and Internet users?

A. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

B. Identity Theft Assumption and Deterrence Act

C. USA PATRIOT Act

D. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

15. Which one of the following types of licensing agreements does not require that the user acknowledge that they have read the agreement prior to executing it?

A. Standard license agreement

B. Shrink-wrap agreement

C. Click-wrap agreement

D. Verbal agreement

16. What industry is most directly impacted by the provisions of the Gramm-Leach-

Bliley Act?

A. Health care

B. Banking

C. Law enforcement

D. Defense contractors

17. What is the standard duration of patent protection in the United States?

A. 14 years from the application date

B. 14 years from the date the patent is granted

C. 20 years from the application date

D. 20 years from the date the patent is granted

18. Which one of the following is not a valid legal reason for processing information about an individual under the European Union’s data privacy directive?

A. Contract

B. Legal obligation

C. Marketing needs

D. Consent

19. What compliance obligation relates to the processing of credit card information?

A. SOX

B. HIPAA

C. PCI DSS

D. FERPA

20. What act updated the privacy and security requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)?

A. HITECH

B. CALEA

C. CFAA

D. CCCA

Chapter 5 Protecting Security of Assets THE CISSP EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

ASSET SECURITY

✓ A. Classify information and supporting assets (e.g., sensitivity, criticality)

✓ B. Determine and maintain ownership (e.g., data owners, system owners, business/mission owners)

✓ C. Protect privacy

C.1 Data owners

C.2 Data processers

C.3 Data remanence

C.4 Collection limitation

✓ D. Ensure appropriate retention (e.g., media, hardware, personnel)

✓ E. Determine data security controls (e.g., data at rest, data in transit)

E.1 Baselines

E.2 Scoping and tailoring

E.3 Standards selection

E.4 Cryptography

✓ F. Establish handling requirements (markings, labels, storage, destruction of sensitive information)

The Asset Security domain focuses on collecting, handling, and protecting information throughout its life cycle. A primary step in this domain is classifying information based on its value to the organization.

All follow-on actions vary depending on the classification. For example, highly classified data requires stringent security controls. In contrast, unclassified data uses fewer security controls.

Classifying and Labeling Assets One of the first steps in asset security is classifying and labeling assets. Organizations often include classification definitions within a security policy. Personnel then label assets appropriately based on the security policy requirements. In this context, assets include sensitive data, the hardware used to process it, and the media used to hold it.

Defining Sensitive Data Sensitive data is any information that isn’t public or unclassified. It can include confidential, proprietary, protected, or any other type of data that an organization needs to protect due to its value to the organization, or to comply with existing laws and regulations.

Personally Identifiable Information Personally identifiable information (PII) is any information that can identify an individual. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-122 provides a more formal definition:

Any information about an individual maintained by an agency, including

(1) any information that can be used to distinguish or trace an individual’s identity, such as name, social security number, date and place of birth, mother’s maiden name, or biometric records; and

(2) any other information that is linked or linkable to an individual, such as medical, educational, financial, and employment information.

The key is that organizations have a responsibility to protect PII. This includes PII related to employees and customers. Many laws require organizations to notify individuals if a data breach results in a compromise of PII.

Protection for personally identifiable information (PII) drives privacy and confidentiality requirements for rules, regulations, and legislation all over the world (especially in North America and the European Union). NIST SP 800-122, Guide to Protecting the Confidentiality of Personally Identifiable Information (PII), provides more information on how to protect PII. It is available from the NIST Special Publications (800 Series) download page: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsSPs.html

Protected Health Information Protected health information (PHI) is any health-related information that can be related to a specific person. In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) mandates the protection of PHI. HIPAA provides a more formal definition of PHI:

Health information means any information, whether oral or recorded in any form or medium, that—

(A) is created or received by a health care provider, health plan, public health authority, employer, life insurer, school or university, or health care clearinghouse; and

(B) relates to the past, present, or future physical or mental health or condition of any individual, the provision of health care to an individual, or the past, present, or future payment for the provision of health care to an individual.

Some people think that only medical care providers such as doctors and hospitals need to protect PHI. However, HIPAA defines PHI much more broadly. Any employer that provides, or supplements, health-care policies collects and handles PHI. It’s very common for organizations to provide or supplement health-care policies, so HIPAA applies to a large percentage of organizations in the US.

Proprietary Data Proprietary data refers to any data that helps an organization maintain a competitive edge. It could be software code it developed, technical plans for products, internal processes, intellectual property, or trade secrets. If competitors are able to access the proprietary data, it can seriously affect the primary mission of an organization.

Although copyrights, patents, and trade secret laws provide a level of protection for proprietary data, this isn’t always enough. Many criminals don’t pay attention to copyrights, patents, and laws. Similarly, foreign entities have stolen a significant amount of proprietary data.

As an example, information security company Mandiant released a report in 2013 documenting a group operating out of China that they named APT1. Mandiant attributes a significant number of data thefts to this advanced persistent threat (APT). They observed APT1 compromise 141 companies spanning 20 major industries. In one instance, they observed APT1 stealing 6.5 TB of compressed intellectual property data over a ten-month period.

In 2014, FireEye, a US network security company, purchased Mandiant for about $1 billion. However, you can still access Mandiant’s APT1 report online by searching on “Mandiant APT1.”

Defining Classifications Organizations typically include data classifications in their security policy, or in a separate data policy. A data classification identifies the value of the data to the organization and is critical to protect data confidentiality and integrity. The policy identifies classification labels used within the organization. It also identifies how data owners can determine the proper classification, and personnel should protect data based on its classification.

As an example, government data classifications include top secret, secret, confidential, and unclassified. Anything above unclassified is sensitive data, but clearly, these have different values. The US government provides clear definitions for these classifications. As you read them, note that the wording of each definition is close except for a few key words. Top secret uses the phrase “exceptionally grave damage,” secret uses the phrase “serious damage,” and confidential uses the term “damage.”

Top Secret The top secret label is “applied to information, the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause exceptionally grave damage to the national security that the original classification authority is able to identify or describe.”

Secret The secret label is “applied to information, the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause serious damage to the national security that the original classification authority is able to identify or describe.”

Confidential The confidential label is “applied to information, the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause damage to the national security that the original classification authority is able to identify or describe.”

Unclassified Unclassified refers to any data that doesn’t meet one of the descriptions for top secret, secret, or confidential data. Within the US, unclassified data is available to anyone, though it often requires individuals to request the information using procedures identified in the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

A classification authority is the entity that applies the original classification to the sensitive data and strict rules identify who can do so. For example, the US president, vice president, and agency heads can classify data in the US. Additionally, individuals in any of these positions can delegate permission for others to classify data.

Although the focus of classifications is often on data, these classifications also apply to hardware. This includes any computing system or media that processes or holds this data.

Nongovernment organizations rarely need to classify their data based on potential damage to the national security. However, management is concerned about potential damage to the organization. For example, if attackers accessed the organization’s data, what is the potential adverse impact? In other words, an organization doesn’t just consider the sensitivity of the data but also the criticality of the data. They could use the same phrases of “exceptionally grave damage,” “serious damage,” and “damage” that the US government uses when describing top secret, secret, and confidential data.

Some nongovernment organizations use labels such as Class 3, Class 2, Class 1, and Class 0. Other organizations use more meaningful labels such as confidential (or proprietary),

private, sensitive, and public. Figure 5.1 shows the relationship between these different classifications with the government classifications on the left and the non-government (or civilian) classifications on the right. Just as the government can define the data based on the potential adverse impact from a data breach, organizations can use similar descriptions.

Figure 5.1 Data classifications

Both government and civilian classifications identify the relative value of the data to the organization, with top secret representing the highest classification for governments and confidential representing the highest classification for organizations in Figure 5.1. However, it’s important to remember that organizations can use any labels they desire. When the labels in Figure 5.1 are used, sensitive information is any information that isn’t unclassified (when using the government labels) or isn’t public (when using the civilian classifications). The following sections identify the meaning of the nongovernment classifications.

Sony Attacks You may remember the attacks on Sony during November and December of 2014. Kevin Mandia (founder of Mandiant) stated “the scope of this attack differs from any we have responded to in the past, as its purpose was to both destroy property and release confidential information to the public. The bottom line is that this was an unparalleled and well planned crime, carried out by an organized group.”

Attackers obtained over 100 TB of data, including full-length versions of unreleased movies, salary information, and internal emails. Some of this data was more valuable to the organization than other data. As you’re reading the definitions of nongovernment data classifications, think about the seriousness of the damage that

it caused Sony and the appropriate classification for this data. Note that anyone might label data with a different classification than the data owners at Sony. There’s no right or wrong here. However, the attack does provide us with some realistic examples.

Confidential or Proprietary The confidential or propriety label refers to the highest level of classified data. In this context, a data breach would cause exceptionally grave damage to the mission of the organization. After the Sony attack, attackers posted unreleased versions of several movies. These quickly showed up on file-sharing sites and security experts estimate that people downloaded these movies up to a million times. With pirated versions of the movies available, many people skipped seeing them when Sony ultimately released them. This directly affected their bottom line. The movies were proprietary and the organization might have considered it as exceptionally grave damage. In retrospect, they may choose to label movies as confidential or proprietary and use the strongest access controls to protect them.

Private The private label refers to data that should stay private within the organization but doesn’t meet the definition of confidential or proprietary data. In this context, a data breach would cause serious damage to the mission of the organization. After the Sony attack, attackers posted detailed salary information on more than 30,000 employees, including the multimillion-dollar salaries of 17 top executives. As these details came out and employees started comparing their salaries to their peers (and the 17 top executives), you can bet it caused internal problems. Sony may have considered this as serious damage and, in retrospect, may choose to label this type of data as private.

Sensitive Sensitive data is similar to confidential data. In this context, a data breach would cause damage to the mission of the organization. After the Sony attack, attackers posted a spreadsheet with a list of all employees who were laid off or terminated. It included the reason for termination and the cost to terminate each employee. They also posted several email threads that included embarrassing comments. For example, one producer referred to a movie star as a “minimally talented spoiled brat” and some emails included what many people viewed as racially insensitive comments. These were embarrassing and potentially caused damage to the organization. In retrospect, they may choose to label this type of data as sensitive and protect it appropriately.

Public Public data is similar to unclassified data. It includes information posted in websites, brochures, or any other public source. Although an organization doesn’t protect the confidentiality of public data, it does take steps to protect its integrity. For example, anyone can view public data posted on a website. However, an organization doesn’t want attackers to modify this data so it takes steps to protect it.

Although the CISSP Candidate Information Bulletin (CIB) refers to sensitive

information as any data that isn’t public or unclassified, some organizations use sensitive as a label. In other words, the term “sensitive information” might mean something different in one organization when compared to what it means for the CISSP exam. For the exam, remember that “sensitive information” refers to any information that isn’t public or unclassified.

Civilian organizations aren’t required to use any specific classification labels. However, it is important to classify data in some manner and ensure personnel understand the classifications. No matter what labels an organization uses, it still has an obligation to protect sensitive information.

After classifying the data, an organization takes additional steps to manage it based on its classification. Unauthorized access to sensitive information can result in significant losses to an organization. However, basic security practices, such as properly marking, handling, storing, and destroying data based on its classification, help to prevent losses.

Defining Data Security Requirements After defining data classifications, it’s important to define the security requirements. For example, what steps should an organization take to protect email?

At a minimum, an organization should label and encrypt sensitive email. Encryption converts cleartext data into scrambled ciphertext and makes it more difficult to read. Using strong encryption methods such as Advanced Encryption Standard with 256-bit cryptography keys (AES 256) makes it almost impossible for unauthorized personnel to read the text. Table 5.1 shows possible security requirements for email that an organization could implement.

Table 5.1 Securing email data

Classification Security requirements for email

Confidential/Proprietary Email and attachments must be encrypted with AES 256.

Email and attachments remain encrypted except when viewed.

Email can only be sent to recipients within the organization.

Email can only be opened and viewed by recipients (forwarded emails cannot be opened).

Attachments can be opened and viewed, but not saved.

Email content cannot be copied and pasted into other documents.

Email cannot be printed.

Private Email and attachments must be encrypted with AES 256.

Email and attachments remain encrypted except when viewed.

Can only be sent to recipients within the organization.

Sensitive Email and attachments must be encrypted with AES 256. Public Email and attachments can be sent in cleartext.

The requirements listed in Table 5.1 are provided as an example only. Any organization could use these requirements or define other requirements that work for them.

Although it’s possible to meet all of the requirements in Table 5.1, they require implementing other solutions. For example, Boldon James sells several products that organizations can use to automate these tasks. Users apply relevant labels (such as confidential, private, sensitive, and public) to emails before sending them. These emails pass through a data loss prevention (DLP) server that detects the labels, and applies the required protection.

Table 5.1 shows possible requirements that an organization might want to apply to email. However, an organization wouldn’t stop there. Any type of data that an organization wants to protect needs similar security definitions. For example, organizations would define requirements for data stored on servers, data backups stored onsite and offsite, and proprietary data such as full-length unreleased films.

Understanding Data States It’s important to protect data while it is at rest, in motion, and in use. Data at rest is any data stored on media such as system hard drives, external USB drives, storage area networks (SANs), and backup tapes. Data in transit (sometimes called data in motion) is any data transmitted over a network. This includes data transmitted over an internal network using wired or wireless methods and data transmitted over public networks such as the Internet. Data in use refers to data in temporary storage buffers while an application is using it.

The best way to protect the confidentiality of data is to use strong encryption protocols, discussed later in this chapter. Additionally, strong authentication and authorization controls help prevent unauthorized access.

As an example, consider a web application that retrieves credit card data for an e- commerce transaction. The credit card data is stored on a separate database server and is protected while at rest, while in motion, and while in use.

Database administrators take steps to encrypt sensitive data stored on the database server

(data at rest). For example, they would encrypt columns holding sensitive data such as credit card data. Additionally, they would implement strong authentication and authorization controls to prevent unauthorized entities from accessing the database.

When the web application sends a request for data from the web server, the database server verifies the web application is authorized to retrieve the data and, if so, the database server sends it. However, this entails several steps. For example, the database management system first retrieves and decrypts the data and formats it in a way that the web application can read it. The database server then uses a transport encryption algorithm to encrypt the data before transmitting it. This ensures that the data in transit is secure.

The web application server receives the data in an encrypted format. It decrypts the data and sends it to the web application. The web application stores the data in temporary buffers while it uses it to authorize the transaction. When the web application no longer needs the data, it takes steps to purge memory buffers, ensuring all residual sensitive data is completely removed from memory.

Managing Sensitive Data A key goal of managing sensitive data is to prevent data breaches. A data breach is any event in which an unauthorized entity is able to view or access sensitive data. If you pay attention to the news, you probably hear about data breaches quite often. Big breaches such as the Sony breach of 2014 hit the mainstream news. However, even though you might never hear about smaller data breaches, they are happening regularly, with an average of 15 reported data breaches a week. The following sections identify basic steps people within an organization follow to limit the possibility of data breaches.

The Identity Theft Resource Center (ITRC) routinely tracks data breaches. They post reports through their website (www.idtheftcenter.org/) that are free to anyone. In 2014, they tracked 783 data breaches, exposing over 85 million records. This equated to approximately 15 data breaches a week and follows a trend of more data breaches every year.)

Marking Sensitive Data Marking (often called labeling) sensitive information ensures that users can easily identify the classification level of any data. The most important information that a mark or a label provides is the classification of the data. For example, a label of top secret makes it clear to anyone who sees the label that the information is classified top secret. When users know the value of the data, they are more likely to take appropriate steps to control and protect it based on the classification. Marking includes both physical and

electronic marking and labels.

Physical labels indicate the security classification for the data stored on media or processed on a system. For example, if a backup tape includes secret data, a physical label attached to the tape makes it clear to users that it holds secret data. Similarly, if a computer processes sensitive information, the computer would have a label indicating the highest classification of information that it processes. A computer used to process confidential, secret, and top secret data should be marked with a label indicating that it processes top secret data. Physical labels remain on the system or media throughout its lifetime.

Many organizations use color-coded hardware to help mark it. For example, some organizations purchase red-colored USB flash drives in bulk, with the intent that personnel can only copy classified data onto these flash drives. Technical security controls identify these flash drives using a universally unique identifier (UUID) and can enforce security policies. DLP systems can block users from copying data to other USB devices and ensure that data is encrypted when a user copies it to one of these devices.

Marking also includes using digital marks or labels. A simple method is to include the classification as a header and/or footer in a document, or embed it as a watermark. A benefit of these methods is that they also appear on printouts. Even when users include headers and footers on printouts, most organizations require users to place printed sensitive documents within a folder that includes a label or cover page clearly indicating the classification. Headers aren’t limited to files. Backup tapes often include header information, and the classification can be included in this header.

Another benefit of headers, footers, and watermarks is that DLP systems can identify documents that include sensitive information, and apply the appropriate security controls. Some DLP systems will also add metadata tags to the document when they detect that the document is classified. These tags provide insight into the document’s contents and help the DLP system handle it appropriately.

Similarly, some organizations mandate specific desktop backgrounds on their computers. For example, a system used to process proprietary data might have a black desktop background with the word Proprietary in white and a wide orange border. The background could also include statements such as “This computer processes proprietary data” and statements reminding users of their responsibilities to protect the data.

In many secure environments, personnel also use labels for unclassified media and equipment. This prevents an error of omission where sensitive information isn’t marked. For example, if a backup tape holding sensitive data isn’t marked, a user might assume it

only holds unclassified data. However, if the organization marks unclassified data too, the user would view it with suspicion.

Organizations often identify procedures to downgrade media. For example, if a backup tape includes confidential information, an administrator might want to downgrade the tape to unclassified. The organization would identify trusted procedures that will purge the tape of all usable data. After administrators purge the tape, they can then downgrade it and replace the labels.

However, many organizations prohibit downgrading media at all. For example, a data policy might prohibit downgrading a backup tape that contains top secret data. Instead, the policy might mandate destroying this tape when it reaches the end of its life cycle. Similarly, it is rare to downgrade a system. In other words, if a system has been processing top secret data, it would be rare to downgrade it and relabel it as an unclassified system.

If media or a system needs to be downgraded to a less sensitive classification, it must be sanitized using appropriate procedures as described in the section “Destroying Sensitive Data” later in this chapter. However, it’s often safer and easier just to purchase new media or equipment rather than follow through with the sanitization steps for reuse. Many organizations adopt a policy that prohibits downgrading any media or systems.

Handling Sensitive Data Handling refers to the secure transportation of media through its lifetime. Personnel handle data differently based on its value and classification, and as you’d expect, highly classified information needs much greater protection. Even though this is common sense, people still make mistakes. Many times people get accustomed to handling sensitive information and become lackadaisical with protecting it.

For example, it was reported in April 2011 that the United Kingdom’s Ministry of Defense mistakenly published classified information on nuclear submarines, in addition to other sensitive information, in response to Freedom of Information requests. They redacted the classified data by using image-editing software to black it out. However, anyone who tried to copy the data was able to copy all the text, including the blacked-out data.

A common occurrence is the loss of control of backup tapes. Backup tapes should be protected with the same level of protection as the data that is backed up. In other words, if confidential information is on a backup tape, the backup tape should be protected as confidential information. However, there are many examples where this just isn’t followed. In 2011, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), a government

contractor, lost control of backup tapes that included PII and PHI for 4.9 million patients. Because it is PHI, it falls under HIPAA and required specific actions to protect it that SAIC personnel apparently didn’t implement.

Policies and procedures need to be in place to ensure that people understand how to handle sensitive data. This starts by ensuring systems and media are labeled appropriately. Additionally, as President Reagan famously said when discussing relations with the Soviet Union, “Trust, but verify.” Chapter 17, “Preventing and Responding to Incidents,” discusses the importance of logging, monitoring, and auditing. These controls verify that sensitive information is handled appropriately before a significant loss occurs. If a loss does occur, investigators use audit trails to help discover what went wrong. Any incidents that occur because personnel didn’t handle data appropriately should be quickly investigated and actions taken to prevent a reoccurrence.

Storing Sensitive Data Sensitive data should be stored in such a way that it is protected against any type of loss. The obvious protection is encryption. As of this writing, AES 256 provides strong encryption and there are many applications available to encrypt data with AES 256. Additionally, many operating systems include built-in capabilities to encrypt data at both the file level and the disk level.

If sensitive data is stored on physical media such as portable disk drives or backup tapes, personnel should follow basic physical security practices to prevent losses due to theft. This includes storing these devices in locked safes or vaults and/or within a secure room, that includes several additional physical controls. For example, a server room includes physical security measures to prevent unauthorized access so storing portable media within a locked cabinet in a server would provide strong protection.

Additionally, environmental controls should be used to protect the media. This includes temperature and humidity controls such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

Here’s a point that end users often forget: the value of any sensitive data is much greater than the value of the media holding the sensitive data. In other words, it’s cost effective to purchase high-quality media, especially if the data will be stored for a long time, such as on backup tapes. Similarly, the purchase of high-quality USB flash drives with built-in encryption is worth the cost. Some of these USB flash drives include biometric authentication mechanisms using fingerprints, which provide added protection.

Encryption of sensitive data provides an additional layer of protection and should be considered for any data at rest. If data is encrypted, it becomes much more difficult for an attacker to access it, even if it is stolen.

Destroying Sensitive Data When an organization no longer needs sensitive data, personnel should destroy it. Proper destruction ensures that it cannot fall into the wrong hands and result in unauthorized disclosure. Highly classified data requires different steps to destroy it than data classified at a lower level. An organization’s security policy or data policy should define the acceptable methods of destroying data based on the data’s classification. For example, an organization may require the complete destruction of media holding highly classified data, but allow personnel to use software tools to overwrite data files classified at a lower level.

Data remanence is the data that remains on a hard drive as residual magnetic flux. Using system tools to delete data generally leaves much of the data remaining on the media, and widely available tools can easily undelete it. Even when you use sophisticated tools to overwrite the media, traces of the original data may remain as less perceptible magnetic fields. This is similar to a ghost image that can remain on some TV and computer monitors if the same data is displayed for long periods of time. Forensics experts and attackers have tools they can use to retrieve this data even after it has been supposedly overwritten.

One way to remove data remanence is with a degausser. A degausser generates a heavy magnetic field, which realigns the magnetic fields in magnetic media such as traditional hard drives, magnetic tape, and floppy disk drives. Degaussers using power will reliably rewrite these magnetic fields and remove data remanence. However, they are only effective on magnetic media.

In contrast, solid state drives (SSDs) use integrated circuitry instead of magnetic flux on spinning platters. Because of this, SSDs do not have data remanence and degaussing them won’t remove data. However, even when using other methods to remove data from SSDs, data remnants often remain. In a research paper titled “Reliably Erasing Data from Flash- Based Solid State Drives,” (available at www.usenix.org/legacy/event/fast11/tech/full_papers/wei.pdf) the authors found that none of the traditional methods of sanitizing individual files was effective. Some SSDs include built-in erase commands to sanitize the entire disk, but unfortunately, these weren’t effective on some SSDs from different manufacturers. Due to these risks, the best method of sanitizing SSDs is destruction. The US National Security Agency (NSA) requires the destruction of SSDs using an approved disintegrator. Approved disintegrators shred the SSDs to a size of 2 millimeters (mm) or smaller. Security Engineered Machinery (SEM) sells multiple information destruction and sanitization solutions, including many approved by the NSA.

Be careful when performing any type of clearing, purging, or sanitization process.

The human operator or the tool involved in the activity may not properly perform the task of completely removing data from the media. Software can be flawed, magnets can be faulty, and either can be used improperly. Always verify that the desired result is achieved after performing any sanitization process.

The following list includes some of the common terms associated with destroying data:

Erasing Erasing media is simply performing a delete operation against a file, a selection of files, or the entire media. In most cases, the deletion or removal process removes only the directory or catalog link to the data. The actual data remains on the drive. As new files are written to the media, the system eventually overwrites the erased data, but depending on the size of the drive, how much free space it has, and several other factors, the data may not be overwritten for months. Anyone can typically retrieve the data using widely available undelete tools.

Clearing Clearing, or overwriting, is a process of preparing media for reuse and assuring that the cleared data cannot be recovered using traditional recovery tools. When media is cleared, unclassified data is written over all addressable locations on the media. One method writes a single character, or a specific bit pattern, over the entire media. A more thorough method writes a single character over the entire media, writes the character’s complement over the entire media, and finishes by writing random bits over the entire media. It repeats this in three separate passes, as shown in Figure 5.2. Although this sounds like the original data is lost forever, it is sometimes possible to retrieve some of the original data using sophisticated laboratory or forensics techniques. Additionally, some types of data storage don’t respond well to clearing techniques. For example, spare sectors on hard drives, sectors labeled as “bad,” and areas on many modern SSDs are not necessarily cleared and may still retain data.

Figure 5.2 Clearing a hard drive

Purging Purging is a more intense form of clearing that prepares media for reuse in less secure environments. It provides a level of assurance that the original data is not recoverable using any known methods. A purging process will repeat the clearing process multiple times and may combine it with another method such as degaussing to completely remove the data. Even though purging is intended to remove all data remnants, it isn’t always trusted. For example, the US government doesn’t consider any

purging method acceptable to purge top secret data. Media labeled top secret will always remain top secret until it is destroyed.

Declassification Declassification involves any process that purges media or a system in preparation for reuse in an unclassified environment. Purging can be used to prepare media for declassification, but often the efforts required to securely declassify media are significantly greater than the cost of new media for a less secure environment. Additionally, even though purged data is not recoverable using any known methods, there is a remote possibility that an unknown method is available. Instead of taking the risk, many organizations choose not to declassify any media.

Sanitization Sanitization is a combination of processes that removes data from a system or from media. It ensures that data cannot be recovered by any means. When a computer is disposed of, sanitization includes ensuring that all nonvolatile memory has been removed or destroyed, the system doesn’t have CD/DVDs in any drive, and internal drives (hard drives and SSDs) have been purged, removed, and/or destroyed. Sanitization can refer to the destruction of media or using a trusted method to purge classified data from the media without destroying it.

Degaussing A degausser creates a strong magnetic field that erases data on some media in a process called degaussing. Technicians commonly use degaussing methods to remove data from magnetic tapes with the goal of returning the tape to its original state. It is possible to degauss hard disks, but we don’t recommend it. Degaussing a hard disk will normally destroy the electronics used to access the data. However, you won’t have any assurance that all of the data on the disk has actually been destroyed. Someone could open the drive in a clean room and install the platters on a different drive to read the data. Degaussing does not affect optical CDs, DVDs, or SSDs.

Destruction Destruction is the final stage in the life cycle of media and is the most secure method of sanitizing media. When destroying media it’s important to ensure that the media cannot be reused or repaired and that data cannot be extracted from the destroyed media. Methods of destruction include incineration, crushing, shredding, disintegration, and dissolving using caustic or acidic chemicals. Some organizations remove the platters in highly classified disk drives and destroy them separately.

When organizations donate or sell used computer equipment, they often remove and destroy storage devices that hold sensitive data rather than attempting to purge them. This eliminates the risk that the purging process wasn’t complete, thus resulting in a loss of confidentiality.

Retaining Assets

Retention requirements apply to data or records, media holding sensitive data, systems that process sensitive data, and personnel who have access to sensitive data. Record retention and media retention is the most important element of asset retention.

Record retention involves retaining and maintaining important information as long as it is needed and destroying it when it is no longer needed. An organization’s security policy or data policy typically identifies retention timeframes. Some laws and regulations dictate the length of time that an organization should retain data, such as three years, seven years, or even indefinitely. However, even in the absence of external requirements, an organization should still identify how long to retain data.

As an example, many organizations require the retention of all audit logs for three years or longer. This allows the organization to reconstruct the details of past security incidents. When an organization doesn’t have a retention policy, administrators may delete valuable data earlier than management expects them to or attempt to keep data indefinitely. The longer data is retained, the more it costs in terms of media, locations to store it, and personnel to protect it.

Most hardware is on a refresh cycle, where it is replaced every three to five years. Hardware retention primarily refers to retaining it until it has been properly sanitized.

Personnel retention in this context refers to the knowledge that personnel gain while employed by an organization. It’s common for organizations to include nondisclosure agreements (NDAs) when hiring new personnel. These NDAs prevent employees from leaving the job and sharing proprietary data with others.

Retention Policies Can Reduce Liabilities

Saving data longer than necessary also presents unnecessary legal issues. As an example, aircraft manufacturer Boeing was once the target of a class action lawsuit. Attorneys for the claimants learned that Boeing had a warehouse filled with 14,000 email backup tapes and demanded the relevant tapes. Not all of the tapes were relevant to the lawsuit, but Boeing had to first restore the 14,000 tapes and examine the content before they could turn them over. It ended up settling the lawsuit for $92.5 million, and analysts speculated that there would have been a different outcome if those 14,000 tapes hadn’t existed.

The Boeing example is an extreme example, but it’s not the only one. These events have prompted many companies to implement aggressive email retention policies. It is not uncommon for an email policy to require the deletion of all emails older than six months. These policies are often implemented using automated tools that search for old emails and delete them without any user or administrator intervention.

A company cannot legally delete potential evidence after a lawsuit is filed. However, if a retention policy dictates deleting data after a specific amount of time, it is legal to delete this data before any lawsuits have been filed. Not only does this practice prevent wasting resources to store unneeded data, it also provides an added layer of legal protection against wasting resources by looking through old information.

Protecting Confidentiality with Cryptography One of the primary methods of protecting the confidentiality of data is encryption. Chapter 6, “Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms,” and Chapter 7, “PKI and Cryptographic Applications,” cover cryptographic algorithms in more depth. However, it’s worth pointing out the differences between algorithms used for data at rest and data in transit.

As an introduction, encryption converts cleartext data into scrambled ciphertext. Anyone can read the data when it is in cleartext format. However, when strong encryption algorithms are used, it is almost impossible to read the scrambled ciphertext.

Protecting Data with Symmetric Encryption Symmetric encryption uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data. In other words, if an algorithm encrypted data with a key of 123, it would decrypt it with the same key of 123. Symmetric algorithms don’t use the same key for different data. For example, if it encrypted one set of data using a key of 123, it might encrypt the next set of data with a key of 456. The important point here is that a file encrypted using a key of 123 can only be decrypted using the same key of 123. In practice, the key size is much larger. For example, AES uses key sizes of 128 bits or 192 bits and AES 256 uses a key size of 256 bits.

The following list identifies some of the commonly used symmetric encryption algorithms. Although many of these algorithms are used in applications to encrypt data at rest, some of them are also used in transport encryption algorithms discussed in the next section. Additionally, this is by no means a complete list of encryption algorithms, but Chapter 6 covers more of them.

Advanced Encryption Standard The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is one of the most popular symmetric encryption algorithms. NIST selected it as a standard replacement for the older Data Encryption Standard (DES) in 2001. Since then, developers have steadily been implementing AES into many other algorithms and protocols. For example, BitLocker (a full disk encryption application used with a Trusted Platform Module) uses AES. The Microsoft Encrypting File System (EFS) uses AES for file and folder encryption. AES supports key sizes of 128 bits, 192 bits, and 256 bits, and the US government has approved its use to protect classified data up to top secret. Larger key sizes add additional security, making it more difficult for unauthorized personnel to decrypt the data.

Triple DES Developers created Triple DES (or 3DES) as a possible replacement for

DES. The first implementation used 56-bit keys but newer implementations use 112-bit or 168-bit keys. Larger keys provide a higher level of security. Microsoft OneNote and System Center Configuration Manager use 3DES to protect some content and passwords.

Blowfish Security expert Bruce Schneier developed Blowfish as a possible alternative to DES. It can use key sizes of 32 bits to 448 bits and is a strong encryption protocol. Linux systems use bcrypt to encrypt passwords, and bcrypt is based on Blowfish. Bcrypt adds 128 additional bits as a salt to protect against rainbow table attacks.

Protecting Data with Transport Encryption Transport encryption methods encrypt data before it is transmitted, providing protection of data in transit. The primary risk of sending unencrypted data over a network is a sniffing attack. Attackers can use a sniffer or protocol analyzer to capture traffic sent over a network. The sniffer allows attackers to read all the data sent in cleartext. However, attackers are unable to read data encrypted with a strong encryption protocol.

As an example, web browsers use Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) to encrypt e-commerce transactions. This prevents attackers from capturing the data and using credit card information to rack up charges. In contrast, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) transmits data in cleartext.

Almost all HTTPS transmissions use Transport Layer Security (TLS) as the underlying encryption protocol. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) was the precursor to TLS. Netscape created and released SSL in 1995. Later, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) released TLS as a replacement. In 2014, Google discovered that SSL is susceptible to the POODLE attack (Padding Oracle On Downgraded Legacy Encryption). As a result, many organizations have disabled SSL in their applications.

Organizations often enable remote access solutions such as virtual private networks (VPNs). VPNs allow employees to access the organization’s internal network from their home or while traveling. VPN traffic goes over a public network, such as the Internet, so encryption is important. VPNs use encryption protocols such as TLS and Internet Protocol security (IPsec).

IPsec is often combined with Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) for VPNs. L2TP transmits data in cleartext, but L2TP/IPsec encrypts data and sends it over the Internet using Tunnel mode to protect it while in transit. IPsec includes an Authentication Header (AH), which provides authentication and integrity, and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) to provide confidentiality.

It’s also appropriate to encrypt sensitive data before transmitting it on internal networks, and IPsec and Secure Shell (SSH) are commonly used to protect data in transit on internal networks. SSH is a strong encryption protocol included with other protocols such as Secure Copy (SCP) and Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). Both SCP and SFTP are secure protocols used to transfer encrypted files over a network. Protocols such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transmit data in cleartext and so are not appropriate for

transmitting sensitive data over a network.

Many administrators use SSH instead of Telnet when administering remote servers. Telnet should not be used because it sends traffic over the network in cleartext. When connecting to remote servers, administrators need to log on to the server, so Telnet also sends their credentials over the network in cleartext. However, SSH encrypts all of the traffic, including the administrator’s credentials.

When Telnet must be used to connect to a remote server, administrators typically use a VPN to encrypt the Telnet traffic within a tunnel.

Identifying Data Roles Many people within an organization manage, handle, and use data, and they have different requirements based on their roles. Different documentation refers to these roles a little differently. Some of the terms used in the CISSP Candidate Information Bulletin (CIB) match the terminology in some NIST documents, and some of the terminology matches the Safe Harbor program related to the European Union (EU) Data Protection law. When appropriate, we’ve listed the source so that you can dig into of these terms a little deeper if desired.

Data Owners The data owner is the person who has ultimate organizational responsibility for data. The owner is typically the CEO, president, or a department head (DH). Data owners identify the classification of data and ensure that it is labeled properly. They also ensure it has adequate security controls based on the classification and the organization’s security policy requirements. Owners may be liable for negligence if they fail to perform due diligence in establishing and enforcing security policies to protect and sustain sensitive data.

NIST SP 800-18 outlines the following responsibilities for the information owner, which can be interpreted the same as the data owner.

Establishes the rules for appropriate use and protection of the subject data/information (rules of behavior)

Provides input to information system owners regarding the security requirements and security controls for the information system(s) where the information resides

Decides who has access to the information system and with what types of privileges or access rights

Assists in the identification and assessment of the common security controls where the information resides.

NIST SP 800-18 frequently uses the phrase “rules of behavior,” which is effectively the same as an acceptable usage policy (AUP). Both outline the responsibilities and expected behavior of individuals and state the consequences of not complying with the rules or AUP. Additionally, individuals are required to periodically acknowledge that they have read, understand, and agree to abide by the rules or AUP. Many organizations post these on a website and allow users to acknowledge they understand and agree to abide by them using an online electronic digital signature.

System Owners The system owner is the person who owns the system that processes sensitive data. NIST SP 800-18 outlines the following responsibilities for the system owner:

Develops a system security plan in coordination with information owners, the system administrator, and functional end users

Maintains the system security plan and ensures that the system is deployed and operated according to the agreed-upon security requirements

Ensures that system users and support personnel receive appropriate security training, such as instruction on rules of behavior (or an AUP)

Updates the system security plan whenever a significant change occurs

Assists in the identification, implementation, and assessment of the common security controls

The system owner is typically the same person as the data owner, but it can sometimes be someone different, such as a different department head (DH). As an example, consider a web server used for e-commerce that interacts with a back-end database server. A software development department might perform database development and database administration for the database and the database server, but the IT department maintains the web server. In this case, the software development DH is the system owner for the database server, and the IT DH is the system owner for the web server. However, it’s more common for one person (such as a single department head) to control both servers, and this one person would be the system owner for both systems.

The system owner is responsible for ensuring that data processed on the system remains secure. This includes identifying the highest level of data that the system processes. The system owner then ensures that the system is labeled accurately and that appropriate

security controls are in place to protect the data. System owners interact with data owners to ensure the data is protected while at rest on the system, in transit between systems, and in use by applications operating on the system.

Business/Mission Owners The business/mission owner is role is viewed differently in different organizations. NIST SP 800-18 refers to the business/mission owner as a program manager or an information system owner. As such, the responsibilities of the business/mission owner can overlap with the responsibilities of the system owner or be the same role.

Business owners might own processes that use systems managed by other entities. As an example, the sales department could be the business owner but the IT department and the software development department could be the system owners for systems used in sales processes. Imagine that the sales department focuses on online sales using an e- commerce website and the website accesses a back-end database server. As in the previous example, the IT department manages the web server as its system owner, and the software development department manages the database server as its system owner. Even though the sales department doesn’t own these systems, it does own the business processes that generate sales using these systems.

In businesses, business owners are responsible for ensuring systems provide value to the organization. This sounds obvious. However, IT departments sometimes become overzealous and implement security controls without considering the impact on the business or its mission.

A potential area of conflict in many businesses is the comparison between cost centers and profit centers. The IT department doesn’t generate revenue. Instead, it is a cost center generating costs. In contrast, the business side generates revenue as a profit center. Costs generated by the IT department eat up profits generated by the business side. Additionally, many of the security controls implemented by the IT department reduce usability of systems in the interest of security. If you put these together, you can see that the business side sometimes views the IT department as spending money, reducing profits, and making it more difficult for the business to generate profits.

Organizations often implement IT governance methods such as Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT). These methods help business owners and mission owners balance security control requirements with business or mission needs.

Data Processors Generically, a data processor is any system used to process data. However, in the context of the EU Data Protection law, data processor has a more specific meaning. The EU Data Protection law defines a data processor as “a natural or legal person which processes personal data solely on behalf of the data controller.” In this context, the data controller is the person or entity that controls processing of the data.

As an example, a company that collects personal information on employees for payroll is a data controller. If they pass this information to a third-party company to process payroll, the payroll company is the data processor. In this example, the payroll company (the data processor) must not use the data for anything other than processing payroll at the direction of the data controller.

The EU Data Protection Directive (Directive 95/46/EC) restricts data transfers to countries outside of the EU. These countries must meet specific requirements that indicate they meet an adequate level of data protection. The US Department of Commerce runs the Safe Harbor program, which is a regulatory mechanism that includes a set of Safe Harbor Principles. The goal is to prevent unauthorized disclosure of information, handled by data processors, and transmitted between data processors and the data controller. US companies can voluntarily opt into the program if they agree to abide by seven principles and the requirements outlined in 15 frequently asked questions satisfactorily. The principles have a lot of legalese embedded within them but are paraphrased in the following bullets:

Notice: An organization must inform individuals about the purposes for which it collects and uses information about them.

Choice: An organization must offer individuals the opportunity to opt out.

Onward transfer: Organizations can only transfer data to other than organizations that comply with the Notice and Choice principles.

Security: Organizations must take reasonable precautions to protect data.

Data integrity: Organizations may not use information for purposes other than what they stated in the Notice principle and users selected in the Choice principle. Additionally, organizations should take steps to ensure the data is reliable.

Access: Individuals must have access to personal information an organization holds about them. Individuals also have the ability to correct, amend, or delete information, when it is inaccurate.

Enforcement: Organizations must implement mechanisms to assure compliance with the principles.

The US Department of Commerce maintains a site with many resources on Safe Harbor starting here: www.export.gov/safeharbor/. You can view the full text of the principles and the list of frequently asked questions by searching their site with Safe Harbor Principles and Safe Harbor Frequently Asked Questions, respectively.

Administrators A data administrator is responsible for granting appropriate access to personnel. They don’t necessarily have full administrator rights and privileges, but they do have the ability to assign permissions. Administrators assign permissions based on the principles of least privilege and the need to know, granting users access to only what they need for their job.

Administrators typically assign permissions using a role-based access control model. In other words, they add user accounts to groups and then grant permissions to the groups. When users no longer need access to the data, administrators remove their account from the group. Chapter 13, “Managing Identity and Authentication,” covers the role-based access control model in more depth.

Custodians Data owners often delegate day-to-day tasks to a custodian. A custodian helps protect the integrity and security of data by ensuring it is properly stored and protected. For example, custodians would ensure the data is backed up in accordance with a backup policy. If administrators have configured auditing on the data, custodians would also maintain these logs.

In practice, personnel within an IT department or system security administrators would typically be the custodians. They might be the same administrators responsible for assigning permissions to data.

Users A user is any person who accesses data via a computing system to accomplish work tasks. Users have access to only the data they need to perform their work tasks. You can also think of users as employees or end users.

Protecting Privacy Organizations have an obligation to protect data that they collect and maintain. This is especially true for both PII and PHI data (described earlier in this chapter). Many laws and regulations mandate the protection of privacy data, and organizations have an obligation to learn which laws and regulations apply to them. Additionally, organizations need to ensure their practices comply with these laws and regulations.

Many laws require organizations to disclose what data they collect, why they collect it, and how they plan to use the information. Additionally, these laws prohibit organizations from using the information in ways that are outside the scope of what they intend to use it for. For example, if an organization states it is collecting email addresses to communicate with a customer about purchases, the organization should not sell the email addresses to third parties.

It’s common for organizations to use an online privacy policy on their websites. Some of

the entities that require strict adherence to privacy laws include the US (with HIPAA privacy rules), the state of California (with the California Online Privacy Protection Act of 2003), Canada (with the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act), and the EU with the Data Protection Directive.

The EU has drafted the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) as a replacement for the EU Data Protection Directive. The planned timeline is for organizations to begin adopting the requirements in 2015 and 2016, and begin enforcing the requirements in 2017 and 2018.

Many of these laws require organizations to follow these requirements if they operate in the jurisdiction of the law. For example, the California Online Privacy Protection Act (COPA) requires a conspicuously posted privacy policy for any commercial websites or online services that collect personal information on California residents. In effect, this potentially applies to any website in the world that collects personal information because if the website is accessible on the Internet, any California residents can access it. Many people consider COPA to be one of the most stringent laws in the United States, and US- based organizations that follow the requirements of the California law typically meet the requirements in other locales. However, an organization has an obligation to determine what laws apply to it and follow them.

When protecting privacy, an organization will typically use several different security controls. Selecting the proper security controls can be a daunting task, especially for new organizations. However, using security baselines and identifying relevant standards makes the task a little easier.

Using Security Baselines Baselines provide a starting point and ensure a minimum security standard. One common baseline that organizations use is imaging. Chapter 16, “Managing Security Operations,” covers imaging in the context of configuration management in more depth. As an introduction, administrators configure a single system with desired settings, capture it as an image, and then deploy the image to other systems. This ensures all of the systems are deployed in a similar secure state.

After deploying systems in a secure state, auditing processes periodically check the systems to ensure they remain in a secure state. As an example, Microsoft Group Policy can periodically check systems and reapply settings to match the baseline.

NIST SP 800-53 discusses security control baselines as a list of security controls. It stresses that a single set of security controls does not apply to all situations, but any organization can select a set of baseline security controls and tailor it to its needs.

Appendix D of SP 800-53 includes four prioritized sets of security controls that organizations can implement to provide basic security. These give organizations insight into what they should implement first, second, and last.

As an example, consider Table 5.2, which is a partial list of some security controls in the access control family. NIST has assigned the control number and the control name for these controls and has provided a recommended priority. P-1 indicates the highest priority, P-2 is next, and P-3 is last. NIST SP 800-53 explains all of these controls in more depth in Appendix F.

Table 5.2 Security control baselines

Control no. Control name Priority AC-1 Access Control Policy and Procedures P-1 AC-2 Account Management P-1 AT-2 Security Awareness Training P-1 AC-5 Separation of Duties P-1 AC-6 Least Privilege P-1 AC-7 Unsuccessful Logon Attempts P-2 AC-10 Concurrent Session Control P-3

It’s worth noting that many of the items labeled as P-1 are basic security practices. Access control policies and procedures ensure that users have unique identifications (such as usernames) and can prove their identity with authentication procedures. Administrators grant users access to resources based on their proven identity (using authorization processes). Similarly, implementing basic security principles such as separation of duties and the principle of least privilege shouldn’t be a surprise to anyone studying for the CISSP exam. Of course, just because these are basic security practices, it doesn’t mean organizations implement them. Unfortunately, many organizations have yet to discover, or enforce, the basics.

Scoping and Tailoring Scoping refers to reviewing baseline security controls and selecting only those controls that apply to the IT system you’re trying to protect. For example, if a system doesn’t allow any two people to log on to it at the same time, there’s no need to apply a concurrent session control.

Tailoring refers to modifying the list of security controls within a baseline so that they align with the mission of the organization. For example, an organization might decide that a set of baseline controls applies perfectly to computers in their main location, but some controls aren’t appropriate or feasible in a remote office location. In this situation, the organization can select compensating security controls to tailor the baseline to the remote location.

Selecting Standards When selecting security controls within a baseline, or otherwise, organizations need to ensure that the controls comply with certain external security standards. External elements typically define compulsory requirements for an organization. As an example, the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) defines requirements that businesses must follow to process major credit cards. Similarly, organizations that want to transfer data to and from EU countries must abide by the principles in the Safe Harbor standard.

Obviously, not all organizations have to comply with these standards. Organizations that don’t process credit card transactions do not need to comply with PCI DSS. Similarly, organizations that do not transfer data to and from EU countries do not need to comply with the Safe Harbor standard. With this in mind, organizations need to identify the standards that apply, and ensure the security controls they select comply with these standards.

Summary Asset security focuses on collecting, handling, and protecting information throughout its life cycle. This includes sensitive information stored, processed, or transmitted on computing systems. Sensitive information is any information that an organization keeps private and can include multiple levels of classifications.

A key step in this process is defining classification labels in a security policy or data policy. Governments use labels such as top secret, secret, confidential, and unclassified. Nongovernment organizations can use any labels they choose. The key is that they define the labels in a security policy or a data policy. Data owners (typically senior management personnel) provide the data definitions.

Organizations take specific steps to mark, handle, store, and destroy sensitive information, and these steps help prevent the loss of confidentiality due to unauthorized disclosure. Additionally, organizations commonly define specific rules for record retention to ensure that data is available when it is needed. Data retention policies also reduce liabilities resulting from keeping data for too long.

A key method of protecting the confidentiality of data is with encryption. Symmetric encryption protocols (such as AES) can encrypt data at rest (stored on media). Transport encryption protocols protect data in transit by encrypting it before transmitting it (data in transit).

Personnel can fulfill many different roles when handling data. Data owners are ultimately responsible for classifying, labeling, and protecting data. System owners are responsible for the systems that process the data. Business and mission owners own the processes and ensure the systems provide value to the organization. Data processors are typically third-party entities that process data for an organization. Administrators grant access to

data based on guidelines provided by the data owners. A custodian is delegated day-to-day responsibilities for properly storing and protecting data. A user (often called an end user) accesses data on a system.

The EU Data Protection law mandates protection of privacy data. A data controller can hire a third party to process data, and in this context, the third party is the data processor. Data processors have a responsibility to protect the privacy of the data and not use it for any other purpose than directed by the data controller. The Safe Harbor program includes seven principles that organizations agree to abide by so that they follow the requirements within the EU Data Protection law.

Security baselines provide a set of security controls that an organization can implement as a secure starting point. Some publications (such as NIST SP 800-53) identify security control baselines. However, these baselines don’t apply equally to all organizations. Instead, organizations use scoping and tailoring techniques to identify the security controls to implement in their baselines. Additionally, organizations ensure that they implement security controls mandated by external standards that apply to their organization.

Exam Essentials Understand the importance of data classifications. Data owners are responsible for defining data classifications and ensuring systems and data are properly marked. Additionally, data owners define requirements to protect data at different classifications, such as encrypting sensitive data at rest and in transit. Data classifications are typically defined within security policies or data policies.

Know about PII and PHI. Personally identifiable information (PII) is any information that can identify an individual. Protected health information (PHI) is any health-related information that can be related to a specific person. Many laws and regulations mandate the protection of PII and PHI.

Know how to manage sensitive information. Sensitive information is any type of classified information, and proper management helps prevent unauthorized disclosure resulting in a loss of confidentiality. Proper management includes marking, handling, storing, and destroying sensitive information. The two areas where organizations often miss the mark are adequately protecting backup media holding sensitive information and sanitizing media or equipment when it is at the end of its life cycle.

Understand record retention. Record retention policies ensure that data is kept in a usable state while it is needed and destroyed when it is no longer needed. Many laws and regulations mandate keeping data for a specific amount of time, but in the absence of formal regulations, organizations specify the retention period within a policy. Audit trail data needs to be kept long enough to reconstruct past incidents, but the organization must identify how far back they want to investigate. A current trend with many organizations is to reduce legal liabilities by implementing short retention policies with

email.

Know the difference between different roles. The data owner is the person responsible for classifying, labeling, and protecting data. System owners are responsible for the systems that process the data. Business and mission owners own the processes and ensure the systems provide value to the organization. Data processors are typically third-party entities that process data for an organization. Administrators grant access to data based on guidelines provided by the data owners. A user accesses data in the course of performing work tasks. A custodian has day-to-day responsibilities for protecting and storing data.

Understand the seven Safe Harbor principles. The EU Data Protection law mandates protection of privacy data. Third parties agree to abide by the seven Safe Harbor principles as a method of ensuring that they are complying with the EU Data Protection law. The seven principles are notice, choice, onward transfer, security, data integrity, access, and enforcement.

Know about security control baselines. Security control baselines provide a listing of controls that an organization can apply as a baseline. Not all baselines apply to all organizations. However, an organization can apply scoping and tailoring techniques to adopt a baseline to its needs.

Written Lab 1. Describe PII and PHI.

2. Describe the best method to sanitize SSDs.

3. Name four classification levels that an organization can implement for data.

4. List the seven principles outlined by the Safe Harbor program.

Review Questions 1. Which one of the following identifies the primary a purpose of information

classification processes?

A. Define the requirements for protecting sensitive data.

B. Define the requirements for backing up data.

C. Define the requirements for storing data.

D. Define the requirements for transmitting data.

2. When determining the classification of data, which one of the following is the most important consideration?

A. Processing system

B. Value

C. Storage media

D. Accessibility

3. Which of the following answers would not be included as sensitive data?

A. Personally identifiable information (PII)

B. Protected health information (PHI)

C. Proprietary data

D. Data posted on a website

4. What is the most important aspect of marking media?

A. Date labeling

B. Content description

C. Electronic labeling

D. Classification

5. Which would an administrator do to classified media before reusing it in a less secure environment?

A. Erasing

B. Clearing

C. Purging

D. Overwriting

6. Which of the following statements correctly identifies a problem with sanitization methods?

A. Methods are not available to remove data ensuring that unauthorized personnel cannot retrieve data.

B. Even fully incinerated media can offer extractable data.

C. Personnel can perform sanitization steps improperly.

D. Stored data is physically etched into the media.

7. Which of the following choices is the most reliable method of destroying data on a solid state drive?

A. Erasing

B. Degaussing

C. Deleting

D. Purging

8. Which of the following is the most secure method of deleting data on a DVD?

A. Formatting

B. Deleting

C. Destruction

D. Degaussing

9. Which of the following does not erase data?

A. Clearing

B. Purging

C. Overwriting

D. Remanence

10. Which one of the following is based on Blowfish and helps protect against rainbow table attacks?

A. 3DES

B. AES

C. Bcrypt

D. SCP

11. Which one of the following would administrators use to connect to a remote server securely for administration?

A. Telnet

B. Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)

C. Secure Copy (SCP)

D. Secure Shell (SSH)

12. Which one of the following tasks would a custodian most likely perform?

A. Access the data

B. Classify the data

C. Assign permissions to the data

D. Back up data

13. Which one of the following data roles is most likely to assign permissions to grant users access to data?

A. Administrator

B. Custodian

C. Owner

D. User

14. Which of the following best defines “rules of behavior” established by a data owner?

A. Ensuring users are granted access to only what they need

B. Determining who has access to a system

C. Identifying appropriate use and protection of data

D. Applying security controls to a system

15. Within the context of the European Union (EU) Data Protection law, what is a data processor?

A. The entity that processes personal data on behalf of the data controller

B. The entity that controls processing of data

C. The computing system that processes data

D. The network that processes data

16. What do the principles of notice, choice, onward transfer, and access closely apply to?

A. Privacy

B. Identification

C. Retention

D. Classification

17. An organization is implementing a preselected baseline of security controls, but finds not all of the controls apply. What should they do?

A. Implement all of the controls anyway.

B. Identify another baseline.

C. Re-create a baseline.

D. Tailor the baseline to their needs.

Refer the following scenario when answering questions 18 through 20.

An organization has a datacenter manned 24 hours a day that processes highly sensitive information. The datacenter includes email servers, and administrators purge email older than six months to comply with the organization’s security policy. Access to the datacenter is controlled, and all systems that process sensitive information are marked. Administrators routinely back up data processed in the datacenter. They keep a copy of the backups on site and send an unmarked copy to one of the company warehouses. Warehouse workers organize the media by date, and they have backups from the last 20 years. Employees work at the warehouse during

the day and lock it when they leave at night and over the weekends. Recently a theft at the warehouse resulted in the loss of all of the offsite backup tapes. Later, copies of their data, including sensitive emails from years ago, began appearing on Internet sites, exposing the organization’s internal sensitive data.

18. Of the following choices, what would have prevented this loss without sacrificing security?

A. Mark the media kept offsite.

B. Don’t store data offsite.

C. Destroy the backups offsite.

D. Use a secure offsite storage facility.

19. Which of the following administrator actions might have prevented this incident?

A. Mark the tapes before sending them to the warehouse.

B. Purge the tapes before backing up data to them.

C. Degauss the tapes before backing up data to them.

D. Add the tapes to an asset management database.

20. Of the following choices, what policy was not followed regarding the backup media?

A. Media destruction

B. Record retention

C. Configuration management

D. Versioning

Chapter 6 Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms THE CISSP EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

✓ Security Engineering

I. Apply cryptography

I.1 Cryptographic life cycle (e.g., cryptographic limitations, algorithm/protocol governance)

I.2 Cryptographic types (e.g. symmetric, asymmetric, elliptic curves)

I.7 Non-repudiation

I.8 Integrity (hashing and salting)

Cryptography provides added levels of security to data during processing, storage, and communications. Over the years, mathematicians and computer scientists have developed a series of increasingly complex algorithms designed to ensure confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation. While cryptographers spent time developing strong encryption algorithms, hackers and governments alike devoted significant resources to undermining them. This led to an “arms race” in cryptography and resulted in the development of the extremely sophisticated algorithms in use today. This chapter looks at the history of cryptography, the basics of cryptographic communications, and the fundamental principles of private key cryptosystems. The next chapter continues the discussion of cryptography by examining public key cryptosystems and the various techniques attackers use to defeat cryptography.

Historical Milestones in Cryptography Since the beginning of mankind, human beings have devised various systems of written communication, ranging from ancient hieroglyphics written on cave walls to flash storage devices stuffed with encyclopedias full of information in modern English. As long as mankind has been communicating, we’ve used secretive means to hide the true meaning of those communications from the uninitiated. Ancient societies used a complex system of secret symbols to represent safe places to stay during times of war. Modern civilizations use a variety of codes and ciphers to facilitate private communication between individuals and groups. In the following sections, you’ll look at the evolution of modern cryptography and several famous attempts to covertly intercept and decipher encrypted communications.

Caesar Cipher One of the earliest known cipher systems was used by Julius Caesar to communicate with Cicero in Rome while he was conquering Europe. Caesar knew that there were several

risks when sending messages—one of the messengers might be an enemy spy or might be ambushed while en route to the deployed forces. For that reason, Caesar developed a cryptographic system now known as the Caesar cipher. The system is extremely simple. To encrypt a message, you simply shift each letter of the alphabet three places to the right. For example, A would become D, and B would become E. If you reach the end of the alphabet during this process, you simply wrap around to the beginning so that X becomes A, Y becomes B, and Z becomes C. For this reason, the Caesar cipher also became known as the ROT3 (or Rotate 3) cipher. The Caesar cipher is a substitution cipher that is monoalphabetic; it’s also known as a C3 cipher.

Although the Caesar cipher uses a shift of 3, the more general shift cipher uses the same algorithm to shift any number of characters desired by the user. For example, the ROT12 cipher would turn an A into an M, a B into an N, and so on.

Here’s an example of the Caesar cipher in action. The first line contains the original sentence, and the second line shows what the sentence looks like when it is encrypted using the Caesar cipher:

THE DIE HAS BEEN CAST WKH GLH KDV EHHQ FDVW

To decrypt the message, you simply shift each letter three places to the left.

Although the Caesar cipher is easy to use, it’s also easy to crack. It’s vulnerable to a type of attack known as frequency analysis. As you may know, the most common letters in the English language are E, T, A, O, N, R, I, S, and H. An attacker seeking to break a Caesar-style cipher merely needs to find the most common letters in the encrypted text and experiment with substitutions of these common letters to help determine the pattern.

American Civil War Between the time of Caesar and the early years of the United States, scientists and mathematicians made significant advances beyond the early ciphers used by ancient civilizations. During the American Civil War, Union and Confederate troops both used relatively advanced cryptographic systems to secretly communicate along the front lines because each side was tapping into the telegraph lines to spy on the other side. These systems used complex combinations of word substitutions and transposition (see the

section “Ciphers,” later in this chapter, for more details) to attempt to defeat enemy decryption efforts. Another system used widely during the Civil War was a series of flag signals developed by army doctor Albert J. Myer.

Photos of many of the items discussed in this chapter are available online at www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic_heritage/museum.

Ultra vs. Enigma Americans weren’t the only ones who expended significant resources in the pursuit of superior code-making machines. Prior to World War II, the German military-industrial complex adapted a commercial code machine nicknamed Enigma for government use. This machine used a series of three to six rotors to implement an extremely complicated substitution cipher. The only possible way to decrypt the message with contemporary technology was to use a similar machine with the same rotor settings used by the transmitting device. The Germans recognized the importance of safeguarding these devices and made it extremely difficult for the Allies to acquire one.

The Allied forces began a top-secret effort known by the code name Ultra to attack the Enigma codes. Eventually, their efforts paid off when the Polish military successfully reconstructed an Enigma prototype and shared their findings with British and American cryptology experts. The Allies successfully broke the Enigma code in 1940, and historians credit this triumph as playing a significant role in the eventual defeat of the Axis powers.

The Japanese used a similar machine, known as the Japanese Purple Machine, during World War II. A significant American attack on this cryptosystem resulted in breaking the Japanese code prior to the end of the war. The Americans were aided by the fact that Japanese communicators used very formal message formats that resulted in a large amount of similar text in multiple messages, easing the cryptanalytic effort.

Cryptographic Basics The study of any science must begin with a discussion of some of the fundamental principles upon which it is built. The following sections lay this foundation with a review of the goals of cryptography, an overview of the basic concepts of cryptographic technology, and a look at the major mathematical principles used by cryptographic systems.

Goals of Cryptography Security practitioners use cryptographic systems to meet four fundamental goals:

confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation. Achieving each of these goals requires the satisfaction of a number of design requirements, and not all cryptosystems are intended to achieve all four goals. In the following sections, we’ll examine each goal in detail and give a brief description of the technical requirements necessary to achieve it.

Confidentiality Confidentiality ensures that data remains private while at rest, such as when stored on a disk, or in transit, such as during transmission between two or more parties. This is perhaps the most widely cited goal of cryptosystems—the preservation of secrecy for stored information or for communications between individuals and groups. Two main types of cryptosystems enforce confidentiality. Symmetric key cryptosystems use a shared secret key available to all users of the cryptosystem. Asymmetric cryptosystems use individual combinations of public and private keys for each user of the system. Both of these concepts are explored in the section “Modern Cryptography” later in this chapter.

The concept of protecting data at rest and data in transit is often covered on the CISSP exam. You should also know that data in transit is also commonly called data “on the wire,” referring to the network cables that carry data communications.

When developing a cryptographic system for the purpose of providing confidentiality, you must think about two different types of data:

Data at rest, or stored data, is that which resides in a permanent location awaiting access. Examples of data at rest include data stored on hard drives, backup tapes, cloud storage services, USB devices, and other storage media.

Data in motion, or data “on the wire,” is data being transmitted across a network between two systems. Data in motion might be traveling on a corporate network, a wireless network, or the public Internet.

Both data in motion and data at rest pose different types of confidentiality risks that cryptography can protect against. For example, data in motion may be susceptible to eavesdropping attacks, whereas data at rest is more susceptible to the theft of physical devices.

Integrity Integrity ensures that data is not altered without authorization. If integrity mechanisms are in place, the recipient of a message can be certain that the message received is identical to the message that was sent. Similarly, integrity checks can ensure that stored data was not altered between the time it was created and the time it was accessed.

Integrity controls protect against all forms of alteration: intentional alteration by a third party attempting to insert false information and unintentional alteration by faults in the transmission process.

Message integrity is enforced through the use of encrypted message digests, known as digital signatures created upon transmission of a message. The recipient of the message simply verifies that the message’s digital signature is valid, ensuring that the message was not altered in transit. Integrity can be enforced by both public and secret key cryptosystems. This concept is discussed in detail in the section “Digital Signatures” in Chapter 7, “PKI and Cryptographic Applications.” The use of cryptographic hash functions to protect file integrity is discussed in Chapter 21, “Malicious Code and Application Attacks.”

Authentication Authentication verifies the claimed identity of system users and is a major function of cryptosystems. For example, suppose that Bob wants to establish a communications session with Alice and they are both participants in a shared secret communications system. Alice might use a challenge-response authentication technique to ensure that Bob is who he claims to be.

Figure 6.1 shows how this challenge-response protocol would work in action. In this example, the shared-secret code used by Alice and Bob is quite simple—the letters of each word are simply reversed. Bob first contacts Alice and identifies himself. Alice then sends a challenge message to Bob, asking him to encrypt a short message using the secret code known only to Alice and Bob. Bob replies with the encrypted message. After Alice verifies that the encrypted message is correct, she trusts that Bob himself is truly on the other end of the connection.

Figure 6.1 Challenge-response authentication protocol

Nonrepudiation Nonrepudiation provides assurance to the recipient that the message was originated by the sender and not someone masquerading as the sender. It also prevents the sender from claiming that they never sent the message in the first place (also known as repudiating the message). Secret key, or symmetric key, cryptosystems (such as simple substitution ciphers) do not provide this guarantee of nonrepudiation. If Jim and Bob

participate in a secret key communication system, they can both produce the same encrypted message using their shared secret key. Nonrepudiation is offered only by public key, or asymmetric, cryptosystems, a topic discussed in greater detail in Chapter 7.

Cryptography Concepts As with any science, you must be familiar with certain terminology before studying cryptography. Let’s take a look at a few of the key terms used to describe codes and ciphers. Before a message is put into a coded form, it is known as a plaintext message and is represented by the letter P when encryption functions are described. The sender of a message uses a cryptographic algorithm to encrypt the plaintext message and produce a ciphertext message, represented by the letter C. This message is transmitted by some physical or electronic means to the recipient. The recipient then uses a predetermined algorithm to decrypt the ciphertext message and retrieve the plaintext version. (For an illustration of this process, see Figure 6.3 later in this chapter.)

All cryptographic algorithms rely on keys to maintain their security. For the most part, a key is nothing more than a number. It’s usually a very large binary number, but a number nonetheless. Every algorithm has a specific key space. The key space is the range of values that are valid for use as a key for a specific algorithm. A key space is defined by its bit size. Bit size is nothing more than the number of binary bits (0s and 1s) in the key. The key space is the range between the key that has all 0s and the key that has all 1s. Or to state it another way, the key space is the range of numbers from 0 to 2n, where n is the bit size of the key. So, a 128-bit key can have a value from 0 to 2128 (which is roughly 3.40282367 * 1038, a very big number!). It is absolutely critical to protect the security of secret keys. In fact, all of the security you gain from cryptography rests on your ability to keep the keys used private.

The Kerchoff Principle All cryptography relies on algorithms. An algorithm is a set of rules, usually mathematical, that dictates how enciphering and deciphering processes are to take place. Most cryptographers follow the Kerchoff principle, a concept that makes algorithms known and public, allowing anyone to examine and test them. Specifically, the Kerchoff principle (also known as Kerchoff’s assumption) is that a cryptographic system should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public knowledge. The principle can be summed up as “The enemy knows the system.”

A large number of cryptographers adhere to this principle, but not all agree. In fact, some believe that better overall security can be maintained by keeping both the algorithm and the key private. Kerchoff’s adherents retort that the opposite approach includes the dubious practice of “security through obscurity” and believe that public exposure produces more activity and exposes more weaknesses more readily, leading to the abandonment of insufficiently strong algorithms and quicker adoption of

suitable ones.

As you’ll learn in this chapter and the next, different types of algorithms require different types of keys. In private key (or secret key) cryptosystems, all participants use a single shared key. In public key cryptosystems, each participant has their own pair of keys. Cryptographic keys are sometimes referred to as cryptovariables.

The art of creating and implementing secret codes and ciphers is known as cryptography. This practice is paralleled by the art of cryptanalysis—the study of methods to defeat codes and ciphers. Together, cryptography and cryptanalysis are commonly referred to as cryptology. Specific implementations of a code or cipher in hardware and software are known as cryptosystems. Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140–2, “Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules,” defines the hardware and software requirements for cryptographic modules that the federal government uses.

Be sure to understand the meanings of the terms in this section before continuing your study of this chapter and the following chapter. They are essential to understanding the technical details of the cryptographic algorithms presented in the following sections.

Cryptographic Mathematics Cryptography is no different from most computer science disciplines in that it finds its foundations in the science of mathematics. To fully understand cryptography, you must first understand the basics of binary mathematics and the logical operations used to manipulate binary values. The following sections present a brief look at some of the most fundamental concepts with which you should be familiar.

Boolean Mathematics Boolean mathematics defines the rules used for the bits and bytes that form the nervous system of any computer. You’re most likely familiar with the decimal system. It is a base 10 system in which an integer from 0 to 9 is used in each place and each place value is a multiple of 10. It’s likely that our reliance on the decimal system has biological origins—human beings have 10 fingers that can be used to count.

Boolean math can be very confusing at first, but it’s worth the investment of time to learn how logical functions work. You need to understand these concepts to truly

understand the inner workings of cryptographic algorithms.

Similarly, the computer’s reliance upon the Boolean system has electrical origins. In an electrical circuit, there are only two possible states—on (representing the presence of electrical current) and off (representing the absence of electrical current). All computation performed by an electrical device must be expressed in these terms, giving rise to the use of Boolean computation in modern electronics. In general, computer scientists refer to the on condition as a true value and the off condition as a false value.

Logical Operations The Boolean mathematics of cryptography uses a variety of logical functions to manipulate data. We’ll take a brief look at several of these operations.

AND The AND operation (represented by the ∧ symbol) checks to see whether two values are both true. The truth table that follows illustrates all four possible outputs for the AND function. Remember, the AND function takes only two variables as input. In Boolean math, there are only two possible values for each of these variables, leading to four possible inputs to the AND function. It’s this finite number of possibilities that makes it extremely easy for computers to implement logical functions in hardware. Notice in the following truth table that only one combination of inputs (where both inputs are true) produces an output value of true:

X Y X ∧ Y 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1

Logical operations are often performed on entire Boolean words rather than single values. Take a look at the following example:

X: 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 Y: 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 ___________________________ X ∧ Y: 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

Notice that the AND function is computed by comparing the values of X and Y in each column. The output value is true only in columns where both X and Y are true.

OR The OR operation (represented by the ∨ symbol) checks to see whether at least one of the input values is true. Refer to the following truth table for all possible values of the OR

function. Notice that the only time the OR function returns a false value is when both of the input values are false:

X Y X ∨ Y

0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

We’ll use the same example we used in the previous section to show you what the output would be if X and Y were fed into the OR function rather than the AND function:

X: 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 Y: 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 ___________________________ X ∨ Y: 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

NOT The NOT operation (represented by the ∼ or ! symbol) simply reverses the value of an input variable. This function operates on only one variable at a time. Here’s the truth table for the NOT function:

X ∼X 0 1 1 0

In this example, you take the value of X from the previous examples and run the NOT function against it:

X: 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 ___________________________ ∼X: 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1

Exclusive OR The final logical function you’ll examine in this chapter is perhaps the most important and most commonly used in cryptographic applications—the exclusive OR (XOR) function. It’s referred to in mathematical literature as the XOR function and is commonly represented by the ⊕ symbol. The XOR function returns a true value when only one of the input values is true. If both values are false or both values are true, the output of the XOR function is false. Here is the truth table for the XOR operation:

X Y X ⊕ Y 0 0 0 0 1 1

1 0 1 1 1 0

The following operation shows the X and Y values when they are used as input to the XOR function:

X: 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 Y: 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 ___________________________ X ⊕ Y: 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1

Modulo Function The modulo function is extremely important in the field of cryptography. Think back to the early days when you first learned division. At that time, you weren’t familiar with decimal numbers and compensated by showing a remainder value each time you performed a division operation. Computers don’t naturally understand the decimal system either, and these remainder values play a critical role when computers perform many mathematical functions. The modulo function is, quite simply, the remainder value left over after a division operation is performed.

The modulo function is just as important to cryptography as the logical operations are. Be sure you’re familiar with its functionality and can perform simple modular math.

The modulo function is usually represented in equations by the abbreviation mod, although it’s also sometimes represented by the % operator. Here are several inputs and outputs for the modulo function:

8 mod 6 = 2 6 mod 8 = 6 10 mod 3 = 1 10 mod 2 = 0 32 mod 8 = 0

We’ll revisit this function in Chapter 7 when we explore the RSA public key encryption algorithm (named after Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman, its inventors).

One-Way Functions A one-way function is a mathematical operation that easily produces output values for each possible combination of inputs but makes it impossible to retrieve the input values. Public key cryptosystems are all based on some sort of one-way function. In practice, however, it’s never been proven that any specific known function is truly one way. Cryptographers rely on functions that they suspect may be one way, but it’s theoretically

possible that they might be broken by future cryptanalysts.

Here’s an example. Imagine you have a function that multiplies three numbers together. If you restrict the input values to single-digit numbers, it’s a relatively straightforward matter to reverse-engineer this function and determine the possible input values by looking at the numerical output. For example, the output value 15 was created by using the input values 1, 3, and 5. However, suppose you restrict the input values to five-digit prime numbers. It’s still quite simple to obtain an output value by using a computer or a good calculator, but reverse-engineering is not quite so simple. Can you figure out what three prime numbers were used to obtain the output value 10,718,488,075,259? Not so simple, eh? (As it turns out, the number is the product of the prime numbers 17,093; 22,441; and 27,943.) There are actually 8,363 five-digit prime numbers, so this problem might be attacked using a computer and a brute-force algorithm, but there’s no easy way to figure it out in your head, that’s for sure!

Nonce Cryptography often gains strength by adding randomness to the encryption process. One method by which this is accomplished is through the use of a nonce. A nonce is a random number that acts as a placeholder variable in mathematical functions. When the function is executed, the nonce is replaced with a random number generated at the moment of processing for one-time use. The nonce must be a unique number each time it is used. One of the more recognizable examples of a nonce is an initialization vector (IV), a random bit string that is the same length as the block size and is XORed with the message. IVs are used to create unique ciphertext every time the same message is encrypted using the same key.

Zero-Knowledge Proof One of the benefits of cryptography is found in the mechanism to prove your knowledge of a fact to a third party without revealing the fact itself to that third party. This is often done with passwords and other secret authenticators.

The classic example of a zero-knowledge proof involves two individuals: Peggy and Victor. Peggy knows the password to a secret door located inside a circular cave, as shown in Figure 6.2. Victor would like to buy the password from Peggy, but he wants Peggy to prove that she knows the password before paying her for it. Peggy doesn’t want to tell Victor the password for fear that he won’t pay later. The zero-knowledge proof can solve their dilemma.

Figure 6.2 The magic door

Victor can stand at the entrance to the cave and watch Peggy depart down the path. Peggy then reaches the door and opens it using the password. She then passes through the door and returns via path 2. Victor saw her leave down path 1 and return via path 2, proving that she must know the correct password to open the door.

Split Knowledge When the information or privilege required to perform an operation is divided among multiple users, no single person has sufficient privileges to compromise the security of an environment. This separation of duties and two-person control contained in a single solution is called split knowledge. The best example of split knowledge is seen in the concept of key escrow. Using key escrow, cryptographic keys, digital signatures, and even digital certificates can be stored or backed up in a special database called the key escrow database. In the event a user loses or damages their key, that key can be extracted from the backup. However, if only a single key escrow recovery agent exists, there is opportunity for fraud and abuse of this privilege. M of N Control requires that a minimum number of agents (M) out of the total number of agents (N) work together to perform high-security tasks. So, implementing three of eight controls would require three people out of the eight with the assigned work task of key escrow recovery agent to work together to pull a single key out of the key escrow database (thereby also illustrating that M is always less than or equal to N).

Work Function You can measure the strength of a cryptography system by measuring the effort in terms of cost and/or time using a work function or work factor. Usually the time and effort

required to perform a complete brute-force attack against an encryption system is what the work function represents. The security and protection offered by a cryptosystem is directly proportional to the value of the work function/factor. The size of the work function should be matched against the relative value of the protected asset. The work function need be only slightly greater than the time value of that asset. In other words, all security, including cryptography, should be cost effective and cost efficient. Spend no more effort to protect an asset than it warrants, but be sure to provide sufficient protection. Thus, if information loses its value over time, the work function needs to be only large enough to ensure protection until the value of the data is gone.

Ciphers Cipher systems have long been used by individuals and governments interested in preserving the confidentiality of their communications. In the following sections, we’ll cover the definition of a cipher and explore several common cipher types that form the basis of modern ciphers. It’s important to remember that these concepts seem somewhat basic, but when used in combination, they can be formidable opponents and cause cryptanalysts many hours of frustration.

Codes vs. Ciphers People often use the words code and cipher interchangeably, but technically, they aren’t interchangeable. There are important distinctions between the two concepts. Codes, which are cryptographic systems of symbols that represent words or phrases, are sometimes secret, but they are not necessarily meant to provide confidentiality. A common example of a code is the “10 system” of communications used by law enforcement agencies. Under this system, the sentence “I received your communication and understand the contents” is represented by the code phrase “10-4.” This code is commonly known by the public, but it does provide for ease of communication. Some codes are secret. They may convey confidential information using a secret codebook where the meaning of the code is known only to the sender and recipient. For example, a spy might transmit the sentence “The eagle has landed” to report the arrival of an enemy aircraft.

Ciphers, on the other hand, are always meant to hide the true meaning of a message. They use a variety of techniques to alter and/or rearrange the characters or bits of a message to achieve confidentiality. Ciphers convert messages from plain text to ciphertext on a bit basis (that is, a single digit of a binary code), character basis (that is, a single character of an ASCII message), or block basis (this is, a fixed-length segment of a message, usually expressed in number of bits). The following sections cover several common ciphers in use today.

An easy way to keep the difference between codes and ciphers straight is to remember that codes work on words and phrases whereas ciphers work on individual characters and bits.

Transposition Ciphers Transposition ciphers use an encryption algorithm to rearrange the letters of a plaintext message, forming the ciphertext message. The decryption algorithm simply reverses the encryption transformation to retrieve the original message.

In the challenge-response protocol example in Figure 6.1 earlier in this chapter, a simple transposition cipher was used to reverse the letters of the message so that apple became elppa. Transposition ciphers can be much more complicated than this. For example, you can use a keyword to perform a columnar transposition. In the following example, we’re attempting to encrypt the message “The fighters will strike the enemy bases at noon” using the secret key attacker. Our first step is to take the letters of the keyword and number them in alphabetical order. The first appearance of the letter A receives the value 1; the second appearance is numbered 2. The next letter in sequence, C, is numbered 3, and so on. This results in the following sequence:

A T T A C K E R 1 7 8 2 3 5 4 6

Next, the letters of the message are written in order underneath the letters of the keyword:

A T T A C K E R 1 7 8 2 3 5 4 6 T H E F I G H T E R S W I L L S T R I K E T H E E N E M Y B A S E S A T N O O N

Finally, the sender enciphers the message by reading down each column; the order in which the columns are read corresponds to the numbers assigned in the first step. This produces the following ciphertext:

T E T E E F W K M T I I E Y N H L H A O G L T B O T S E S N H R R N S E S I E A

On the other end, the recipient reconstructs the eight-column matrix using the ciphertext and the same keyword and then simply reads the plaintext message across the rows.

Substitution Ciphers Substitution ciphers use the encryption algorithm to replace each character or bit of the plaintext message with a different character. The Caesar cipher discussed in the beginning of this chapter is a good example of a substitution cipher. Now that you’ve learned a little bit about cryptographic math, we’ll take another look at the Caesar cipher. Recall that we

simply shifted each letter three places to the right in the message to generate the ciphertext. However, we ran into a problem when we got to the end of the alphabet and ran out of letters. We solved this by wrapping around to the beginning of the alphabet so that the plaintext character Z became the ciphertext character C.

You can express the ROT3 cipher in mathematical terms by converting each letter to its decimal equivalent (where A is 0 and Z is 25). You can then add three to each plaintext letter to determine the ciphertext. You account for the wrap-around by using the modulo function discussed in the section “Cryptographic Mathematics.” The final encryption function for the Caesar cipher is then this:

C = (P + 3) mod 26

The corresponding decryption function is as follows:

P = (C - 3) mod 26

As with transposition ciphers, there are many substitution ciphers that are more sophisticated than the examples provided in this chapter. Polyalphabetic substitution ciphers use multiple alphabets in the same message to hinder decryption efforts. One of the most notable examples of a polyalphabetic substitution cipher system is the Vigenère cipher. The Vigenère cipher uses a single encryption/decryption chart as shown here:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y

Notice that the chart is simply the alphabet written repeatedly (26 times) under the

master heading, shifting by one letter each time. You need a key to use the Vigenère system. For example, the key could be secret. Then, you would perform the following encryption process:

1. Write out the plain text.

2. Underneath, write out the encryption key, repeating the key as many times as needed to establish a line of text that is the same length as the plain text.

3. Convert each letter position from plain text to ciphertext.

a. Locate the column headed by the first plaintext character (a).

b. Next, locate the row headed by the first character of the key (s).

c. Finally, locate where these two items intersect, and write down the letter that appears there (s). This is the ciphertext for that letter position.

4. Repeat steps 1 through 3 for each letter in the plaintext version.

Plain text: a t t a c k a t d a w n Key: s e c r e t s e c r e t Ciphertext: s x v r g d s x f r a g

Although polyalphabetic substitution protects against direct frequency analysis, it is vulnerable to a second-order form of frequency analysis called period analysis, which is an examination of frequency based on the repeated use of the key.

One-Time Pads A one-time pad is an extremely powerful type of substitution cipher. One-time pads use a different substitution alphabet for each letter of the plaintext message. They can be represented by the following encryption function, where K is the encryption key used to encrypt the plaintext letter P into the ciphertext letter C:

C = (P + K) mod 26

Usually, one-time pads are written as a very long series of numbers to be plugged into the function.

One-time pads are also known as Vernam ciphers, after the name of their inventor, Gilbert Sandford Vernam of AT&T Bell Labs.

The great advantage of one-time pads is that, when used properly, they are an unbreakable encryption scheme. There is no repeating pattern of alphabetic substitution, rendering cryptanalytic efforts useless. However, several requirements must be met to

ensure the integrity of the algorithm:

The one-time pad must be randomly generated. Using a phrase or a passage from a book would introduce the possibility that cryptanalysts could break the code.

The one-time pad must be physically protected against disclosure. If the enemy has a copy of the pad, they can easily decrypt the enciphered messages.

You may be thinking at this point that the Caesar cipher, Vigenère cipher, and one- time pad sound very similar. They are! The only difference is the key length. The Caesar shift cipher uses a key of length one, the Vigenère cipher uses a longer key (usually a word or sentence), and the one-time pad uses a key that is as long as the message itself.

Each one-time pad must be used only once. If pads are reused, cryptanalysts can compare similarities in multiple messages encrypted with the same pad and possibly determine the key values used.

The key must be at least as long as the message to be encrypted. This is because each character of the key is used to encode only one character of the message.

These one-time pad security requirements are essential knowledge for any network security professional. All too often, people attempt to implement a one-time pad cryptosystem but fail to meet one or more of these fundamental requirements. Read on for an example of how an entire Soviet code system was broken because of carelessness in this area.

If any one of these requirements is not met, the impenetrable nature of the one-time pad instantly breaks down. In fact, one of the major intelligence successes of the United States resulted when cryptanalysts broke a top-secret Soviet cryptosystem that relied on the use of one-time pads. In this project, code-named VENONA, a pattern in the way the Soviets generated the key values used in their pads was discovered. The existence of this pattern violated the first requirement of a one-time pad cryptosystem: the keys must be randomly generated without the use of any recurring pattern. The entire VENONA project was recently declassified and is publicly available on the National Security Agency website at www.nsa.gov/about/_files/cryptologic_heritage/publications/coldwar/venona_story.pdf

One-time pads have been used throughout history to protect extremely sensitive communications. The major obstacle to their widespread use is the difficulty of generating, distributing, and safeguarding the lengthy keys required. One-time pads can realistically be used only for short messages, because of key lengths.

Running Key Ciphers Many cryptographic vulnerabilities surround the limited length of the cryptographic key. As you learned in the previous section, one-time pads avoid these vulnerabilities by using a key that is at least as long as the message. However, one-time pads are awkward to implement because they require the physical exchange of pads.

One common solution to this dilemma is the use of a running key cipher (also known as a book cipher). In this cipher, the encryption key is as long as the message itself and is often chosen from a common book. For example, the sender and recipient might agree in advance to use the text of a chapter from Moby Dick, beginning with the third paragraph, as the key. They would both simply use as many consecutive characters as necessary to perform the encryption and decryption operations.

Let’s look at an example. Suppose you wanted to encrypt the message “Richard will deliver the secret package to Matthew at the bus station tomorrow” using the key just described. This message is 66 characters in length, so you’d use the first 66 characters of the running key: “With much interest I sat watching him. Savage though he was, and hideously marred.” Any algorithm could then be used to encrypt the plaintext message using this key. Let’s look at the example of modulo 26 addition, which converts each letter to a decimal equivalent, adds the plain text to the key, and then performs a modulo 26 operation to yield the ciphertext. If you assign the letter A the value 0 and the letter Z the value 25, you have the following encryption operation for the first two words of the ciphertext:

Plain text R I C H A R D W I L L Key W I T H M U C H I N T Numeric plain text 17 8 2 7 0 17 3 22 8 11 11 Numeric key 22 8 19 7 12 20 2 7 8 13 19 Numeric ciphertext 13 16 21 14 12 11 5 3 16 24 4 Ciphertext N Q V O M L F D Q Y E

When the recipient receives the ciphertext, they use the same key and then subtract the key from the ciphertext, perform a modulo 26 operation, and then convert the resulting plain text back to alphabetic characters.

Block Ciphers Block ciphers operate on “chunks,” or blocks, of a message and apply the encryption algorithm to an entire message block at the same time. The transposition ciphers are

examples of block ciphers. The simple algorithm used in the challenge-response algorithm takes an entire word and reverses its letters. The more complicated columnar transposition cipher works on an entire message (or a piece of a message) and encrypts it using the transposition algorithm and a secret keyword. Most modern encryption algorithms implement some type of block cipher.

Stream Ciphers Stream ciphers operate on one character or bit of a message (or data stream) at a time. The Caesar cipher is an example of a stream cipher. The one-time pad is also a stream cipher because the algorithm operates on each letter of the plaintext message independently. Stream ciphers can also function as a type of block cipher. In such operations there is a buffer that fills up to real-time data that is then encrypted as a block and transmitted to the recipient.

Confusion and Diffusion Cryptographic algorithms rely on two basic operations to obscure plaintext messages— confusion and diffusion. Confusion occurs when the relationship between the plain text and the key is so complicated that an attacker can’t merely continue altering the plain text and analyzing the resulting ciphertext to determine the key. Diffusion occurs when a change in the plain text results in multiple changes spread throughout the ciphertext. Consider, for example, a cryptographic algorithm that first performs a complex substitution and then uses transposition to rearrange the characters of the substituted ciphertext. In this example, the substitution introduces confusion and the transposition introduces diffusion.

Modern Cryptography Modern cryptosystems use computationally complex algorithms and long cryptographic keys to meet the cryptographic goals of confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation. The following sections cover the roles cryptographic keys play in the world of data security and examine three types of algorithms commonly used today: symmetric encryption algorithms, asymmetric encryption algorithms, and hashing algorithms.

Cryptographic Keys In the early days of cryptography, one of the predominant principles was “security through obscurity.” Some cryptographers thought the best way to keep an encryption algorithm secure was to hide the details of the algorithm from outsiders. Old cryptosystems required communicating parties to keep the algorithm used to encrypt and decrypt messages secret from third parties. Any disclosure of the algorithm could lead to compromise of the entire system by an adversary.

Modern cryptosystems do not rely on the secrecy of their algorithms. In fact, the algorithms for most cryptographic systems are widely available for public review in the accompanying literature and on the Internet. Opening algorithms to public scrutiny actually improves their security. Widespread analysis of algorithms by the computer security community allows practitioners to discover and correct potential security vulnerabilities and ensure that the algorithms they use to protect their communications are as secure as possible.

Instead of relying on secret algorithms, modern cryptosystems rely on the secrecy of one or more cryptographic keys used to personalize the algorithm for specific users or groups of users. Recall from the discussion of transposition ciphers that a keyword is used with the columnar transposition to guide the encryption and decryption efforts. The algorithm used to perform columnar transposition is well known—you just read the details of it in this book! However, columnar transposition can be used to securely communicate between parties as long as a keyword is chosen that would not be guessed by an outsider. As long as the security of this keyword is maintained, it doesn’t matter that third parties know the details of the algorithm.

Although the public nature of the algorithm does not compromise the security of columnar transposition, the method does possess several inherent weaknesses that make it vulnerable to cryptanalysis. It is therefore an inadequate technology for use in modern secure communication.

In the discussion of one-time pads earlier in this chapter, you learned that the main strength of the one-time pad algorithm is derived from the fact that it uses an extremely long key. In fact, for that algorithm, the key is at least as long as the message itself. Most modern cryptosystems do not use keys quite that long, but the length of the key is still an extremely important factor in determining the strength of the cryptosystem and the likelihood that the encryption will not be compromised through cryptanalytic techniques.

The rapid increase in computing power allows you to use increasingly long keys in your cryptographic efforts. However, this same computing power is also in the hands of cryptanalysts attempting to defeat the algorithms you use. Therefore, it’s essential that you outpace adversaries by using sufficiently long keys that will defeat contemporary cryptanalysis efforts. Additionally, if you want to improve the chance that your data will remain safe from cryptanalysis some time into the future, you must strive to use keys that will outpace the projected increase in cryptanalytic capability during the entire time period the data must be kept safe.

Several decades ago, when the Data Encryption Standard was created, a 56-bit key was considered sufficient to maintain the security of any data. However, there is now widespread agreement that the 56-bit DES algorithm is no longer secure because of

advances in cryptanalysis techniques and supercomputing power. Modern cryptographic systems use at least a 128-bit key to protect data against prying eyes. Remember, the length of the key directly relates to the work function of the cryptosystem: the longer the key, the harder it is to break the cryptosystem.

Symmetric Key Algorithms Symmetric key algorithms rely on a “shared secret” encryption key that is distributed to all members who participate in the communications. This key is used by all parties to both encrypt and decrypt messages, so the sender and the receiver both possess a copy of the shared key. The sender encrypts with the shared secret key and the receiver decrypts with it. When large-sized keys are used, symmetric encryption is very difficult to break. It is primarily employed to perform bulk encryption and provides only for the security service of confidentiality. Symmetric key cryptography can also be called secret key cryptography and private key cryptography. Figure 6.3 illustrates the symmetric key encryption and decryption processes.

Figure 6.3 Symmetric key cryptography

The use of the term private key can be tricky because it is part of three different terms that have two different meanings. The term private key by itself always means the private key from the key pair of public key cryptography (aka asymmetric). However, both private key cryptography and shared private key refer to symmetric cryptography. The meaning of the word private is stretched to refer to two people sharing a secret that they keep confidential. (The true meaning of private is that only a single person has a secret that’s kept confidential.) Be sure to keep these confusing terms straight in your studies.

Symmetric key cryptography has several weaknesses:

Key distribution is a major problem. Parties must have a secure method of

exchanging the secret key before establishing communications with a symmetric key protocol. If a secure electronic channel is not available, an offline key distribution method must often be used (that is, out-of-band exchange).

Symmetric key cryptography does not implement nonrepudiation. Because any communicating party can encrypt and decrypt messages with the shared secret key, there is no way to prove where a given message originated.

The algorithm is not scalable. It is extremely difficult for large groups to communicate using symmetric key cryptography. Secure private communication between individuals in the group could be achieved only if each possible combination of users shared a private key.

Keys must be regenerated often. Each time a participant leaves the group, all keys known by that participant must be discarded.

The major strength of symmetric key cryptography is the great speed at which it can operate. Symmetric key encryption is very fast, often 1,000 to 10,000 times faster than asymmetric algorithms. By nature of the mathematics involved, symmetric key cryptography also naturally lends itself to hardware implementations, creating the opportunity for even higher-speed operations.

The section “Symmetric Cryptography” later in this chapter provides a detailed look at the major secret key algorithms in use today.

Asymmetric Key Algorithms Asymmetric key algorithms, also known as public key algorithms, provide a solution to the weaknesses of symmetric key encryption. In these systems, each user has two keys: a public key, which is shared with all users, and a private key, which is kept secret and known only to the user. But here’s a twist: opposite and related keys must be used in tandem to encrypt and decrypt. In other words, if the public key encrypts a message, then only the corresponding private key can decrypt it, and vice versa.

Figure 6.4 shows the algorithm used to encrypt and decrypt messages in a public key cryptosystem. Consider this example. If Alice wants to send a message to Bob using public key cryptography, she creates the message and then encrypts it using Bob’s public key. The only possible way to decrypt this ciphertext is to use Bob’s private key, and the only user with access to that key is Bob. Therefore, Alice can’t even decrypt the message herself after she encrypts it. If Bob wants to send a reply to Alice, he simply encrypts the message using Alice’s public key, and then Alice reads the message by decrypting it with her private key.

Figure 6.4 Asymmetric key cryptography

Key Requirements

In a class one of the authors of this book taught recently, a student wanted to see an illustration of the scalability issue associated with symmetric encryption algorithms. The fact that symmetric cryptosystems require each pair of potential communicators to have a shared private key makes the algorithm nonscalable. The total number of keys required to completely connect n parties using symmetric cryptography is given by the following formula:

Now, this might not sound so bad (and it’s not for small systems), but consider the following figures. Obviously, the larger the population, the less likely a symmetric cryptosystem will be suitable to meet its needs.

Number of participants

Number of symmetric keys required

Number of asymmetric keys required

2 1 4 3 3 6 4 6 8 5 10 10 10 45 20 100 4,950 200 1,000 499,500 2,000 10,000 49,995,000 20,000

Asymmetric key algorithms also provide support for digital signature technology. Basically, if Bob wants to assure other users that a message with his name on it was actually sent by him, he first creates a message digest by using a hashing algorithm (you’ll find more on hashing algorithms in the next section). Bob then encrypts that digest using his private key. Any user who wants to verify the signature simply decrypts the message digest using Bob’s public key and then verifies that the decrypted message digest is accurate. Chapter 7 explains this process in greater detail.

The following is a list of the major strengths of asymmetric key cryptography:

The addition of new users requires the generation of only one public-private key pair. This same key pair is used to communicate with all users of the asymmetric cryptosystem. This makes the algorithm extremely scalable.

Users can be removed far more easily from asymmetric systems. Asymmetric cryptosystems provide a key revocation mechanism that allows a key to be canceled, effectively removing a user from the system.

Key regeneration is required only when a user’s private key is compromised. If a user leaves the community, the system administrator simply needs to invalidate that user’s keys. No other keys are compromised and therefore key regeneration is not required for any other user.

Asymmetric key encryption can provide integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation. If a user does not share their private key with other individuals, a message signed by that user can be shown to be accurate and from a specific source and cannot be later repudiated.

Key distribution is a simple process. Users who want to participate in the system simply make their public key available to anyone with whom they want to communicate. There is no method by which the private key can be derived from the public key.

No preexisting communication link needs to exist. Two individuals can begin communicating securely from the moment they start communicating. Asymmetric cryptography does not require a preexisting relationship to provide a secure mechanism for data exchange.

The major weakness of public key cryptography is its slow speed of operation. For this reason, many applications that require the secure transmission of large amounts of data use public key cryptography to establish a connection and then exchange a symmetric secret key. The remainder of the session then uses symmetric cryptography. Table 6.1 compares the symmetric and asymmetric cryptography systems. Close examination of this table reveals that a weakness in one system is matched by a strength in the other.

Table 6.1 Comparison of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography systems

Symmetric Asymmetric

Single shared key Key pair sets

Out-of-band exchange

In-band exchange

Not scalable Scalable Fast Slow Bulk encryption Small blocks of data, digital signatures, digital envelopes, digital

certificates Confidentiality Confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, nonrepudiation

Chapter 7 provides technical details on modern public key encryption algorithms and some of their applications.

Hashing Algorithms In the previous section, you learned that public key cryptosystems can provide digital signature capability when used in conjunction with a message digest. Message digests are summaries of a message’s content (not unlike a file checksum) produced by a hashing algorithm. It’s extremely difficult, if not impossible, to derive a message from an ideal hash function, and it’s very unlikely that two messages will produce the same hash value.

The following are some of the more common hashing algorithms in use today:

Message Digest 2 (MD2)

Message Digest 5 (MD5)

Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-0, SHA-1, and SHA-2)

Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC)

Chapter 7, “PKI and Cryptographic Applications,” provides details on these contemporary hashing algorithms and explains how they are used to provide digital signature capability, which helps meet the cryptographic goals of integrity and nonrepudiation.

Symmetric Cryptography You’ve learned the basic concepts underlying symmetric key cryptography, asymmetric key cryptography, and hashing functions. In the following sections, we’ll take an in-depth look at several common symmetric cryptosystems: the Data Encryption Standard (DES), Triple DES (3DES), International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), Blowfish, Skipjack, and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

Data Encryption Standard The US government published the Data Encryption Standard in 1977 as a proposed standard cryptosystem for all government communications. Due to flaws in the algorithm, cryptographers and the federal government no longer consider DES secure. It is widely believed that intelligence agencies routinely decrypt DES-encrypted information. DES was superseded by the Advanced Encryption Standard in December 2001. It is still important to understand DES because it is the building block of Triple DES (3DES), a strong encryption algorithm discussed in the next section.

DES is a 64-bit block cipher that has five modes of operation: Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode, Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode, Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode, Output Feedback (OFB) mode, and Counter (CTR) mode. These modes are explained in the following sections. All of the DES modes operate on 64 bits of plain text at a time to generate 64-bit blocks of ciphertext. The key used by DES is 56 bits long.

DES uses a long series of exclusive OR (XOR) operations to generate the ciphertext. This process is repeated 16 times for each encryption/decryption operation. Each repetition is commonly referred to as a round of encryption, explaining the statement that DES performs 16 rounds of encryption.

As mentioned, DES uses a 56-bit key to drive the encryption and decryption process. However, you may read in some literature that DES uses a 64-bit key. This is not an inconsistency—there’s a perfectly logical explanation. The DES specification calls for a 64-bit key. However, of those 64 bits, only 56 actually contain keying information. The remaining 8 bits are supposed to contain parity information to ensure that the other 56 bits are accurate. In practice, however, those parity bits are rarely used. You should commit the 56-bit figure to memory.

Electronic Codebook Mode Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode is the simplest mode to understand and the least secure. Each time the algorithm processes a 64-bit block, it simply encrypts the block using the chosen secret key. This means that if the algorithm encounters the same block multiple times, it will produce the same encrypted block. If an enemy were eavesdropping on the communications, they could simply build a “code book” of all the possible encrypted values. After a sufficient number of blocks were gathered, cryptanalytic techniques could be used to decipher some of the blocks and break the encryption scheme.

This vulnerability makes it impractical to use ECB mode on all but the shortest transmissions. In everyday use, ECB is used only for exchanging small amounts of data,

such as keys and parameters used to initiate other DES modes as well as the cells in a database.

Cipher Block Chaining Mode In Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode, each block of unencrypted text is XORed with the block of ciphertext immediately preceding it before it is encrypted using the DES algorithm. The decryption process simply decrypts the ciphertext and reverses the XOR operation. CBC implements an IV and XORs it with the first block of the message, producing a unique output every time the operation is performed. The IV must be sent to the recipient, perhaps by tacking the IV onto the front of the completed ciphertext in plain form or by protecting it with ECB mode encryption using the same key used for the message. One important consideration when using CBC mode is that errors propagate—if one block is corrupted during transmission, it becomes impossible to decrypt that block and the next block as well.

Cipher Feedback Mode Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode is the streaming cipher version of CBC. In other words, CFB operates against data produced in real time. However, instead of breaking a message into blocks, it uses memory buffers of the same block size. As the buffer becomes full, it is encrypted and then sent to the recipient(s). Then the system waits for the next buffer to be filled as the new data is generated before it is in turn encrypted and then transmitted. Other than the change from preexisting data to real-time data, CFB operates in the same fashion as CBC. It uses an IV and it uses chaining.

Output Feedback Mode In Output Feedback (OFB) mode, DES operates in almost the same fashion as it does in CFB mode. However, instead of XORing an encrypted version of the previous block of ciphertext, DES XORs the plain text with a seed value. For the first encrypted block, an initialization vector is used to create the seed value. Future seed values are derived by running the DES algorithm on the previous seed value. The major advantages of OFB mode are that there is no chaining function and transmission errors do not propagate to affect the decryption of future blocks.

Counter Mode DES that is run in Counter (CTR) mode uses a stream cipher similar to that used in CFB and OFB modes. However, instead of creating the seed value for each encryption/decryption operation from the results of the previous seed values, it uses a simple counter that increments for each operation. As with OFB mode, errors do not propagate in CTR mode.

CTR mode allows you to break an encryption or decryption operation into multiple independent steps. This makes CTR mode well suited for use in parallel computing.

Triple DES As mentioned in previous sections, the Data Encryption Standard’s 56-bit key is no longer considered adequate in the face of modern cryptanalytic techniques and supercomputing power. However, an adapted version of DES, Triple DES (3DES), uses the same algorithm to produce a more secure encryption.

There are four versions of 3DES. The first simply encrypts the plain text three times, using three different keys: K1, K2, and K3. It is known as DES-EEE3 mode (the Es indicate that there are three encryption operations, whereas the numeral 3 indicates that three different keys are used). DES-EEE3 can be expressed using the following notation, where E(K,P) represents the encryption of plaintext P with key K:

E(K1,E(K2,E(K3,P)))

DES-EEE3 has an effective key length of 168 bits.

The second variant (DES-EDE3) also uses three keys but replaces the second encryption operation with a decryption operation:

E(K1,D(K2,E(K3,P)))

The third version of 3DES (DES-EEE2) uses only two keys, K1 and K2, as follows:

E(K1,E(K2,E(K1,P)))

The fourth variant of 3DES (DES-EDE2) also uses two keys but uses a decryption operation in the middle:

E(K1,D(K2,E(K1,P)))

Both the third and fourth variants have an effective key length of 112 bits.

Technically, there is a fifth variant of 3DES, DES-EDE1, which uses only one cryptographic key. However, it results in the same algorithm as standard DES, which is unacceptably weak for most applications. It is provided only for backward- compatibility purposes.

These four variants of 3DES were developed over the years because several cryptologists put forth theories that one variant was more secure than the others. However, the current belief is that all modes are equally secure.

Take some time to understand the variants of 3DES. Sit down with a pencil and paper and be sure you understand the way each variant uses two or three keys to achieve stronger encryption.

This discussion raises an obvious question—what happened to Double DES (2DES)? You’ll read in Chapter 7 that Double DES was tried but quickly abandoned when it was proven that an attack existed that rendered it no more secure than standard DES.

International Data Encryption Algorithm The International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) block cipher was developed in response to complaints about the insufficient key length of the DES algorithm. Like DES, IDEA operates on 64-bit blocks of plain text/ciphertext. However, it begins its operation with a 128-bit key. This key is broken up in a series of operations into 52 16-bit subkeys. The subkeys then act on the input text using a combination of XOR and modulus operations to produce the encrypted/decrypted version of the input message. IDEA is capable of operating in the same five modes used by DES: ECB, CBC, CFB, OFB, and CTR.

All of this material on key length block size and the number of rounds of encryption may seem dreadfully boring; however, it’s important material, so be sure to brush up on it while preparing for the exam.

The IDEA algorithm is patented by its Swiss developers. However, they have granted an unlimited license to anyone who wants to use IDEA for noncommercial purposes. One popular implementation of IDEA is found in Phil Zimmerman’s popular Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) secure email package. Chapter 7 covers PGP in further detail.

Blowfish

Bruce Schneier’s Blowfish block cipher is another alternative to DES and IDEA. Like its predecessors, Blowfish operates on 64-bit blocks of text. However, it extends IDEA’s key strength even further by allowing the use of variable-length keys ranging from a relatively insecure 32 bits to an extremely strong 448 bits. Obviously, the longer keys will result in a corresponding increase in encryption/decryption time. However, time trials have established Blowfish as a much faster algorithm than both IDEA and DES. Also, Mr. Schneier released Blowfish for public use with no license required. Blowfish encryption is built into a number of commercial software products and operating systems. A number of Blowfish libraries are also available for software developers.

Skipjack The Skipjack algorithm was approved for use by the US government in Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 185, the Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES). Like many block ciphers, Skipjack operates on 64-bit blocks of text. It uses an 80-bit key and supports the same four modes of operation supported by DES. Skipjack was quickly embraced by the US government and provides the cryptographic routines supporting the Clipper and Capstone encryption chips.

However, Skipjack has an added twist—it supports the escrow of encryption keys. Two government agencies, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Department of the Treasury, hold a portion of the information required to reconstruct a Skipjack key. When law enforcement authorities obtain legal authorization, they contact the two agencies, obtain the pieces of the key, and are able to decrypt communications between the affected parties.

Skipjack and the Clipper chip were not embraced by the cryptographic community at large because of its mistrust of the escrow procedures in place within the US government.

Rivest Cipher 5 (RC5) Rivest Cipher 5, or RC5, is a symmetric algorithm patented by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA) Data Security, the people who developed the RSA asymmetric algorithm. RC5 is a block cipher of variable block sizes (32, 64, or 128 bits) that uses key sizes between 0 (zero) length and 2,040 bits.

Advanced Encryption Standard In October 2000, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announced that the Rijndael (pronounced “rhine-doll”) block cipher had been chosen as the replacement for DES. In November 2001, NIST released FIPS 197, which mandated the use of AES/Rijndael for the encryption of all sensitive but unclassified data by the US government.

The AES cipher allows the use of three key strengths: 128 bits, 192 bits, and 256 bits. AES only allows the processing of 128-bit blocks, but Rijndael exceeded this specification,

allowing cryptographers to use a block size equal to the key length. The number of encryption rounds depends on the key length chosen:

128-bit keys require 10 rounds of encryption.

192-bit keys require 12 rounds of encryption.

256-bit keys require 14 rounds of encryption.

Twofish The Twofish algorithm developed by Bruce Schneier (also the creator of Blowfish) was another one of the AES finalists. Like Rijndael, Twofish is a block cipher. It operates on 128-bit blocks of data and is capable of using cryptographic keys up to 256 bits in length.

Twofish uses two techniques not found in other algorithms:

Prewhitening involves XORing the plain text with a separate subkey before the first round of encryption.

Postwhitening uses a similar operation after the 16th round of encryption.

AES is just one of the many symmetric encryption algorithms you need to be familiar with. Table 6.2 lists several common and well-known symmetric encryption algorithms along with their block size and key size.

Table 6.2 Symmetric memorization chart

Name Block size Key size Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 128 128, 192, 256 Rijndael Variable 128, 192, 256 Blowfish (often used in SSH) Variable 1–448 Data Encryption Standard (DES) 64 56 IDEA (used in PGP) 64 128 Rivest Cipher 2 (RC2) 64 128 Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4) Streaming 128 Rivest Cipher 5 (RC5) 32, 64, 128 0–2,040 Skipjack 64 80 Triple DES (3DES) 64 112 or 168 Twofish 128 1–256

Symmetric Key Management

Because cryptographic keys contain information essential to the security of the cryptosystem, it is incumbent upon cryptosystem users and administrators to take extraordinary measures to protect the security of the keying material. These security measures are collectively known as key management practices. They include safeguards surrounding the creation, distribution, storage, destruction, recovery, and escrow of secret keys.

Creation and Distribution of Symmetric Keys As previously mentioned, one of the major problems underlying symmetric encryption algorithms is the secure distribution of the secret keys required to operate the algorithms. The three main methods used to exchange secret keys securely are offline distribution, public key encryption, and the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm.

Offline Distribution The most technically simple method involves the physical exchange of key material. One party provides the other party with a sheet of paper or piece of storage media containing the secret key. In many hardware encryption devices, this key material comes in the form of an electronic device that resembles an actual key that is inserted into the encryption device. However, every offline key distribution method has its own inherent flaws. If keying material is sent through the mail, it might be intercepted. Telephones can be wiretapped. Papers containing keys might be inadvertently thrown in the trash or lost.

Public Key Encryption Many communicators want to obtain the speed benefits of secret key encryption without the hassles of key distribution. For this reason, many people use public key encryption to set up an initial communications link. Once the link is successfully established and the parties are satisfied as to each other’s identity, they exchange a secret key over the secure public key link. They then switch communications from the public key algorithm to the secret key algorithm and enjoy the increased processing speed. In general, secret key encryption is thousands of times faster than public key encryption.

Diffie-Hellman In some cases, neither public key encryption nor offline distribution is sufficient. Two parties might need to communicate with each other, but they have no physical means to exchange key material, and there is no public key infrastructure in place to facilitate the exchange of secret keys. In situations like this, key exchange algorithms like the Diffie-Hellman algorithm prove to be extremely useful mechanisms.

Secure RPC (S-RPC) employs Diffie-Hellman for key exchange.

About the Diffie-Hellman Algorithm The Diffie-Hellman algorithm represented a major advance in the state of

The Diffie-Hellman algorithm represented a major advance in the state of cryptographic science when it was released in 1976. It’s still in use today. The algorithm works as follows:

1. The communicating parties (we’ll call them Richard and Sue) agree on two large numbers: p (which is a prime number) and g (which is an integer) such that 1 < g < p.

2. Richard chooses a random large integer r and performs the following calculation:

R = gr mod p

3. Sue chooses a random large integer s and performs the following calculation:

S = gs mod p

4. Richard sends R to Sue and Sue sends S to Richard.

5. Richard then performs the following calculation:

K = Sr mod p

6. Sue then performs the following calculation:

K = Rs mod p

At this point, Richard and Sue both have the same value, K, and can use this for secret key communication between the two parties.

Storage and Destruction of Symmetric Keys Another major challenge with the use of symmetric key cryptography is that all of the keys used in the cryptosystem must be kept secure. This includes following best practices surrounding the storage of encryption keys:

Never store an encryption key on the same system where encrypted data resides. This just makes it easier for the attacker!

For sensitive keys, consider providing two different individuals with half of the key. They then must collaborate to re-create the entire key. This is known as the principle of split knowledge (discussed earlier in this chapter).

When a user with knowledge of a secret key leaves the organization or is no longer permitted access to material protected with that key, the keys must be changed and all encrypted materials must be reencrypted with the new keys. The difficulty of destroying a key to remove a user from a symmetric cryptosystem is one of the main reasons organizations turn to asymmetric algorithms, as discussed in Chapter 7.

Key Escrow and Recovery

Cryptography is a powerful tool. Like most tools, it can be used for a number of beneficent purposes, but it can also be used with malicious intent. To gain a handle on the explosive growth of cryptographic technologies, governments around the world have floated ideas to implement key escrow systems. These systems allow the government, under limited circumstances such as a court order, to obtain the cryptographic key used for a particular communication from a central storage facility.

There are two major approaches to key escrow that have been proposed over the past decade:

Fair Cryptosystems In this escrow approach, the secret keys used in a communication are divided into two or more pieces, each of which is given to an independent third party. Each of these pieces is useless on its own but may be recombined to obtain the secret key. When the government obtains legal authority to access a particular key, it provides evidence of the court order to each of the third parties and then reassembles the secret key.

Escrowed Encryption Standard This escrow approach provides the government with a technological means to decrypt ciphertext. This standard is the basis behind the Skipjack algorithm discussed earlier in this chapter.

It’s highly unlikely that government regulators will ever overcome the legal and privacy hurdles necessary to implement key escrow on a widespread basis. The technology is certainly available, but the general public will likely never accept the potential government intrusiveness it facilitates.

Cryptographic Life Cycle With the exception of the one-time pad, all cryptographic systems have a limited life span. Moore’s law, a commonly cited trend in the advancement of computing power, states that the processing capabilities of a state-of-the-art microprocessor will double approximately every two years. This means that, eventually, processors will reach the amount of strength required to simply guess the encryption keys used for a communication.

Security professionals must keep this cryptographic life cycle in mind when selecting an encryption algorithm and have appropriate governance controls in place to ensure that the algorithms, protocols, and key lengths selected are sufficient to preserve the integrity of a cryptosystem for however long it is necessary to keep the information it is protecting secret. Security professionals can use the following algorithm and protocol governance controls:

Specifying the cryptographic algorithms (such as AES, 3DES, and RSA) acceptable for use in an organization

Identifying the acceptable key lengths for use with each algorithm based on the sensitivity of information transmitted

Enumerating the secure transaction protocols (such as SSL and TLS) that may be

used

For example, if you’re designing a cryptographic system to protect the security of business plans that you expect to execute next week, you don’t need to worry about the theoretical risk that a processor capable of decrypting them might be developed a decade from now. On the other hand, if you’re protecting the confidentiality of information that could be used to construct a nuclear bomb, it’s virtually certain that you’ll still want that information to remain secret 10 years in the future!

Summary Cryptographers and cryptanalysts are in a never-ending race to develop more secure cryptosystems and advanced cryptanalytic techniques designed to circumvent those systems.

Cryptography dates back as early as Caesar and has been an ongoing topic for study for many years. In this chapter, you learned some of the fundamental concepts underlying the field of cryptography, gained a basic understanding of the terminology used by cryptographers, and looked at some historical codes and ciphers used in the early days of cryptography.

This chapter also examined the similarities and differences between symmetric key cryptography (where communicating parties use the same key) and asymmetric key cryptography (where each communicator has a pair of public and private keys).

We then analyzed some of the symmetric algorithms currently available and their strengths and weaknesses. We wrapped up the chapter by taking a look at the cryptographic life cycle and the role of algorithm/protocol governance in enterprise security.

The next chapter expands this discussion to cover contemporary public key cryptographic algorithms. Additionally, some of the common cryptanalytic techniques used to defeat both types of cryptosystems will be explored.

Exam Essentials Understand the role that confidentiality, integrity, and nonrepudiation play in cryptosystems. Confidentiality is one of the major goals of cryptography. It protects the secrecy of data while it is both at rest and in transit. Integrity provides the recipient of a message with the assurance that data was not altered (intentionally or unintentionally) between the time it was created and the time it was accessed. Nonrepudiation provides undeniable proof that the sender of a message actually authored it. It prevents the sender from subsequently denying that they sent the original message.

Know how cryptosystems can be used to achieve authentication goals. Authentication provides assurances as to the identity of a user. One possible

scheme that uses authentication is the challenge-response protocol, in which the remote user is asked to encrypt a message using a key known only to the communicating parties. Authentication can be achieved with both symmetric and asymmetric cryptosystems.

Be familiar with the basic terminology of cryptography. When a sender wants to transmit a private message to a recipient, the sender takes the plaintext (unencrypted) message and encrypts it using an algorithm and a key. This produces a ciphertext message that is transmitted to the recipient. The recipient then uses a similar algorithm and key to decrypt the ciphertext and re-create the original plaintext message for viewing.

Understand the difference between a code and a cipher and explain the basic types of ciphers. Codes are cryptographic systems of symbols that operate on words or phrases and are sometimes secret but don’t always provide confidentiality. Ciphers, however, are always meant to hide the true meaning of a message. Know how the following types of ciphers work: transposition ciphers, substitution ciphers (including one-time pads), stream ciphers, and block ciphers.

Know the requirements for successful use of a one-time pad. For a one-time pad to be successful, the key must be generated randomly without any known pattern. The key must be at least as long as the message to be encrypted. The pads must be protected against physical disclosure, and each pad must be used only one time and then discarded.

Understand the concept of zero-knowledge proof. Zero-knowledge proof is a communication concept. A specific type of information is exchanged but no real data is transferred, as with digital signatures and digital certificates.

Understand split knowledge. Split knowledge means that the information or privilege required to perform an operation is divided among multiple users. This ensures that no single person has sufficient privileges to compromise the security of the environment. M of N Control is an example of split knowledge.

Understand work function (work factor). Work function, or work factor, is a way to measure the strength of a cryptography system by measuring the effort in terms of cost and/or time to decrypt messages. Usually the time and effort required to perform a complete brute-force attack against an encryption system is what a work function rating represents. The security and protection offered by a cryptosystem is directly proportional to the value of its work function/factor.

Understand the importance of key security. Cryptographic keys provide the necessary element of secrecy to a cryptosystem. Modern cryptosystems utilize keys that are at least 128 bits long to provide adequate security. It’s generally agreed that the 56-bit key of the Data Encryption Standard (DES) is no longer sufficiently long to provide security.

Know the differences between symmetric and asymmetric cryptosystems. Symmetric key cryptosystems (or secret key cryptosystems) rely on the use of a shared secret key. They are much faster than asymmetric algorithms, but they lack support for scalability, easy key distribution, and nonrepudiation. Asymmetric

cryptosystems use public-private key pairs for communication between parties but operate much more slowly than symmetric algorithms.

Be able to explain the basic operational modes of the Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Triple DES (3DES). The Data Encryption Standard operates in four modes: Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode, Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode, Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode, and Output Feedback (OFB) mode. ECB mode is considered the least secure and is used only for short messages. 3DES uses three iterations of DES with two or three different keys to increase the effective key strength to 112 or 168 bits, respectively.

Know the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) uses the Rijndael algorithm and is the US government standard for the secure exchange of sensitive but unclassified data. AES uses key lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits and a fixed block size of 128 bits to achieve a much higher level of security than that provided by the older DES algorithm.

Written Lab 1. What is the major hurdle preventing the widespread adoption of one-time pad

cryptosystems to ensure data confidentiality?

2. Encrypt the message “I will pass the CISSP exam and become certified next month” using columnar transposition with the keyword SECURE.

3. Decrypt the message “F R Q J U D W X O D W L R Q V B R X J R W L W” using the Caesar ROT3 substitution cipher.

Review Questions 1. How many possible keys exist in a 4-bit key space?

A. 4

B. 8

C. 16

D. 128

2. John recently received an email message from Bill. What cryptographic goal would need to be met to convince John that Bill was actually the sender of the message?

A. Nonrepudiation

B. Confidentiality

C. Availability

D. Integrity

3. What is the length of the cryptographic key used in the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cryptosystem?

A. 56 bits

B. 128 bits

C. 192 bits

D. 256 bits

4. What type of cipher relies on changing the location of characters within a message to achieve confidentiality?

A. Stream cipher

B. Transposition cipher

C. Block cipher

D. Substitution cipher

5. Which one of the following is not a possible key length for the Advanced Encryption Standard Rijndael cipher?

A. 56 bits

B. 128 bits

C. 192 bits

D. 256 bits

6. Which one of the following cannot be achieved by a secret key cryptosystem?

A. Nonrepudiation

B. Confidentiality

C. Availability

D. Key distribution

7. When correctly implemented, what is the only cryptosystem known to be unbreakable?

A. Transposition cipher

B. Substitution cipher

C. Advanced Encryption Standard

D. One-time pad

8. What is the output value of the mathematical function 16 mod 3?

A. 0

B. 1

C. 3

D. 5

9. In the 1940s, a team of cryptanalysts from the United States successfully broke a Soviet code based on a one-time pad in a project known as VENONA. What rule did the Soviets break that caused this failure?

A. Key values must be random.

B. Key values must be the same length as the message.

C. Key values must be used only once.

D. Key values must be protected from physical disclosure.

10. Which one of the following cipher types operates on large pieces of a message rather than individual characters or bits of a message?

A. Stream cipher

B. Caesar cipher

C. Block cipher

D. ROT3 cipher

11. What is the minimum number of cryptographic keys required for secure two-way communications in symmetric key cryptography?

A. One

B. Two

C. Three

D. Four

12. Dave is developing a key escrow system that requires multiple people to retrieve a key but does not depend on every participant being present. What type of technique is he using?

A. Split knowledge

B. M of N Control

C. Work function

D. Zero-knowledge proof

13. Which one of the following Data Encryption Standard (DES) operating modes can be used for large messages with the assurance that an error early in the encryption/decryption process won’t spoil results throughout the communication?

A. Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)

B. Electronic Codebook (ECB)

C. Cipher Feedback (CFB)

D. Output Feedback (OFB)

14. Many cryptographic algorithms rely on the difficulty of factoring the product of large prime numbers. What characteristic of this problem are they relying on?

A. It contains diffusion.

B. It contains confusion.

C. It is a one-way function.

D. It complies with Kerchoff’s principle.

15. How many keys are required to fully implement a symmetric algorithm with 10 participants?

A. 10

B. 20

C. 45

D. 100

16. What block size is used by the Advanced Encryption Standard?

A. 32 bits

B. 64 bits

C. 128 bits

D. Variable

17. What kind of attack makes the Caesar cipher virtually unusable?

A. Meet-in-the-middle attack

B. Escrow attack

C. Frequency analysis attack

D. Transposition attack

18. What type of cryptosystem commonly makes use of a passage from a well-known book for the encryption key?

A. Vernam cipher

B. Running key cipher

C. Skipjack cipher

D. Twofish cipher

19. Which AES finalist makes use of prewhitening and postwhitening techniques?

A. Rijndael

B. Twofish

C. Blowfish

D. Skipjack

20. How many encryption keys are required to fully implement an asymmetric algorithm with 10 participants?

A. 10

B. 20

C. 45

D. 100

Chapter 7 PKI and Cryptographic Applications THE CISSP EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

✓ Security Engineering

I. Applying Cryptographics

I.2 Cryptographic types (e.g. symmetric, asymmetric, elliptic curves)

I.3 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

I.4 Key management practices

I.5 Digital signatures

I.6 Digital rights management

I.7 Non-repudiation

I.8 Integrity (hashing and salting)

I.9 Methods of cryptanalytic attacks (e.g. brute force, cipher-text only, known plaintext)

In Chapter 6, “Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms,” we introduced basic cryptography concepts and explored a variety of private key cryptosystems. These symmetric cryptosystems offer fast, secure communication but introduce the substantial challenge of key exchange between previously unrelated parties.

This chapter explores the world of asymmetric (or public key) cryptography and the public key infrastructure (PKI) that supports worldwide secure communication between parties that don’t necessarily know each other prior to the communication. Asymmetric algorithms provide convenient key exchange mechanisms and are scalable to very large numbers of users, both challenges for users of symmetric cryptosystems.

This chapter also explores several practical applications of asymmetric cryptography: securing email, web communications, electronic commerce, digital rights management, and networking. The chapter concludes with an examination of a variety of attacks malicious individuals might use to compromise weak cryptosystems.

Asymmetric Cryptography The section “Modern Cryptography” in Chapter 6 introduced the basic principles behind both private (symmetric) and public (asymmetric) key cryptography. You learned that symmetric key cryptosystems require both communicating parties to have the same shared secret key, creating the problem of secure key distribution. You also learned that asymmetric cryptosystems avoid this hurdle by using pairs of public and private keys to facilitate secure communication without the overhead of complex key distribution

systems. The security of these systems relies on the difficulty of reversing a one-way function.

In the following sections, we’ll explore the concepts of public key cryptography in greater detail and look at three of the more common public key cryptosystems in use today: RSA, El Gamal, and the elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC).

Public and Private Keys Recall from Chapter 6 that public key cryptosystems rely on pairs of keys assigned to each user of the cryptosystem. Every user maintains both a public key and a private key. As the names imply, public key cryptosystem users make their public keys freely available to anyone with whom they want to communicate. The mere possession of the public key by third parties does not introduce any weaknesses into the cryptosystem. The private key, on the other hand, is reserved for the sole use of the individual who owns the keys. It is never shared with any other cryptosystem user.

Normal communication between public key cryptosystem users is quite straightforward. Figure 7.1 shows the general process.

Figure 7.1 Asymmetric key cryptography

Notice that the process does not require the sharing of private keys. The sender encrypts the plaintext message (P) with the recipient’s public key to create the ciphertext message (C). When the recipient opens the ciphertext message, they decrypt it using their private key to re-create the original plaintext message.

Once the sender encrypts the message with the recipient’s public key, no user (including the sender) can decrypt that message without knowing the recipient’s private key (the second half of the public-private key pair used to generate the message). This is the beauty of public key cryptography—public keys can be freely shared using unsecured communications and then used to create secure communications channels between users previously unknown to each other.

You also learned in the previous chapter that public key cryptography entails a higher degree of computational complexity. Keys used within public key systems must be longer than those used in private key systems to produce cryptosystems of equivalent strengths.

RSA The most famous public key cryptosystem is named after its creators. In 1977, Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman proposed the RSA public key algorithm that remains a worldwide standard today. They patented their algorithm and formed a commercial venture known as RSA Security to develop mainstream implementations of their security technology. Today, the RSA algorithm forms the security backbone of a large number of well-known security infrastructures produced by companies like Microsoft, Nokia, and Cisco.

The RSA algorithm depends on the computational difficulty inherent in factoring large prime numbers. Each user of the cryptosystem generates a pair of public and private keys using the algorithm described in the following steps:

1. Choose two large prime numbers (approximately 200 digits each), labeled p and q.

2. Compute the product of those two numbers: n = p * q.

3. Select a number, e, that satisfies the following two requirements:

a. e is less than n.

b. e and (n – 1)(q – 1) are relatively prime—that is, the two numbers have no common factors other than 1.

4. Find a number, d, such that (ed – 1) mod (p – 1)(q – 1) = 0.

5. Distribute e and n as the public key to all cryptosystem users. Keep d secret as the private key.

If Alice wants to send an encrypted message to Bob, she generates the ciphertext (C) from the plain text (P) using the following formula (where e is Bob’s public key and n is the product of p and q created during the key generation process):

C = Pe mod n

When Bob receives the message, he performs the following calculation to retrieve the plaintext message:

P = Cd mod n

Merkle-Hellman Knapsack Another early asymmetric algorithm, the Merkle-Hellman Knapsack algorithm, was developed the year after RSA was publicized. Like RSA, it’s based on the difficulty of performing factoring operations, but it relies on a component of set theory known as super-increasing sets rather than on large prime numbers. Merkle-Hellman was proven ineffective when it was broken in 1984.

Importance of Key Length The length of the cryptographic key is perhaps the most important security parameter that can be set at the discretion of the security administrator. It’s important to understand the capabilities of your encryption algorithm and choose a key length that provides an appropriate level of protection. This judgment can be made by weighing the difficulty of defeating a given key length (measured in the amount of processing time required to defeat the cryptosystem) against the importance of the data.

Generally speaking, the more critical your data, the stronger the key you use to protect it should be. Timeliness of the data is also an important consideration. You must take into account the rapid growth of computing power—Moore’s law suggests that computing power doubles approximately every 18 months. If it takes current computers one year of processing time to break your code, it will take only three months if the attempt is made with contemporary technology three years down the road. If you expect that your data will still be sensitive at that time, you should choose a much longer cryptographic key that will remain secure well into the future.

The strengths of various key lengths also vary greatly according to the cryptosystem you’re using. The key lengths shown in the following table for three asymmetric cryptosystems all provide equal protection:

Cryptosystem Key length RSA 1,088 bits DSA 1,024 bits Elliptic curve 160 bits

El Gamal In Chapter 6, you learned how the Diffie-Hellman algorithm uses large integers and modular arithmetic to facilitate the secure exchange of secret keys over insecure communications channels. In 1985, Dr. T. El Gamal published an article describing how the mathematical principles behind the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm could be extended to support an entire public key cryptosystem used for encrypting and decrypting messages.

At the time of its release, one of the major advantages of El Gamal over the RSA algorithm was that it was released into the public domain. Dr. El Gamal did not obtain a patent on his extension of Diffie-Hellman, and it is freely available for use, unlike the then-patented RSA technology. (RSA released its algorithm into the public domain in 2000.)

However, El Gamal also has a major disadvantage—the algorithm doubles the length of any message it encrypts. This presents a major hardship when encrypting long messages

or data that will be transmitted over a narrow bandwidth communications circuit.

Elliptic Curve Also in 1985, two mathematicians, Neal Koblitz from the University of Washington and Victor Miller from IBM, independently proposed the application of elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) theory to develop secure cryptographic systems.

The mathematical concepts behind elliptic curve cryptography are quite complex and well beyond the scope of this book. However, you should be generally familiar with the elliptic curve algorithm and its potential applications when preparing for the CISSP exam. If you are interested in learning the detailed mathematics behind elliptic curve cryptosystems, an excellent tutorial exists at www.certicom.com/index.php/ecc-tutorial.

Any elliptic curve can be defined by the following equation:

y2 = x3 + ax + b

In this equation, x, y, a, and b are all real numbers. Each elliptic curve has a corresponding elliptic curve group made up of the points on the elliptic curve along with the point O, located at infinity. Two points within the same elliptic curve group (P and Q) can be added together with an elliptic curve addition algorithm. This operation is expressed, quite simply, as follows:

P + Q

This problem can be extended to involve multiplication by assuming that Q is a multiple of P, meaning the following:

Q = xP

Computer scientists and mathematicians believe that it is extremely hard to find x, even if P and Q are already known. This difficult problem, known as the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem, forms the basis of elliptic curve cryptography. It is widely believed that this problem is harder to solve than both the prime factorization problem that the RSA cryptosystem is based on and the standard discrete logarithm problem utilized by Diffie-Hellman and El Gamal. This is illustrated by the data shown in the table in the sidebar “Importance of Key Length,” which noted that a 1,088-bit RSA key is cryptographically equivalent to a 160-bit elliptic curve cryptosystem key.

Hash Functions

Later in this chapter, you’ll learn how cryptosystems implement digital signatures to provide proof that a message originated from a particular user of the cryptosystem and to ensure that the message was not modified while in transit between the two parties. Before you can completely understand that concept, we must first explain the concept of hash functions. We will explore the basics of hash functions and look at several common hash functions used in modern digital signature algorithms.

Hash functions have a very simple purpose—they take a potentially long message and generate a unique output value derived from the content of the message. This value is commonly referred to as the message digest. Message digests can be generated by the sender of a message and transmitted to the recipient along with the full message for two reasons.

First, the recipient can use the same hash function to recompute the message digest from the full message. They can then compare the computed message digest to the transmitted one to ensure that the message sent by the originator is the same one received by the recipient. If the message digests do not match, that means the message was somehow modified while in transit.

Second, the message digest can be used to implement a digital signature algorithm. This concept is covered in “Digital Signatures” later in this chapter.

The term message digest is used interchangeably with a wide variety of synonyms, including hash, hash value, hash total, CRC, fingerprint, checksum, and digital ID.

In most cases, a message digest is 128 bits or larger. However, a single-digit value can be used to perform the function of parity, a low-level or single-digit checksum value used to provide a single individual point of verification. In most cases, the longer the message digest, the more reliable its verification of integrity.

According to RSA Security, there are five basic requirements for a cryptographic hash function:

The input can be of any length.

The output has a fixed length.

The hash function is relatively easy to compute for any input.

The hash function is one-way (meaning that it is extremely hard to determine the input when provided with the output). One-way functions and their usefulness in cryptography are described in Chapter 6.

The hash function is collision free (meaning that it is extremely hard to find two messages that produce the same hash value).

In the following sections, we’ll look at four common hashing algorithms: SHA, MD2, MD4, and MD5. HMAC is also discussed later in this chapter.

There are numerous hashing algorithms not addressed in this exam. But in addition to SHA, MD2, MD4, MD5, and HMAC, you should recognize HAVAL. Hash of Variable Length (HAVAL) is a modification of MD5. HAVAL uses 1,024-bit blocks and produces hash values of 128, 160, 192, 224, and 256 bits.

SHA The Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) and its successors, SHA-1 and SHA-2, are government standard hash functions developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and are specified in an official government publication—the Secure Hash Standard (SHS), also known as Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 180.

SHA-1 takes an input of virtually any length (in reality, there is an upper bound of approximately 2,097,152 terabytes on the algorithm) and produces a 160-bit message digest. The SHA-1 algorithm processes a message in 512-bit blocks. Therefore, if the message length is not a multiple of 512, the SHA algorithm pads the message with additional data until the length reaches the next highest multiple of 512.

Recent cryptanalytic attacks demonstrated that there are weaknesses in the SHA-1 algorithm. This led to the creation of SHA-2, which has four variants:

SHA-256 produces a 256-bit message digest using a 512-bit block size.

SHA-224 uses a truncated version of the SHA-256 hash to produce a 224-bit message digest using a 512-bit block size.

SHA-512 produces a 512-bit message digest using a 1,024-bit block size.

SHA-384 uses a truncated version of the SHA-512 hash to produce a 384-bit digest using a 1,024-bit block size.

Although it might seem trivial, you should take the time to memorize the size of the message digests produced by each one of the hash algorithms described in this chapter.

The cryptographic community generally considers the SHA-2 algorithms secure, but they

theoretically suffer from the same weakness as the SHA-1 algorithm. In 2012, the federal government announced the selection of the Keccak algorithm as the SHA-3 standard. However, the SHA-3 standard remains in draft form and some technical details still require finalization. Observers expect that, once NIST finalizes SHA-3, SHA-2 will remain an accepted part of NIST’s Secure Hash Standard (SHS) until someone demonstrates an effective practical attack against SHA-2.

MD2 The Message Digest 2 (MD2) hash algorithm was developed by Ronald Rivest (the same Rivest of Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman fame) in 1989 to provide a secure hash function for 8-bit processors. MD2 pads the message so that its length is a multiple of 16 bytes. It then computes a 16-byte checksum and appends it to the end of the message. A 128-bit message digest is then generated by using the entire original message along with the appended checksum.

Cryptanalytic attacks exist against the MD2 algorithm. Specifically, Nathalie Rogier and Pascal Chauvaud discovered that if the checksum is not appended to the message before digest computation, collisions may occur. Frederic Mueller later proved that MD2 is not a one-way function. Therefore, it should no longer be used.

MD4 In 1990, Rivest enhanced his message digest algorithm to support 32-bit processors and increase the level of security. This enhanced algorithm is known as MD4. It first pads the message to ensure that the message length is 64 bits smaller than a multiple of 512 bits. For example, a 16-bit message would be padded with 432 additional bits of data to make it 448 bits, which is 64 bits smaller than a 512-bit message.

The MD4 algorithm then processes 512-bit blocks of the message in three rounds of computation. The final output is a 128-bit message digest.

The MD2, MD4, and MD5 algorithms are no longer accepted as suitable hashing functions. However, the details of the algorithms may still appear on the CISSP exam.

Several mathematicians have published papers documenting flaws in the full version of MD4 as well as improperly implemented versions of MD4. In particular, Hans Dobbertin published a paper in 1996 outlining how a modern PC could be used to find collisions for MD4 message digests in less than one minute. For this reason, MD4 is no longer considered to be a secure hashing algorithm, and its use should be avoided if at all possible.

MD5 In 1991, Rivest released the next version of his message digest algorithm, which he called MD5. It also processes 512-bit blocks of the message, but it uses four distinct rounds of computation to produce a digest of the same length as the MD2 and MD4 algorithms (128 bits). MD5 has the same padding requirements as MD4—the message length must be 64 bits less than a multiple of 512 bits.

MD5 implements additional security features that reduce the speed of message digest production significantly. Unfortunately, recent cryptanalytic attacks demonstrated that the MD5 protocol is subject to collisions, preventing its use for ensuring message integrity. Specifically, Arjen Lenstra and others demonstrated in 2005 that it is possible to create two digital certificates from different public keys that have the same MD5 hash.

Table 7.1 lists well-known hashing algorithms and their resultant hash value lengths in bits. Earmark this page for memorization.

Table 7.1 Hash algorithm memorization chart

Name Hash value length Hash of Variable Length (HAVAL)—an MD5 variant 128, 160, 192, 224, and 256 bits Hash Message Authenticating Code (HMAC) Variable Message Digest 2 (MD2) 128 Message Digest 4 (MD4) 128 Message Digest 5 (MD5) 128 Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) 160 SHA-224 224 SHA-256 256 SHA-384 384 SHA-512 512

Digital Signatures Once you have chosen a cryptographically sound hashing algorithm, you can use it to implement a digital signature system. Digital signature infrastructures have two distinct goals:

Digitally signed messages assure the recipient that the message truly came from the claimed sender. They enforce nonrepudiation (that is, they preclude the sender from later claiming that the message is a forgery).

Digitally signed messages assure the recipient that the message was not altered while in transit between the sender and recipient. This protects against both malicious

modification (a third party altering the meaning of the message) and unintentional modification (because of faults in the communications process, such as electrical interference).

Digital signature algorithms rely on a combination of the two major concepts already covered in this chapter—public key cryptography and hashing functions.

If Alice wants to digitally sign a message she’s sending to Bob, she performs the following actions:

1. Alice generates a message digest of the original plaintext message using one of the cryptographically sound hashing algorithms, such as SHA-512.

2. Alice then encrypts only the message digest using her private key. This encrypted message digest is the digital signature.

3. Alice appends the signed message digest to the plaintext message.

4. Alice transmits the appended message to Bob.

When Bob receives the digitally signed message, he reverses the procedure, as follows:

1. Bob decrypts the digital signature using Alice’s public key.

2. Bob uses the same hashing function to create a message digest of the full plaintext message received from Alice.

3. Bob then compares the decrypted message digest he received from Alice with the message digest he computed himself. If the two digests match, he can be assured that the message he received was sent by Alice. If they do not match, either the message was not sent by Alice or the message was modified while in transit.

Digital signatures are used for more than just messages. Software vendors often use digital signature technology to authenticate code distributions that you download from the Internet, such as applets and software patches.

Note that the digital signature process does not provide any privacy in and of itself. It only ensures that the cryptographic goals of integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation are met. However, if Alice wanted to ensure the privacy of her message to Bob, she could add a step to the message creation process. After appending the signed message digest to the plaintext message, Alice could encrypt the entire message with Bob’s public key. When Bob received the message, he would decrypt it with his own private key before following the steps just outlined.

HMAC The Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC) algorithm implements a partial

digital signature—it guarantees the integrity of a message during transmission, but it does not provide for nonrepudiation.

Which Key Should I Use?

If you’re new to public key cryptography, selecting the correct key for various applications can be quite confusing. Encryption, decryption, message signing, and signature verification all use the same algorithm with different key inputs. Here are a few simple rules to help keep these concepts straight in your mind when preparing for the CISSP exam:

If you want to encrypt a message, use the recipient’s public key.

If you want to decrypt a message sent to you, use your private key.

If you want to digitally sign a message you are sending to someone else, use your private key.

If you want to verify the signature on a message sent by someone else, use the sender’s public key.

These four rules are the core principles of public key cryptography and digital signatures. If you understand each of them, you’re off to a great start!

HMAC can be combined with any standard message digest generation algorithm, such as SHA-2, by using a shared secret key. Therefore, only communicating parties who know the key can generate or verify the digital signature. If the recipient decrypts the message digest but cannot successfully compare it to a message digest generated from the plaintext message, that means the message was altered in transit.

Because HMAC relies on a shared secret key, it does not provide any nonrepudiation functionality (as previously mentioned). However, it operates in a more efficient manner than the digital signature standard described in the following section and may be suitable for applications in which symmetric key cryptography is appropriate. In short, it represents a halfway point between unencrypted use of a message digest algorithm and computationally expensive digital signature algorithms based on public key cryptography.

Digital Signature Standard The National Institute of Standards and Technology specifies the digital signature algorithms acceptable for federal government use in Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 186-4, also known as the Digital Signature Standard (DSS). This document specifies that all federally approved digital signature algorithms must use the SHA-2 hashing functions.

DSS also specifies the encryption algorithms that can be used to support a digital signature infrastructure. There are three currently approved standard encryption algorithms:

The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) as specified in FIPS 186-4

The Rivest, Shamir, Adleman (RSA) algorithm as specified in ANSI X9.31

The Elliptic Curve DSA (ECDSA) as specified in ANSI X9.62

Two other digital signature algorithms you should recognize, at least by name, are Schnorr’s signature algorithm and Nyberg-Rueppel’s signature algorithm.

Public Key Infrastructure The major strength of public key encryption is its ability to facilitate communication between parties previously unknown to each other. This is made possible by the public key infrastructure (PKI) hierarchy of trust relationships. These trusts permit combining asymmetric cryptography with symmetric cryptography along with hashing and digital certificates, giving us hybrid cryptography.

In the following sections, you’ll learn the basic components of the public key infrastructure and the cryptographic concepts that make global secure communications possible. You’ll learn the composition of a digital certificate, the role of certificate authorities, and the process used to generate and destroy certificates.

Certificates Digital certificates provide communicating parties with the assurance that the people they are communicating with truly are who they claim to be. Digital certificates are essentially endorsed copies of an individual’s public key. When users verify that a certificate was signed by a trusted certificate authority (CA), they know that the public key is legitimate.

Digital certificates contain specific identifying information, and their construction is governed by an international standard—X.509. Certificates that conform to X.509 contain the following data:

Version of X.509 to which the certificate conforms

Serial number (from the certificate creator)

Signature algorithm identifier (specifies the technique used by the certificate authority to digitally sign the contents of the certificate)

Issuer name (identification of the certificate authority that issued the certificate)

Validity period (specifies the dates and times—a starting date and time and an ending date and time—during which the certificate is valid)

Subject’s name (contains the distinguished name, or DN, of the entity that owns the public key contained in the certificate)

Subject’s public key (the meat of the certificate—the actual public key the certificate owner used to set up secure communications)

The current version of X.509 (version 3) supports certificate extensions—customized variables containing data inserted into the certificate by the certificate authority to support tracking of certificates or various applications.

If you’re interested in building your own X.509 certificates or just want to explore the inner workings of the public key infrastructure, you can purchase the complete official X.509 standard from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). It’s part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) series of communication standards and can be purchased electronically on the ITU website at www.itu.int.

X.509 has not been officially accepted as a standard, and implementations can vary from vendor to vendor. However, both Microsoft and Mozilla have adopted X.509 as their de facto standard for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) communication between their web clients and servers. SSL is covered in greater detail in the section “Applied Cryptography” later in this chapter.

Certificate Authorities Certificate authorities (CAs) are the glue that binds the public key infrastructure together. These neutral organizations offer notarization services for digital certificates. To obtain a digital certificate from a reputable CA, you must prove your identify to the satisfaction of the CA. The following list includes the major CAs:

Symantec

Thawte

GeoTrust

GlobalSign

Comodo Limited

Starfield Technologies

GoDaddy

DigiCert

Network Solutions, LLC

Entrust

Nothing is preventing any organization from simply setting up shop as a CA. However, the certificates issued by a CA are only as good as the trust placed in the CA that issued them. This is an important item to consider when receiving a digital certificate from a third party. If you don’t recognize and trust the name of the CA that issued the certificate, you shouldn’t place any trust in the certificate at all. PKI relies on a hierarchy of trust relationships. If you configure your browser to trust a CA, it will automatically trust all of the digital certificates issued by that CA. Browser developers preconfigure browsers to trust the major CAs to avoid placing this burden on users.

Registration authorities (RAs) assist CAs with the burden of verifying users’ identities prior to issuing digital certificates. They do not directly issue certificates themselves, but they play an important role in the certification process, allowing CAs to remotely validate user identities.

Certificate Path Validation

You may have heard of certificate path validation (CPV) in your studies of certificate authorities. CPV means that each certificate in a certificate path from the original start or root of trust down to the server or client in question is valid and legitimate. CPV can be important if you need to verify that every link between “trusted” endpoints remains current, valid, and trustworthy.

This issue arises from time to time when intermediary systems’ certificates expire or are replaced; this can break the chain of trust or the verification path. By forcing a reverification of all stages of trust, you can reestablish all trust links and prove that the assumed trust remains assured.

Certificate Generation and Destruction The technical concepts behind the public key infrastructure are relatively simple. In the following sections, we’ll cover the processes used by certificate authorities to create, validate, and revoke client certificates.

Enrollment When you want to obtain a digital certificate, you must first prove your identity to the CA

in some manner; this process is called enrollment. As mentioned in the previous section, this sometimes involves physically appearing before an agent of the certification authority with the appropriate identification documents. Some certificate authorities provide other means of verification, including the use of credit report data and identity verification by trusted community leaders.

Once you’ve satisfied the certificate authority regarding your identity, you provide them with your public key. The CA next creates an X.509 digital certificate containing your identifying information and a copy of your public key. The CA then digitally signs the certificate using the CA’s private key and provides you with a copy of your signed digital certificate. You may then safely distribute this certificate to anyone with whom you want to communicate securely.

Verification When you receive a digital certificate from someone with whom you want to communicate, you verify the certificate by checking the CA’s digital signature using the CA’s public key. Next, you must check and ensure that the certificate was not published on a certificate revocation list (CRL). At this point, you may assume that the public key listed in the certificate is authentic, provided that it satisfies the following requirements:

The digital signature of the CA is authentic.

You trust the CA.

The certificate is not listed on a CRL.

The certificate actually contains the data you are trusting.

The last point is a subtle but extremely important item. Before you trust an identifying piece of information about someone, be sure that it is actually contained within the certificate. If a certificate contains the email address ([email protected]) but not the individual’s name, you can be certain only that the public key contained therein is associated with that email address. The CA is not making any assertions about the actual identity of the [email protected] email account. However, if the certificate contains the name Bill Jones along with an address and telephone number, the CA is vouching for that information as well.

Digital certificate verification algorithms are built in to a number of popular web browsing and email clients, so you won’t often need to get involved in the particulars of the process. However, it’s important to have a solid understanding of the technical details taking place behind the scenes to make appropriate security judgments for your organization. It’s also the reason that, when purchasing a certificate, you choose a CA that is widely trusted. If a CA is not included in, or is later pulled from, the list of CAs trusted by a major browser, it will greatly limit the usefulness of your certificate.

Revocation Occasionally, a certificate authority needs to revoke a certificate. This might occur for one

of the following reasons:

The certificate was compromised (for example, the certificate owner accidentally gave away the private key).

The certificate was erroneously issued (for example, the CA mistakenly issued a certificate without proper verification).

The details of the certificate changed (for example, the subject’s name changed).

The security association changed (for example, the subject is no longer employed by the organization sponsoring the certificate).

The revocation request grace period is the maximum response time within which a CA will perform any requested revocation. This is defined in the certificate practice statement (CPS). The CPS states the practices a CA employs when issuing or managing certificates.

You can use two techniques to verify the authenticity of certificates and identify revoked certificates:

Certificate Revocation Lists Certificate revocation lists (CRLs) are maintained by the various certificate authorities and contain the serial numbers of certificates that have been issued by a CA and have been revoked along with the date and time the revocation went into effect. The major disadvantage to certificate revocation lists is that they must be downloaded and cross-referenced periodically, introducing a period of latency between the time a certificate is revoked and the time end users are notified of the revocation. However, CRLs remain the most common method of checking certificate status in use today.

Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) This protocol eliminates the latency inherent in the use of certificate revocation lists by providing a means for real-time certificate verification. When a client receives a certificate, it sends an OCSP request to the CA’s OCSP server. The server then responds with a status of valid, invalid, or unknown.

Asymmetric Key Management When working within the public key infrastructure, it’s important that you comply with several best practice requirements to maintain the security of your communications.

First, choose your encryption system wisely. As you learned earlier, “security through obscurity” is not an appropriate approach. Choose an encryption system with an

algorithm in the public domain that has been thoroughly vetted by industry experts. Be wary of systems that use a “black-box” approach and maintain that the secrecy of their algorithm is critical to the integrity of the cryptosystem.

You must also select your keys in an appropriate manner. Use a key length that balances your security requirements with performance considerations. Also, ensure that your key is truly random. Any patterns within the key increase the likelihood that an attacker will be able to break your encryption and degrade the security of your cryptosystem.

When using public key encryption, keep your private key secret! Do not, under any circumstances, allow anyone else to gain access to your private key. Remember, allowing someone access even once permanently compromises all communications that take place (past, present, or future) using that key and allows the third party to successfully impersonate you.

Retire keys when they’ve served a useful life. Many organizations have mandatory key rotation requirements to protect against undetected key compromise. If you don’t have a formal policy that you must follow, select an appropriate interval based on the frequency with which you use your key. You might want to change your key pair every few months, if practical.

Back up your key! If you lose the file containing your private key because of data corruption, disaster, or other circumstances, you’ll certainly want to have a backup available. You may want to either create your own backup or use a key escrow service that maintains the backup for you. In either case, ensure that the backup is handled in a secure manner. After all, it’s just as important as your primary key file!

Applied Cryptography Up to this point, you’ve learned a great deal about the foundations of cryptography, the inner workings of various cryptographic algorithms, and the use of the public key infrastructure to distribute identity credentials using digital certificates. You should now feel comfortable with the basics of cryptography and prepared to move on to higher-level applications of this technology to solve everyday communications problems.

In the following sections, we’ll examine the use of cryptography to secure data at rest, such as that stored on portable devices, as well as data in transit, using techniques that include secure email, encrypted web communications, and networking.

Portable Devices The now ubiquitous nature of notebook computers, netbooks, smartphones, and tablets brings new risks to the world of computing. Those devices often contain highly sensitive information that, if lost or stolen, could cause serious harm to an organization and its customers, employees, and affiliates. For this reason, many organizations turn to encryption to protect the data on these devices in the event they are misplaced.

Current versions of popular operating systems now include disk encryption capabilities that make it easy to apply and manage encryption on portable devices. For example, Microsoft Windows includes the BitLocker and Encrypting File System (EFS) technologies, Mac OS X includes FileVault encryption, and the TrueCrypt open source package allows the encryption of disks on Linux, Windows, and Mac systems.

A wide variety of commercial tools are available that provide added features and management capability. The major differentiators between these tools are how they protect keys stored in memory, whether they provide full disk or volume-only encryption, and whether they integrate with hardware-based Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs) to provide added security. Any effort to select encryption software should include an analysis of how well the alternatives compete on these characteristics.

Don’t forget about smartphones when developing your portable device encryption policy. Most major smartphone and tablet platforms include enterprise-level functionality that supports encryption of data stored on the phone.

Email We have mentioned several times that security should be cost effective. When it comes to email, simplicity is the most cost-effective option, but sometimes cryptography functions provide specific security services that you can’t avoid using. Since ensuring security is also cost effective, here are some simple rules about encrypting email:

If you need confidentiality when sending an email message, encrypt the message.

If your message must maintain integrity, you must hash the message.

If your message needs authentication, integrity and/or nonrepudiation, you should digitally sign the message.

If your message requires confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation, you should encrypt and digitally sign the message.

It is always the responsibility of the sender to put proper mechanisms in place to ensure that the security (that is, confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, and nonrepudiation) of a message or transmission is maintained.

One of the most in-demand applications of cryptography is encrypting and signing email messages. Until recently, encrypted email required the use of complex, awkward software that in turn required manual intervention and complicated key exchange procedures. An increased emphasis on security in recent years resulted in the implementation of strong encryption technology in mainstream email packages. Next, we’ll look at some of the secure email standards in widespread use today.

Pretty Good Privacy Phil Zimmerman’s Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) secure email system appeared on the computer security scene in 1991. It combines the CA hierarchy described earlier in this chapter with the “web of trust” concept—that is, you must become trusted by one or more PGP users to begin using the system. You then accept their judgment regarding the validity of additional users and, by extension, trust a multilevel “web” of users descending from your initial trust judgments.

PGP initially encountered a number of hurdles to widespread use. The most difficult obstruction was the US government export regulations, which treated encryption technology as munitions and prohibited the distribution of strong encryption technology outside the United States. Fortunately, this restriction has since been repealed, and PGP may be freely distributed to most countries.

PGP is available in two versions. The commercial version uses RSA for key exchange, IDEA for encryption/decryption, and MD5 for message digest production. The freeware version (based on the extremely similar OpenPGP standard) uses Diffie-Hellman key exchange, the Carlisle Adams/Stafford Tavares (CAST) 128-bit encryption/decryption algorithm, and the SHA-1 hashing function.

Many commercial providers also offer PGP-based email services as web-based cloud email offerings, mobile device applications, or webmail plug-ins. These services appeal to administrators and end users because they remove the complexity of configuring and maintaining encryption certificates and provide users with a managed secure email service. Some products in this category include StartMail, Mailvelope, SafeGmail, and Hushmail.

S/MIME The Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) protocol has emerged as a de facto standard for encrypted email. S/MIME uses the RSA encryption algorithm and has received the backing of major industry players, including RSA Security. S/MIME has already been incorporated in a large number of commercial products, including these:

Microsoft Outlook and Outlook Web Access

Mozilla Thunderbird

Mac OS X Mail

S/MIME relies on the use of X.509 certificates for exchanging cryptographic keys. The public keys contained in these certificates are used for digital signatures and for the exchange of symmetric keys used for longer communications sessions. RSA is the only public key cryptographic protocol supported by S/MIME. The protocol supports the AES and 3DES symmetric encryption algorithms.

Despite strong industry support for the S/MIME standard, technical limitations have prevented its widespread adoption. Although major desktop mail applications support

S/MIME email, mainstream web-based email systems do not support it out of the box (the use of browser extensions is required).

Web Applications Encryption is widely used to protect web transactions. This is mainly because of the strong movement toward e-commerce and the desire of both e-commerce vendors and consumers to securely exchange financial information (such as credit card information) over the Web. We’ll look at the two technologies that are responsible for the small lock icon within web browsers—Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS).

SSL was developed by Netscape to provide client/server encryption for web traffic. Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer (HTTPS) uses port 443 to negotiate encrypted communications sessions between web servers and browser clients. Although SSL originated as a standard for Netscape browsers, Microsoft also adopted it as a security standard for its popular Internet Explorer browser. The incorporation of SSL into both of these products made it the de facto Internet standard.

SSL relies on the exchange of server digital certificates to negotiate encryption/decryption parameters between the browser and the web server. SSL’s goal is to create secure communications channels that remain open for an entire web browsing session. It depends on a combination of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. The following steps are involved:

1. When a user accesses a website, the browser retrieves the web server’s certificate and extracts the server’s public key from it.

2. The browser then creates a random symmetric key, uses the server’s public key to encrypt it, and then sends the encrypted symmetric key to the server.

3. The server then decrypts the symmetric key using its own private key, and the two systems exchange all future messages using the symmetric encryption key.

This approach allows SSL to leverage the advanced functionality of asymmetric cryptography while encrypting and decrypting the vast majority of the data exchanged using the faster symmetric algorithm.

In 1999, security engineers proposed TLS as a replacement for the SSL standard, which was at the time in its third version. As with SSL, TLS uses TCP port 443. Based on SSL technology, TLS incorporated many security enhancements and was eventually adopted as a replacement for SSL in most applications. Early versions of TLS supported downgrading communications to SSL v3.0 when both parties did not support TLS. However, in 2011, TLS v1.2 dropped this backward compatibility.

In 2014, an attack known as the Padding Oracle On Downgraded Legacy Encryption (POODLE) demonstrated a significant flaw in the SSL 3.0 fallback mechanism of TLS. In an effort to remediate this vulnerability, many organizations completely dropped SSL

support and now rely solely on TLS security.

Even though TLS has been in existence for more than a decade, many people still mistakenly call it SSL. For this reason, TLS has gained the nickname SSL 3.1.

Steganography and Watermarking Steganography is the art of using cryptographic techniques to embed secret messages within another message. Steganographic algorithms work by making alterations to the least significant bits of the many bits that make up image files. The changes are so minor that there is no appreciable effect on the viewed image. This technique allows communicating parties to hide messages in plain sight—for example, they might embed a secret message within an illustration on an otherwise innocent web page.

Steganographers often embed their secret messages within images or WAV files because these files are often so large that the secret message would easily be missed by even the most observant inspector. Steganography techniques are often used for illegal or questionable activities, such as espionage and child pornography.

Steganography can also be used for legitimate purposes, however. Adding digital watermarks to documents to protect intellectual property is accomplished by means of steganography. The hidden information is known only to the file’s creator. If someone later creates an unauthorized copy of the content, the watermark can be used to detect the copy and (if uniquely watermarked files are provided to each original recipient) trace the offending copy back to the source.

Steganography is an extremely simple technology to use, with free tools openly available on the Internet. Figure 7.2 shows the entire interface of one such tool, iSteg. It simply requires that you specify a text file containing your secret message and an image file that you wish to use to hide the message. Figure 7.3 shows an example of a picture with an embedded secret message; the message is impossible to detect with the human eye.

Figure 7.2 Steganography tool

Figure 7.3 Image with embedded message

Digital Rights Management Digital rights management (DRM) software uses encryption to enforce copyright restrictions on digital media. Over the past decade, publishers attempted to deploy DRM schemes across a variety of media types, including music, movies and books. In many cases, particularly with music, opponents met DRM deployment attempts with fierce

opposition, arguing that the use of DRM violated their rights to freely enjoy and make backup copies of legitimately licensed media files.

As you will read in this section, many commercial attempts to deploy DRM on a widespread basis failed when users rejected the technology as intrusive and/or obstructive.

Music DRM The music industry has battled pirates for years, dating back to the days of homemade cassette tape duplication and carrying through compact disc and digital formats. Music distribution companies attempted to use a variety of DRM schemes, but most backed away from the technology under pressure from consumers.

The use of DRM for purchased music slowed dramatically when, facing this opposition, Apple rolled back their use of FairPlay DRM for music sold through the iTunes Store. Apple co-founder Steve Jobs foreshadowed this move when, in 2007, he issued an open letter to the music industry calling on them to allow Apple to sell DRM-free music. That letter read, in part:

The third alternative is to abolish DRMs entirely. Imagine a world where every online store sells DRM-free music encoded in open licensable formats. In such a world, any player can play music purchased from any store, and any store can sell music which is playable on all players. This is clearly the best alternative for consumers, and Apple would embrace it in a heartbeat. If the big four music companies would license Apple their music without the requirement that it be protected with a DRM, we would switch to selling only DRM-free music on our iTunes store. Every iPod ever made will play this DRM-free music.

The full essay is no longer available on Apple’s website, but an archived copy may be found at http://bit.ly/1TyBm5e.

Currently, the major use of DRM technology in music is for subscription-based services such as Napster and Kazaa, which use DRM to revoke a user’s access to downloaded music when their subscription period ends.

Do the descriptions of DRM technology in this section seem a little vague? There’s a reason for that: manufacturers typically do not disclose the details of their DRM functionality due to fears that pirates will use that information to defeat the DRM

scheme.

Movie DRM The movie industry has used a variety of DRM schemes over the years to stem the worldwide problem of movie piracy. Two of the major technologies used to protect mass- distributed media are as follows:

Content Scrambling System (CSS) Enforces playback and region restrictions on DVDs. This encryption scheme was broken with the release of a tool known as DeCSS that enabled the playback of CSS-protected content on Linux systems.

Advanced Access Content System (AACS) Protects the content stored on Blu-Ray and HD DVD media. Hackers have demonstrated attacks that retrieved AACS encryption keys and posted them on the Internet.

Industry publishers and hackers continue the cat-and-mouse game today; media companies try to protect their content and hackers seek to gain continued access to unencrypted copies.

E-book DRM Perhaps the most successful deployment of DRM technology is in the area of book and document publishing. Most e-books made available today use some form of DRM, and these technologies also protect sensitive documents produced by corporations with DRM capabilities.

All DRM schemes in use today share a fatal flaw: the device used to access the content must have access to the decryption key. If the decryption key is stored on a device possessed by the end user, there is always a chance that the user will manipulate the device to gain access to the key.

Adobe Systems offers the Adobe Digital Experience Protection Technology (ADEPT) to provide DRM technology for e-books sold in a variety of formats. ADEPT uses a combination of AES technology to encrypt the media content and RSA encryption to protect the AES key. Many e-book readers, with the notable exception of the Amazon Kindle, use this technology to protect their content. Amazon’s Kindle e-readers use a variety of formats for book distribution, and each contains its own encryption technology.

Video Game DRM Many video games implement DRM technology that depends on consoles using an active Internet connection to verify the game license with a cloud-based service. These

technologies, such as Ubisoft’s Uplay, once typically required a constant Internet connection to facilitate gameplay. If a player lost connection, the game would cease functioning.

In March 2010, the Uplay system came under a denial-of-service attack and players of Uplay-enabled games around the world were unable to play games that previously functioned properly because their consoles were unable to access the Uplay servers. This led to public outcry, and Ubisoft later removed the always-on requirement, shifting to a DRM approach that only requires an initial activation of the game on the console and then allows unrestricted use.

Document DRM Although the most common uses of DRM technology protect entertainment content, organizations may also use DRM to protect the security of sensitive information stored in PDF files, office productivity documents, and other formats. Commercial DRM products, such as Vitrium and FileOpen, use encryption to protect source content and then enable organizations to carefully control document rights.

Here are some of the common permissions restricted by document DRM solutions:

Reading a file

Modifying the contents of a file

Removing watermarks from a file

Downloading/saving a file

Printing a file

Taking screenshots of file content

DRM solutions allow organizations to control these rights by granting them when needed, revoking them when no longer necessary, and even automatically expiring rights after a specified period of time.

Networking The final application of cryptography we’ll explore in this chapter is the use of cryptographic algorithms to provide secure networking services. In the following sections, we’ll take a brief look at two methods used to secure communications circuits. We’ll also look at IPsec and Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) as well as some of the security issues surrounding wireless networking.

Circuit Encryption Security administrators use two types of encryption techniques to protect data traveling over networks:

Link encryption protects entire communications circuits by creating a secure tunnel

between two points using either a hardware solution or a software solution that encrypts all traffic entering one end of the tunnel and decrypts all traffic entering the other end of the tunnel. For example, a company with two offices connected via a data circuit might use link encryption to protect against attackers monitoring at a point in between the two offices.

End-to-end encryption protects communications between two parties (for example, a client and a server) and is performed independently of link encryption. An example of end-to-end encryption would be the use of TLS to protect communications between a user and a web server. This protects against an intruder who might be monitoring traffic on the secure side of an encrypted link or traffic sent over an unencrypted link.

The critical difference between link and end-to-end encryption is that in link encryption, all the data, including the header, trailer, address, and routing data, is also encrypted. Therefore, each packet has to be decrypted at each hop so it can be properly routed to the next hop and then re-encrypted before it can be sent along its way, which slows the routing. End-to-end encryption does not encrypt the header, trailer, address, and routing data, so it moves faster from point to point but is more susceptible to sniffers and eavesdroppers.

When encryption happens at the higher OSI layers, it is usually end-to-end encryption, and if encryption is done at the lower layers of the OSI model, it is usually link encryption.

Secure Shell (SSH) is a good example of an end-to-end encryption technique. This suite of programs provides encrypted alternatives to common Internet applications such as FTP, Telnet, and rlogin. There are actually two versions of SSH. SSH1 (which is now considered insecure) supports the DES, 3DES, IDEA, and Blowfish algorithms. SSH2 drops support for DES and IDEA but adds support for several other algorithms.

IPsec Various security architectures are in use today, each one designed to address security issues in different environments. One such architecture that supports secure communications is the Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) standard. IPsec is a standard architecture set forth by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for setting up a secure channel to exchange information between two entities.

The entities communicating via IPsec could be two systems, two routers, two gateways, or any combination of entities. Although generally used to connect two networks, IPsec can be used to connect individual computers, such as a server and a workstation or a pair of workstations (sender and receiver, perhaps). IPsec does not dictate all implementation details but is an open, modular framework that allows many manufacturers and software developers to develop IPsec solutions that work well with products from other vendors.

IPsec uses public key cryptography to provide encryption, access control, nonrepudiation, and message authentication, all using IP-based protocols. The primary use of IPsec is for

virtual private networks (VPNs), so IPsec can operate in either transport or tunnel mode. IPsec is commonly paired with the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) as L2TP/IPsec.

The IP Security (IPsec) protocol provides a complete infrastructure for secured network communications. IPsec has gained widespread acceptance and is now offered in a number of commercial operating systems out of the box. IPsec relies on security associations, and there are two main components:

The Authentication Header (AH) provides assurances of message integrity and nonrepudiation. AH also provides authentication and access control and prevents replay attacks.

The Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) provides confidentiality and integrity of packet contents. It provides encryption and limited authentication and prevents replay attacks.

ESP also provides some limited authentication, but not to the degree of the AH. Though ESP is sometimes used without AH, it’s rare to see AH used without ESP.

IPsec provides for two discrete modes of operation. When IPsec is used in transport mode, only the packet payload is encrypted. This mode is designed for peer-to-peer communication. When it’s used in tunnel mode, the entire packet, including the header, is encrypted. This mode is designed for gateway-to-gateway communication.

IPsec is an extremely important concept in modern computer security. Be certain that you’re familiar with the component protocols and modes of IPsec operation.

At runtime, you set up an IPsec session by creating a security association (SA). The SA represents the communication session and records any configuration and status information about the connection. The SA represents a simplex connection. If you want a two-way channel, you need two SAs, one for each direction. Also, if you want to support a bidirectional channel using both AH and ESP, you will need to set up four SAs.

Some of IPsec’s greatest strengths come from being able to filter or manage communications on a per-SA basis so that clients or gateways between which security associations exist can be rigorously managed in terms of what kinds of protocols or services can use an IPsec connection. Also, without a valid security association defined, pairs of users or gateways cannot establish IPsec links.

Further details of the IPsec algorithm are provided in Chapter 11, “Secure Network Architecture and Securing Network Components.”

ISAKMP The Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) provides background security support services for IPsec by negotiating, establishing, modifying, and deleting security associations. As you learned in the previous section, IPsec relies on a system of security associations (SAs). These SAs are managed through the use of ISAKMP. There are four basic requirements for ISAKMP, as set forth in Internet RFC 2408:

Authenticate communicating peers

Create and manage security associations

Provide key generation mechanisms

Protect against threats (for example, replay and denial-of-service attacks)

Wireless Networking The widespread rapid adoption of wireless networks poses a tremendous security risk. Many traditional networks do not implement encryption for routine communications between hosts on the local network and rely on the assumption that it would be too difficult for an attacker to gain physical access to the network wire inside a secure location to eavesdrop on the network. However, wireless networks transmit data through the air, leaving them extremely vulnerable to interception. There are two main types of wireless security:

Wired Equivalent Privacy Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) provides 64- and 128-bit encryption options to protect communications within the wireless LAN. WEP is described in IEEE 802.11 as an optional component of the wireless networking standard.

Cryptanalysis has conclusively demonstrated that significant flaws exist in the WEP algorithm, making it possible to completely undermine the security of a WEP- protected network within seconds. You should never use WEP encryption to protect a wireless network. In fact, the use of WEP encryption on a store network was the root cause behind the TJX security breach that was widely publicized in 2007. Again, you should never use WEP encryption on a wireless network.

WiFi Protected Access WiFi Protected Access (WPA) improves on WEP encryption by implementing the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), eliminating the cryptographic weaknesses that undermined WEP. A further improvement to the technique, dubbed

WPA2, adds AES cryptography. WPA2 provides secure algorithms appropriate for use on modern wireless networks.

Remember that WPA does not provide an end-to-end security solution. It encrypts traffic only between a mobile computer and the nearest wireless access point. Once the traffic hits the wired network, it’s in the clear again.

Another commonly used wireless security standard, IEEE 802.1x, provides a flexible framework for authentication and key management in wired and wireless networks. To use 802.1x, the client runs a piece of software known as the supplicant. The supplicant communicates with the authentication server. After successful authentication, the network switch or wireless access point allows the client to access the network. WPA was designed to interact with 802.1x authentication servers.

Cryptographic Attacks As with any security mechanism, malicious individuals have found a number of attacks to defeat cryptosystems. It’s important that you understand the threats posed by various cryptographic attacks to minimize the risks posed to your systems:

Analytic Attack This is an algebraic manipulation that attempts to reduce the complexity of the algorithm. Analytic attacks focus on the logic of the algorithm itself.

Implementation Attack This is a type of attack that exploits weaknesses in the implementation of a cryptography system. It focuses on exploiting the software code, not just errors and flaws but the methodology employed to program the encryption system.

Statistical Attack A statistical attack exploits statistical weaknesses in a cryptosystem, such as floating-point errors and inability to produce truly random numbers. Statistical attacks attempt to find a vulnerability in the hardware or operating system hosting the cryptography application.

Brute Force Brute-force attacks are quite straightforward. Such an attack attempts every possible valid combination for a key or password. They involve using massive amounts of processing power to methodically guess the key used to secure cryptographic communications.

For a nonflawed protocol, the average amount of time required to discover the key through a brute-force attack is directly proportional to the length of the key. A brute-force attack will always be successful given enough time. Every additional bit of key length doubles the time to perform a brute-force attack because the number of potential keys doubles.

There are two modifications that attackers can make to enhance the effectiveness of a brute-force attack:

Rainbow tables provide precomputed values for cryptographic hashes. These are commonly used for cracking passwords stored on a system in hashed form. Specialized, scalable computing hardware designed specifically for the conduct of brute-force attacks may greatly increase the efficiency of this approach.

Salting Saves Passwords Salt might be hazardous to your health, but it can save your password! To help combat the use of brute-force attacks, including those aided by dictionaries and rainbow tables, cryptographers make use of a technology known as cryptographic salt.

The cryptographic salt is a random value that is added to the end of the password before the operating system hashes the password. The salt is then stored in the password file along with the hash. When the operating system wishes to compare a user’s proffered password to the password file, it first retrieves the salt and appends it to the password. It feeds the concatenated value to the hash function and compares the resulting hash with the one stored in the password file.

Going to this extra trouble dramatically increases the difficulty of brute-force attacks. Anyone attempting to build a rainbow table must build a separate table for each possible value of the cryptographic salt.

Frequency Analysis and the Ciphertext Only Attack In many cases, the only information you have at your disposal is the encrypted ciphertext message, a scenario known as the ciphertext only attack. In this case, one technique that proves helpful against simple ciphers is frequency analysis—counting the number of times each letter appears in the ciphertext. Using your knowledge that the letters E, T, O, A, I, and N are the most common in the English language, you can then test several hypotheses:

If these letters are also the most common in the ciphertext, the cipher was likely a transposition cipher, which rearranged the characters of the plain text without altering them.

If other letters are the most common in the ciphertext, the cipher is probably some form of substitution cipher that replaced the plaintext characters.

This is a simple overview of frequency analysis, and many sophisticated variations on this technique can be used against polyalphabetic ciphers and other sophisticated cryptosystems.

Known Plaintext In the known plaintext attack, the attacker has a copy of the encrypted message along with the plaintext message used to generate the ciphertext (the

copy). This knowledge greatly assists the attacker in breaking weaker codes. For example, imagine the ease with which you could break the Caesar cipher described in Chapter 6 if you had both a plaintext copy and a ciphertext copy of the same message.

Chosen Ciphertext In a chosen ciphertext attack, the attacker has the ability to decrypt chosen portions of the ciphertext message and use the decrypted portion of the message to discover the key.

Chosen Plaintext In a chosen plaintext attack, the attacker has the ability to encrypt plaintext messages of their choosing and can then analyze the ciphertext output of the encryption algorithm.

Meet in the Middle Attackers might use a meet-in-the-middle attack to defeat encryption algorithms that use two rounds of encryption. This attack is the reason that Double DES (2DES) was quickly discarded as a viable enhancement to the DES encryption (it was replaced by Triple DES, or 3DES).

In the meet-in-the-middle attack, the attacker uses a known plaintext message. The plain text is then encrypted using every possible key (k1), and the equivalent ciphertext is decrypted using all possible keys (k2). When a match is found, the corresponding pair (k1, k2) represents both portions of the double encryption. This type of attack generally takes only double the time necessary to break a single round of encryption (or 2n rather than the anticipated 2n * 2n), offering minimal added protection.

Man in the Middle In the man-in-the-middle attack, a malicious individual sits between two communicating parties and intercepts all communications (including the setup of the cryptographic session). The attacker responds to the originator’s initialization requests and sets up a secure session with the originator. The attacker then establishes a second secure session with the intended recipient using a different key and posing as the originator. The attacker can then “sit in the middle” of the communication and read all traffic as it passes between the two parties.

Be careful not to confuse the meet-in-the-middle attack with the man-in-the-middle attack. They may have similar names, but they are quite different!

Birthday The birthday attack, also known as a collision attack or reverse hash matching (see the discussion of brute-force and dictionary attacks in Chapter 14, “Controlling and Monitoring Access”), seeks to find flaws in the one-to-one nature of hashing functions. In this attack, the malicious individual seeks to substitute in a digitally signed communication a different message that produces the same message digest, thereby maintaining the validity of the original digital signature.

Don’t forget that social engineering techniques can also be used in cryptanalysis. If you’re able to obtain a decryption key by simply asking the sender for it, that’s much easier than attempting to crack the cryptosystem!

Replay The replay attack is used against cryptographic algorithms that don’t incorporate temporal protections. In this attack, the malicious individual intercepts an encrypted message between two parties (often a request for authentication) and then later “replays” the captured message to open a new session. This attack can be defeated by incorporating a time stamp and expiration period into each message.

Summary Asymmetric key cryptography, or public key encryption, provides an extremely flexible infrastructure, facilitating simple, secure communication between parties that do not necessarily know each other prior to initiating the communication. It also provides the framework for the digital signing of messages to ensure nonrepudiation and message integrity.

This chapter explored public key encryption, which provides a scalable cryptographic architecture for use by large numbers of users. We also described some popular cryptographic algorithms, such as link encryption and end-to-end encryption. Finally, we introduced you to the public key infrastructure, which uses certificate authorities (CAs) to generate digital certificates containing the public keys of system users and digital signatures, which rely on a combination of public key cryptography and hashing functions.

We also looked at some of the common applications of cryptographic technology in solving everyday problems. You learned how cryptography can be used to secure email (using PGP and S/MIME), web communications (using SSL and TLS), and both peer-to- peer and gateway-to-gateway networking (using IPsec and ISAKMP) as well as wireless communications (using WPA and WPA2).

Finally, we covered some of the more common attacks used by malicious individuals attempting to interfere with or intercept encrypted communications between two parties. Such attacks include birthday, cryptanalytic, replay, brute-force, known plaintext, chosen plaintext, chosen ciphertext, meet-in-the-middle, man-in-the-middle, and birthday attacks. It’s important for you to understand these attacks in order to provide adequate security against them.

Exam Essentials

Understand the key types used in asymmetric cryptography. Public keys are freely shared among communicating parties, whereas private keys are kept secret. To encrypt a message, use the recipient’s public key. To decrypt a message, use your own private key. To sign a message, use your own private key. To validate a signature, use the sender’s public key.

Be familiar with the three major public key cryptosystems. RSA is the most famous public key cryptosystem; it was developed by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman in 1977. It depends on the difficulty of factoring the product of prime numbers. El Gamal is an extension of the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm that depends on modular arithmetic. The elliptic curve algorithm depends on the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem and provides more security than other algorithms when both are used with keys of the same length.

Know the fundamental requirements of a hash function. Good hash functions have five requirements. They must allow input of any length, provide fixed-length output, make it relatively easy to compute the hash function for any input, provide one-way functionality, and be collision free.

Be familiar with the major hashing algorithms. The successors to the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA), SHA-1 and SHA-2, make up the government standard message digest function. SHA-1 produces a 160-bit message digest whereas SHA-2 supports variable lengths, ranging up to 512 bits. SHA-3 remains in development and NIST may release it in final form soon.

Know how cryptographic salts improve the security of password hashing. When straightforward hashing is used to store passwords in a password file, attackers may use rainbow tables of precomputed values to identify commonly used passwords. Adding salts to the passwords before hashing them reduces the effectiveness of rainbow table attacks.

Understand how digital signatures are generated and verified. To digitally sign a message, first use a hashing function to generate a message digest. Then encrypt the digest with your private key. To verify the digital signature on a message, decrypt the signature with the sender’s public key and then compare the message digest to one you generate yourself. If they match, the message is authentic.

Know the components of the Digital Signature Standard (DSS). The Digital Signature Standard uses the SHA-1 and SHA-2 message digest functions along with one of three encryption algorithms: the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA); the Rivest, Shamir, Adleman (RSA) algorithm; or the Elliptic Curve DSA (ECDSA) algorithm.

Understand the public key infrastructure (PKI). In the public key infrastructure, certificate authorities (CAs) generate digital certificates containing the public keys of system users. Users then distribute these certificates to people with whom they want to communicate. Certificate recipients verify a certificate using the CA’s public key.

Know the common applications of cryptography to secure email. The emerging

standard for encrypted messages is the S/MIME protocol. Another popular email security tool is Phil Zimmerman’s Pretty Good Privacy (PGP). Most users of email encryption rely on having this technology built into their email client or their web-based email service.

Know the common applications of cryptography to secure web activity. The de facto standard for secure web traffic is the use of HTTP over Transport Layer Security (TLS) or the older Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Most web browsers support both standards, but many websites are dropping support for SSL due to security concerns.

Know the common applications of cryptography to secure networking. The IPsec protocol standard provides a common framework for encrypting network traffic and is built into a number of common operating systems. In IPsec transport mode, packet contents are encrypted for peer-to-peer communication. In tunnel mode, the entire packet, including header information, is encrypted for gateway-to-gateway communications.

Be able to describe IPsec. IPsec is a security architecture framework that supports secure communication over IP. IPsec establishes a secure channel in either transport mode or tunnel mode. It can be used to establish direct communication between computers or to set up a VPN between networks. IPsec uses two protocols: Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP).

Be able to explain common cryptographic attacks. Brute-force attacks are attempts to randomly find the correct cryptographic key. Known plaintext, chosen ciphertext, and chosen plaintext attacks require the attacker to have some extra information in addition to the ciphertext. The meet-in-the-middle attack exploits protocols that use two rounds of encryption. The man-in-the-middle attack fools both parties into communicating with the attacker instead of directly with each other. The birthday attack is an attempt to find collisions in hash functions. The replay attack is an attempt to reuse authentication requests.

Understand uses of digital rights management (DRM). Digital rights management (DRM) solutions allow content owners to enforce restrictions on the use of their content by others. DRM solutions commonly protect entertainment content, such as music, movies, and e-books but are occasionally found in the enterprise, protecting sensitive information stored in documents.

Written Lab 1. Explain the process Bob should use if he wants to send a confidential message to

Alice using asymmetric cryptography.

2. Explain the process Alice would use to decrypt the message Bob sent in question 1.

3. Explain the process Bob should use to digitally sign a message to Alice.

4. Explain the process Alice should use to verify the digital signature on the message from Bob in question 3.

Review Questions 1. In the RSA public key cryptosystem, which one of the following numbers will always

be largest?

A. e

B. n

C. p

D. q

2. Which cryptographic algorithm forms the basis of the El Gamal cryptosystem?

A. RSA

B. Diffie-Hellman

C. 3DES

D. IDEA

3. If Richard wants to send an encrypted message to Sue using a public key cryptosystem, which key does he use to encrypt the message?

A. Richard’s public key

B. Richard’s private key

C. Sue’s public key

D. Sue’s private key

4. If a 2,048-bit plaintext message were encrypted with the El Gamal public key cryptosystem, how long would the resulting ciphertext message be?

A. 1,024 bits

B. 2,048 bits

C. 4,096 bits

D. 8,192 bits

5. Acme Widgets currently uses a 1,024-bit RSA encryption standard companywide. The company plans to convert from RSA to an elliptic curve cryptosystem. If it wants to maintain the same cryptographic strength, what ECC key length should it use?

A. 160 bits

B. 512 bits

C. 1,024 bits

D. 2,048 bits

6. John wants to produce a message digest of a 2,048-byte message he plans to send to Mary. If he uses the SHA-1 hashing algorithm, what size will the message digest for this particular message be?

A. 160 bits

B. 512 bits

C. 1,024 bits

D. 2,048 bits

7. Which one of the following technologies is considered flawed and should no longer be used?

A. SHA-2

B. PGP

C. WEP

D. TLS

8. What encryption technique does WPA use to protect wireless communications?

A. TKIP

B. DES

C. 3DES

D. AES

9. Richard received an encrypted message sent to him from Sue. Which key should he use to decrypt the message?

A. Richard’s public key

B. Richard’s private key

C. Sue’s public key

D. Sue’s private key

10. Richard wants to digitally sign a message he’s sending to Sue so that Sue can be sure the message came from him without modification while in transit. Which key should he use to encrypt the message digest?

A. Richard’s public key

B. Richard’s private key

C. Sue’s public key

D. Sue’s private key

11. Which one of the following algorithms is not supported by the Digital Signature Standard?

A. Digital Signature Algorithm

B. RSA

C. El Gamal DSA

D. Elliptic Curve DSA

12. Which International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standard governs the creation and endorsement of digital certificates for secure electronic communication?

A. X.500

B. X.509

C. X.900

D. X.905

13. What cryptosystem provides the encryption/decryption technology for the commercial version of Phil Zimmerman’s Pretty Good Privacy secure email system?

A. ROT13

B. IDEA

C. ECC

D. El Gamal

14. What TCP/IP communications port is used by Transport Layer Security traffic?

A. 80

B. 220

C. 443

D. 559

15. What type of cryptographic attack rendered Double DES (2DES) no more effective than standard DES encryption?

A. Birthday attack

B. Chosen ciphertext attack

C. Meet-in-the-middle attack

D. Man-in-the-middle attack

16. Which of the following tools can be used to improve the effectiveness of a brute-force password cracking attack?

A. Rainbow tables

B. Hierarchical screening

C. TKIP

D. Random enhancement

17. Which of the following links would be protected by WPA encryption?

A. Firewall to firewall

B. Router to firewall

C. Client to wireless access point

D. Wireless access point to router

18. What is the major disadvantage of using certificate revocation lists?

A. Key management

B. Latency

C. Record keeping

D. Vulnerability to brute-force attacks

19. Which one of the following encryption algorithms is now considered insecure?

A. El Gamal

B. RSA

C. Skipjack

D. Merkle-Hellman Knapsack

20. What does IPsec define?

A. All possible security classifications for a specific configuration

B. A framework for setting up a secure communication channel

C. The valid transition states in the Biba model

D. TCSEC security categories

Chapter 8 Principles of Security Models, Design, and Capabilities THE CISSP EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

✓ 3) Security Engineering (Engineering and Management of Security)

A. Implement and manage engineering processes using secure design principles

B. Understand the fundamental concepts of security models (e.g., Confidentiality, Integrity, and Multi-level Models)

C. Select controls and countermeasures based upon systems security evaluation models

D. Understand security capabilities of information systems (e.g., memory protection, virtualization, trusted platform module, interfaces, fault tolerance)

Understanding the philosophy behind security solutions helps to limit your search for the best controls for specific security needs. In this chapter, we discuss security models, including state machine, Bell-LaPadula, Biba, Clark-Wilson, Take-Grant, and Brewer and Nash. This chapter also describes Common Criteria and other methods governments and corporations use to evaluate information systems from a security perspective, with particular emphasis on US Department of Defense and international security evaluation criteria. Finally, we discuss commonly encountered design flaws and other issues that can make information systems susceptible to attack.

The process of determining how secure a system is can be difficult and time-consuming. In this chapter, we describe the process of evaluating a computer system’s level of security. We begin by introducing and explaining basic concepts and terminology used to describe information system security concepts and talk about secure computing, secure perimeters, security and access monitors, and kernel code. We turn to security models to explain how access and security controls can be implemented. We also briefly explain how system security may be categorized as either open or closed; describe a set of standard security techniques used to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data; discuss security controls; and introduce a standard suite of secure networking protocols.

Additional elements of this domain are discussed in various chapters: Chapter 6, “Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms,” Chapter 7, “PKI and Cryptographic Applications,” Chapter 9, “Security Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Countermeasures,” and Chapter 10, “Physical Security Requirements.” Please be sure to review all of these chapters to have a complete perspective on the topics of this domain.

Implement and Manage Engineering Processes Using Secure Design Principles

Security should be a consideration at every stage of a system’s development. Programmers should strive to build security into every application they develop, with greater levels of security provided to critical applications and those that process sensitive information. It’s extremely important to consider the security implications of a development project from the early stages because it’s much easier to build security into a system than it is to add security onto an existing system. The following sections discuss several essential security design principles that should be implemented and managed early in the engineering process of a hardware or software project.

Objects and Subjects Controlling access to any resource in a secure system involves two entities. The subject is the user or process that makes a request to access a resource. Access can mean reading from or writing to a resource. The object is the resource a user or process wants to access. Keep in mind that the subject and object refer to some specific access request, so the same resource can serve as a subject and an object in different access requests.

For example, process A may ask for data from process B. To satisfy process A’s request, process B must ask for data from process C. In this example, process B is the object of the first request and the subject of the second request:

First request process A (subject) process B (object)

Second request process B (subject) process C (object)

This also serves as an example of transitive trust. Transitive trust is the concept that if A trusts B and B trusts C, then A inherits trust of C through the transitive property—which works like it would in a mathematical equation: if a = b, and b = c, then a = c. In the previous example, when A requests data from B and then B requests data from C, the data that A receives is essentially from C. Transitive trust is a serious security concern because it may enable bypassing of restrictions or limitations between A and C, especially if A and C both support interaction with B. An example of this would be when an organization blocks access to Facebook or YouTube to increase worker productivity. Thus, workers (A) do not have access to certain Internet sites (C). However, if workers are able to access to a web proxy, VPN, or anonymization service, then this can serve as a means to bypass the local network restriction. In other words, workers (A) accessing VPN service (B), then the VPN service (B), can access the blocked Internet service (C); thus A is able to access C through B via a transitive trust exploitation.

Closed and Open Systems Systems are designed and built according to one of two differing philosophies: A closed system is designed to work well with a narrow range of other systems, generally all from the same manufacturer. The standards for closed systems are often proprietary and not

normally disclosed. Open systems, on the other hand, are designed using agreed-upon industry standards. Open systems are much easier to integrate with systems from different manufacturers that support the same standards.

Closed systems are harder to integrate with unlike systems, but they can be more secure. A closed system often comprises proprietary hardware and software that does not incorporate industry standards. This lack of integration ease means that attacks on many generic system components either will not work or must be customized to be successful. In many cases, attacking a closed system is harder than launching an attack on an open system. Many software and hardware components with known vulnerabilities may not exist on a closed system. In addition to the lack of known vulnerable components on a closed system, it is often necessary to possess more in-depth knowledge of the specific target system to launch a successful attack.

Open systems are generally far easier to integrate with other open systems. It is easy, for example, to create a LAN with a Microsoft Windows Server machine, a Linux machine, and a Macintosh machine. Although all three computers use different operating systems and could represent up to three different hardware architectures, each supports industry standards and makes it easy for networked (or other) communications to occur. This ease comes at a price, however. Because standard communications components are incorporated into each of these three open systems, there are far more predictable entry points and methods for launching attacks. In general, their openness makes them more vulnerable to attack, and their widespread availability makes it possible for attackers to find (and even to practice on) plenty of potential targets. Also, open systems are more popular than closed systems and attract more attention. An attacker who develops basic attacking skills will find more targets on open systems than on closed ones. This larger “market” of potential targets usually means that there is more emphasis on targeting open systems. Inarguably, there’s a greater body of shared experience and knowledge on how to attack open systems than there is for closed systems.

Open Source vs. Close Source It’s also helpful to keep in mind the distinction between open source and closed source systems. An open source solution is one where the source code and other internal logic is exposed to the public. A closed source solution is one where the source code and other internal logic is hidden from the public. Open source solutions often depend on public inspection and review to improve the product over time. Closed source solutions are more dependent on the vendor/programmer to revise the product over time. Both open source and closed source solutions can be available for sale or at no charge, but the term commercial typically implies closed source. However, closed source code is often revealed through either vendor compromise or through decompiling. The former is always a breach of ethics and often the law, whereas the latter is a standard element in ethical reverse engineering or systems analysis.

It is also the case that a closed source program can be either an open system or a closed system, and an open source program can be either an open system or a closed system.

Techniques for Ensuring Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability To guarantee the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data, you must ensure that all components that have access to data are secure and well behaved. Software designers use different techniques to ensure that programs do only what is required and nothing more. Suppose a program writes to and reads from an area of memory that is being used by another program. The first program could potentially violate all three security tenets: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. If an affected program is processing sensitive or secret data, that data’s confidentiality is no longer guaranteed. If that data is overwritten or altered in an unpredictable way (a common problem when multiple readers and writers inadvertently access the same shared data), there is no guarantee of integrity. And, if data modification results in corruption or outright loss, it could become unavailable for future use. Although the concepts we discuss in the following sections all relate to software programs, they are also commonly used in all areas of security. For example, physical confinement guarantees that all physical access to hardware is controlled.

Confinement Software designers use process confinement to restrict the actions of a program. Simply put, process confinement allows a process to read from and write to only certain memory locations and resources. This is also known as sandboxing. The operating system, or some other security component, disallows illegal read/write requests. If a process attempts to initiate an action beyond its granted authority, that action will be denied. In addition, further actions, such as logging the violation attempt, may be taken. Systems that must comply with higher security ratings usually record all violations and respond in some tangible way. Generally, the offending process is terminated. Confinement can be implemented in the operating system itself (such as through process isolation and memory protection), through the use of a confinement application or service (for example, Sandboxie at www.sandboxie.com), or through a virtualization or hypervisor solution (such as VMware or Oracle’s VirtualBox).

Bounds Each process that runs on a system is assigned an authority level. The authority level tells the operating system what the process can do. In simple systems, there may be only two authority levels: user and kernel. The authority level tells the operating system how to set the bounds for a process. The bounds of a process consist of limits set on the memory addresses and resources it can access. The bounds state the area within which a process is confined or contained. In most systems, these bounds segment logical areas of memory for each process to use. It is the responsibility of the operating system to enforce these

logical bounds and to disallow access to other processes. More secure systems may require physically bounded processes. Physical bounds require each bounded process to run in an area of memory that is physically separated from other bounded processes, not just logically bounded in the same memory space. Physically bounded memory can be very expensive, but it’s also more secure than logical bounds.

Isolation When a process is confined through enforcing access bounds, that process runs in isolation. Process isolation ensures that any behavior will affect only the memory and resources associated with the isolated process. Isolation is used to protect the operating environment, the kernel of the OS, and other independent applications. Isolation is an essential component of a stable operating system. Isolation is what prevents an application from accessing the memory or resources of another application, whether for good or ill. The operating system may provide intermediary services, such as cut-and- paste and resource sharing (such as the keyboard, network interface, and storage device access).

These three concepts (confinement, bounds, and isolation) make designing secure programs and operating systems more difficult, but they also make it possible to implement more secure systems.

Controls To ensure the security of a system, you need to allow subjects to access only authorized objects. A control uses access rules to limit the access of a subject to an object. Access rules state which objects are valid for each subject. Further, an object might be valid for one type of access and be invalid for another type of access. One common control is for file access. A file can be protected from modification by making it read-only for most users but read-write for a small set of users who have the authority to modify it.

There are both mandatory and discretionary access controls, often called MAC and DAC, respectively. With mandatory controls, static attributes of the subject and the object are considered to determine the permissibility of an access. Each subject possesses attributes that define its clearance, or authority, to access resources. Each object possesses attributes that define its classification. Different types of security methods classify resources in different ways. For example, subject A is granted access to object B if the security system can find a rule that allows a subject with subject A’s clearance to access an object with object B’s classification. This is called rule-based access control (RBAC). The predefined rules state which subjects can access which objects.

Discretionary controls differ from mandatory controls in that the subject has some ability to define the objects to access. Within limits, discretionary access controls allow the subject to define a list of objects to access as needed. This access control list serves as a dynamic access rule set that the subject can modify. The constraints imposed on the modifications often relate to the subject’s identity. Based on the identity, the subject may

be allowed to add or modify the rules that define access to objects.

Both mandatory and discretionary access controls limit the access to objects by subjects. The primary goal of controls is to ensure the confidentiality and integrity of data by disallowing unauthorized access by authorized or unauthorized subjects.

Trust and Assurance Proper security concepts, controls, and mechanisms must be integrated before and during the design and architectural period in order to produce a reliably secure product. Security issues should not be added on as an afterthought; this causes oversights, increased costs, and less reliability. Once security is integrated into the design, it must be engineered, implemented, tested, audited, evaluated, certified, and finally accredited.

A trusted system is one in which all protection mechanisms work together to process sensitive data for many types of users while maintaining a stable and secure computing environment. Assurance is simply defined as the degree of confidence in satisfaction of security needs. Assurance must be continually maintained, updated, and reverified. This is true if the trusted system experiences a known change or if a significant amount of time has passed. In either case, change has occurred at some level. Change is often the antithesis of security; it often diminishes security. So, whenever change occurs, the system needs to be reevaluated to verify that the level of security it provided previously is still intact. Assurance varies from one system to another and must be established on individual systems. However, there are grades or levels of assurance that can be placed across numerous systems of the same type, systems that support the same services, or systems that are deployed in the same geographic location. Thus, trust can be built into a system by implementing specific security features, whereas assurance is an assessment of the reliability and usability of those security features in a real-world situation.

Understand the Fundamental Concepts of Security Models In information security, models provide a way to formalize security policies. Such models can be abstract or intuitive (some are decidedly mathematical), but all are intended to provide an explicit set of rules that a computer can follow to implement the fundamental security concepts, processes, and procedures that make up a security policy. These models offer a way to deepen your understanding of how a computer operating system should be designed and developed to support a specific security policy.

A security model provides a way for designers to map abstract statements into a security policy that prescribes the algorithms and data structures necessary to build hardware and software. Thus, a security model gives software designers something against which to measure their design and implementation. That model, of course, must support each part of the security policy. In this way, developers can be sure their security implementation supports the security policy.

Tokens, Capabilities, and Labels Several different methods are used to describe the necessary security attributes for an object. A security token is a separate object that is associated with a resource and describes its security attributes. This token can communicate security information about an object prior to requesting access to the actual object. In other implementations, various lists are used to store security information about multiple objects. A capabilities list maintains a row of security attributes for each controlled object. Although not as flexible as the token approach, capabilities lists generally offer quicker lookups when a subject requests access to an object. A third common type of attribute storage is called a security label, which is generally a permanent part of the object to which it’s attached. Once a security label is set, it usually cannot be altered. This permanence provides another safeguard against tampering that neither tokens nor capabilities lists provide.

You’ll explore several security models in the following sections; all of them can shed light on how security enters into computer architectures and operating system design:

Trusted computing base

State machine model

Information flow model

Noninterference model

Take-Grant model

Access control matrix

Bell-LaPadula model

Biba model

Clark-Wilson model

Brewer and Nash model (also known as Chinese Wall)

Goguen-Meseguer model

Sutherland model

Graham-Denning model

Although no system can be totally secure, it is possible to design and build reasonably secure systems. In fact, if a secured system complies with a specific set of security criteria, it can be said to exhibit a level of trust. Therefore, trust can be built into a system and then evaluated, certified, and accredited. But before we can discuss each security model, we have to establish a foundation on which most security models are built. This foundation is the trusted computing base.

Trusted Computing Base An old US Department of Defense standard known colloquially as the Orange Book (DoD Standard 5200.28, covered in more detail later in this chapter in the section “Rainbow Series”) describes a trusted computing base (TCB) as a combination of hardware, software, and controls that work together to form a trusted base to enforce your security policy. The TCB is a subset of a complete information system. It should be as small as possible so that a detailed analysis can reasonably ensure that the system meets design specifications and requirements. The TCB is the only portion of that system that can be trusted to adhere to and enforce the security policy. It is not necessary that every component of a system be trusted. But any time you consider a system from a security standpoint, your evaluation should include all trusted components that define that system’s TCB.

In general, TCB components in a system are responsible for controlling access to the system. The TCB must provide methods to access resources both inside and outside the TCB itself. TCB components commonly restrict the activities of components outside the TCB. It is the responsibility of TCB components to ensure that a system behaves properly in all cases and that it adheres to the security policy under all circumstances.

Security Perimeter The security perimeter of your system is an imaginary boundary that separates the TCB from the rest of the system (Figure 8.1). This boundary ensures that no insecure communications or interactions occur between the TCB and the remaining elements of the computer system. For the TCB to communicate with the rest of the system, it must create secure channels, also called trusted paths. A trusted path is a channel established with strict standards to allow necessary communication to occur without exposing the TCB to security vulnerabilities. A trusted path also protects system users (sometimes known as subjects) from compromise as a result of a TCB interchange. As you learn more about formal security guidelines and evaluation criteria later in this chapter, you’ll also learn that trusted paths are required in systems that seek to deliver high levels of security to their users. According to the TCSEC guidelines, trusted paths are required for high trust level systems such as those at level B2 or higher of TCSEC.

Figure 8.1 The TCB, security perimeter, and reference monitor

Reference Monitors and Kernels When the time comes to implement a secure system, it’s essential to develop some part of the TCB to enforce access controls on system assets and resources (sometimes known as objects). The part of the TCB that validates access to every resource prior to granting access requests is called the reference monitor (Figure 8.1). The reference monitor stands between every subject and object, verifying that a requesting subject’s credentials meet the object’s access requirements before any requests are allowed to proceed. If such access requirements aren’t met, access requests are turned down. Effectively, the reference monitor is the access control enforcer for the TCB. Thus, authorized and secured actions and activities are allowed to occur, whereas unauthorized and insecure activities and actions are denied and blocked from occurring. The reference monitor enforces access control or authorization based the desired security model, whether discretionary, mandatory, role-based, or some other form of access control. The reference monitor may be a conceptual part of the TCB; it doesn’t need to be an actual, stand-alone, or independent working system component.

The collection of components in the TCB that work together to implement reference monitor functions is called the security kernel. The reference monitor is a concept or theory that is put into practice via the implementation of a security kernel in software and

hardware. The purpose of the security kernel is to launch appropriate components to enforce reference monitor functionality and resist all known attacks. The security kernel uses a trusted path to communicate with subjects. It also mediates all resource access requests, granting only those requests that match the appropriate access rules in use for a system.

The reference monitor requires descriptive information about each resource that it protects. Such information normally includes its classification and designation. When a subject requests access to an object, the reference monitor consults the object’s descriptive information to discern whether access should be granted or denied (see the sidebar “Tokens, Capabilities, and Labels” for more information on how this works).

State Machine Model The state machine model describes a system that is always secure no matter what state it is in. It’s based on the computer science definition of a finite state machine (FSM). An FSM combines an external input with an internal machine state to model all kinds of complex systems, including parsers, decoders, and interpreters. Given an input and a state, an FSM transitions to another state and may create an output. Mathematically, the next state is a function of the current state and the input next state; that is, the next state = F(input, current state). Likewise, the output is also a function of the input and the current state output; that is, the output = F(input, current state).

Many security models are based on the secure state concept. According to the state machine model, a state is a snapshot of a system at a specific moment in time. If all aspects of a state meet the requirements of the security policy, that state is considered secure. A transition occurs when accepting input or producing output. A transition always results in a new state (also called a state transition). All state transitions must be evaluated. If each possible state transition results in another secure state, the system can be called a secure state machine. A secure state machine model system always boots into a secure state, maintains a secure state across all transitions, and allows subjects to access resources only in a secure manner compliant with the security policy. The secure state machine model is the basis for many other security models.

Information Flow Model The information flow model focuses on the flow of information. Information flow models are based on a state machine model. The Bell-LaPadula and Biba models, which we will discuss in detail later in this chapter, are both information flow models. Bell-LaPadula is concerned with preventing information flow from a high security level to a low security level. Biba is concerned with preventing information flow from a low security level to a high security level. Information flow models don’t necessarily deal with only the direction of information flow; they can also address the type of flow.

Information flow models are designed to prevent unauthorized, insecure, or restricted information flow, often between different levels of security (these are often referred to as

multilevel models). Information flow can be between subjects and objects at the same classification level as well as between subjects and objects at different classification levels. An information flow model allows all authorized information flows, whether within the same classification level or between classification levels. It prevents all unauthorized information flows, whether within the same classification level or between classification levels.

Another interesting perspective on the information flow model is that it is used to establish a relationship between two versions or states of the same object when those two versions or states exist at different points in time. Thus, information flow dictates the transformation of an object from one state at one point in time to another state at another point in time. The information flow model also addresses covert channels by specifically excluding all nondefined flow pathways.

Noninterference Model The noninterference model is loosely based on the information flow model. However, instead of being concerned about the flow of information, the noninterference model is concerned with how the actions of a subject at a higher security level affect the system state or the actions of a subject at a lower security level. Basically, the actions of subject A (high) should not affect the actions of subject B (low) or even be noticed by subject B. The real concern is to prevent the actions of subject A at a high level of security classification from affecting the system state at a lower level. If this occurs, subject B may be placed into an insecure state or be able to deduce or infer information about a higher level of classification. This is a type of information leakage and implicitly creates a covert channel. Thus, the noninterference model can be imposed to provide a form of protection against damage caused by malicious programs such as Trojan horses.

Composition Theories

Some other models that fall into the information flow category build on the notion of how inputs and outputs between multiple systems relate to one another—which follows how information flows between systems rather than within an individual system. These are called composition theories because they explain how outputs from one system relate to inputs to another system. There are three recognized types of composition theories:

Cascading: Input for one system comes from the output of another system.

Feedback: One system provides input to another system, which reciprocates by reversing those roles (so that system A first provides input for system B and

then system B provides input to system A).

Hookup: One system sends input to another system but also sends input to external entities.

Take-Grant Model The Take-Grant model employs a directed graph (Figure 8.2) to dictate how rights can be passed from one subject to another or from a subject to an object. Simply put, a subject with the grant right can grant another subject or another object any other right they possess. Likewise, a subject with the take right can take a right from another subject. In addition to these two primary rules, the Take-Grant model may adopt a create rule and a remove rule to generate or delete rights. The key to this model is that using these rules allows you to figure out when rights in the system can change and where leakage (that is, unintentional distribution of permissions) can occur.

Take rule Allows a subject to take rights over an object

Grant rule Allows a subject to grant rights to an object

Create rule Allows a subject to create new rights

Remove rule Allows a subject to remove rights it has

Figure 8.2 The Take Grant model’s directed graph

Access Control Matrix An access control matrix is a table of subjects and objects that indicates the actions or functions that each subject can perform on each object. Each column of the matrix is an access control list (ACL). Each row of the matrix is a capabilities list. An ACL is tied to the object; it lists valid actions each subject can perform. A capability list is tied to the subject; it lists valid actions that can be taken on each object. From an administration perspective, using only capability lists for access control is a management nightmare. A capability list method of access control can be accomplished by storing on each subject a list of rights the subject has for every object. This effectively gives each user a key ring of accesses and rights to objects within the security domain. To remove access to a particular object, every user (subject) that has access to it must be individually manipulated. Thus, managing access on each user account is much more difficult than managing access on each object (in other words, via ACLs).

Implementing an access control matrix model usually involves the following: Constructing an environment that can create and manage lists of subjects and objects

Crafting a function that can return the type associated with whatever object is supplied to that function as input (this is important because an object’s type determines what kind of operations may be applied to it)

The access control matrix shown in Table 8.1 is for a discretionary access control system. A mandatory or rule-based matrix can be constructed simply by replacing the subject names with classifications or roles. Access control matrixes are used by systems to quickly determine whether the requested action by a subject for an object is authorized.

Table 8.1 An access control matrix

Subjects Document File Printer Network Folder Share Bob Read No Access No Access Mary No Access No Access Read Amanda Read, Write Print No Access Mark Read, Write Print Read, Write Kathryn Read, Write Print, Manage Print Queue Read, Write, Execute Colin Read, Write, Change

Permissions Print, Manage Print Queue, Change Permissions

Read, Write, Execute, Change Permissions

Bell-LaPadula Model The US Department of Defense (DoD) developed the Bell-LaPadula model in the 1970s to address concerns about protecting classified information. The DoD manages multiple levels of classified resources, and the Bell-LaPadula multilevel model was derived from the DoD’s multilevel security policies. The classifications the DoD uses are numerous; however, discussions of classifications within the CISSP CBK are usually limited to

unclassified, sensitive but unclassified, confidential, secret, and top secret. The multilevel security policy states that a subject with any level of clearance can access resources at or below its clearance level. However, within the higher clearance levels, access is granted only on a need-to-know basis. In other words, access to a specific object is granted to the classified levels only if a specific work task requires such access. For example, any person with a secret security clearance can access secret, confidential, sensitive but unclassified, and unclassified documents but not top-secret documents. Also, to access a document within the secret level, the person seeking access must also have a need to know for that document.

By design, the Bell-LaPadula model prevents the leaking or transfer of classified information to less secure clearance levels. This is accomplished by blocking lower- classified subjects from accessing higher-classified objects. With these restrictions, the Bell-LaPadula model is focused on maintaining the confidentiality of objects. Thus, the complexities involved in ensuring the confidentiality of documents are addressed in the Bell-LaPadula model. However, Bell-LaPadula does not address the aspects of integrity or availability for objects. Bell-LaPadula is also the first mathematical model of a multilevel security policy.

Lattice-Based Access Control

This general category for nondiscretionary access controls is covered in Chapter 13, “Managing Identity and Authentication.” Here’s a quick preview on that more detailed coverage of this subject (which drives the underpinnings for most access control security models): Subjects under lattice-based access controls are assigned positions in a lattice. These positions fall between defined security labels or classifications. Subjects can access only those objects that fall into the range between the least upper bound (the nearest security label or classification higher than their lattice position) and the highest lower bound (the nearest security label or classification lower than their lattice position) of the labels or classifications for their lattice position. Thus, a subject that falls between the private and sensitive labels in a commercial scheme that reads bottom up as public, sensitive, private, proprietary, and confidential can access only public and sensitive data but not private, proprietary, or confidential data. Lattice-based access controls also fit into the general category of information flow models and deal primarily with confidentiality (that’s the reason for the connection to Bell-LaPadula).

This model is built on a state machine concept and the information flow model. It also employs mandatory access controls and the lattice concept. The lattice tiers are the

classification levels used by the security policy of the organization. The state machine supports multiple states with explicit transitions between any two states; this concept is used because the correctness of the machine, and guarantees of document confidentiality, can be proven mathematically. There are three basic properties of this state machine:

The Simple Security Property states that a subject may not read information at a higher sensitivity level (no read up).

The * (star) Security Property states that a subject may not write information to an object at a lower sensitivity level (no write down). This is also known as the Confinement Property.

The Discretionary Security Property states that the system uses an access matrix to enforce discretionary access control.

These first two properties define the states into which the system can transition. No other transitions are allowed. All states accessible through these two rules are secure states. Thus, Bell-LaPadula–modeled systems offer state machine model security (see Figure 8.3).

Figure 8.3 The Bell-LaPadula model

An exception in the Bell-LaPadula model states that a “trusted subject” is not constrained by the * Security Property. A trusted subject is defined as “a subject that is guaranteed not to consummate a security-breaching information transfer even if it is possible.” This means that a trusted subject is allowed to violate the * Security Property and perform a write-down, which is necessary when performing valid object declassification or reclassification.

The Bell-LaPadula properties are in place to protect data confidentiality. A subject cannot read an object that is classified at a higher level than the subject is cleared for. Because

objects at one level have data that is more sensitive or secret than data in objects at a lower level, a subject (who is not a trusted subject) cannot write data from one level to an object at a lower level. That action would be similar to pasting a top-secret memo into an unclassified document file. The third property enforces a subject’s need to know in order to access an object.

The Bell-LaPadula model addresses only the confidentiality of data. It does not address its integrity or availability. Because it was designed in the 1970s, it does not support many operations that are common today, such as file sharing and networking. It also assumes secure transitions between security layers and does not address covert channels (covered in Chapter 9, “Security Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Countermeasures”). Bell-LaPadula does handle confidentiality well, so it is often used in combination with other models that provide mechanisms to handle integrity and availability.

Biba Model For many nonmilitary organizations, integrity is more important than confidentiality. Out of this need, several integrity-focused security models were developed, such as those developed by Biba and by Clark-Wilson. The Biba model was designed after the Bell- LaPadula model. Where the Bell-LaPadula model addresses confidentiality, the Biba model addresses integrity. The Biba model is also built on a state machine concept, is based on information flow, and is a multilevel model. In fact, Biba appears to be pretty similar to the Bell-LaPadula model, except inverted. Both use states and transitions. Both have basic properties. The biggest difference is their primary focus: Biba primarily protects data integrity. Here are the basic properties or axioms of the Biba model state machine:

The Simple Integrity Property states that a subject cannot read an object at a lower integrity level (no read-down).

The * (star) Integrity Property states that a subject cannot modify an object at a higher integrity level (no write-up).

In both the Biba and Bell-LaPadula models, there are two properties that are inverses of each other: simple and * (star). However, they may also be labeled as axioms, principles, or rules. What you should focus on is the simple and star designations. Take note that simple is always about reading, and star is always about writing. Also, in both cases, simple and star are rules that define what cannot or should not be done. In most cases, what is not prevented or disallowed is supported or allowed.

Figure 8.4 illustrates these Biba model axioms.

Figure 8.4 The Biba model

When you compare Biba to Bell-LaPadula, you will notice that they look like they are opposites. That’s because they focus on different areas of security. Where the Bell- LaPadula model ensures data confidentiality, Biba ensures data integrity.

Biba was designed to address three integrity issues:

Prevent modification of objects by unauthorized subjects.

Prevent unauthorized modification of objects by authorized subjects.

Protect internal and external object consistency.

As with Bell-LaPadula, Biba requires that all subjects and objects have a classification label. Thus, data integrity protection is dependent on data classification.

Consider the Biba properties. The second property of the Biba model is pretty straightforward. A subject cannot write to an object at a higher integrity level. That makes sense. What about the first property? Why can’t a subject read an object at a lower integrity level? The answer takes a little thought. Think of integrity levels as being like the purity level of air. You would not want to pump air from the smoking section into the clean room environment. The same applies to data. When integrity is important, you do not want unvalidated data read into validated documents. The potential for data contamination is too great to permit such access.

Critiques of the Biba model reveal a few drawbacks:

It addresses only integrity, not confidentiality or availability.

It focuses on protecting objects from external threats; it assumes that internal threats are handled programmatically.

It does not address access control management, and it doesn’t provide a way to assign or change an object’s or subject’s classification level.

It does not prevent covert channels.

Because the Biba model focuses on data integrity, it is a more common choice for

commercial security models than the Bell-LaPadula model. Most commercial organizations are more concerned with the integrity of their data than its confidentiality.

Clark-Wilson Model Although the Biba model works in commercial applications, another model was designed in 1987 specifically for the commercial environment. The Clark-Wilson model uses a multifaceted approach to enforcing data integrity. Instead of defining a formal state machine, the Clark-Wilson model defines each data item and allows modifications through only a small set of programs.

The Clark-Wilson model does not require the use of a lattice structure; rather, it uses a three-part relationship of subject/program/object (or subject/transaction/object) known as a triple or an access control triple. Subjects do not have direct access to objects. Objects can be accessed only through programs. Through the use of two principles—well-formed transactions and separation of duties—the Clark-Wilson model provides an effective means to protect integrity.

Well-formed transactions take the form of programs. A subject is able to access objects only by using a program, interface, or access portal (Figure 8.5). Each program has specific limitations on what it can and cannot do to an object (such as a database or other resource). This effectively limits the subject’s capabilities. This is known as a constrained interface. If the programs are properly designed, then the triple relationship provides a means to protect the integrity of the object.

Figure 8.5 The Clark-Wilson model

Clark-Wilson defines the following items and procedures:

A constrained data item (CDI) is any data item whose integrity is protected by the security model.

An unconstrained data item (UDI) is any data item that is not controlled by the security model. Any data that is to be input and hasn’t been validated, or any output, would be considered an unconstrained data item.

An integrity verification procedure (IVP) is a procedure that scans data items and confirms their integrity.

Transformation procedures (TPs) are the only procedures that are allowed to modify

a CDI. The limited access to CDIs through TPs forms the backbone of the Clark- Wilson integrity model. (We wonder whether this is where TPS reports come from… see the movie Office Space.)

The Clark-Wilson model uses security labels to grant access to objects, but only through transformation procedures and arestricted interface model. A restricted interface model uses classification-based restrictions to offer only subject-specific authorized information and functions. One subject at one classification level will see one set of data and have access to one set of functions, whereas another subject at a different classification level will see a different set of data and have access to a different set of functions. The different functions made available to different levels or classes of users may be implemented by either showing all functions to all users but disabling those that are not authorized for a specific user or by showing only those functions granted to a specific user. Through these mechanisms, the Clark-Wilson model ensures that data is protected from unauthorized changes from any user. In effect, the Clark-Wilson model enforces separation of duties. The Clark-Wilson design makes it a good model for commercial applications.

Brewer and Nash Model (aka Chinese Wall) This model was created to permit access controls to change dynamically based on a user’s previous activity (making it a kind of state machine model as well). This model applies to a single integrated database; it seeks to create security domains that are sensitive to the notion of conflict of interest (for example, someone who works at Company C who has access to proprietary data for Company A should not also be allowed access to similar data for Company B if those two companies compete with each other). This model is known as the Chinese Wall because it creates a class of data that defines which security domains are potentially in conflict and prevents any subject with access to one domain that belongs to a specific conflict class from accessing any other domain that belongs to the same conflict class. Metaphorically, this puts a wall around all other information in any conflict class. Thus, this model also uses the principle of data isolation within each conflict class to keep users out of potential conflict-of-interest situations (for example, management of company datasets). Because company relationships change all the time, dynamic updates to members of and definitions for conflict classes are important.

Another way of looking at or thinking of the Brewer and Nash model is of an administrator having full control access to a wide range of data in a system based on their assigned job responsibilities and work tasks. However, at the moment an action is taken against any data item, the administrator’s access to any conflicting data items is temporarily blocked. Only data items that relate to the initial data item can be accessed during the operation. Once the task is completed, the administrator’s access returns to full control.

Goguen-Meseguer Model The Goguen-Meseguer model is an integrity model, although not as well known as Biba

and the others. In fact, this model is said to be the foundation of noninterference conceptual theories. Often when someone refers to a noninterference model, they are actually referring to the Goguen-Meseguer model.

The Goguen-Meseguer model is based on predetermining the set or domain—a list of objects that a subject can access. This model is based on automation theory and domain separation. This means subjects are allowed only to perform predetermined actions against predetermined objects. When similar users are grouped into their own domain (that is, collective), the members of one subject domain cannot interfere with the members of another subject domain. Thus, subjects are unable to interfere with each other’s activities.

Sutherland Model The Sutherland model is an integrity model. It focuses on preventing interference in support of integrity. It is formally based on the state machine model and the information flow model. However, it does not directly indicate specific mechanisms for protection of integrity. Instead, the model is based on the idea of defining a set of system states, initial states, and state transitions. Through the use of only these predetermined secure states, integrity is maintained and interference is prohibited.

A common example of the Sutherland model is its use to prevent a covert channel from being used to influence the outcome of a process or activity. (For a discussion of covert channels, see Chapter 9.)

Graham-Denning Model The Graham-Denning model is focused on the secure creation and deletion of both subjects and objects. Graham-Denning is a collection of eight primary protection rules or actions that define the boundaries of certain secure actions:

Securely create an object.

Securely create a subject.

Securely delete an object.

Securely delete a subject.

Securely provide the read access right.

Securely provide the grant access right.

Securely provide the delete access right.

Securely provide the transfer access right.

Usually the specific abilities or permissions of a subject over a set of objects is defined in an access matrix (aka access control matrix).

Select Controls and Countermeasures Based on Systems Security Evaluation Models Those who purchase information systems for certain kinds of applications—think, for example, about national security agencies where sensitive information may be extremely valuable (or dangerous in the wrong hands) or central banks or securities traders where certain data may be worth billions of dollars—often want to understand their security strengths and weaknesses. Such buyers are often willing to consider only systems that have been subjected to formal evaluation processes in advance and have received some kind of security rating. Buyers want to know what they’re buying and, usually, what steps they must take to keep such systems as secure as possible.

When formal evaluations are undertaken, systems are usually subjected to a two-step process:

1. The system is tested and a technical evaluation is performed to make sure that the system’s security capabilities meet criteria laid out for its intended use.

2. The system is subjected to a formal comparison of its design and security criteria and its actual capabilities and performance, and individuals responsible for the security and veracity of such systems must decide whether to adopt them, reject them, or make some changes to their criteria and try again.

Often trusted third parties are hired to perform such evaluations; the most important result from such testing is their “seal of approval” that the system meets all essential criteria.

Regardless of whether the evaluations are conducted inside an organization or out of house, the adopting organization must decide to accept or reject the proposed systems. An organization’s management must take formal responsibility if and when a system is adopted and be willing to accept any risks associated with its deployment and use.

The three main product evaluation models or classification criteria models addressed here are TCSEC, ITSEC, and Common Criteria.

You should be aware that TCSEC was repealed and replaced by the Common Criteria (as well as many other DoD directives). It is still included here as a historical reference and as an example of static-based assessment criteria to offset the benefits of dynamic (although subjective) assessment criteria. Keep in mind that the CISSP exam focuses on the “why” of security more than the “how”—in other words, it focuses on the concepts and theories more than the technologies and implementations. Thus, some of this historical information could be present in questions on the exam.

Rainbow Series Since the 1980s, governments, agencies, institutions, and business organizations of all kinds have faced the risks involved in adopting and using information systems. This led to a historical series of information security standards that attempted to specify minimum acceptable security criteria for various categories of use. Such categories were important as purchasers attempted to obtain and deploy systems that would protect and preserve their contents or that would meet various mandated security requirements (such as those that contractors must routinely meet to conduct business with the government). The first such set of standards resulted in the creation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) in the 1980s, as the US Department of Defense (DoD) worked to develop and impose security standards for the systems it purchased and used. In turn, this led to a whole series of such publications through the mid-1990s. Since these publications were routinely identified by the color of their covers, they are known collectively as the rainbow series.

Following in the DoD’s footsteps, other governments or standards bodies created computer security standards that built and improved on the rainbow series elements. Significant standards in this group include a European model called the Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (ITSEC), which was developed in 1990 and used through 1998. Eventually TCSEC and ITSEC were replaced with the so-called Common Criteria, adopted by the United States, Canada, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom in 1998 but more formally known as the “Arrangement on the Recognition of Common Criteria Certificates in the Field of IT Security.” Both ITSEC and the Common Criteria will be discussed in later sections.

When governments or other security-conscious agencies evaluate information systems, they make use of various standard evaluation criteria. In 1985, the National Computer Security Center (NCSC) developed the TCSEC, usually called the Orange Book because of the color of this publication’s covers. The TCSEC established guidelines to be used when evaluating a stand-alone computer from the security perspective. These guidelines address basic security functionality and allow evaluators to measure and rate a system’s functionality and trustworthiness. In the TSCEC, in fact, functionality and security assurance are combined and not separated as they are in security criteria developed later. TCSEC guidelines were designed to be used when evaluating vendor products or by vendors to ensure that they build all necessary functionality and security assurance into new products.

Next, we’ll take a look at some of the details in the Orange Book itself and then talk about some of the other important elements in the rainbow series.

TCSEC Classes and Required Functionality TCSEC combines the functionality and assurance rating of the confidentiality protection offered by a system into four major categories. These categories are then subdivided into

additional subcategories identified with numbers, such as C1 and C2. Furthermore, TCSEC’s categories are assigned through the evaluation of a target system. Applicable systems are stand-alone systems that are not networked. TCSEC defines the following major categories:

Category A Verified protection. The highest level of security.

Category B Mandatory protection.

Category C Discretionary protection.

Category D Minimal protection. Reserved for systems that have been evaluated but do not meet requirements to belong to any other category.

The list that follows includes brief discussions of categories A through C, along with numeric suffixes that represent any applicable subcategories (Figure 8.6).

Figure 8.6 The levels of TCSEC

Discretionary Protection (Categories C1, C2) Discretionary protection systems provide basic access control. Systems in this category do provide some security controls but are lacking in more sophisticated and stringent controls that address specific needs for secure systems. C1 and C2 systems provide basic controls and complete documentation for system installation and configuration.

Discretionary Security Protection (C1) A discretionary security protection

system controls access by user IDs and/or groups. Although there are some controls in place that limit object access, systems in this category provide only weak protection.

Controlled Access Protection (C2) Controlled access protection systems are stronger than C1 systems. Users must be identified individually to gain access to objects. C2 systems must also enforce media cleansing. With media cleansing, any media that are reused by another user must first be thoroughly cleansed so that no remnant of the previous data remains available for inspection or use. Additionally, strict logon procedures must be enforced that restrict access for invalid or unauthorized users.

Mandatory Protection (Categories B1, B2, B3) Mandatory protection systems provide more security controls than category C or D systems. More granularity of control is mandated, so security administrators can apply specific controls that allow only very limited sets of subject/object access. This category of systems is based on the Bell- LaPadula model. Mandatory access is based on security labels.

Labeled Security (B1) In a labeled security system, each subject and each object has a security label. A B1 system grants access by matching up the subject and object labels and comparing their permission compatibility. B1 systems support sufficient security to house classified data.

Structured Protection (B2) In addition to the requirement for security labels (as in B1 systems), B2 systems must ensure that no covert channels exist. Operator and administrator functions are separated, and process isolation is maintained. B2 systems are sufficient for classified data that requires more security functionality than a B1 system can deliver.

Security Domains (B3) Security domain systems provide more secure functionality by further increasing the separation and isolation of unrelated processes. Administration functions are clearly defined and separate from functions available to other users. The focus of B3 systems shifts to simplicity to reduce any exposure to vulnerabilities in unused or extra code. The secure state of B3 systems must also be addressed during the initial boot process. B3 systems are difficult to attack successfully and provide sufficient secure controls for very sensitive or secret data.

Verified Protection (Category A1) Verified protection systems are similar to B3 systems in the structure and controls they employ. The difference is in the development cycle. Each phase of the development cycle is controlled using formal methods. Each phase of the design is documented, evaluated, and verified before the next step is taken. This forces extreme security consciousness during all steps of development and deployment and is the only way to formally guarantee strong system security.

A verified design system starts with a design document that states how the resulting system will satisfy the security policy. From there, each development step is evaluated in the context of the security policy. Functionality is crucial, but assurance becomes more important than in lower security categories. A1 systems represent the top level of security

and are designed to handle top-secret data. Every step is documented and verified, from the design all the way through to delivery and installation.

Other Colors in the Rainbow Series Altogether, there are nearly 30 titles in the collection of DoD documents that either add to or further elaborate on the Orange Book. Although the colors don’t necessarily mean anything, they’re used to identify publications in this series.

It is important to understand that most of the books in the rainbow series are now outdated and have been replaced by updated standards, guidelines, and directives. However, they are still included here for reference to address any exam items.

Other important elements in this collection of documents include the following:

Red Book Because the Orange Book applies only to stand-alone computers not attached to a network, and so many systems were used on networks (even in the 1980s), the Red Book was developed to interpret the TCSEC in a networking context. In fact, the official title of the Red Book is Trusted Network Interpretation of the TCSEC so it could be considered an interpretation of the Orange Book with a bent on networking. Quickly the Red Book became more relevant and important to system buyers and builders than the Orange Book. The following list includes a few other functions of the Red Book:

Rates confidentiality and integrity

Addresses communications integrity

Addresses denial of service protection

Addresses compromise (in other words, intrusion) protection and prevention

Is restricted to a limited class of networks that are labeled as “centralized networks with a single accreditation authority”

Uses only four rating levels: None, C1 (Minimum), C2 (Fair), and B2 (Good)

Green Book The Green Book, or the Department of Defense Password Management Guidelines, provides password creation and management guidelines; it’s important for those who configure and manage trusted systems.

Table 8.2 has a more complete list of books in the rainbow series. For more information and to download the books, see the Rainbow Series web page here: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/secpubs/index.html

Table 8.2 Important rainbow series elements

Publication Title Book name

Number 5200.28-STD DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Orange Book CSC-STD-002- 85

DoD Password Management Guidelines Green Book

CSC-STD-003- 85

Guidance for Applying TCSEC in Specific Environments Yellow Book

NCSC-TG-001 A Guide to Understanding Audit in Trusted Systems Tan Book NCSC-TG-002 Trusted Product Evaluation: A Guide for Vendors Bright Blue

Book NCSC-TG-002- 85

PC Security Considerations Light Blue Book

NCSC-TG-003 A Guide to Understanding Discretionary Access Controls in Trusted Systems

Neon Orange Book

NCSC-TG-004 Glossary of Computer Security Terms Aqua Book NCSC-TG-005 Trusted Network Interpretation Red Book NCSC-TG-006 A Guide to Understanding Configuration Management

in Trusted Systems Amber Book

NCSC-TG-007 A Guide to Understanding Design Documentation in Trusted Systems

Burgundy Book

NCSC-TG-008 A Guide to Understanding Trusted Distribution in Trusted Systems

Lavender Book

NCSC-TG-009 Computer Security Subsystem Interpretation of the TCSEC

Venice Blue Book

Given all the time and effort that went into formulating the TCSEC, it’s not unreasonable to wonder why evaluation criteria have evolved to newer, more advanced standards. The relentless march of time and technology aside, these are the major critiques of TCSEC; they help to explain why newer standards are now in use worldwide:

Although the TCSEC puts considerable emphasis on controlling user access to information, it doesn’t exercise control over what users do with information once access is granted. This can be a problem in military and commercial applications alike.

Given the origins of evaluation standards at the US Department of Defense, it’s understandable that the TCSEC focuses its concerns entirely on confidentiality, which assumes that controlling how users access data is of primary importance and that concerns about data accuracy or integrity are irrelevant. This doesn’t work in commercial environments where concerns about data accuracy and integrity can be more important than concerns about confidentiality.

Outside the evaluation standards’ own emphasis on access controls, the TCSEC does not carefully address the kinds of personnel, physical, and procedural policy matters or safeguards that must be exercised to fully implement security policy. They don’t deal much with how such matters can impact system security either.

The Orange Book, per se, doesn’t deal with networking issues (though the Red Book, developed later in 1987, does).

To some extent, these criticisms reflect the unique security concerns of the military, which developed the TCSEC. Then, too, the prevailing computing tools and technologies widely available at the time (networking was just getting started in 1985) had an impact as well. Certainly, an increasingly sophisticated and holistic view of security within organizations helps to explain why and where the TCSEC also fell short, procedurally and policy-wise. But because ITSEC has been largely superseded by the Common Criteria, coverage in the next section explains ITSEC as a step along the way toward the Common Criteria (covered in the section after that).

ITSEC Classes and Required Assurance and Functionality The ITSEC represents an initial attempt to create security evaluation criteria in Europe. It was developed as an alternative to the TCSEC guidelines. The ITSEC guidelines evaluate the functionality and assurance of a system using separate ratings for each category. In this context, a system’s functionality is a measurement of the system’s utility value for users. The functionality rating of a system states how well the system performs all necessary functions based on its design and intended purpose. The assurance rating represents the degree of confidence that the system will work properly in a consistent manner.

ITSEC refers to any system being evaluated as a target of evaluation (TOE). All ratings are expressed as TOE ratings in two categories. ITSEC uses two scales to rate functionality and assurance.

The functionality of a system is rated from F-D through F-B3 (there is no F-A1). The assurance of a system is rated from E0 through E6. Most ITSEC ratings generally correspond with TCSEC ratings (for example, a TCSEC C1 system corresponds to an ITSEC F-C1, E1 system). See Table 8.4 (at the end of the section “Structure of the Common Criteria”) for a comparison of TCSEC, ITSEC, and Common Criteria ratings.

There are some instances where the F ratings of ITSEC are defined using F1 through F5 rather than reusing the labels from TCSEC. These alternate labels are F1 = F-C1, F2 = F-C2, F3 = F-B1, F4 = F-B2, and F5 = F-B3. There is no numbered F rating for F- D, but there are a few cases where F0 is used. This is a fairly ridiculous label because if there are no functions to rate, there is no need for a rating label.

Differences between TCSEC and ITSEC are many and varied. The following are some of the most important differences between the two standards:

Although the TCSEC concentrates almost exclusively on confidentiality, ITSEC addresses concerns about the loss of integrity and availability in addition to confidentiality, thereby covering all three elements so important to maintaining complete information security.

ITSEC does not rely on the notion of a TCB, and it doesn’t require that a system’s security components be isolated within a TCB.

Unlike TCSEC, which required any changed systems to be reevaluated anew—be it for operating system upgrades, patches, or fixes; application upgrades or changes; and so forth—ITSEC includes coverage for maintaining targets of evaluation after such changes occur without requiring a new formal evaluation.

For more information on ITSEC (now largely supplanted by the Common Criteria, covered in the next section), please view the overview document at https://www.bsi.bund.de/cae/servlet/contentblob/471346/publicationFile /30220/itsec-en_pdf.pdf

Or you can view the original ITSEC specification here: http://www.ssi.gouv.fr/uploads/2015/01/ITSEC-uk.pdf

Common Criteria The Common Criteria represents a more or less global effort that involves everybody who worked on TCSEC and ITSEC as well as other global players. Ultimately, it results in the ability to purchase CC-evaluated products (where CC, of course, stands for Common Criteria). The Common Criteria defines various levels of testing and confirmation of systems’ security capabilities, and the number of the level indicates what kind of testing and confirmation has been performed. Nevertheless, it’s wise to observe that even the highest CC ratings do not equate to a guarantee that such systems are completely secure or that they are entirely devoid of vulnerabilities or susceptibilities to exploit. The Common Criteria was designed as a product evaluation model.

Recognition of Common Criteria Caveats and disclaimers aside, a document titled “Arrangement on the Recognition of Common Criteria Certificates in the Field of IT Security” was signed by representatives from government organizations in Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States in 1998, making it an international standard. This document was converted by ISO into an official standard: ISO 15408, Evaluation Criteria for Information Technology Security. The objectives of the CC guidelines are as follows:

To add to buyers’ confidence in the security of evaluated, rated IT products

To eliminate duplicate evaluations (among other things, this means that if one

country, agency, or validation organizations follows the CC in rating specific systems and configurations, others elsewhere need not repeat this work)

To keep making security evaluations and the certification process more cost effective and efficient

To make sure evaluations of IT products adhere to high and consistent standards

To promote evaluation and increase availability of evaluated, rated IT products

To evaluate the functionality (in other words, what the system does) and assurance (in other words, how much can you trust the system) of the TOE

Common Criteria documentation is available at www.niap-ccevs.org/cc-scheme/. Visit this site to get information on the current version of the CC guidelines and guidance on using the CC along with lots of other useful, relevant information.

The Common Criteria process is based on two key elements: protection profiles and security targets. Protection profiles (PPs) specify for a product that is to be evaluated (the TOE) the security requirements and protections, which are considered the security desires or the “I want” from a customer. Security targets (STs) specify the claims of security from the vendor that are built into a TOE. STs are considered the implemented security measures or the “I will provide” from the vendor. In addition to offering security targets, vendors may offer packages of additional security features. A package is an intermediate grouping of security requirement components that can be added or removed from a TOE (like the option packages when purchasing a new vehicle).

The PP is compared to various STs from the selected vendor’s TOEs. The closest or best match is what the client purchases. The client initially selects a vendor based on published or marketed evaluation assurance levels (EALs) (see the next section for more details on EALs), for currently available systems. Using Common Criteria to choose a vendor allows clients to request exactly what they need for security rather than having to use static fixed security levels. It also allows vendors more flexibility on what they design and create. A well-defined set of Common Criteria supports subjectivity and versatility, and it automatically adapts to changing technology and threat conditions. Furthermore, the EALs provide a method for comparing vendor systems that is more standardized (like the old TCSEC).

Structure of the Common Criteria The CC guidelines are divided into three areas, as follows:

Part 1 Introduction and General Model describes the general concepts and underlying model used to evaluate IT security and what’s involved in specifying targets of evaluation. It contains useful introductory and explanatory material for those unfamiliar with the workings of the security evaluation process or who need help reading and interpreting evaluation results.

Part 2 Security Functional Requirements describes various functional requirements in

terms of security audits, communications security, cryptographic support for security, user data protection, identification and authentication, security management, TOE security functions (TSFs), resource utilization, system access, and trusted paths. Covers the complete range of security functions as envisioned in the CC evaluation process, with additional appendices (called annexes) to explain each functional area.

Part 3 Security Assurance covers assurance requirements for TOEs in the areas of configuration management, delivery and operation, development, guidance documents, and life-cycle support plus assurance tests and vulnerability assessments. Covers the complete range of security assurance checks and protects profiles as envisioned in the CC evaluation process, with information on evaluation assurance levels that describe how systems are designed, checked, and tested.

Most important of all, the information that appears in these various CC documents (worth at least a cursory read-through) are the evaluation assurance levels commonly known as EALs. Table 8.3 summarizes EALs 1 through 7. For a complete description of EALs, consult the CC documents hosted at https://www.niap-ccevs.org/ and view Part 3 of the latest revision.

Table 8.3 CC evaluation assurance levels

Level Assurance level

Description

EAL1 Functionally tested

Applies when some confidence in correct operation is required but where threats to security are not serious. This is of value when independent assurance that due care has been exercised in protecting personal information is necessary.

EAL2 Structurally tested

Applies when delivery of design information and test results are in keeping with good commercial practices. This is of value when developers or users require low to moderate levels of independently assured security. IT is especially relevant when evaluating legacy systems.

EAL3 Methodically tested and checked

Applies when security engineering begins at the design stage and is carried through without substantial subsequent alteration. This is of value when developers or users require a moderate level of independently assured security, including thorough investigation of TOE and its development.

EAL4 Methodically designed, tested, and reviewed

Applies when rigorous, positive security engineering and good commercial development practices are used. This does not require substantial specialist knowledge, skills, or resources. It involves independent testing of all TOE security functions.

EAL5 Semi- formally designed and

Uses rigorous security engineering and commercial development practices, including specialist security engineering techniques, for semi-formal testing. This applies when developers or users require a

tested high level of independently assured security in a planned development approach, followed by rigorous development.

EAL6 Semi- formally verified, designed, and tested

Uses direct, rigorous security engineering techniques at all phases of design, development, and testing to produce a premium TOE. This applies when TOEs for high-risk situations are needed, where the value of protected assets justifies additional cost. Extensive testing reduces risks of penetration, probability of cover channels, and vulnerability to attack.

EAL7 Formally verified, designed, and tested

Used only for highest-risk situations or where high-value assets are involved. This is limited to TOEs where tightly focused security functionality is subject to extensive formal analysis and testing.

Though the CC guidelines are flexible and accommodating enough to capture most security needs and requirements, they are by no means perfect. As with other evaluation criteria, the CC guidelines do nothing to make sure that how users act on data is also secure. The CC guidelines also do not address administrative issues outside the specific purview of security. As with other evaluation criteria, the CC guidelines do not include evaluation of security in situ—that is, they do not address controls related to personnel, organizational practices and procedures, or physical security. Likewise, controls over electromagnetic emissions are not addressed, nor are the criteria for rating the strength of cryptographic algorithms explicitly laid out. Nevertheless, the CC guidelines represent some of the best techniques whereby systems may be rated for security. To conclude this discussion of security evaluation standards, Table 8.4 summarizes how various ratings from the TCSEC, ITSEC, and the CC can be compared. Table 8.4 shows that ratings from each standard have similar, but not identical evaluation criteria.

Table 8.4 Comparing security evaluation standards

TCSEC ITSEC CC description D F-D+E0 EAL0, EAL1 Minimal/no protection C1 F-C1+E1 EAL2 Discretionary security mechanisms C2 F-C2+E2 EAL3 Controlled access protection B1 F-B1+E3 EAL4 Labeled security protection B2 F-B2+E4 EAL5 Structured security protection B3 F-B3+E5 EAL6 Security domains A1 F-B3+E6 EAL7 Verified security design

Industry and International Security Implementation Guidelines In addition to overall security access models, such as Common Criteria, there are many other more specific or focused security standards for various aspects of storage,

communication, transactions, and the like. Two of these standards you should be familiar with are Payment Card Industry–Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

PCI-DSS is a collection of requirements for improving the security of electronic payment transactions. These standards were defined by the PCI Security Standards Council members, who are primarily credit card banks and financial institutions. The PCI-DSS defines requirements for security management, policies, procedures, network architecture, software design, and other critical protective measures. For more information on PCI-DSS, please visit the website at www.pcisecuritystandards.org.

ISO is a worldwide standards-setting group of representatives from various national standards organizations. ISO defines standards for industrial and commercial equipment, software, protocols, and management, among others. It issues six main products: International Standards, Technical Reports, Technical Specifications, Publicly Available Specifications, Technical Corrigenda, and Guides. ISO standards are widely accepted across many industries and have even been adopted as requirements or laws by various governments. For more information in ISO, please visit the website at www.iso.org.

Certification and Accreditation Organizations that require secure systems need one or more methods to evaluate how well a system meets their security requirements. The formal evaluation process is divided into two phases, called certification and accreditation. The actual steps required in each phase depend on the evaluation criteria an organization chooses. A CISSP candidate must understand the need for each phase and the criteria commonly used to evaluate systems. The two evaluation phases are discussed in the next two sections, and then we present various evaluation criteria and considerations you must address when assessing the security of a system. Certification and accreditation processes are used to assess the effectiveness of application security as well as operating system and hardware security.

The process of evaluation provides a way to assess how well a system measures up to a desired level of security. Because each system’s security level depends on many factors, all of them must be taken into account during the evaluation. Even though a system is initially described as secure, the installation process, physical environment, and general configuration details all contribute to its true general security. Two identical systems could be assessed at different levels of security because of configuration or installation differences.

The terms certification, accreditation, and maintenance as used in the following sections are official terms used by the defense establishment, and you should be familiar with them.

Certification and accreditation are additional steps in the software and IT systems development process normally required from defense contractors and others working in a military environment. The official definitions of these terms as used by the US government are from Department of Defense Instruction 5200.40, Enclosure 2.

Certification The first phase in a total evaluation process is certification. Certification is the comprehensive evaluation of the technical and nontechnical security features of an IT system and other safeguards made in support of the accreditation process to establish the extent to which a particular design and implementation meets a set of specified security requirements.

System certification is the technical evaluation of each part of a computer system to assess its concordance with security standards. First, you must choose evaluation criteria (we will present criteria alternatives in later sections). Once you select criteria to use, you analyze each system component to determine whether it satisfies the desired security goals. The certification analysis includes testing the system’s hardware, software, and configuration. All controls are evaluated during this phase, including administrative, technical, and physical controls.

After you assess the entire system, you can evaluate the results to determine the security level the system supports in its current environment. The environment of a system is a critical part of the certification analysis, so a system can be more or less secure depending on its surroundings. The manner in which you connect a secure system to a network can change its security standing. Likewise, the physical security surrounding a system can affect the overall security rating. You must consider all factors when certifying a system.

You complete the certification phase when you have evaluated all factors and determined the level of security for the system. Remember that the certification is valid only for a system in a specific environment and configuration. Any changes could invalidate the certification. Once you have certified a security rating for a specific configuration, you are ready to seek acceptance of the system. Management accepts the certified security configuration of a system through the accreditation process.

Accreditation In the certification phase, you test and document the security capabilities of a system in a specific configuration. With this information in hand, the management of an organization compares the capabilities of a system to the needs of the organization. It is imperative that the security policy clearly states the requirements of a security system. Management reviews the certification information and decides whether the system satisfies the security needs of the organization. If management decides the certification of the system satisfies their needs, the system is accredited. Accreditation is the formal declaration by the designated approving authority (DAA) that an IT system is approved to operate in a particular security mode using a prescribed set of safeguards at an acceptable level of risk.

Once accreditation is performed, management can formally accept the adequacy of the overall security performance of an evaluated system.

Certification and accreditation do seem similar, and thus it is often a challenge to understand them. One perspective you might consider is that certification is often an internal verification of security and the results of that verification are trusted only by your organization. Accreditation is often performed by a third-party testing service, and the results are trusted by everyone in the world who trusts the specific testing group involved.

The process of certification and accreditation is often iterative. In the accreditation phase, it is not uncommon to request changes to the configuration or additional controls to address security concerns. Remember that whenever you change the configuration, you must recertify the new configuration. Likewise, you need to recertify the system when a specific time period elapses or when you make any configuration changes. Your security policy should specify what conditions require recertification. A sound policy would list the amount of time a certification is valid along with any changes that would require you to restart the certification and accreditation process.

Certification and Accreditation Systems Two government standards are currently in place for the certification and accreditation of computing systems. The current DoD standard is Risk Management Framework (RMF) (www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/851001_2014.pdf) which recently replaced DoD Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process (DIACAP), which itself replaced the Defense Information Technology Security Certification and Accreditation Process (DITSCAP). The standard for all other US government executive branch departments, agencies, and their contractors and consultants is the Committee on National Security Systems (CNSS) Policy (CNSSP) (www.ncix.gov/publications/policy/docs/CNSSP_22.pdf) which replaced National Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process (NIACAP). However, the CISSP may refer to either the current standards or the previous ones. Both of these processes are divided into four phases:

Phase 1: Definition Involves the assignment of appropriate project personnel; documentation of the mission need; and registration, negotiation, and creation of a System Security Authorization Agreement (SSAA) that guides the entire certification and accreditation process

Phase 2: Verification Includes refinement of the SSAA, systems development activities, and a certification analysis

Phase 3: Validation Includes further refinement of the SSAA, certification evaluation of the integrated system, development of a recommendation to the DAA, and the DAA’s accreditation decision

Phase 4: Post Accreditation Includes maintenance of the SSAA, system operation, change management, and compliance validation

The NIACAP process, administered by the Information Systems Security Organization of the National Security Agency, outlines three types of accreditation that may be granted. The definitions of these types of accreditation (from National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Instruction 1000) are as follows:

For a system accreditation, a major application or general support system is evaluated.

For a site accreditation, the applications and systems at a specific, self-contained location are evaluated.

For a type accreditation, an application or system that is distributed to a number of different locations is evaluated.

Understand Security Capabilities of Information Systems The security capabilities of information systems include memory protection, virtualization, Trusted Platform Module, interfaces, and fault tolerance. It is important to carefully assess each aspect of the infrastructure to ensure that it sufficiently supports security. Without an understanding of the security capabilities of information systems, it is impossible to evaluate them, nor is it possible to implement them properly.

Memory Protection Memory protection is a core security component that must be designed and implemented into an operating system. It must be enforced regardless of the programs executing in the system. Otherwise instability, violation of integrity, denial of service, and disclosure are likely results. Memory protection is used to prevent an active process from interacting with an area of memory that was not specifically assigned or allocated to it.

Memory protection is discussed throughout Chapter 9 in relation to the topics of isolation, virtual memory, segmentation, memory management, and protection rings.

Virtualization Virtualization technology is used to host one or more operating systems within the memory of a single host computer. This mechanism allows virtually any OS to operate on any hardware. It also allows multiple OSs to work simultaneously on the same hardware. Common examples include VMware, Microsoft’s Virtual PC, Microsoft Virtual Server, Hyper-V with Windows Server, Oracle’s VirtualBox, XenServer, and Parallels Desktop for

Mac.

Virtualization has several benefits, such as being able to launch individual instances of servers or services as needed, real-time scalability, and being able to run the exact OS version needed for a specific application. Virtualized servers and services are indistinguishable from traditional servers and services from a user’s perspective. Additionally, recovery from damaged, crashed, or corrupted virtual systems is often quick, simply consisting of replacing the virtual system’s main hard drive file with a clean backup version and then relaunching it. (Additional coverage of virtualization and some of its associated risks are covered in Chapter 9 along with cloud computing.)

Trusted Platform Module The Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is both a specification for a cryptoprocessor chip on a mainboard and the general name for implementation of the specification. A TPM chip is used to store and process cryptographic keys for the purposes of a hardware supported/implemented hard drive encryption system. Generally, a hardware implementation, rather than a software-only implementation of hard drive encryption, is considered to be more secure.

When TPM-based whole-disk encryption is in use, the user/operator must supply a password or physical USB token device to the computer to authenticate and allow the TPM chip to release the hard drive encryption keys into memory. While this seems similar to a software implementation, the key difference is that if the hard drive is removed from its original system, it cannot be decrypted. Only with the original TPM chip can an encryption be decrypted and accessed. With software-only hard drive encryption, the hard drive can be moved to a different computer without any access or use limitations.

A hardware security module (HSM) is a cryptoprocessor used to manage/store digital encryption keys, accelerate crypto operations, support faster digital signatures, and improve authentication. An HSM is often an add-on adapter or peripheral or can be a TCP/IP network device. HSMs include tamper protection to prevent their misuse even if physical access is gained by an attacker. A TPM is just one example of an HSM.

HSMs provide an accelerated solution for large (2,048+ bit) asymmetric encryption calculations and a secure vault for key storage. Many certificate authority systems use HSMs to store certificates; ATM and POS bank terminals often employ proprietary HSMs; hardware SSL accelerators can include HSM support; and DNSSEC-compliant DNS servers use HSM for key and zone file storage.

Interfaces A constrained or restricted interface is implemented within an application to restrict what users can do or see based on their privileges. Users with full privileges have access to all the capabilities of the application. Users with restricted privileges have limited access.

Applications constrain the interface using different methods. A common method is to hide the capability if the user doesn’t have permissions to use it. Commands might be available to administrators via a menu or by right-clicking an item, but if a regular user doesn’t have permissions, the command does not appear. Other times, the command is shown but is dimmed or disabled. The regular user can see it but will not be able to use it.

The purpose of a constrained interface is to limit or restrict the actions of both authorized and unauthorized users. The use of such an interface is a practical implementation of the Clark-Wilson model of security.

Fault Tolerance Fault tolerance is the ability of a system to suffer a fault but continue to operate. Fault tolerance is achieved by adding redundant components such as additional disks within a redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) array, or additional servers within a failover clustered configuration. Fault tolerance is an essential element of security design. It is also considered part of avoiding single points of failure and the implementation of redundancy. For more details on fault tolerance, redundant servers, RAID, and failover solutions, see Chapter 18, “Disaster Recovery Planning.”

Summary Secure systems are not just assembled; they are designed to support security. Systems that must be secure are judged for their ability to support and enforce the security policy. This process of evaluating the effectiveness of a computer system is certification. The certification process is the technical evaluation of a system’s ability to meet its design goals. Once a system has satisfactorily passed the technical evaluation, the management of an organization begins the formal acceptance of the system. The formal acceptance process is accreditation.

The entire certification and accreditation process depends on standard evaluation criteria. Several criteria exist for evaluating computer security systems. The earliest, TCSEC, was developed by the US Department of Defense. TCSEC, also called the Orange Book, provides criteria to evaluate the functionality and assurance of a system’s security components. ITSEC is an alternative to the TCSEC guidelines and is used more often in European countries. Regardless of which criteria you use, the evaluation process includes reviewing each security control for compliance with the security policy. The better a system enforces the good behavior of subjects’ access to objects, the higher the security rating.

When security systems are designed, it is often helpful to create a security model to represent the methods the system will use to implement the security policy. We discussed several security models in this chapter. The Bell-LaPadula model supports data confidentiality only. It was designed for the military and satisfies military concerns. The Biba model and the Clark-Wilson model address the integrity of data and do so in

different ways. These two security models are appropriate for commercial applications.

All of this understanding must culminate into an effective system security implementation in terms of preventive, detective, and corrective controls. That’s why you must also know the access control models and their functions. This includes the state machine model, Bell-LaPadula, Biba, Clark-Wilson, the information flow model, the noninterference model, the Take-Grant model, the access control matrix model, and the Brewer and Nash model.

Exam Essentials Know details about each of the access control models. Know the access control models and their functions. The state machine model ensures that all instances of subjects accessing objects are secure. The information flow model is designed to prevent unauthorized, insecure, or restricted information flow. The noninterference model prevents the actions of one subject from affecting the system state or actions of another subject. The Take-Grant model dictates how rights can be passed from one subject to another or from a subject to an object. An access control matrix is a table of subjects and objects that indicates the actions or functions that each subject can perform on each object. Bell-LaPadula subjects have a clearance level that allows them to access only those objects with the corresponding classification levels. This enforces confidentiality. Biba prevents subjects with lower security levels from writing to objects at higher security levels. Clark-Wilson is an integrity model that relies on auditing to ensure that unauthorized subjects cannot access objects and that authorized users access objects properly. Biba and Clark-Wilson enforce integrity. Goguen-Meseguer and Sutherland focus on integrity. Graham-Denning focuses on the secure creation and deletion of both subjects and objects.

Know the definitions of certification and accreditation. Certification is the technical evaluation of each part of a computer system to assess its concordance with security standards. Accreditation is the process of formal acceptance of a certified configuration from a designated authority.

Be able to describe open and closed systems. Open systems are designed using industry standards and are usually easy to integrate with other open systems. Closed systems are generally proprietary hardware and/or software. Their specifications are not normally published, and they are usually harder to integrate with other systems.

Know what confinement, bounds, and isolation are. Confinement restricts a process to reading from and writing to certain memory locations. Bounds are the limits of memory a process cannot exceed when reading or writing. Isolation is the mode a process runs in when it is confined through the use of memory bounds.

Be able to define object and subject in terms of access. The subject is the user or process that makes a request to access a resource. The object is the resource a user or process wants to access.

Know how security controls work and what they do. Security controls use access rules to limit the access by a subject to an object.

Be able to list the classes of TCSEC, ITSEC, and the Common Criteria. The classes of TCSEC include verified protection, mandatory protection, discretionary protection, and minimal protection. Table 8.4 covers and compares equivalent and applicable rankings for TCSEC, ITSEC, and the CC (remember that functionality ratings from F7 to F10 in ITSEC have no corresponding ratings in TCSEC).

Define a trusted computing base (TCB). A TCB is the combination of hardware, software, and controls that form a trusted base that enforces the security policy.

Be able to explain what a security perimeter is. A security perimeter is the imaginary boundary that separates the TCB from the rest of the system. TCB components communicate with non-TCB components using trusted paths.

Know what the reference monitor and the security kernel are. The reference monitor is the logical part of the TCB that confirms whether a subject has the right to use a resource prior to granting access. The security kernel is the collection of the TCB components that implement the functionality of the reference monitor.

Understand the security capabilities of information systems. Common security capabilities include memory protection, virtualization, and Trusted Platform Module (TPM).

Written Lab 1. Name at least seven security models.

2. Describe the primary components of TCB.

3. What are the two primary rules or principles of the Bell-LaPadula security model? Also, what are the two rules of Biba?

4. What is the difference between open and closed systems and open and closed source?

Review Questions 1. What is system certification?

A. Formal acceptance of a stated system configuration

B. A technical evaluation of each part of a computer system to assess its compliance with security standards

C. A functional evaluation of the manufacturer’s goals for each hardware and software component to meet integration standards

D. A manufacturer’s certificate stating that all components were installed and

configured correctly

2. What is system accreditation?

A. Formal acceptance of a stated system configuration

B. A functional evaluation of the manufacturer’s goals for each hardware and software component to meet integration standards

C. Acceptance of test results that prove the computer system enforces the security policy

D. The process to specify secure communication between machines

3. What is a closed system?

A. A system designed around final, or closed, standards

B. A system that includes industry standards

C. A proprietary system that uses unpublished protocols

D. Any machine that does not run Windows

4. Which best describes a confined or constrained process?

A. A process that can run only for a limited time

B. A process that can run only during certain times of the day

C. A process that can access only certain memory locations

D. A process that controls access to an object

5. What is an access object?

A. A resource a user or process wants to access

B. A user or process that wants to access a resource

C. A list of valid access rules

D. The sequence of valid access types

6. What is a security control?

A. A security component that stores attributes that describe an object

B. A document that lists all data classification types

C. A list of valid access rules

D. A mechanism that limits access to an object

7. For what type of information system security accreditation are the applications and systems at a specific, self-contained location evaluated?

A. System accreditation

B. Site accreditation

C. Application accreditation

D. Type accreditation

8. How many major categories do the TCSEC criteria define?

A. Two

B. Three

C. Four

D. Five

9. What is a trusted computing base (TCB)?

A. Hosts on your network that support secure transmissions

B. The operating system kernel and device drivers

C. The combination of hardware, software, and controls that work together to enforce a security policy

D. The software and controls that certify a security policy

10. What is a security perimeter? (Choose all that apply.)

A. The boundary of the physically secure area surrounding your system

B. The imaginary boundary that separates the TCB from the rest of the system

C. The network where your firewall resides

D. Any connections to your computer system

11. What part of the TCB concept validates access to every resource prior to granting the requested access?

A. TCB partition

B. Trusted library

C. Reference monitor

D. Security kernel

12. What is the best definition of a security model?

A. A security model states policies an organization must follow.

B. A security model provides a framework to implement a security policy.

C. A security model is a technical evaluation of each part of a computer system to assess its concordance with security standards.

D. A security model is the process of formal acceptance of a certified configuration.

13. Which security models are built on a state machine model?

A. Bell-LaPadula and Take-Grant

B. Biba and Clark-Wilson

C. Clark-Wilson and Bell-LaPadula

D. Bell-LaPadula and Biba

14. Which security model addresses data confidentiality?

A. Bell-LaPadula

B. Biba

C. Clark-Wilson

D. Brewer and Nash

15. Which Bell-LaPadula property keeps lower-level subjects from accessing objects with a higher security level?

A. (star) Security Property

B. No write up property

C. No read up property

D. No read down property

16. What is the implied meaning of the simple property of Biba?

A. Write down

B. Read up

C. No write up

D. No read down

17. When a trusted subject violates the star property of Bell-LaPadula in order to write an object into a lower level, what valid operation could be taking place?

A. Perturbation

B. Polyinstantiation

C. Aggregation

D. Declassification

18. What security method, mechanism, or model reveals a capabilities list of a subject across multiple objects?

A. Separation of duties

B. Access control matrix

C. Biba

D. Clark-Wilson

19. What security model has a feature that in theory has one name or label, but when implemented into a solution, takes on the name or label of the security kernel?

A. Graham-Denning model

B. Deployment modes

C. Trusted computing base

D. Chinese Wall

20. Which of the following is not part of the access control relationship of the Clark- Wilson model?

A. Object

B. Interface

C. Programming language

D. Subject

Chapter 9 Security Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Countermeasures THE CISSP EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

✓ 3) Security Engineering (Engineering and Management of Security)

E. Assess and mitigate the vulnerabilities of security architectures, designs, and solution elements

E.1 Client-based (e.g., applets, local caches)

E.2 Server-based (e.g., data flow control)

E.3 Database security (e.g., inference, aggregation, data mining, data analytics, warehousing)

E.4 Large-scale parallel data systems

E.5 Distributed systems (e.g., cloud computing, grid computing, peer to peer)

E.6 Cryptographic systems

E.7 Industrial control systems (e.g., SCADA)

F. Assess and mitigate vulnerabilities in web-based systems (e.g., XML, OWASP)

G. Assess and mitigate vulnerabilities in mobile systems

H. Assess and mitigate vulnerabilities in embedded devices and cyber-physical systems (e.g., network-enabled devices, Internet of things (IoT))

In previous chapters of this book, we’ve covered basic security principles and the protective mechanisms put in place to prevent violation of them. We’ve also examined some of the specific types of attacks used by malicious individuals seeking to circumvent those protective mechanisms. Until this point, when discussing preventive measures, we have focused on policy measures and the software that runs on a system. However, security professionals must also pay careful attention to the system itself and ensure that their higher-level protective controls are not built on a shaky foundation. After all, the most secure firewall configuration in the world won’t do a bit of good if the computer it runs on has a fundamental security flaw that allows malicious individuals to simply bypass the firewall completely.

In this chapter, we’ll cover those underlying security concerns by conducting a brief survey of a field known as computer architecture: the physical design of computers from various components. We’ll examine each of the major physical components of a computing system—hardware and firmware—from a security perspective. Obviously, the detailed analysis of a system’s hardware components is not always a luxury available to you because of resource and time constraints. However, all security professionals should have at least a basic understanding of these concepts in case they encounter a security

incident that reaches down to the system design level.

The Security Engineering domain addresses a wide range of concerns and issues, including secure design elements, security architecture, vulnerabilities, threats, and associated countermeasures. Additional elements of this domain are discussed in various chapters: Chapter 6, “Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms,” Chapter 7, “PKI and Cryptographic Applications,” Chapter 8, “Principles of Security Models, Design, and Capabilities,” and Chapter 10, “Physical Security Requirements.” Please be sure to review all of these chapters to have a complete perspective on the topics of this domain.

Assess and Mitigate Security Vulnerabilities Computer architecture is an engineering discipline concerned with the design and construction of computing systems at a logical level. Many college-level computer engineering and computer science programs find it difficult to cover all the basic principles of computer architecture in a single semester, so this material is often divided into two one-semester courses for undergraduates. Computer architecture courses delve into the design of central processing unit (CPU) components, memory devices, device communications, and similar topics at the bit level, defining processing paths for individual logic devices that make simple “0 or 1” decisions. Most security professionals do not need that level of knowledge, which is well beyond the scope of this book and the CISSP exam. However, if you will be involved in the security aspects of the design of computing systems at this level, you would be well advised to conduct a more thorough study of this field.

This initial discussion of computer architecture may seem at first to be irrelevant to CISSP, but most of the security architectures and design elements are based on a solid understanding and implementation of computer hardware.

The more complex a system, the less assurance it provides. More complexity means more areas for vulnerabilities exist and more areas must be secured against threats. More vulnerabilities and more threats mean that the subsequent security provided by the system is less trustworthy.

Hardware Any computing professional is familiar with the concept of hardware. As in the construction industry, hardware is the physical “stuff” that makes up a computer. The term hardware encompasses any tangible part of a computer that you can actually reach out and touch, from the keyboard and monitor to its CPU(s), storage media, and memory chips. Take careful note that although the physical portion of a storage device (such as a

hard disk or flash memory) may be considered hardware, the contents of those devices— the collections of 0s and 1s that make up the software and data stored within them—may not. After all, you can’t reach inside the computer and pull out a handful of bits and bytes!

Processor The central processing unit (CPU), generally called the processor, is the computer’s nerve center—it is the chip (or chips in a multiprocessor system) that governs all major operations and either directly performs or coordinates the complex symphony of calculations that allows a computer to perform its intended tasks. Surprisingly, the CPU is capable of performing only a limited set of computational and logical operations, despite the complexity of the tasks it allows the computer to perform. It is the responsibility of the operating system and compilers to translate high-level programming languages used to design software into simple assembly language instructions that a CPU understands. This limited range of functionality is intentional—it allows a CPU to perform computational and logical operations at blazing speeds.

For an idea of the magnitude of the progress in computing technology over the years, view the Moore’s Law article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore's_law.

Execution Types As computer processing power increased, users demanded more advanced features to enable these systems to process information at greater rates and to manage multiple functions simultaneously. Computer engineers devised several methods to meet these demands:

At first blush, the terms multitasking, multiprocessing, multiprogramming, and multithreading may seem nearly identical. However, they describe very different ways of approaching the “doing two things at once” problem. We strongly advise that you take the time to review the distinctions between these terms until you feel comfortable with them.

Multitasking In computing, multitasking means handling two or more tasks simultaneously. In reality, most systems do not truly multitask; they rely on the operating system to simulate multitasking by carefully structuring the sequence of commands sent to the CPU for execution. After all, when your processor is humming along at multiple gigahertz, it’s hard to tell that it’s switching between tasks rather than

working on two tasks at once. However, you can assume that a multitasking system is able to juggle more than one task or process at any given time.

Multiprocessing In a multiprocessing environment, a multiprocessor computing system (that is, one with more than one CPU) harnesses the power of more than one processor to complete the execution of a single application. For example, a database server might run on a system that contains four, six, or more processors. If the database application receives a number of separate queries simultaneously, it might send each query to a separate processor for execution.

Two types of multiprocessing are most common in modern systems with multiple CPUs. The scenario just described, where a single computer contains multiple processors that are treated equally and controlled by a single operating system, is called symmetric multiprocessing (SMP). In SMP, processors share not only a common operating system but also a common data bus and memory resources. In this type of arrangement, systems may use a large number of processors. Fortunately, this type of computing power is more than sufficient to drive most systems.

Some computationally intensive operations, such as those that support the research of scientists and mathematicians, require more processing power than a single operating system can deliver. Such operations may be best served by a technology known as massively parallel processing (MPP). MPP systems house hundreds or even thousands of processors, each of which has its own operating system and memory/bus resources. When the software that coordinates the entire system’s activities and schedules them for processing encounters a computationally intensive task, it assigns responsibility for the task to a single processor. This processor in turn breaks the task up into manageable parts and distributes them to other processors for execution. Those processors return their results to the coordinating processor where they are assembled and returned to the requesting application. MPP systems are extremely powerful (not to mention extremely expensive!) and are used in a great deal of computing or computational-based research.

Both types of multiprocessing provide unique advantages and are suitable for different types of situations. SMP systems are adept at processing simple operations at extremely high rates, whereas MPP systems are uniquely suited for processing very large, complex, computationally intensive tasks that lend themselves to decomposition and distribution into a number of subordinate parts.

Next-Generation Multiprocessing Until the release of dual-core and quad-core processors, the only way to create a multiprocessing system was to place two or more CPUs onto the motherboard. However, today we have several options of multicore CPUs so that with a single CPU chip on the motherboard, there are two or four (or more!) execution paths. This truly allows single CPU multiprocessing because it enables two (or more) calculations to occur simultaneously.

Multiprogramming Multiprogramming is similar to multitasking. It involves the pseudosimultaneous execution of two tasks on a single processor coordinated by the operating system as a way to increase operational efficiency. For the most part, multiprogramming is a way to batch or serialize multiple processes so that when one process stops to wait on a peripheral, its state is saved and the next process in line begins to process. The first program does not return to processing until all other processes in the batch have had their chance to execute and they in turn stop for a peripheral. For any single program, this methodology causes significant delays in completing a task. However, across all processes in the batch, the total time to complete all tasks is reduced.

Multiprogramming is considered a relatively obsolete technology and is rarely found in use today except in legacy systems. There are two main differences between multiprogramming and multitasking:

Multiprogramming usually takes place on large-scale systems, such as mainframes, whereas multitasking takes place on PC operating systems, such as Windows and Linux.

Multitasking is normally coordinated by the operating system, whereas multiprogramming requires specially written software that coordinates its own activities and execution through the operating system.

Multithreading Multithreading permits multiple concurrent tasks to be performed within a single process. Unlike multitasking, where multiple tasks occupy multiple processes, multithreading permits multiple tasks to operate within a single process. A thread is a self-contained sequence of instructions that can execute in parallel with other threads that are part of the same parent process. Multithreading is often used in applications where frequent context switching between multiple active processes consumes excessive overhead and reduces efficiency. In multithreading, switching between threads incurs far less overhead and is therefore more efficient. In modern Windows implementations, for example, the overhead involved in switching from one thread to another within a single process is on the order of 40 to 50 instructions, with no substantial memory transfers needed. By contrast, switching from one process to another involves 1,000 instructions or more and requires substantial memory transfers as well.

A good example of multithreading occurs when multiple documents are opened at the same time in a word processing program. In that situation, you do not actually run multiple instances of the word processor—this would place far too great a demand on the system. Instead, each document is treated as a single thread within a single word processor process, and the software chooses which thread it works on at any given moment.

Symmetric multiprocessing systems use threading at the operating system level. As in the word processing example just described, the operating system also contains a number of threads that control the tasks assigned to it. In a single-processor system, the OS sends one thread at a time to the processor for execution. SMP systems send one thread to each available processor for simultaneous execution.

Processing Types Many high-security systems control the processing of information assigned to various security levels, such as the classification levels of unclassified, sensitive, confidential, secret, and top secret that the US government assigns to information related to national defense. Computers must be designed so that they do not—ideally, so that they cannot— inadvertently disclose information to unauthorized recipients.

Computer architects and security policy administrators have addressed this problem at the processor level in two different ways. One is through a policy mechanism, whereas the other is through a hardware solution. The following list explores each of those options:

Single State Single-state systems require the use of policy mechanisms to manage information at different levels. In this type of arrangement, security administrators approve a processor and system to handle only one security level at a time. For example, a system might be labeled to handle only secret information. All users of that system must then be approved to handle information at the secret level. This shifts the burden of protecting the information being processed on a system away from the hardware and operating system and onto the administrators who control access to the system.

Multistate Multistate systems are capable of implementing a much higher level of security. These systems are certified to handle multiple security levels simultaneously by using specialized security mechanisms such as those described in the next section, “Protection Mechanisms.” These mechanisms are designed to prevent information from crossing between security levels. One user might be using a multistate system to process secret information, while another user is processing top-secret information at the same time. Technical mechanisms prevent information from crossing between the two users and thereby crossing between security levels.

In actual practice, multistate systems are relatively uncommon owing to the expense of implementing the necessary technical mechanisms. This expense is sometimes justified; however, when you’re dealing with a very expensive resource, such as a massively parallel system, the cost of obtaining multiple systems far exceeds the cost of implementing the additional security controls necessary to enable multistate operation on a single such system.

Protection Mechanisms If a computer isn’t running, it’s an inert lump of plastic, silicon, and metal doing nothing. When a computer is running, it operates a runtime environment that represents the combination of the operating system and whatever applications may be active. When running, the computer also has the capability to access files and other data as the user’s security permissions allow. Within that runtime environment, it’s necessary to integrate security information and controls to protect the integrity of the operating system itself, to manage which users are allowed to access specific data items, to authorize or deny operations requested against such data, and so forth. The ways in which running

computers implement and handle security at runtime may be broadly described as a collection of protection mechanisms. What follows are descriptions of various protection mechanisms such as protection rings, operational states, and security modes.

Because the ways in which computers implement and use protection mechanisms are so important to maintaining and controlling security, you should understand how all three mechanisms covered here—rings, operational states, and security modes— are defined and how they behave. Don’t be surprised to see exam questions about specifics in all three areas because this is such important stuff!

Protection Rings The ring protection scheme is an oldie but a goodie. It dates all the way back to work on the Multics operating system. This experimental operating system was designed and built between 1963 and 1969 through the collaboration of Bell Labs, MIT, and General Electric. It saw commercial use in implementations from Honeywell. Multics has left two enduring legacies in the computing world. First, it inspired the creation of a simpler, less intricate operating system called Unix (a play on the word multics), and second, it introduced the idea of protection rings to OS design.

From a security standpoint, protection rings organize code and components in an operating system (as well as applications, utilities, or other code that runs under the operating system’s control) into concentric rings, as shown in Figure 9.1. The deeper inside the circle you go, the higher the privilege level associated with the code that occupies a specific ring. Though the original Multics implementation allowed up to seven rings (numbered 0 through 6), most modern operating systems use a four-ring model (numbered 0 through 3).

Figure 9.1 In the commonly used four-ring model, protection rings segregate the operating system into kernel, components, and drivers in rings 0 through 2 and applications and programs run at ring 3.

As the innermost ring, 0 has the highest level of privilege and can basically access any resource, file, or memory location. The part of an operating system that always remains resident in memory (so that it can run on demand at any time) is called the kernel. It occupies ring 0 and can preempt code running at any other ring. The remaining parts of the operating system—those that come and go as various tasks are requested, operations performed, processes switched, and so forth—occupy ring 1. Ring 2 is also somewhat privileged in that it’s where I/O drivers and system utilities reside; these are able to access peripheral devices, special files, and so forth that applications and other programs cannot themselves access directly. Those applications and programs occupy the outermost ring, ring 3.

The essence of the ring model lies in priority, privilege, and memory segmentation. Any process that wants to execute must get in line (a pending process queue). The process associated with the lowest ring number always runs before processes associated with higher-numbered rings. Processes in lower-numbered rings can access more resources

and interact with the operating system more directly than those in higher-numbered rings. Those processes that run in higher-numbered rings must generally ask a handler or a driver in a lower-numbered ring for services they need; this is sometimes called a mediated-access model. In its strictest implementation, each ring has its own associated memory segment. Thus, any request from a process in a higher-numbered ring for an address in a lower-numbered ring must call on a helper process in the ring associated with that address. In practice, many modern operating systems break memory into only two segments: one for system-level access (rings 0 through 2), often called kernel mode or privileged mode, and one for user-level programs and applications (ring 3), often called user mode.

From a security standpoint, the ring model enables an operating system to protect and insulate itself from users and applications. It also permits the enforcement of strict boundaries between highly privileged operating system components (such as the kernel) and less privileged parts of the operating system (such as other parts of the operating system, plus drivers and utilities). Within this model, direct access to specific resources is possible only within certain rings; likewise, certain operations (such as process switching, termination, and scheduling) are allowed only within certain rings.

The ring that a process occupies determines its access level to system resources (and determines what kinds of resources it must request from processes in lower-numbered, more privileged rings). Processes may access objects directly only if they reside within their own ring or within some ring outside its current boundaries (in numerical terms, for example, this means a process at ring 1 can access its own resources directly, plus any associated with rings 2 and 3, but it can’t access any resources associated only with ring 0). The mechanism whereby mediated access occurs—that is, the driver or handler request mentioned previously—is usually known as a system call and usually involves invocation of a specific system or programming interface designed to pass the request to an inner ring for service. Before any such request can be honored, however, the called ring must check to make sure that the calling process has the right credentials and authorization to access the data and to perform the operation(s) involved in satisfying the request.

Process States Also known as operating states, process states are various forms of execution in which a process may run. Where the operating system is concerned, it can be in one of two modes at any given moment: operating in a privileged, all-access mode known as supervisor state or operating in what’s called the problem state associated with user mode, where privileges are low and all access requests must be checked against credentials for authorization before they are granted or denied. The latter is called the problem state not because problems are guaranteed to occur but because the unprivileged nature of user access means that problems can occur and the system must take appropriate measures to protect security, integrity, and confidentiality.

Processes line up for execution in an operating system in a processing queue, where they will be scheduled to run as a processor becomes available. Because many operating

systems allow processes to consume processor time only in fixed increments or chunks, when a new process is created, it enters the processing queue for the first time; should a process consume its entire chunk of processing time (called a time slice) without completing, it returns to the processing queue for another time slice the next time its turn comes around. Also, the process scheduler usually selects the highest-priority process for execution, so reaching the front of the line doesn’t always guarantee access to the CPU (because a process may be preempted at the last instant by another process with higher priority).

According to whether a process is running, it can operate in one of several states:

Ready In the ready state, a process is ready to resume or begin processing as soon as it is scheduled for execution. If the CPU is available when the process reaches this state, it will transition directly into the running state; otherwise, it sits in the ready state until its turn comes up. This means the process has all the memory and other resources it needs to begin executing immediately.

Waiting Waiting can also be understood as “waiting for a resource”—that is, the process is ready for continued execution but is waiting for a device or access request (an interrupt of some kind) to be serviced before it can continue processing (for example, a database application that asks to read records from a file must wait for that file to be located and opened and for the right set of records to be found). Some references label this state as a blocked state because the process could be said to be blocked from further execution until an external event occurs.

Running The running process executes on the CPU and keeps going until it finishes, its time slice expires, or it is blocked for some reason (usually because it has generated an interrupt for access to a device or the network and is waiting for that interrupt to be serviced). If the time slice ends and the process isn’t completed, it returns to the ready state (and queue); if the process blocks while waiting for a resource to become available, it goes into the waiting state (and queue).

The running state is also often called the problem state. However, don’t associate the word problem with an error. Instead, think of the problem state as you would think of a math problem being solved to obtain the answer. But keep in mind that it is called the problem state because it is possible for problems or errors to occur, just as you could do a math problem incorrectly. The problem state is separated from the supervisory state so that any errors that might occur do not easily affect the stability of the overall system; they affect only the process that experienced the error.

Supervisory The supervisory state is used when the process must perform an action that requires privileges that are greater than the problem state’s set of privileges,

including modifying system configuration, installing device drivers, or modifying security settings. Basically, any function not occurring in the user mode (ring 3) or problem state takes place in the supervisory mode.

Stopped When a process finishes or must be terminated (because an error occurs, a required resource is not available, or a resource request can’t be met), it goes into a stopped state. At this point, the operating system can recover all memory and other resources allocated to the process and reuse them for other processes as needed.

Figure 9.2 shows a diagram of how these various states relate to one another. New processes always transition into the ready state. From there, ready processes always transition into the running state. While running, a process can transition into the stopped state if it completes or is terminated, return to the ready state for another time slice, or transition to the waiting state until its pending resource request is met. When the operating system decides which process to run next, it checks the waiting queue and the ready queue and takes the highest-priority job that’s ready to run (so that only waiting jobs whose pending requests have been serviced, or are ready to service, are eligible in this consideration). A special part of the kernel, called the program executive or the process scheduler, is always around (waiting in memory) so that when a process state transition must occur, it can step in and handle the mechanics involved.

Figure 9.2 The process scheduler

In Figure 9.2, the process scheduler manages the processes awaiting execution in the ready and waiting states and decides what happens to running processes when they transition into another state (ready, waiting, or stopped).

Security Modes The US government has designated four approved security modes for systems that process classified information. These are described next. In Chapter 1, “Security Governance Through Principles and Policies,” we reviewed the classification system used by the federal government and the concepts of security clearances and access approval. The only new term in this context is need to know, which refers to an access authorization scheme in which a subject’s right to access an object takes into consideration not just a privilege level but also the relevance of the data involved in the

role the subject plays (or the job they perform). This indicates that the subject requires access to the object to perform their job properly or to fill some specific role. Those with no need to know may not access the object, no matter what level of privilege they hold. If you need a refresher on those concepts, please review them in Chapter 1 before proceeding. Three specific elements must exist before the security modes themselves can be deployed:

A hierarchical MAC environment

Total physical control over which subjects can access the computer console

Total physical control over which subjects can enter into the same room as the computer console

You will rarely, if ever, encounter the following modes outside of the world of government agencies and contractors. However, you may discover this terminology in other contexts, so you’d be well advised to commit the terms to memory.

Dedicated Mode Dedicated mode systems are essentially equivalent to the single-state system described in the section “Processing Types” earlier in this chapter. Three requirements exist for users of dedicated systems:

Each user must have a security clearance that permits access to all information processed by the system.

Each user must have access approval for all information processed by the system.

Each user must have a valid need to know for all information processed by the system.

In the definitions of each of these modes, we use “all information processed by the system” for brevity. The official definition is more comprehensive and uses “all information processed, stored, transferred, or accessed.” If you want to explore the source, use an Internet search engine to locate: Department of Defense 8510.1-M DoD Information Technology Security Certification and Accreditation Process (DITSCAP) Manual.

System High Mode System high mode systems have slightly different requirements

that must be met by users:

Each user must have a valid security clearance that permits access to all information processed by the system.

Each user must have access approval for all information processed by the system.

Each user must have a valid need to know for some information processed by the system but not necessarily all information processed by the system.

Note that the major difference between the dedicated mode and the system high mode is that all users do not necessarily have a need to know for all information processed on a system high mode computing device. Thus, although the same user could access both a dedicated mode system and a system high mode system, that user could access all data on the former but be restricted from some of the data on the latter.

Compartmented mode Compartmented mode systems weaken these requirements one step further:

Each user must have a valid security clearance that permits access to all information processed by the system.

Each user must have access approval for any information they will have access to on the system.

Each user must have a valid need to know for all information they will have access to on the system.

Notice that the major difference between compartmented mode systems and system high mode systems is that users of a compartmented mode system do not necessarily have access approval for all the information on the system. However, as with system high and dedicated systems, all users of the system must still have appropriate security clearances. In a special implementation of this mode called compartmented mode workstations (CMWs), users with the necessary clearances can process multiple compartments of data at the same time.

CMWs require that two forms of security labels be placed on objects: sensitivity levels and information labels. Sensitivity levels describe the levels at which objects must be protected. These are common among all four of the modes. Information labels prevent data overclassification and associate additional information with the objects, which assists in proper and accurate data labeling not related to access control.

Multilevel Mode The government’s definition of multilevel mode systems pretty much parallels the technical definition given in the previous section. However, for consistency, we’ll express it in terms of clearance, access approval, and need to know:

Some users do not have a valid security clearance for all information processed by the system. Thus, access is controlled by whether the subject’s clearance level dominates the object’s sensitivity label.

Each user must have access approval for all information they will have access to on

the system.

Each user must have a valid need to know for all information they will have access to on the system.

As you look through the requirements for the various modes of operation approved by the federal government, you’ll notice that the administrative requirements for controlling the types of users that access a system decrease as you move from dedicated systems down to multilevel systems. However, this does not decrease the importance of limiting individual access so that users can obtain only the information they are legitimately entitled to access. As discussed in the previous section, it’s simply a matter of shifting the burden of enforcing these requirements from administrative personnel—who physically limit access to a computer—to the hardware and software—which control what information can be accessed by each user of a multiuser system.

Multilevel security mode can also be called the controlled security mode.

Table 9.1 summarizes and compares these four security modes according to security clearances required, need to know, and the ability to process data from multiple clearance levels (abbreviated PDMCL). When comparing all four security modes, it is generally understood that the multilevel mode is exposed to the highest level of risk.

Table 9.1 Comparing security modes

Mode Clearance Need to know PDMCL Dedicated Same None None System high Same Yes None Compartmented Same Yes Yes Multilevel Different Yes Yes

Clearance is Same if all users must have the same security clearances, Different if otherwise.

Need to Know is None if it does not apply and is not used or if it is used but all users have the need to know all data present on the system, Yes if access is limited by need-to-know restrictions.

PDMCL applies if and when CMW implementations are used (Yes); otherwise, PDMCL is None.

Operating Modes Modern processors and operating systems are designed to support multiuser environments in which individual computer users might not be granted access to all components of a system or all the information stored on it. For that reason, the processor itself supports two modes of operation: user mode and privileged mode.

User Mode User mode is the basic mode used by the CPU when executing user

applications. In this mode, the CPU allows the execution of only a portion of its full instruction set. This is designed to protect users from accidentally damaging the system through the execution of poorly designed code or the unintentional misuse of that code. It also protects the system and its data from a malicious user who might try to execute instructions designed to circumvent the security measures put in place by the operating system or who might mistakenly perform actions that could result in unauthorized access or damage to the system or valuable information assets.

Often processes within user mode are executed within a controlled environment called a virtual machine (VM) or a virtual subsystem machine. A virtual machine is a simulated environment created by the OS to provide a safe and efficient place for programs to execute. Each VM is isolated from all other VMs, and each VM has its own assigned memory address space that can be used by the hosted application. It is the responsibility of the elements in privileged mode (aka kernel mode) to create and support the VMs and prevent the processes in one VM from interfering with the processes in other VMs.

Privileged Mode CPUs also support privileged mode, which is designed to give the operating system access to the full range of instructions supported by the CPU. This mode goes by a number of names, and the exact terminology varies according to the CPU manufacturer. Some of the more common monikers are included in the following list:

Privileged mode

Supervisory mode

System mode

Kernel mode

No matter which term you use, the basic concept remains the same—this mode grants a wide range of permissions to the process executing on the CPU. For this reason, well- designed operating systems do not let any user applications execute in privileged mode. Only those processes that are components of the operating system itself are allowed to execute in this mode, for both security and system integrity purposes.

Don’t confuse processor modes with any type of user access permissions. The fact that the high-level processor mode is sometimes called privileged or supervisory mode has no relationship to the role of a user. All user applications, including those of system administrators, run in user mode. When system administrators use system tools to make configuration changes to the system, those tools also run in user mode. When a user application needs to perform a privileged action, it passes that request to the operating system using a system call, which evaluates it and either rejects the request or approves it and executes it using a privileged mode process outside the user’s control.

Memory The second major hardware component of a system is memory, the storage bank for information that the computer needs to keep readily available. There are many different kinds of memory, each suitable for different purposes, and we’ll take a look at each in the sections that follow.

Read-Only Memory Read-only memory (ROM) works like the name implies—it’s memory the PC can read but can’t change (no writing allowed). The contents of a standard ROM chip are burned in at the factory, and the end user simply cannot alter it. ROM chips often contain “bootstrap” information that computers use to start up prior to loading an operating system from disk. This includes the familiar power-on self-test (POST) series of diagnostics that run each time you boot a PC.

ROM’s primary advantage is that it can’t be modified. There is no chance that user or administrator error will accidentally wipe out or modify the contents of such a chip. This attribute makes ROM extremely desirable for orchestrating a computer’s innermost workings.

There is a type of ROM that may be altered by administrators to some extent. It is known as programmable read-only memory (PROM), and its several subtypes are described next:

Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM) A basic programmable read-only memory (PROM) chip is similar to a ROM chip in functionality, but with one exception. During the manufacturing process, a PROM chip’s contents aren’t “burned in” at the factory as with standard ROM chips. Instead, a PROM incorporates special functionality that allows an end user to burn in the chip’s contents later. However, the burning process has a similar outcome—once data is written to a PROM chip, no further changes are possible. After it’s burned in, a PROM chip essentially functions like a ROM chip.

PROM chips provide software developers with an opportunity to store information permanently on a high-speed, customized memory chip. PROMs are commonly used for hardware applications where some custom functionality is necessary but seldom changes once programmed.

Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM) Combine the relatively high cost of PROM chips and software developers’ inevitable desires to tinker with their code once it’s written and you have the rationale that led to the development of erasable PROM (EPROM). These chips have a small window that, when illuminated with a special ultraviolet light, causes the contents of the chip to be erased. After this process is complete, end users can burn new information into the EPROM as if it had never been programmed before.

Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM) Although it’s better than no erase function at all, EPROM erasure is pretty

cumbersome. It requires the physical removal of the chip from the computer and exposure to a special kind of ultraviolet light. A more flexible, friendly alternative is electronically erasable PROM (EEPROM), which uses electric voltages delivered to the pins of the chip to force erasure. EEPROM chips can be erased without removing them from the computer, which makes them much more attractive than standard PROM or EPROM chips.

Flash Memory Flash memory is a derivative concept from EEPROM. It is a nonvolatile form of storage media that can be electronically erased and rewritten. The primary difference between EEPROM and flash memory is that EEPROM must be fully erased to be rewritten whereas flash memory can be erased and written in blocks or pages. The most common type of flash memory is NAND flash. It is widely used in memory cards, thumb drives, mobile devices, and SSD (solid-state drives).

Random Access Memory Random access memory (RAM) is readable and writable memory that contains information a computer uses during processing. RAM retains its contents only when power is continuously supplied to it. Unlike with ROM, when a computer is powered off, all data stored in RAM disappears. For this reason, RAM is useful only for temporary storage. Critical data should never be stored solely in RAM; a backup copy should always be kept on another storage device to prevent its disappearance in the event of a sudden loss of electrical power. The following are types of RAM:

Real Memory Real memory (also known as main memoryor primary memory) is typically the largest RAM storage resource available to a computer. It is normally composed of a number of dynamic RAM chips and, therefore, must be refreshed by the CPU on a periodic basis (see the sidebar “Dynamic vs. Static RAM” for more information on this subject).

Cache RAM Computer systems contain a number of caches that improve performance by taking data from slower devices and temporarily storing it in faster devices when repeated use is likely; this is cache RAM. The processor normally contains an onboard cache of extremely fast memory used to hold data on which it will operate. This on-chip, or level 1, cache is often backed up by a static RAM cache on a separate chip, called a level 2 cache, which holds data from the computer’s main bank of real memory. Likewise, real memory often contains a cache of information stored on magnetic media or SSD. This chain continues down through the memory/storage hierarchy to enable computers to improve performance by keeping data that’s likely to be used next closer at hand (be it for CPU instructions, data fetches, file access, or what have you).

Many peripherals also include onboard caches to reduce the storage burden they place on the CPU and operating system. For example, many higher-end printers include large RAM caches so that the operating system can quickly spool an entire job to the printer. After that, the processor can forget about the print job; it won’t be forced to wait for the printer to actually produce the requested output, spoon-feeding it chunks of data one at a time.

The printer can preprocess information from its onboard cache, thereby freeing the CPU and operating system to work on other tasks.

Dynamic vs. Static RAM There are two main types of RAM: dynamic RAM and static RAM. Most computers contain a combination of both types and use them for different purposes.

To store data, dynamic RAM uses a series of capacitors, tiny electrical devices that hold a charge. These capacitors either hold a charge (representing a 1 bit in memory) or do not hold a charge (representing a 0 bit). However, because capacitors naturally lose their charges over time, the CPU must spend time refreshing the contents of dynamic RAM to ensure that 1 bits don’t unintentionally change to 0 bits, thereby altering memory contents.

Static RAM uses more sophisticated technology—a logical device known as a flip-flop, which to all intents and purposes is simply an on/off switch that must be moved from one position to another to change a 0 to 1 or vice versa. More important, static memory maintains its contents unaltered as long as power is supplied and imposes no CPU overhead for periodic refresh operations.

Dynamic RAM is cheaper than static RAM because capacitors are cheaper than flip- flops. However, static RAM runs much faster than dynamic RAM. This creates a trade-off for system designers, who combine static and dynamic RAM modules to strike the right balance of cost versus performance.

Registers The CPU also includes a limited amount of onboard memory, known as registers, that provide it with directly accessible memory locations that the brain of the CPU, the arithmetic-logical unit (ALU), uses when performing calculations or processing instructions. In fact, any data that the ALU is to manipulate must be loaded into a register unless it is directly supplied as part of the instruction. The main advantage of this type of memory is that it is part of the ALU itself and, therefore, operates in lockstep with the CPU at typical CPU speeds.

Memory Addressing When using memory resources, the processor must have some means of referring to various locations in memory. The solution to this problem is known as addressing, and there are several different addressing schemes used in various circumstances. The following are five of the more common addressing schemes:

Register Addressing As you learned in the previous section, registers are small

memory locations directly in the CPU. When the CPU needs information from one of its registers to complete an operation, it uses a register address (for example, “register 1”) to access its contents.

Immediate Addressing Immediate addressing is not a memory addressing scheme per se but rather a way of referring to data that is supplied to the CPU as part of an instruction. For example, the CPU might process the command “Add 2 to the value in register 1.” This command uses two addressing schemes. The first is immediate addressing—the CPU is being told to add the value 2 and does not need to retrieve that value from a memory location—it’s supplied as part of the command. The second is register addressing; it’s instructed to retrieve the value from register 1.

Direct Addressing In direct addressing, the CPU is provided with an actual address of the memory location to access. The address must be located on the same memory page as the instruction being executed. Direct addressing is more flexible than immediate addressing since the contents of the memory location can be changed more readily than reprogramming the immediate addressing’s hard-coded data.

Indirect Addressing Indirect addressing uses a scheme similar to direct addressing. However, the memory address supplied to the CPU as part of the instruction doesn’t contain the actual value that the CPU is to use as an operand. Instead, the memory address contains another memory address (perhaps located on a different page). The CPU reads the indirect address to learn the address where the desired data resides and then retrieves the actual operand from that address.

Base+Offset Addressing Base+offset addressing uses a value stored in one of the CPU’s registers as the base location from which to begin counting. The CPU then adds the offset supplied with the instruction to that base address and retrieves the operand from that computed memory location.

Secondary Memory Secondary memory is a term commonly used to refer to magnetic, optical, or flash-based media or other storage devices that contain data not immediately available to the CPU. For the CPU to access data in secondary memory, the data must first be read by the operating system and stored in real memory. However, secondary memory is much more inexpensive than primary memory and can be used to store massive amounts of information. In this context, hard disks, floppy drives, and optical media such as CDs and DVDs can all function as secondary memory.

Virtual memory is a special type of secondary memory that the operating system manages to make look and act just like real memory. The most common type of virtual memory is the pagefile that most operating systems manage as part of their memory management functions. This specially formatted file contains data previously stored in memory but not recently used. When the operating system needs to access addresses stored in the pagefile, it checks to see whether the page is memory-resident (in which case it can access it immediately) or whether it has been swapped to disk, in which case it reads the data

from disk back into real memory (this process is called paging).

Using virtual memory is an inexpensive way to make a computer operate as if it had more real memory than is physically installed. Its major drawback is that the paging operations that occur when data is exchanged between primary and secondary memory are relatively slow (memory functions in nanoseconds, disk systems in microseconds; usually, this means three orders of magnitude difference!) and consume significant computer overhead, slowing down the entire system.

Memory Security Issues Memory stores and processes your data—some of which may be extremely sensitive. It’s essential that you understand the various types of memory and know how they store and retain data. Any memory devices that may retain sensitive data should be purged before they are allowed to leave your organization for any reason. This is especially true for secondary memory and ROM/PROM/EPROM/EEPROM devices designed to retain data even after the power is turned off.

However, memory data retention issues are not limited to those types of memory designed to retain data. Remember that static and dynamic RAM chips store data through the use of capacitors and flip-flops (see the sidebar “Dynamic vs. Static RAM”). It is technically possible that those electrical components could retain some of their charge for a limited period of time after power is turned off. A technically sophisticated individual could theoretically take electrical measurements of those components and retrieve portions of the data stored on such devices. However, this requires a good deal of technical expertise and is not a likely threat unless you have adversaries with mind- bogglingly deep pockets.

There is also an attack that freezes memory chips to delay the decay of resident data when the system is turned off or the RAM is pulled out of the motherboard. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_boot_attack.

The greatest security threat posed by RAM chips is a simple one. They are highly pilferable and are quite often stolen. After all, who checks to see how much memory is in their computer at the start of each day? Someone could easily remove a single memory module from each of a large number of systems and walk out the door with a small bag containing valuable chips. Today, this threat is diminishing as the price of memory chips continues to fall.

One of the most important security issues surrounding memory is controlling who may access data stored in memory while a computer is in use. This is primarily the responsibility of the operating system and is the main memory security issue underlying

the various processing modes described in previous sections in this chapter. In the section “Essential Security Protection Mechanisms” later in this chapter, you’ll learn how the principle of process isolation can be used to ensure that processes don’t have access to read or write to memory spaces not allocated to them. If you’re operating in a multilevel security environment, it’s especially important to ensure that adequate protections are in place to prevent the unwanted leakage of memory contents between security levels, through either direct memory access or covert channels (a full discussion of covert channels appears later in this chapter).

Storage Data storage devices make up the third class of computer system components we’ll discuss. These devices are used to store information that may be used by a computer any time after it’s written. We’ll first examine a few common terms that relate to storage devices and then cover some of the security issues related to data storage.

Primary vs. Secondary The concepts of primary and secondary storage can be somewhat confusing, especially when compared to primary and secondary memory. There’s an easy way to keep it straight —they’re the same thing! Primary memory, also known as primary storage, is the RAM that a computer uses to keep necessary information readily available to the CPU while the computer is running. Secondary memory (or secondary storage) includes all the familiar long-term storage devices that you use every day. Secondary storage consists of magnetic and optical media such as hard drives, solid-state drives (SSDs), floppy disks, magnetic tapes, compact discs (CDs), digital video disks (DVDs), flash memory cards, and the like.

Volatile vs. Nonvolatile You’re already familiar with the concept of volatility from our discussion of memory, although you may not have heard it described using that term before. The volatility of a storage device is simply a measure of how likely it is to lose its data when power is turned off. Devices designed to retain their data (such as magnetic media) are classified as nonvolatile, whereas devices such as static or dynamic RAM modules, which are designed to lose their data, are classified as volatile. Recall from the discussion in the previous section that sophisticated technology may sometimes be able to extract data from volatile memory after power is removed, so the lines between the two may sometimes be blurry.

Random vs. Sequential Storage devices may be accessed in one of two fashions. Random access storage devices allow an operating system to read (and sometimes write) immediately from any point within the device by using some type of addressing system. Almost all primary storage devices are random access devices. You can use a memory address to access information stored at any point within a RAM chip without reading the data that is physically stored before it. Most secondary storage devices are also random access. For example, hard

drives use a movable head system that allows you to move directly to any point on the disk without spinning past all the data stored on previous tracks; likewise, CD and DVD devices use an optical scanner that can position itself anywhere on the platter surface.

Sequential storage devices, on the other hand, do not provide this flexibility. They require that you read (or speed past) all the data physically stored prior to the desired location. A common example of a sequential storage device is a magnetic tape drive. To provide access to data stored in the middle of a tape, the tape drive must physically scan through the entire tape (even if it’s not necessarily processing the data that it passes in fast- forward mode) until it reaches the desired point.

Obviously, sequential storage devices operate much slower than random access storage devices. However, here again you’re faced with a cost/benefit decision. Many sequential storage devices can hold massive amounts of data on relatively inexpensive media. This property makes tape drives uniquely suited for backup tasks associated with a disaster recovery/business continuity plan (see Chapter 3, “Business Continuity Planning,” and Chapter 18, “Disaster Recovery Planning”). In a backup situation, you often have extremely large amounts of data that need to be stored, and you infrequently need to access that stored information. The situation just begs for a sequential storage device!

Storage Media Security We discussed the security problems that surround primary storage devices in the previous section. There are three main concerns when it comes to the security of secondary storage devices; all of them mirror concerns raised for primary storage devices:

Data may remain on secondary storage devices even after it has been erased. This condition is known as data remanence. Most technically savvy computer users know that utilities are available that can retrieve files from a disk even after they have been deleted. It’s also technically possible to retrieve data from a disk that has been reformatted. If you truly want to remove data from a secondary storage device, you must use a specialized utility designed to destroy all traces of data on the device or damage or destroy it beyond possible repair (commonly called sanitizing).

SSDs present a unique problem in relation to sanitization. SSD wear leveling means that there are often blocks of data that are not marked as “live” but that hold a copy of the data when it was copied off to lower wear leveled blocks. This means that a traditional zero wipe is ineffective as a data security measure for SSDs.

Secondary storage devices are also prone to theft. Economic loss is not the major factor (after all, how much does a CD-R disc or even a hard drive cost?), but the loss of confidential information poses great risks. If someone copies your trade secrets onto a removable media disc and walks out the door with it, it’s worth a lot more than the cost of the disc itself. For this reason, it is important to use full disk encryption to reduce the risk of an unauthorized entity gaining access to your data. It is good security practice to encrypt SSDs prior to storing any data on them due to their wear leveling technology. This will minimize the chance of any plaintext data

residing in dormant blocks. Fortunately, many HDD and SSD devices offer on-device native encryption.

Access to data stored on secondary storage devices is one of the most critical issues facing computer security professionals. For hard disks, data can often be protected through a combination of operating system access controls. Removable media pose a greater challenge, so securing them often requires encryption technologies.

Input and Output Devices Input and output devices are often seen as basic, primitive peripherals and usually don’t receive much attention until they stop working properly. However, even these basic devices can present security risks to a system. Security professionals should be aware of these risks and ensure that appropriate controls are in place to mitigate them. The next four sections examine some of the risks posed by specific input and output devices.

Monitors Monitors seem fairly innocuous. After all, they simply display the data presented by the operating system. When you turn them off, the data disappears from the screen and can’t be recovered. However, technology from a program known as TEMPEST can compromise the security of data displayed on a monitor.

TEMPEST is a technology that allows the electronic emanations that every monitor produces (known as Van Eck radiation) to be read from a distance (this process is known as Van Eck phreaking) and even from another location. The technology is also used to protect against such activity. Various demonstrations have shown that you can easily read the screens of monitors inside an office building using gear housed in a van parked outside on the street. Unfortunately, the protective controls required to prevent Van Eck radiation (lots and lots of copper!) are expensive to implement and cumbersome to use. Generally, CRT monitors are more prone to radiate significantly, whereas LCD monitors leak much less (some claim not enough to reveal critical data). It is arguable that the biggest risk with any monitor is still shoulder surfing or telephoto lenses on cameras.

Printers Printers also may represent a security risk, albeit a simpler one. Depending on the physical security controls used at your organization, it may be much easier to walk out with sensitive information in printed form than to walk out with a floppy disk or other magnetic media. If printers are shared, users may forget to retrieve their sensitive printouts, leaving them vulnerable to prying eyes. Many modern printers also store data locally, often on a hard drive, and some retain copies of printouts indefinitely. Printers are usually exposed on the network for convenient access and are often not designed to be secure systems. These are all issues that are best addressed by an organization’s security policy.

Keyboards/Mice Keyboards, mice, and similar input devices are not immune to security vulnerabilities either. All of these devices are vulnerable to TEMPEST monitoring. Also, keyboards are vulnerable to less sophisticated bugging. A simple device can be placed inside a keyboard or along its connection cable to intercept all the keystrokes that take place and transmit them to a remote receiver using a radio signal. This has the same effect as TEMPEST monitoring but can be done with much less expensive gear. Additionally, if your keyboard and mouse are wireless, including Bluetooth, their radio signals can be intercepted.

Modems With the advent of ubiquitous broadband and wireless connectivity, modems are becoming a scarce legacy computer component. If your organization is still using older equipment, there is a chance that a modem is part of the hardware configuration. The presence of a modem on a user system is often one of the greatest woes of a security administrator. Modems allow users to create uncontrolled access points into your network. In the worst case, if improperly configured, they can create extremely serious security vulnerabilities that allow an outsider to bypass all your perimeter protection mechanisms and directly access your network resources. At best, they create an alternate egress channel that insiders can use to funnel data outside your organization. But keep in mind, these vulnerabilities can only be exploited if the modem is connected to an operational telephone land line.

You should seriously consider an outright ban on modems in your organization’s security policy unless you truly need them for business reasons. In those cases, security officials should know the physical and logical locations of all modems on the network, ensure that they are correctly configured, and make certain that appropriate protective measures are in place to prevent their illegitimate use.

Input/Output Structures Certain computer activities related to general input/output (I/O) operations, rather than individual devices, also have security implications. Some familiarity with manual input/output device configuration is required to integrate legacy peripheral devices (those that do not autoconfigure or support Plug and Play, or PnP, setup) in modern PCs as well. Three types of operations that require manual configuration on legacy devices are involved here:

Memory-Mapped I/O For many kinds of devices, memory-mapped I/O is a technique used to manage input/output. That is, a part of the address space that the CPU manages functions to provide access to some kind of device through a series of mapped memory addresses or locations. Thus, by reading mapped memory locations, you’re actually reading the input from the corresponding device (which is automatically copied to those memory locations at the system level when the device signals that input is available). Likewise, by writing to those mapped memory locations, you’re actually sending output to

that device (automatically handled by copying from those memory locations to the device at the system level when the CPU signals that the output is available).

From a configuration standpoint, it’s important to make sure that only one device maps into a specific memory address range and that the address range is used for no other purpose than to handle device I/O. From a security standpoint, access to mapped memory locations should be mediated by the operating system and subject to proper authorization and access controls.

Interrupt (IRQ) Interrupt (IRQ) is an abbreviation for interrupt request, a technique for assigning specific signal lines to specific devices through a special interrupt controller. When a device wants to supply input to the CPU, it sends a signal on its assigned IRQ (which usually falls in a range of 0 to 16 on older PCs for two cascaded 8-line interrupt controllers and 0 to 23 on newer ones with three cascaded 8-line interrupt controllers). Where newer PnP-compatible devices may actually share a single interrupt (IRQ number), older legacy devices must generally have exclusive use of a unique IRQ number (a well-known pathology called interrupt conflict occurs when two or more devices are assigned the same IRQ number and is best recognized by an inability to access all affected devices). From a configuration standpoint, finding unused IRQ numbers that will work with legacy devices can be a sometimes trying exercise. From a security standpoint, only the operating system should be able to mediate access to IRQs at a sufficiently high level of privilege to prevent tampering or accidental misconfiguration.

Direct Memory Access (DMA) Direct Memory Access (DMA) works as a channel with two signal lines, where one line is a DMA request (DMQ) line and the other is a DMA acknowledgment (DACK) line. Devices that can exchange data directly with real memory (RAM) without requiring assistance from the CPU use DMA to manage such access. Using its DRQ line, a device signals the CPU that it wants to make direct access (which may be read or write or some combination of the two) to another device, usually real memory. The CPU authorizes access and then allows the access to proceed independently while blocking other access to the memory locations involved. When the access is complete, the device uses the DACK line to signal that the CPU may once again permit access to previously blocked memory locations. This is faster than requiring the CPU to mediate such access and permits the CPU to move on to other tasks while the memory access is underway. DMA is used most commonly to permit disk drives, optical drives, display cards, and multimedia cards to manage large-scale data transfers to and from real memory. From a configuration standpoint, it’s important to manage DMA addresses to keep device addresses unique and to make sure such addresses are used only for DMA signaling. From a security standpoint, only the operating system should be able to mediate DMA assignment and the use of DMA to access I/O devices.

If you understand common IRQ assignments, how memory-mapped I/O and DMA work, and related security concerns, you know enough to tackle the CISSP exam. If not, some additional reading may be warranted. In that case, PC Guide’s excellent overview of system memory (www.pcguide.com/ref/ram/) should tell you everything you need to

know.

Firmware Firmware (also known as microcode in some circles) is a term used to describe software that is stored in a ROM chip. This type of software is changed infrequently (actually, never, if it’s stored on a true ROM chip as opposed to an EPROM/EEPROM) and often drives the basic operation of a computing device. There are two types of firmware: BIOS on a motherboard and general internal and external device firmware.

BIOS The Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) contains the operating system–independent primitive instructions that a computer needs to start up and load the operating system from disk. The BIOS is contained in a firmware device that is accessed immediately by the computer at boot time. In most computers, the BIOS is stored on an EEPROM chip to facilitate version updates. The process of updating the BIOS is known as “flashing the BIOS.”

There have been a few examples of malicious code embedding itself into BIOS/firmware. There is also an attack known as phlashing, in which a malicious variation of official BIOS or firmware is installed that introduces remote control or other malicious features into a device.

Since 2011, most system manufacturers have replaced the traditional BIOS system on their motherboards with UEFI (unified extensible firmware interface). UEFI is a more advanced interface between hardware and the operating system, which maintains support for legacy BIOS services.

Device Firmware Many hardware devices, such as printers and modems, also need some limited processing power to complete their tasks while minimizing the burden placed on the operating system itself. In many cases, these “mini” operating systems are entirely contained in firmware chips onboard the devices they serve. As with a computer’s BIOS, device firmware is frequently stored on an EEPROM device so it can be updated as necessary.

Client-Based Client-based vulnerabilities place the user, their data, and their system at risk of compromise and destruction. A client-side attack is any attack that is able to harm a client. Generally, when attacks are discussed, it’s assumed that the primary target is a server or a server-side component. A client-side or client-focused attack is one where the client itself, or a process on the client, is the target. A common example of a client-side attack is a malicious website that transfers malicious mobile code (such as an applet) to a vulnerable browser running on the client. Client-side attacks can occur over any

communications protocol, not just HTTP. Another potential vulnerability that is client based is the risk of poisoning of local caches.

Applets Recall that agents are code objects sent from a user’s system to query and process data stored on remote systems. Applets perform the opposite function; these code objects are sent from a server to a client to perform some action. In fact, applets are actually self- contained miniature programs that execute independently of the server that sent them.

Imagine a web server that offers a variety of financial tools to web users. One of these tools might be a mortgage calculator that processes a user’s financial information and provides a monthly mortgage payment based on the loan’s principal and term and the borrower’s credit information. Instead of processing this data and returning the results to the client system, the remote web server might send to the local system an applet that enables it to perform those calculations itself. This provides a number of benefits to both the remote server and the end user:

The processing burden is shifted to the client, freeing up resources on the web server to process requests from more users.

The client is able to produce data using local resources rather than waiting for a response from the remote server. In many cases, this results in a quicker response to changes in the input data.

In a properly programmed applet, the web server does not receive any data provided to the applet as input, therefore maintaining the security and privacy of the user’s financial data.

However, just as with agents, applets introduce a number of security concerns. They allow a remote system to send code to the local system for execution. Security administrators must take steps to ensure that code sent to systems on their network is safe and properly screened for malicious activity. Also, unless the code is analyzed line by line, the end user can never be certain that the applet doesn’t contain a Trojan horse component. For example, the mortgage calculator might indeed transmit sensitive financial information to the web server without the end user’s knowledge or consent.

Two common applet types are Java applets and ActiveX controls:

Java Applets Java is a platform-independent programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Most programming languages use compilers that produce applications custom-tailored to run under a specific operating system. This requires the use of multiple compilers to produce different versions of a single application for each platform it must support. Java overcomes this limitation by inserting the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) into the picture. Each system that runs Java code downloads the version of the JVM supported by its operating system. The JVM then takes the Java code and translates it into a format executable by that specific system. The great benefit of this arrangement is that code can be shared between operating systems without modification. Java applets

are simply short Java programs transmitted over the Internet to perform operations on a remote system.

Security was of paramount concern during the design of the Java platform, and Sun’s development team created the “sandbox” concept to place privilege restrictions on Java code. The sandbox isolates Java code objects from the rest of the operating system and enforces strict rules about the resources those objects can access. For example, the sandbox would prohibit a Java applet from retrieving information from areas of memory not specifically allocated to it, preventing the applet from stealing that information. Unfortunately, while sandboxing reduces the forms of malicious events that can be launched via Java, there are still plenty of other vulnerabilities that have been widely exploited.

ActiveX Controls ActiveX controls are Microsoft’s answer to Sun’s Java applets. They operate in a similar fashion, but they are implemented using a variety of languages, including Visual Basic, C, C++, and Java. There are two key distinctions between Java applets and ActiveX controls. First, ActiveX controls use proprietary Microsoft technology and, therefore, can execute only on systems running Microsoft browsers. Second, ActiveX controls are not subject to the sandbox restrictions placed on Java applets. They have full access to the Windows operating environment and can perform a number of privileged actions. Therefore, you must take special precautions when deciding which ActiveX controls to download and execute. Some security administrators have taken the somewhat harsh position of prohibiting the download of any ActiveX content from all but a select handful of trusted sites.

Microsoft has announced and released previews of its new browser code named Project Spartan. This new browser will not include ActiveX support. While plans to ship Internet Explorer 10 will still include ActiceX, this signals that even Microsoft may be phasing out ActiveX.

Local Caches A local cache is anything that is temporarily stored on the client for future reuse. There are many local caches on a typical client, including ARP cache, DNS cache, and Internet files cache. ARP cache poisoning is caused by an attack responding to ARP broadcast queries in order to send back falsified replies. If the false reply is received by the client before the valid reply, then the false reply is used to populate the ARP cache and the valid reply is discarded as being outside of an open query. The dynamic content of ARP cache, whether poisoned or legitimate, will remain in cache until a timeout occurs (which is usually under 10 minutes). ARP is used to resolve an IP address into the appropriate MAC address in order to craft the Ethernet header for data transmission. Once an IP-to-MAC mapping falls out of cache, then the attacker gains another opportunity to poison the ARP cache when the client re-performs the ARP broadcast query.

A second form of ARP cache poisoning is to create static ARP entries. This is done via the ARP command and must be done locally. But this is easily accomplished through a script

that gets executed on the client either through a Trojan horse, buffer overflow, or social engineering attack. Static ARP entries are permanent, even across system reboots. Once ARP poisoning has occurred, whether against a permanent entry or a dynamic one, the traffic transmitted from the client will be sent to a different system than intended. This is due to have the wrong or a different hardware address (that is, the MAC address) associated with an IP address. ARP cache poisoning or just ARP poisoning is one means of setting up a man-in-the-middle attack.

Another popular means of performing a man-in-the-middle attack is through DNS cache poisoning. Similar to ARP cache, once a client receives a response from DNS, that response will be cached for future use. If false information can be fed into the cache, then misdirecting communications is trivially easy. There are many means of performing DNS cache poisoning, including HOSTS poisoning, authorized DNS server attacks, caching DNS server attacks, DNS lookup address changing, and DNS query spoofing.

The HOSTS file is the static file found on TCP/IP supporting system that contains hard- coded references for domain names and their associated IP addresses. The HOSTS file was used prior to the dynamic query–based DNS system of today, but it serves as a fallback measure or a means to force resolution. Administrators or hackers can add content to the HOSTS file that sets up a relationship between a FQDN (fully qualified domain name) and the IP address of choice. If an attacker is able to plant false information into the HOSTS file, then when the system boots the contents of the HOSTS file will be read into memory where they will take precedence. Unlike dynamic queries, which eventually time out and expire from cache, entries from the HOSTS file are permanent.

Authorized DNS server attacks aim at altering the primary record of a FQDN on its original host system. The authoritative DNS server hosts the zone file or domain database. If this original dataset is altered, then eventually those changes will propagate across the entire Internet. However, an attack on an authoritative DNS server typically gets noticed very quickly, so this rarely results in widespread exploitation. So, most attackers focus on caching DNS servers instead. A caching DNS server is any DNS system deployed to cache DNS information from other DNS servers. Most companies and ISPs provide a caching DNS server for their users. The content hosted on a caching DNS server is not being watched by the worldwide security community, just the local operators. Thus, an attack against a caching DNS server can potentially occur without notice for a significant period of time. For detailed information on how caching DNS server attacks can occur, see “An Illustrated Guide to the Kaminsky DNS Vulnerability” at http://unixwiz.net/techtips/iguide-kaminsky-dns-vuln.html. Although both of these attacks focus on DNS servers, they ultimately affect clients. Once a client has performed a dynamic DNS resolution, the information received from an authoritative DNS server or a caching DNS server will be temporarily stored in the client’s local DNS cache. If that information is false, then the client’s DNS cache has been poisoned.

A fourth example of DNS poisoning focuses on sending an alternate IP address to the

client to be used as the DNS server the client uses for resolving queries. The DNS server address is typically distributed to clients through DHCP but it can also be assigned statically. Even if all of the other elements of IP configuration have been assigned by DHCP, a local alteration can easily staticly assign a DNS server address. Attacks to alter a client’s DNS server lookup address can be performed through a script (similar to the ARP attack mentioned earlier) or by compromising DHCP. Once the client has the wrong DNS server, they will be sending their queries to a hacker-controlled DNS server, which will respond with poisoned results.

A fifth example of DNS poisoning is that of DNS query spoofing. This attack occurs when the hacker is able to eavesdrop on a client’s query to a DNS server. The attacker then sends back a reply with false information. If the client accepts the false reply, they will put that information in their local DNS cache. When the real reply arrives, it will be discarded since the original query will have already been answered. No matter which of these five means of DNS attack is performed, false entries will be present in the local DNS cache of the client. Thus, all of the IP communications will be sent to the wrong endpoint. This allows the hacker to set up a man-in-the-middle attack by operating that false endpoint and then forwarding traffic on to the correct destination.

A third area of concern in regard to local cache is that of the temporary Internet files or the Internet files cache. This is the temporary storage of files downloaded from Internet sites that are being held by the client’s utility for current and possibly future use. Mostly this cache contains website content, but other Internet services can use a file cache as well. A variety of exploitations, such as the split-response attack, can cause the client to download content and store it in the cache that was not an intended element of a requested web page. Mobile code scripting attacks could also be used to plant false content in the cache. Once files have been poisoned in the cache, then even when a legitimate web document calls on a cached item, the malicious item will be activated.

Mitigating or resolving these attacks is not simple or straightforward. There is not an easy patch or update that will prevent these exploits from being waged against a client. This is due to the fact that these attacks take advantage of the normal and proper mechanisms built into various protocols, services, and applications. Thus, instead of a patch to fix a flaw, the defense is more of a detective and preventive concern. Generally as a start, keep operating systems and applications current with patches from their respective vendors. Next, install both host-IDS and network-IDS tools to watch for abuses of these types. Regularly review the logs of your DNS and DHCP systems, as well as local client system logs and potentially firewall, switch, and router logs for entries indicating abnormal or questionable occurrences.

Server-Based An important area of server-based concern, which may include clients as well, is the issue of data flow control. Data flow is the movement of data between processes, between devices, across a network, or over communication channels. Management of data flow

ensures not only efficient transmission with minimal delays or latency, but also reliable throughput using hashing and protection confidentiality with encryption. Data flow control also ensures that receiving systems are not overloaded with traffic, especially to the point of dropping connections or being subject to a malicious or even self-inflicted denial of service. When data overflow occurs, data may be lost or corrupted or may trigger a need for retransmission. These results are undesirable, and data flow control is often implemented to prevent these issues from occurring. Data flow control may be provided by networking devices, including routers and switches, as well as network applications and services.

Database Security Database security is an important part of any organization that uses large sets of data as an essential asset. Without database security efforts, business tasks can be interrupted and confidential information disclosed. For the CISSP exam, it is important that you are aware of several topics in relation to database security. These include aggregation, inference, data mining, data warehousing, and data analytics.

Aggregation SQL provides a number of functions that combine records from one or more tables to produce potentially useful information. This process is called aggregation. Aggregation is not without its security vulnerabilities. Aggregation attacks are used to collect numerous low-level security items or low-value items and combine them to create something of a higher security level or value.

These functions, although extremely useful, also pose a risk to the security of information in a database. For example, suppose a low-level military records clerk is responsible for updating records of personnel and equipment as they are transferred from base to base. As part of his duties, this clerk may be granted the database permissions necessary to query and update personnel tables.

The military might not consider an individual transfer request (in other words, Sergeant Jones is being moved from Base X to Base Y) to be classified information. The records clerk has access to that information because he needs it to process Sergeant Jones’s transfer. However, with access to aggregate functions, the records clerk might be able to count the number of troops assigned to each military base around the world. These force levels are often closely guarded military secrets, but the low-ranking records clerk could deduce them by using aggregate functions across a large number of unclassified records.

For this reason, it’s especially important for database security administrators to strictly control access to aggregate functions and adequately assess the potential information they may reveal to unauthorized individuals.

Inference

The database security issues posed by inference attacks are similar to those posed by the threat of data aggregation. Inference attacks involve combining several pieces of nonsensitive information to gain access to information that should be classified at a higher level. However, inference makes use of the human mind’s deductive capacity rather than the raw mathematical ability of modern database platforms.

A commonly cited example of an inference attack is that of the accounting clerk at a large corporation who is allowed to retrieve the total amount the company spends on salaries for use in a top-level report but is not allowed to access the salaries of individual employees. The accounting clerk often has to prepare those reports with effective dates in the past and so is allowed to access the total salary amounts for any day in the past year. Say, for example, that this clerk must also know the hiring and termination dates of various employees and has access to this information. This opens the door for an inference attack. If an employee was the only person hired on a specific date, the accounting clerk can now retrieve the total salary amount on that date and the day before and deduce the salary of that particular employee—sensitive information that the user would not be permitted to access directly.

As with aggregation, the best defense against inference attacks is to maintain constant vigilance over the permissions granted to individual users. Furthermore, intentional blurring of data may be used to prevent the inference of sensitive information. For example, if the accounting clerk were able to retrieve only salary information rounded to the nearest million, they would probably not be able to gain any useful information about individual employees. Finally, you can use database partitioning (discussed earlier in this chapter) to help subvert these attacks.

Data Mining and Data Warehousing Many organizations use large databases, known as data warehouses, to store large amounts of information from a variety of databases for use with specialized analysis techniques. These data warehouses often contain detailed historical information not normally stored in production databases because of storage limitations or data security concerns.

A data dictionary is commonly used for storing critical information about data, including usage, type, sources, relationships, and formats. DBMS software reads the data dictionary to determine access rights for users attempting to access data.

Data mining techniques allow analysts to comb through data warehouses and look for potential correlated information. For example, an analyst might discover that the demand for lightbulbs always increases in the winter months and then use this information when planning pricing and promotion strategies. Data mining techniques result in the development of data models that can be used to predict future activity.

The activity of data mining produces metadata. Metadata is data about data or information about data. Metadata is not exclusively the result of data mining operations;

other functions or services can produce metadata as well. Think of metadata from a data mining operation as a concentration of data. It can also be a superset, a subset, or a representation of a larger dataset. Metadata can be the important, significant, relevant, abnormal, or aberrant elements from a dataset.

One common security example of metadata is that of a security incident report. An incident report is the metadata extracted from a data warehouse of audit logs through the use of a security auditing data mining tool. In most cases, metadata is of a greater value or sensitivity (due to disclosure) than the bulk of data in the warehouse. Thus, metadata is stored in a more secure container known as the data mart.

Data warehouses and data mining are significant to security professionals for two reasons. First, as previously mentioned, data warehouses contain large amounts of potentially sensitive information vulnerable to aggregation and inference attacks, and security practitioners must ensure that adequate access controls and other security measures are in place to safeguard this data. Second, data mining can actually be used as a security tool when it’s used to develop baselines for statistical anomaly–based intrusion detection systems.

Data Analytics Data analytics is the science of raw data examination with the focus of extracting useful information out of the bulk information set. The results of data analytics could focus on important outliers or exceptions to normal or standard items, a summary of all data items, or some focused extraction and organization of interesting information. Data analytics is a growing field as more organizations are gathering an astounding volume of data from their customers and products. The sheer volume of information to be processed has demanded a whole new category of database structures and analysis tools. It has even picked up the nickname of “big data.”

Big data refers to collections of data that have become so large that traditional means of analysis or processing are ineffective, inefficient, and insufficient. Big data involves numerous difficult challenges, including collection, storage, analysis, mining, transfer, distribution, and results presentation. Such large volumes of data have the potential to reveal nuances and idiosyncrasies that more mundane sets of data fail to address. The potential to learn from big data is tremendous, but the burdens of dealing with big data are equally great. As the volume of data increases, the complexity of data analysis increases as well. Big data analysis requires high-performance analytics running on massively parallel or distributed processing systems. With regard to security, organizations are endeavoring to collect an ever more detailed and exhaustive range of event data and access data. This data is collected with the goal of assessing compliance, improving efficiencies, improving productivity, and detecting violations.

Large-Scale Parallel Data Systems Parallel data systems or parallel computing is a computation system designed to perform

numerous calculations simultaneously. But parallel data systems often go far beyond basic multiprocessing capabilities. They often include the concept of dividing up a large task into smaller elements, and then distributing each subelement to a different processing subsystem for parallel computation. This implementation is based on the idea that some problems can be solved efficiently if broken into smaller tasks that can be worked on concurrently. Parallel data processing can be accomplished by using distinct CPUs or multicode CPUs, using virtual systems, or any combination of these. Large-scale parallel data systems must also be concerned with performance, power consumption, and reliability/stability issues. The complexity of involving 1,000 or more processing units often results in an unexpected increase in problems and risks along with the enormous levels of computational capabilities.

The arena of large-scale parallel data systems is still evolving. It is likely that many management issues are yet to be discovered and solutions to known issues are still being sought. Large-scale parallel data management is likely a key tool in managing big data and will often involve cloud computing, grid computing, or peer-to-peer computing solutions. These three concepts are covered in the following sections.

Distributed Systems As computing has evolved from a host/terminal model (where users could be physically distributed but all functions, activity, data, and resources reside on a single centralized system) to a client-server model (where users operate independent, fully functional desktop computers but also access services and resources on networked servers), security controls and concepts have had to evolve to follow suit. This means that clients have computing and storage capabilities and, typically, that multiple servers do likewise. Thus, security must be addressed everywhere instead of at a single centralized host. From a security standpoint, this means that because processing and storage are distributed on multiple clients and servers, all those computers must be properly secured and protected. It also means that the network links between clients and servers (and in some cases, these links may not be purely local) must also be secured and protected. When evaluating security architecture, be sure to include an assessment of the needs and risks related to distributed architectures.

Distributed architectures are prone to vulnerabilities unthinkable in monolithic host/terminal systems. Desktop systems can contain sensitive information that may be at some risk of being exposed and must therefore be protected. Individual users may lack general security savvy or awareness, and therefore the underlying architecture has to compensate for those deficiencies. Desktop PCs, workstations, and laptops can provide avenues of access into critical information systems elsewhere in a distributed environment because users require access to networked servers and services to do their jobs. By permitting user machines to access a network and its distributed resources, organizations must also recognize that those user machines can become threats if they are misused or compromised. Such software and system vulnerabilities and threats must

be assessed and addressed properly.

Communications equipment can also provide unwanted points of entry into a distributed environment. For example, modems attached to a desktop machine that’s also attached to an organization’s network can make that network vulnerable to dial-in attacks. There is also a risk that wireless adapters on client systems can be used to create open networks. Likewise, users who download data from the Internet increase the risk of infecting their own and other systems with malicious code, Trojan horses, and so forth. Desktops, laptops, and workstations—and associated disks or other storage devices—may not be secure from physical intrusion or theft. Finally, when data resides only on client machines, it may not be secured with a proper backup (it’s often the case that although servers are backed up routinely, the same is not true for client computers).

You should see that the foregoing litany of potential vulnerabilities in distributed architectures means that such environments require numerous safeguards to implement appropriate security and to ensure that such vulnerabilities are eliminated, mitigated, or remedied. Clients must be subjected to policies that impose safeguards on their contents and their users’ activities. These include the following:

Email must be screened so that it cannot become a vector for infection by malicious software; email should also be subject to policies that govern appropriate use and limit potential liability.

Download/upload policies must be created so that incoming and outgoing data is screened and suspect materials blocked.

Systems must be subject to robust access controls, which may include multifactor authentication and/or biometrics to restrict access to desktops and to prevent unauthorized access to servers and services.

Graphical user interface mechanisms and database management systems should be installed, and their use required, to restrict and manage access to critical information.

File encryption may be appropriate for files and data stored on client machines (indeed, drive-level encryption is a good idea for laptops and other mobile computing gear that is subject to loss or theft outside an organization’s premises).

It’s essential to separate and isolate processes that run in user and supervisory modes so that unauthorized and unwanted access to high-privilege processes and capabilities is prevented.

Protection domains should be created so that compromise of a client won’t automatically compromise an entire network.

Disks and other sensitive materials should be clearly labeled as to their security classification or organizational sensitivity; procedural processes and system controls should combine to help protect sensitive materials from unwanted or unauthorized access.

Files on desktop machines should be backed up, as well as files on servers—ideally, using some form of centralized backup utility that works with client agent software to identify and capture files from clients stored in a secure backup storage archive.

Desktop users need regular security awareness training to maintain proper security awareness; they also need to be notified about potential threats and instructed on how to deal with them appropriately.

Desktop computers and their storage media require protection against environmental hazards (temperature, humidity, power loss/fluctuation, and so forth).

Desktop computers should be included in disaster recovery and business continuity planning because they’re potentially as important (if not more important) to getting their users back to work as other systems and services within an organization.

Developers of custom software built in and for distributed environments also need to take security into account, including using formal methods for development and deployment, such as code libraries, change control mechanisms, configuration management, and patch and update deployment.

In general, safeguarding distributed environments means understanding the vulnerabilities to which they’re subject and applying appropriate safeguards. These can (and do) range from technology solutions and controls to policies and procedures that manage risk and seek to limit or avoid losses, damage, unwanted disclosure, and so on.

A reasonable understanding of countermeasure principles is always important when responding to vulnerabilities and threats. Some specific countermeasure principles are discussed in Chapter 2, “Personnel Security and Risk Management Concepts,” in the section “Risk Management.” But a common general principle is that of defense in depth. Defense in depth is a common security strategy used to provide a protective multilayer barrier against various forms of attack. It’s reasonable to assume that there is greater difficulty in passing bad traffic or data through a network heavily fortified by a firewall, an IDS, and a diligent administration staff than one with a firewall alone. Why shouldn’t you double up your defenses? Defense in depth is the use of multiple types of access controls in literal or theoretical concentric circles. This form of layered security helps an organization avoid a monolithic security stance. A monolithic or fortress mentality is the belief that a single security mechanism is all that is required to provide sufficient security. Unfortunately, every individual security mechanism has a flaw or a workaround just waiting to be discovered and abused by a hacker. Only through the intelligent combination of countermeasures is a defense constructed that will resist significant and persistent attempts of compromise.

Cloud Computing Cloud computing is the popular term referring to a concept of computing where processing and storage are performed elsewhere over a network connection rather than locally. Cloud computing is often thought of as Internet-based computing. Ultimately,

processing and storage still occurs on computers somewhere, but the distinction is that the local operator no longer needs to have that capacity or capability locally. This also allows a larger group of users to leverage cloud resources on demand. From the end-user perspective, all the work of computing is now performed “in the cloud” and thus the complexity is isolated from them.

Cloud computing is a natural extension and evolution of virtualization, the Internet, distributed architecture, and the need for ubiquitous access to data and resources. However, it does have some issues, including privacy concerns, regulation compliance difficulties, use of open/closed-source solutions, adoption of open standards, and whether or not cloud-based data is actually secured (or even securable).

Some of the concepts in cloud computing are listed here:

Platform-as-a-Service Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) is the concept of providing a computing platform and software solution stack as a virtual or cloud-based service. Essentially, this type of cloud solution provides all the aspects of a platform (that is, the operating system and complete solution package). The primary attraction of PaaS is the avoidance of having to purchase and maintain high-end hardware and software locally.

Software-as-a-Service Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is a derivative of PaaS. SaaS provides on-demand online access to specific software applications or suites without the need for local installation. In many cases, there are few local hardware and OS limitations. SaaS can be implemented as a subscription service (for example, Microsoft Office 365), a pay-as-you-go service, or a free service (for example, Google Docs).

Infrastructure-as-a-Service Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) takes the PaaS model yet another step forward and provides not just on-demand operating solutions but complete outsourcing options. This can include utility or metered computing services, administrative task automation, dynamic scaling, virtualization services, policy implementation and management services, and managed/filtered Internet connectivity. Ultimately, IaaS allows an enterprise to scale up new software or data-based services/solutions through cloud systems quickly and without having to install massive hardware locally.

Grid Computing Grid computing is a form of parallel distributed processing that loosely groups a significant number of processing nodes to work toward a specific processing goal. Members of the grid can enter and leave the grid at random intervals. Often, grid members join the grid only when their processing capacities are not being taxed for local workloads. When a system is otherwise in an idle state, it could join a grid group, download a small portion of work, and begin calculations. When a system leaves the grid, it saves its work and may upload completed or partial work elements back to the grid. Many interesting uses of grid computing have developed, ranging from projects seeking out intelligent aliens, performing protein folding, predicting weather, modeling

earthquakes, planning financial decisions, and solving for primes.

The biggest security concern with grid computing is that the content of each work packet is potentially exposed to the world. Many grid computing projects are open to the world, so there is no restriction on who can run the local processing application and participate in the grid’s project. This also means that grid members could keep copies of each work packet and examine the contents. Thus, grid projects will not likely be able to maintain secrecy and are not appropriate for private, confidential, or proprietary data.

Grid computing can also vary greatly in the computational capacity from moment to moment. Work packets are sometimes not returned, returned late, or returned corrupted. This requires significant reworking and causes instability in the speed, progress, responsiveness, and latency of the project as a whole and with individual grid members. Time-sensitive projects might not be given sufficient computational time to finish by a specific chronological deadline.

Grid computing often uses a central primary core of servers to manage the project, track work packets, and integrate returned work segments. If the central servers are overloaded or go offline, complete failure or crashing of the grid can occur. However, usually when central grid systems are inaccessible, grid members complete their current local tasks and then regularly poll to discover when the central servers come back online. There is also a potential risk that a compromise of the central grid servers could be leveraged to attack grid members or trick grid members into performing malicious actions instead of the intended purpose of the grid community.

Peer to Peer Peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies are networking and distributed application solutions that share tasks and workloads among peers. This is similar to grid computing; the primary differences are that there is no central management system and the services provided are usually real time rather than as a collection of computational power. Common examples of P2P include many VoIP services, such as Skype, BitTorrent (for data/file distribution), and Spotify (for streaming audio/music distribution).

Security concerns with P2P solutions include a perceived inducement to pirate copyrighted materials, the ability to eavesdrop on distributed content, a lack of central control/oversight/management/filtering, and the potential for services to consume all available bandwidth.

Cryptographic systems are covered in detail in Chapter 6, “Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms,” and Chapter 7, “PKI and Cryptographic Applications.”

Industrial Control Systems An industrial control system (ICS) is a form of computer-management device that controls industrial processes and machines. ICSs are used across a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, fabrication, electricity generation and distribution, water distribution, sewage processing, and oil refining. There are several forms of ICS, including distributed control systems (DCSs), programmable logic controllers (PLCs), and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA).

DCS units are typically found in industrial process plans where the need to gather data and implement control over a large-scale environment from a single location is essential. An important aspect of DCS is that the controlling elements are distributed across the monitored environment, such as a manufacturing floor or a production line, and the centralized monitoring location sends commands out of those localized controllers while gathering status and performance data. A DCS might be analog or digital in nature, depending on the task being performed or the device being controlled. For example, a liquid flow value DCS would be an analog system whereas an electric voltage regulator DCS would likely be a digital system.

PLC units are effectively single-purpose or focused-purpose digital computers. They are typically deployed for the management and automation of various industrial electromechanical operations, such as controlling systems on an assembly line or a large- scale digital light display (such as a giant display system in a stadium or on a Las Vegas Strip marquee).

A SCADA system can operate as a stand-alone device, be networked together with other SCADA systems, or be networked with traditional IT systems. Most SCADA systems are designed with minimal human interfaces. Often, they use mechanical buttons and knobs or simple LCD screen interfaces (similar to what you might have on a business printer or a GPS navigation device). However, networked SCADA devices may have more complex remote-control software interfaces.

In theory, the static design of SCADA, PLC, and DCS units and their minimal human interfaces should make the system fairly resistant to compromise or modification. Thus, little security was built into these industrial control devices, especially in the past. But there have been several well-known compromises of industrial control systems in recent years; for example, Stuxnet delivered the first-ever rootkit to a SCADA system located in a nuclear facility. Many SCADA vendors have started implementing security improvements into their solutions in order to prevent or at least reduce future compromises.

Assess and Mitigate Vulnerabilities in Web-Based Systems There is a wide variety of application and system vulnerabilities and threats in web-based systems, and the range is constantly expanding. Vulnerabilities include concerns related to XML and SAML plus many other concerns discussed by the open community-focused

web project known as the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP).

XML exploitation is a form of programming attack that is used to either falsify information being sent to a visitor or cause their system to give up information without authorization. One area of growing concern in regard to XML attacks is Security Association Markup Language (SAML). SAML abuses are often focused on web-based authentication. SAML is an XML-based convention for the organization and exchange of communication authentication and authorization details between security domains, often over web protocols. SAML is often used to provide a web-based SSO (single sign-on) solution. If an attacker can falsify SAML communications or steal a visitor’s access token, they may be able to bypass authentication and gain unauthorized access to a site.

OWASP is a nonprofit security project focusing on improving security for online or web- based applications. OWASP is not just an organization—it is also a large community that works together to freely share information, methodology, tools, and techniques related to better coding practices and more secure deployment architectures. For more information on OWASP and to participate in the community, visit the website at www.owasp.org.

Assess and Mitigate Vulnerabilities in Mobile Systems Smartphones and other mobile devices present an ever-increasing security risk as they become more and more capable of interacting with the Internet as well as corporate networks. When personally owned devices are allowed to enter and leave a secured facility without limitation, oversight, or control, the potential for harm is significant.

Malicious insiders can bring in malicious code from outside on various storage devices, including mobile phones, audio players, digital cameras, memory cards, optical discs, and USB drives. These same storage devices can be used to leak or steal internal confidential and private data in order to disclose it to the outside world. (Where do you think most of the content on WikiLeaks comes from?) Malicious insiders can execute malicious code, visit dangerous websites, or intentionally perform harmful activities.

Mobile devices often contain sensitive data such as contacts, text messages, email, and possibly notes and documents. Any mobile device with a camera feature can take photographs of sensitive information or locations. The loss or theft of a mobile device could mean the compromise of personal and/or corporate secrets.

A device owned by an individual can be referenced using any of these terms: portable device, mobile device, personal mobile device (PMD), personal electronic device or portable electronic device (PED), and personally owned device (POD).

Mobile devices are common targets of hackers and malicious code. It’s important to keep

nonessential information off portable devices, run a firewall and antivirus product (if available), and keep the system locked and/or encrypted (if possible).

Many mobile devices also support USB connections to perform synchronization of communications and contacts with desktop and/or notebook computers as well as the transfer of files, documents, music, video, and so on.

Additionally, mobile devices aren’t immune to eavesdropping. With the right type of sophisticated equipment, most mobile phone conversations can be tapped into—not to mention the fact that anyone within 15 feet can hear you talking. Be careful what you discuss over a mobile phone, especially when you’re in a public place.

A wide range of security features are available on mobile devices. However, support for a feature isn’t the same thing as having a feature properly configured and enabled. A security benefit is gained only when the security function is in force. Be sure to check that all desired security features are operating as expected on your device.

Android Android is a mobile device OS based on Linux, which was acquired by Google in 2005. In 2008, the first devices hosting Android were made available to the public. The Android source code is made open source through the Apache license, but most devices also include proprietary software. Although it’s mostly intended for use on phones and tablets, Android is being used on a wide range of devices, including televisions, game consoles, digital cameras, microwaves, watches, e-readers, cordless phones, and ski goggles.

The use of Android in phones and tablets allows for a wide range of user customization: you can install both Google Play Store apps as well as apps from unknown external sources (such as Amazon’s App Store), and many devices support the replacement of the default version of Android with a customized or alternate version. However, when Android is used on other devices, it can be implemented as something closer to a static system.

Whether static or not, Android has numerous security vulnerabilities. These include exposure to malicious apps, running scripts from malicious websites, and allowing insecure data transmissions. Android devices can often be rooted (breaking their security and access limitations) in order to grant the user full root-level access to the device’s low-level configuration settings. Rooting increases a device’s security risk, because all running code inherits root privileges.

Improvements are made to Android security as new updates are released. Users can adjust numerous configuration settings to reduce vulnerabilities and risks. Also, users may be able to install apps that add additional security features to the platform.

iOS iOS is the mobile device OS from Apple that is available on the iPhone, iPad, iPod,

and Apple TV. iOS isn’t licensed for use on any non-Apple hardware. Thus, Apple is in full control of the features and capabilities of iOS. However, iOS is not an example of a static environment, because users can install any of over one million apps from the Apple App Store. Also, it’s often possible to jailbreak iOS (breaking Apple’s security and access restrictions), allowing users to install apps from third parties and gain greater control over low-level settings. Jailbreaking an iOS device reduces its security and exposes the device to potential compromise. Users can adjust device settings to increase an iOS device’s security and install many apps that can add security features.

Device Security Device security is the range of potential security options or features that may be available for a mobile device. Not all portable electronic devices (PEDs) have good security features. But even if devices have security features, they’re of no value unless they’re enabled and properly configured. Be sure to consider the security options of a new device before you make a purchase decision.

Full Device Encryption Some mobile devices, including portable computers, tablets, as well as mobile phones, may offer device encryption. If most or all the storage media of a device can be encrypted, this is usually a worthwhile feature to enable. However, encryption isn’t a guarantee of protection for data, especially if the device is stolen while unlocked or if the system itself has a known backdoor attack vulnerability.

Voice encryption may be possible on mobile devices when voice-over IP (VOIP) services are used. VOIP service between computer-like devices is more likely to offer an encryption option than VOIP connections to a traditional land-line phone or typical mobile phone. When a voice conversation is encrypted, eavesdropping becomes worthless because the contents of the conversation are undecipherable.

Remote Wiping It’s becoming common for a remote wipe or remote sanitation to be performed if a device is lost or stolen. A remote wipe lets you delete all data and possibly even configuration settings from a device remotely. The wipe process can be triggered over mobile phone service or sometimes over any Internet connection. However, a remote wipe isn’t a guarantee of data security. Thieves may be smart enough to prevent connections that would trigger the wipe function while they dump out the data. Additionally, a remote wipe is mostly a deletion operation. The use of an undelete or data recovery utility can often recover data on a wiped device. To ensure that a remote wipe destroys data beyond recovery, the device should be encrypted. Thus the undeletion operation would only be recovering encrypted data, which the attacker would be unable to decipher.

Lockout

Lockout on a mobile device is similar to account lockout on a company workstation. When a user fails to provide their credentials after repeated attempts, the account or device is disabled (locked out) for a period of time or until an administrator clears the lockout flag.

Mobile devices may offer a lockout feature, but it’s in use only if a screen lock has been configured. Otherwise, a simple screen swipe to access the device doesn’t provide sufficient security, because an authentication process doesn’t occur. Some devices trigger ever longer delays between access attempts as a greater number of authentication failures occur. Some devices allow for a set number of attempts (such as three) before triggering a lockout that lasts minutes. Other devices trigger a persistent lockout and require the use of a different account or master password/code to regain access to the device.

Screen Locks A screen lock is designed to prevent someone from casually picking up and being able to use your phone or mobile device. However, most screen locks can be unlocked by swiping a pattern or typing a number on a keypad display. Neither of these is truly a secure operation. Screen locks may have workarounds, such as accessing the phone application through the emergency calling feature. And a screen lock doesn’t necessarily protect the device if a hacker connects to it over Bluetooth, wireless, or a USB cable.

Screen locks are often triggered after a timeout period of nonuse. Most PCs autotrigger a password-protected screen saver if the system is left idle for a few minutes. Similarly, many tablets and mobile phones trigger a screen lock and dim or turn off the display after 30–60 seconds. The lockout feature ensures that if you leave your device unattended or it’s lost or stolen, it will be difficult for anyone else to be able to access your data or applications. To unlock the device, you must enter a password, code, or PIN; draw a pattern; offer your eyeball or face for recognition; scan your fingerprint; or use a proximity device such as a near-field communication (NFC) or radio-frequency identification (RFID) ring or tile.

Near field communication (NFC) is a standard to establish radio communications between devices in close proximity. It lets you perform a type of automatic synchronization and association between devices by touching them together or bringing them within inches of each other. NFC is commonly found on smartphones and many mobile device accessories. It’s often used to perform device-to-device data exchanges, set up direct communications, or access more complex services such as WPA-2 encrypted wireless networks by linking with the wireless access point via NFC. Because NFC is a radio-based technology, it isn’t without its vulnerabilities. NFC attacks can include man-in-the-middle, eavesdropping, data manipulation, and replay attacks.

GPS Many mobile devices include a GPS chip to support and benefit from localized services, such as navigation, so it’s possible to track those devices. The GPS chip itself is usually just a receiver of signals from orbiting GPS satellites. However, applications on the mobile device can record the GPS location of the device and then report it to an online service. You can use GPS tracking to monitor your own movements, track the movements of others (such as minors or delivery personnel), or track down a stolen device. But for GPS tracking to work, the mobile device must have Internet or wireless phone service over which to communicate its location information.

Application Control Application control is a device-management solution that limits which applications can be installed onto a device. It can also be used to force specific applications to be installed or to enforce the settings of certain applications, in order to support a security baseline or maintain other forms of compliance. Using application control can often reduce exposure to malicious applications by limiting the user’s ability to install apps that come from unknown sources or that offer non-work-related features.

Storage Segmentation Storage segmentation is used to artificially compartmentalize various types or values of data on a storage medium. On a mobile device, the device manufacturer and/or the service provider may use storage segmentation to isolate the device’s OS and preinstalled apps from user-installed apps and user data. Some mobile device-management systems further impose storage segmentation in order to separate company data and apps from user data and apps.

Asset Tracking Asset tracking is the management process used to maintain oversight over an inventory, such as deployed mobile devices. An asset-tracking system can be passive or active. Passive systems rely on the asset itself to check in with the management service on a regular basis, or the device is detected as being present in the office each time the employee arrives at work. An active system uses a polling or pushing technology to send out queries to devices in order to elicit a response.

You can use asset tracking to verify that a device is still in the possession of the assigned authorized user. Some asset-tracking solutions can locate missing or stolen devices.

Some asset-tracking solutions expand beyond hardware inventory management and can oversee the installed apps, app usage, stored data, and data access on a device. You can use this type of monitoring to verify compliance with security guidelines or check for exposure of confidential information to unauthorized entities.

Inventory Control The term inventory control may describe hardware asset tracking (as discussed in the previous topic). However, it can also refer to the concept of using a mobile device as a means of tracking inventory in a warehouse or storage cabinet. Most mobile devices have a camera. Using a mobile device camera, apps that can take photos or scan bar codes can be used to track physical goods. Those mobile devices with RFID or NFC capabilities may be able to interact with objects or their containers that have been electronically tagged.

Mobile Device Management Mobile device management (MDM) is a software solution to the challenging task of managing the myriad mobile devices that employees use to access company resources. The goals of MDM are to improve security, provide monitoring, enable remote management, and support troubleshooting. Many MDM solutions support a wide range of devices and can operate across many service providers. You can use MDM to push or remove apps, manage data, and enforce configuration settings both over the air (across a carrier network) and over Wi-Fi connections. MDM can be used to manage company- owned devices as well as personally owned devices (such as in a bring-your-own-device [BYOD] environment).

Device Access Control A strong password would be a great idea on a phone or other mobile device if locking the phone provided true security. But most mobile devices aren’t secure, so even with a strong password, the device is still accessible over Bluetooth, wireless, or a USB cable. If a specific mobile device blocked access to the device when the system lock was enabled, this would be a worthwhile feature to set to trigger automatically after a period of inactivity or manual initialization. This benefit is usually obtained when you enable both a device password and storage encryption.

You should consider any means that reduces unauthorized access to a mobile device. Many MDM solutions can force screen-lock configuration and prevent a user from disabling the feature.

Removable Storage Many mobile devices support removable storage. Some devices support microSD cards, which can be used to expand available storage on a mobile device. However, most mobile phones require the removal of a back plate and sometimes removal of the battery in order to add or remove a storage card. Larger mobile phones, tablets, and notebook computers may support an easily accessible card slot on the side of the device.

Many mobile devices also support external USB storage devices, such as flash drives and external hard drives. These may require a special on-the-go (OTG) cable.

In addition, there are mobile storage devices that can provide Bluetooth- or Wi-Fi-based

access to stored data through an on-board wireless interface.

Disabling Unused Features Although enabling security features is essential for them to have any beneficial effect, it’s just as important to remove apps and disable features that aren’t essential to business tasks or common personal use. The wider the range of enabled features and installed apps, the greater the chance that an exploitation or software flaw will cause harm to the device and/or the data it contains. Following common security practices, such as hardening, reduces the attack surface of mobile devices.

Application Security In addition to managing the security of mobile devices, you also need to focus on the applications and functions used on those devices. Most of the software security concerns on desktop or notebook systems apply to mobile devices just as much as common-sense security practices do.

Key Management Key management is always a concern when cryptography is involved. Most of the failures of a cryptosystem are based on the key management rather than on the algorithms. Good key selection is based on the quality and availability of random numbers. Most mobile devices must rely locally on poor random-number-producing mechanisms or access more robust random number generators (RNGs) over a wireless link. Once keys are created, they need to be stored in such a way as to minimize exposure to loss or compromise. The best option for key storage is usually removable hardware or the use of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM), but these are rarely available on mobile phones and tablets.

Credential Management The storage of credentials in a central location is referred to as credential management. Given the wide range of Internet sites and services, each with its own particular logon requirements, it can be a burden to use unique names and passwords. Credential management solutions offer a means to securely store a plethora of credential sets. Often these tools employ a master credential set (multifactor being preferred) to unlock the dataset when needed. Some credential-management options can even provide auto-login options for apps and websites.

Authentication Authentication on or to a mobile device is often fairly simple, especially for mobile phones and tablets. However, a swipe or pattern access shouldn’t be considered true authentication. Whenever possible, use a password, provide a PIN, offer your eyeball or face for recognition, scan your fingerprint, or use a proximity device such as an NFC or RFID ring or tile. These means of device authentication are much more difficult for a

thief to bypass if properly implemented. As mentioned previously, it’s also prudent to combine device authentication with device encryption to block access to stored information via a connection cable.

Geotagging Mobile devices with GPS support enable the embedding of geographical location in the form of latitude and longitude as well as date/time information on photos taken with these devices. This allows a would-be attacker (or angry ex) to view photos from social networking or similar sites and determine exactly when and where a photo was taken. This geotagging can be used for nefarious purposes, such as determining when a person normally performs routine activities.

Once a geotagged photo has been uploaded to the Internet, a potential cyber-stalker may have access to more information than the uploader intended. This is prime material for security-awareness briefs for end users.

Encryption Encryption is often a useful protection mechanism against unauthorized access to data, whether in storage or in transit. Most mobile devices provide some form of storage encryption. When this is available, it should be enabled. Some mobile devices offer native support for communications encryption, but most can run add-on software (apps) that can add encryption to data sessions, voice calls, and/or video conferences.

Application Whitelisting Application whitelisting is a security option that prohibits unauthorized software from being able to execute. Whitelisting is also known as deny by default or implicit deny. In application security, whitelisting prevents any and all software, including malware, from executing unless it’s on the preapproved exception list: the whitelist. This is a significant departure from the typical device-security stance, which is to allow by default and deny by exception (also known as blacklisting).

Due to the growth of malware, an application whitelisting approach is one of the few options remaining that shows real promise in protecting devices and data. However, no security solution is perfect, including whitelisting. All known whitelisting solutions can be circumvented with kernel-level vulnerabilities and application configuration issues.

BYOD Concerns BYOD is a policy that allows employees to bring their own personal mobile devices into work and use those devices to connect to (or through) the company network to business resources and/or the Internet. Although BYOD may improve employee morale and job satisfaction, it increases security risk to the organization. If the BYOD policy is open- ended, any device is allowed to connect to the company network. Not all mobile devices have security features, and thus such a policy allows noncompliant devices onto the

production network. A BYOD policy that mandates specific devices may reduce this risk, but it may in turn require the company to purchase devices for employees who are unable to purchase their own compliant device. Many other BYOD concerns are discussed in the following sections.

Users need to understand the benefits, restrictions, and consequences of using their own devices at work. Reading and signing off on the BYOD policy along with attending an overview or training program may be sufficient to accomplish reasonable awareness.

Data Ownership When a personal device is used for business tasks, comingling of personal data and business data is likely to occur. Some devices can support storage segmentation, but not all devices can provide data-type isolation. Establishing data ownership can be complicated. For example, if a device is lost or stolen, the company may wish to trigger a remote wipe, clearing the device of all valuable information. However, the employee will often be resistant to this, especially if there is any hope that the device will be found or returned. A wipe may remove all business and personal data, which may be a significant loss to the individual — especially if the device is recovered, because then the wipe would seem to have been an overreaction. Clear policies about data ownership should be established. Some MDM solutions can provide data isolation/segmentation and support business data sanitization without affecting personal data.

The BYOD policy regarding data ownership should address backups for mobile devices. Business data and personal data should be protected by a backup solution—either a single solution for all data on the device or separate solutions for each type or class of data. This reduces the risk of data loss in the event of a remote-wipe event as well as device failure or damage.

Support Ownership When an employee’s mobile device experiences a failure, a fault, or damage, who is responsible for the device’s repair, replacement, or technical support? The BYOD policy should define what support will be provided by the company and what support is left to the individual and, if relevant, their service provider.

Patch Management The BYOD policy should define the means and mechanisms of patch management for a personally owned mobile device. Is the user responsible for installing updates? Should the user install all available updates? Should the organization test updates prior to on- device installation? Are updates to be handled over the air (via service provider) or over Wi-Fi? Are there versions of the mobile OS that cannot be used? What patch or update level is required?

Antivirus Management

The BYOD policy should dictate whether antivirus, anti-malware, and anti-spyware scanners are to be installed on mobile devices. The policy should indicate which products/apps are recommended for use, as well as the settings for those solutions.

Forensics The BYOD policy should address forensics and investigations as related to mobile devices. Users need to be aware that in the event of a security violation or a criminal activity, their devices might be involved. This would mandate gathering evidence from those devices. Some processes of evidence gathering can be destructive, and some legal investigations require the confiscation of devices.

Privacy The BYOD policy should address privacy and monitoring. When a personal device is used for business tasks, the user often loses some or all of the privacy they enjoyed prior to using their mobile device at work. Workers may need to agree to be tracked and monitored on their mobile device, even when not on company property and outside of work hours. A personal device in use under BYOD should be considered by the individual to be quasi-company property.

On-boarding/Off-boarding The BYOD policy should address personal mobile device on-boarding and off-boarding procedures. BYOD on-boarding includes installing security, management, and productivity apps along with implementing secure and productive configuration settings. BYOD off-boarding includes a formal wipe of the business data along with the removal of any business-specific applications. In some cases, a full device wipe and factory reset may be prescribed.

Adherence to Corporate Policies A BYOD policy should clearly indicate that using a personal mobile device for business activities doesn’t exclude a worker from adhering to corporate policies. A worker should treat BYOD equipment as company property and thus stay in compliance with all restrictions, even when off premises and off hours.

User Acceptance A BYOD policy needs to be clear and specific about all the elements of using a personal device at work. For many users, the restrictions, security settings, and MDM tracking implemented under BYOD will be much more onerous than they expect. Thus, organizations should make the effort to fully explain the details of a BYOD policy prior to allowing a personal device into the production environment. Only after an employee has expressed consent and acceptance, typically through a signature, should their device be on-boarded.

Architecture/Infrastructure Considerations When implementing BYOD, organizations should evaluate their network and security design, architecture, and infrastructure. If every worker brings in a personal device, the number of devices on the network may double. This requires planning to handle IP assignments, communications isolation, data-priority management, increased intrusion detection system (IDS)/intrusion prevention system (IPS) monitoring load, as well as increased bandwidth consumption, both internally and across any Internet link. Most mobile devices are wireless enabled, so this will likely require a more robust wireless network and dealing with Wi-Fi congestion and interference. BYOD needs to be considered in light of the additional infrastructure costs it will trigger.

Legal Concerns Company attorneys should evaluate the legal concerns of BYOD. Using personal devices in the execution of business tasks probably means an increased burden of liability and risk of data leakage. BYOD may make employees happy, but it might not be a worthwhile or cost-effective endeavor for the organization.

Acceptable Use Policy The BYOD policy should either reference the company acceptable use policy or include a mobile device-specific version focusing on unique issues. With the use of personal mobile devices at work, there is an increased risk of information disclosure, distraction, and access of inappropriate content. Workers should remain mindful that the primary goal when at work is to accomplish productivity tasks.

On-board Camera/Video The BYOD policy needs to address mobile devices with on-board cameras. Some environments disallow cameras of any type. This would require that BYOD equipment be without a camera. If cameras are allowed, a description of when they may and may not be used should be clearly documented and explained to workers. A mobile device can act as a storage device, provide an alternate wireless connection pathway to an outside provider or service, and also be used to collect images and video that disclose confidential information or equipment.

Assess and Mitigate Vulnerabilities in Embedded Devices and Cyber-Physical Systems An embedded system is a computer implemented as part of a larger system. The embedded system is typically designed around a limited set of specific functions in relation to the larger product of which it’s a component. It may consist of the same components found in a typical computer system, or it may be a microcontroller (an integrated chip with on-board memory and peripheral ports). Examples of embedded

systems include network-attached printers, smart TVs, HVAC controls, smart appliances, smart thermostats, Ford SYNC (a Microsoft embedded system in vehicles), and medical devices.

Another similar concept to that of embedded systems are static systems (aka static environments). A static environment is a set of conditions, events, and surroundings that don’t change. In theory, once understood, a static environment doesn’t offer new or surprising elements. A static IT environment is any system that is intended to remain unchanged by users and administrators. The goal is to prevent, or at least reduce, the possibility of a user implementing change that could result in reduced security or functional operation.

In technology, static environments are applications, OSs, hardware sets, or networks that are configured for a specific need, capability, or function, and then set to remain unaltered. However, although the term static is used, there are no truly static systems. There is always the chance that a hardware failure, a hardware configuration change, a software bug, a software-setting change, or an exploit may alter the environment, resulting in undesired operating parameters or actual security intrusions.

Examples of Embedded and Static Systems Network-enabled devices are any type of portable or nonportable device that has native network capabilities. This generally assumes the network in question is a wireless type of network, primarily that provided by a mobile telecommunications company. However, it can also refer to devices that connect to Wi-Fi (especially when they can connect automatically), devices that share data connectivity from a wireless telco service (such as a mobile hot spot), and devices with RJ-45 jacks to receive a standard Ethernet cable for a wired connection. Network-enabled devices include smartphones, mobile phones, tablets, smart TVs, set-top boxes, or an HDMI stick streaming media players (such as a Roku Player, Amazon Fire TV, or Google Android TV/Chromecast), network-attached printers, game systems, and much more.

In some cases, network-enabled devices might include equipment supporting Bluetooth, NFC, and other radio-based connection technologies. Additionally, some vendors offer devices to add network capabilities to devices that are not network enabled on their own. These add-on devices might be viewed as network-enabled devices themselves (or more specifically, network-enabling devices) and their resultant enhanced device might be deemed a network-enabled device.

Cyber-physical systems refer to devices that offer a computational means to control something in the physical world. In the past these might have been referred to as embedded systems, but the category of cyber-physical seems to focus more on the

physical world results rather than the computational aspects. Cyber-physical devices and systems are essentially key elements in robotics and sensor networks. Basically, any computational device that can cause a movement to occur in the real world is considered a robotic element, whereas any such device that can detect physical conditions (such as temperature, light, movement, and humidity) are sensors. Examples of cyber-physical systems include prosthetics to provide human augmentation or assistance, collision avoidance in vehicles, air traffic control coordination, precision in robot surgery, remote operation in hazardous conditions, and energy conservation in vehicles, equipment, mobile devices, and buildings.

A new extension of cyber-physical systems, embedded systems, and network-enabled devices is that of the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT is the collection of devices that can communicate over the Internet with one another or with a control console in order to affect and monitor the real world. IoT devices might be labeled as smart devices or smart- home equipment. Many of the ideas of industrial environmental control found in office buildings are finding their way into more consumer-available solutions for small offices or personal homes. IoT is not limited to static location equipment but can also be used in association with land, air, or water vehicles or on mobile devices.

Mainframes are high-end computer systems used to perform highly complex calculations and provide bulk data processing. Older mainframes may be considered static environments because they were often designed around a single task or supported a single mission-critical application. These configurations didn’t offer significant flexibility, but they did provide for high stability and long-term operation. Many mainframes were able to operate for decades.

Modern mainframes are much more flexible and are often used to provide high-speed computation power in support of numerous virtual machines. Each virtual machine can be used to host a unique OS and in turn support a wide range of applications. If a modern mainframe is implemented to provide fixed or static support of one OS or application, it may be considered a static environment.

Game consoles, whether home systems or portable systems, are potentially examples of static systems. The OS of a game console is generally fixed and is changed only when the vendor releases a system upgrade. Such upgrades are often a mixture of OS, application, and firmware improvements. Although game console capabilities are generally focused on playing games and media, modern consoles may offer support for a range of cultivated and third-party applications. The more flexible and open-ended the app support, the less of a static system it becomes.

In-vehicle computing systems can include the components used to monitor engine performance and optimize braking, steering, and suspension, but can also include in-dash elements related to driving, environment controls, and entertainment. Early in-vehicle systems were static environments with little or no ability to be adjusted or changed, especially by the owner/driver. Modern in-vehicle systems may offer a wider range of capabilities, including linking a mobile device or running custom apps.

Methods of Securing Security concerns regarding embedded and static systems include the fact that most are designed with a focus on minimizing costs and extraneous features. This often leads to a lack of security and difficulty with upgrades or patches. Because an embedded system is in control of a mechanism in the physical world, a security breach could cause harm to people and property.

Static environments, embedded systems, and other limited or single-purpose computing environments need security management. Although they may not have as broad an attack surface and aren’t exposed to as many risks as a general-purpose computer, they still require proper security government.

Network Segmentation Network segmentation involves controlling traffic among networked devices. Complete or physical network segmentation occurs when a network is isolated from all outside communications, so transactions can only occur between devices within the segmented network. You can impose logical network segmentation with switches using VLANs, or through other traffic-control means, including MAC addresses, IP addresses, physical ports, TCP or UDP ports, protocols, or application filtering, routing, and access control management. Network segmentation can be used to isolate static environments in order to prevent changes and/or exploits from reaching them.

Security Layers Security layers exist where devices with different levels of classification or sensitivity are grouped together and isolated from other groups with different levels. This isolation can be absolute or one-directional. For example, a lower level may not be able to initiate communication with a higher level, but a higher level may initiate with a lower level. Isolation can also be logical or physical. Logical isolation requires the use of classification labels on data and packets, which must be respected and enforced by network management, OSs, and applications. Physical isolation requires implementing network segmentation or air gaps between networks of different security levels.

Application Firewalls An application firewall is a device, server add-on, virtual service, or system filter that defines a strict set of communication rules for a service and all users. It’s intended to be an application-specific server-side firewall to prevent application-specific protocol and payload attacks.

A network firewall is a hardware device, typically called an appliance, designed for general network filtering. A network firewall is designed to provide broad protection for an entire network.

Both of these types of firewalls are important and may be relevant in many situations.

Every network needs a network firewall. Many application servers need an application firewall. However, the use of an application firewall generally doesn’t negate the need for a network firewall. You should use both firewalls in a series to complement each other, rather than seeing them as competitive solutions.

Manual Updates Manual updates should be used in static environments to ensure that only tested and authorized changes are implemented. Using an automated update system would allow for untested updates to introduce unknown security reductions.

Firmware Version Control Similar to manual software updates, strict control over firmware in a static environment is important. Firmware updates should be implemented on a manual basis, only after testing and review. Oversight of firmware version control should focus on maintaining a stable operating platform while minimizing exposure to downtime or compromise.

Wrappers A wrapper is something used to enclose or contain something else. Wrappers are well known in the security community in relation to Trojan horse malware. A wrapper of this sort is used to combine a benign host with a malicious payload.

Wrappers are also used as encapsulation solutions. Some static environments may be configured to reject updates, changes, or software installations unless they’re introduced through a controlled channel. That controlled channel can be a specific wrapper. The wrapper may include integrity and authentication features to ensure that only intended and authorized updates are applied to the system.

Control Redundancy and Diversity As with any security solution, relying on a single security mechanism is unwise. Defense in depth uses multiple types of access controls in literal or theoretical concentric circles or layers. This form of layered security helps an organization avoid a monolithic security stance. A monolithic mentality is the belief that a single security mechanism is all that is required to provide sufficient security. By having security control redundancy and diversity, a static environment can avoid the pitfalls of a single security feature failing; the environment has several opportunities to deflect, deny, detect, and deter any threat. Unfortunately, no security mechanism is perfect. Each individual security mechanism has a flaw or a workaround just waiting to be discovered and abused by a hacker.

Essential Security Protection Mechanisms The need for security mechanisms within an operating system comes down to one simple fact: software should not be trusted. Third-party software is inherently untrustworthy, no

matter who or where it comes from. This is not to say that all software is evil. Instead, this is a protection stance—because all third-party software is written by someone other than the OS creator, that software might cause problems. Thus, treating all non-OS software as potentially damaging allows the OS to prevent many disastrous occurrences through the use of software management protection mechanisms. The OS must employ protection mechanisms to keep the computing environment stable and to keep processes isolated from each other. Without these efforts, the security of data could never be reliable or even possible.

Computer system designers should adhere to a number of common protection mechanisms when designing secure systems. These principles are specific instances of the more general security rules that govern safe computing practices. Designing security into a system during the earliest stages of development will help ensure that the overall security architecture has the best chance for success and reliability. In the following sections, we’ll divide the discussion into two areas: technical mechanisms and policy mechanisms.

Technical Mechanisms Technical mechanisms are the controls that system designers can build right into their systems. We’ll look at five: layering, abstraction, data hiding, process isolation, and hardware segmentation.

Layering By layering processes, you implement a structure similar to the ring model used for operating modes (and discussed earlier in this chapter) and apply it to each operating system process. It puts the most sensitive functions of a process at the core, surrounded by a series of increasingly larger concentric circles with correspondingly lower sensitivity levels (using a slightly different approach, this is also sometimes explained in terms of upper and lower layers, where security and privilege decrease when climbing up from lower to upper layers). In discussions of OS architectures, the protected ring concept is common, and it is not exclusive. There are other ways of representing the same basic ideas with levels rather than rings. In such a system, the highest level is the most privileged, while the lowest level is the least privileged.

Levels Compared to Rings Many of the features and restrictions of the protecting ring concept apply also to a multilayer or multilevel system. Think about a high-rise apartment building. The low-rent apartments are often found in the lower floors. As you reach the middle floors, the apartments are often larger and offer better views. Finally, the top floor (or floors) is the most lavish and expensive (often deemed the penthouse). Usually, if you are living in a low-rent apartment in the building, you are unable to ride the elevators any higher than the highest floor of the low-rent apartments. If you are a

middle-floor apartment resident, you can ride the elevators everywhere except to the penthouse floor(s). And if you are a penthouse resident, you can ride the elevators anywhere you want to go. You may also find this floor restriction system in office buildings and hotels.

The top of a layered or multilevel system is the same as the center ring of a protection ring scheme. Likewise, the bottom of a layered or multilevel system is the same as the outer ring of a protection ring scheme. In terms of protection and access concepts, levels, layers, and rings are similar. The term domain (that is, a collection of objects with a singular characteristic) might also be used.

Communication between layers takes place only through the use of well-defined, specific interfaces to provide necessary security. All inbound requests from outer (less-sensitive) layers are subject to stringent authentication and authorization checks before they’re allowed to proceed (or denied, if they fail such checks). Using layering for security is similar to using security domains and lattice-based security models in that security and access controls over certain subjects and objects are associated with specific layers and privileges and that access increases as you move from outer to inner layers.

In fact, separate layers can communicate only with one another through specific interfaces designed to maintain a system’s security and integrity. Even though less secure outer layers depend on services and data from more secure inner layers, they know only how to interface with those layers and are not privy to those inner layers’ internal structure, characteristics, or other details. So that layer integrity is maintained, inner layers neither know about nor depend on outer layers. No matter what kind of security relationship may exist between any pair of layers, neither can tamper with the other (so that each layer is protected from tampering by any other layer). Finally, outer layers cannot violate or override any security policy enforced by an inner layer.

Abstraction Abstraction is one of the fundamental principles behind the field known as object- oriented programming. It is the “black-box” doctrine that says that users of an object (or operating system component) don’t necessarily need to know the details of how the object works; they need to know just the proper syntax for using the object and the type of data that will be returned as a result (that is, how to send input and receive output). This is very much what’s involved in mediated access to data or services, such as when user mode applications use system calls to request administrator mode services or data (and where such requests may be granted or denied depending on the requester’s credentials and permissions) rather than obtaining direct, unmediated access.

Another way in which abstraction applies to security is in the introduction of object groups, sometimes called classes, where access controls and operation rights are assigned to groups of objects rather than on a per-object basis. This approach allows security administrators to define and name groups easily (the names are often related to job roles

or responsibilities) and helps make the administration of rights and privileges easier (when you add an object to a class, you confer rights and privileges rather than having to manage rights and privileges for each object separately).

Data Hiding Data hiding is an important characteristic in multilevel secure systems. It ensures that data existing at one level of security is not visible to processes running at different security levels. The key concept behind data hiding is a desire to make sure those who have no need to know the details involved in accessing and processing data at one level have no way to learn or observe those details covertly or illicitly. From a security perspective, data hiding relies on placing objects in security containers that are different from those that subjects occupy to hide object details from those with no need to know about them.

Process Isolation Process isolation requires that the operating system provide separate memory spaces for each process’s instructions and data. It also requires that the operating system enforce those boundaries, preventing one process from reading or writing data that belongs to another process. There are two major advantages to using this technique:

It prevents unauthorized data access. Process isolation is one of the fundamental requirements in a multilevel security mode system.

It protects the integrity of processes. Without such controls, a poorly designed process could go haywire and write data to memory spaces allocated to other processes, causing the entire system to become unstable rather than affecting only the execution of the errant process. In a more malicious vein, processes could attempt (and perhaps even succeed at) reading or writing to memory spaces outside their scope, intruding on or attacking other processes.

Many modern operating systems address the need for process isolation by implementing virtual machines on a per-user or per-process basis. A virtual machine presents a user or process with a processing environment—including memory, address space, and other key system resources and services—that allows that user or process to behave as though they have sole, exclusive access to the entire computer. This allows each user or process to operate independently without requiring it to take cognizance of other users or processes that might be active simultaneously on the same machine. As part of the mediated access to the system that the operating system provides, it maps virtual resources and access in user mode so that they use supervisory mode calls to access corresponding real resources. This not only makes things easier for programmers, it also protects individual users and processes from one another.

Hardware Segmentation Hardware segmentation is similar to process isolation in purpose—it prevents the access

of information that belongs to a different process/security level. The main difference is that hardware segmentation enforces these requirements through the use of physical hardware controls rather than the logical process isolation controls imposed by an operating system. Such implementations are rare, and they are generally restricted to national security implementations where the extra cost and complexity is offset by the sensitivity of the information involved and the risks inherent in unauthorized access or disclosure.

Security Policy and Computer Architecture Just as security policy guides the day-to-day security operations, processes, and procedures in organizations, it has an important role to play when designing and implementing systems. This is equally true whether a system is entirely hardware based, entirely software based, or a combination of both. In this case, the role of a security policy is to inform and guide the design, development, implementation, testing, and maintenance of a particular system. Thus, this kind of security policy tightly targets a single implementation effort. (Although it may be adapted from other, similar efforts, it should reflect the target as accurately and completely as possible.)

For system developers, a security policy is best encountered in the form of a document that defines a set of rules, practices, and procedures that describe how the system should manage, protect, and distribute sensitive information. Security policies that prevent information flow from higher security levels to lower security levels are called multilevel security policies. As a system is developed, the security policy should be designed, built, implemented, and tested as it relates to all applicable system components or elements, including any or all of the following: physical hardware components, firmware, software, and how the organization interacts with and uses the system. The overall point is that security needs be considered for the entire life of the project. When security is applied only at the end, it typically fails.

Policy Mechanisms As with any security program, policy mechanisms should also be put into place. These mechanisms are extensions of basic computer security doctrine, but the applications described in this section are specific to the field of computer architecture and design.

Principle of Least Privilege Chapter 13, “Managing Identity and Authentication,” discusses the general security principle of least privilege and how it applies to users of computing systems. This principle is also important to the design of computers and operating systems, especially when applied to system modes. When designing operating system processes, you should always ensure that they run in user mode whenever possible. The greater the number of processes that execute in privileged mode, the higher the number of potential vulnerabilities that a malicious individual could exploit to gain supervisory access to the

system. In general, it’s better to use APIs to ask for supervisory mode services or to pass control to trusted, well-protected supervisory mode processes as they’re needed from within user mode applications than it is to elevate such programs or processes to supervisory mode altogether.

Separation of Privilege The principle of separation of privilege builds on the principle of least privilege. It requires the use of granular access permissions; that is, different permissions for each type of privileged operation. This allows designers to assign some processes rights to perform certain supervisory functions without granting them unrestricted access to the system. It also allows individual requests for services or access to resources to be inspected, checked against access controls, and granted or denied based on the identity of the user making the requests or on the basis of groups to which the user belongs or security roles that the user occupies.

Think of separation of duties as the application of the principle of least privilege to administrators. In most moderate to large organizations, there are many administrators, each with different assigned tasks. Thus, there are usually few or no individual administrators with complete and total need for access across the entire environment or infrastructure. For example, a user administrator has no need for privileges that enable reconfiguring network routing, formatting storage devices, or performing backup functions.

Separation of duties is also a tool used to prevent conflicts of interest in the assignment of access privileges and work tasks. For example, those persons responsible for programming code should not be tasked to test and implement that code. Likewise, those who work in accounts payable should not also have accounts receivable responsibilities. There are many such job or task conflicts that can be securely managed through the proper implementation of separation of duties.

Accountability Accountability is an essential component in any security design. Many high-security systems contain physical devices (such as paper-and-pen visitor logs and nonmodifiable audit trails) that enforce individual accountability for privileged functionality. In general, however, such capabilities rely on a system’s ability to monitor activity on and interactions with a system’s resources and configuration data and to protect resulting logs from unwanted access or alteration so that they provide an accurate and reliable record of activity and interaction that documents every user’s (including administrators or other trusted individuals with high levels of privilege) history on that system. In addition to the need for reliable auditing and monitoring systems to support accountability, there must be a resilient authorization system and an impeccable authentication system.

Common Architecture Flaws and Security Issues

No security architecture is complete and totally secure. Every computer system has weaknesses and vulnerabilities. The goal of security models and architectures is to address as many known weaknesses as possible. Due to this fact, corrective actions must be taken to resolve security issues. The following sections present some of the more common security issues that affect computer systems in relation to vulnerabilities of security architectures. You should understand each of the issues and how they can degrade the overall security of your system. Some issues and flaws overlap one another and are used in creative ways to attack systems. Although the following discussion covers the most common flaws, the list is not exhaustive. Attackers are very clever.

Covert Channels A covert channel is a method that is used to pass information over a path that is not normally used for communication. Because the path is not normally used for communication, it may not be protected by the system’s normal security controls. Using a covert channel provides a means to violate, bypass, or circumvent a security policy undetected. Covert channels are one of the important examples of vulnerabilities of security architectures.

As you might imagine, a covert channel is the opposite of an overt channel. An overt channel is a known, expected, authorized, designed, monitored, and controlled method of communication.

There are two basic types of covert channels:

Covert Timing Channel A covert timing channel conveys information by altering the performance of a system component or modifying a resource’s timing in a predictable manner. Using a covert timing channel is generally a method to secretly transfer data and is very difficult to detect.

Covert Storage Channel A covert storage channel conveys information by writing data to a common storage area where another process can read it. When assessing the security of software, be diligent for any process that writes to any area of memory that another process can read.

Both types of covert channels rely on the use of communication techniques to exchange information with otherwise unauthorized subjects. Because the covert channel is outside the normal data transfer environment, detecting it can be difficult. The best defense is to implement auditing and analyze log files for any covert channel activity.

Attacks Based on Design or Coding Flaws and Security Issues Certain attacks may result from poor design techniques, questionable implementation practices and procedures, or poor or inadequate testing. Some attacks may result from deliberate design decisions when special points of entry built into code to circumvent access controls, login, or other security checks often added to code while under development are not removed when that code is put into production. For what we hope

are obvious reasons, such points of egress are properly called back doors because they avoid security measures by design (they’re covered later in this chapter in “Maintenance Hooks and Privileged Programs”). Extensive testing and code review are required to uncover such covert means of access, which are easy to remove during final phases of development but can be incredibly difficult to detect during the testing and maintenance phases.

Although functionality testing is commonplace for commercial code and applications, separate testing for security issues has been gaining attention and credibility only in the past few years, courtesy of widely publicized virus and worm attacks, SQL injection attacks, cross-site scripting attacks, and occasional defacements of or disruptions to widely used public sites online. In the sections that follow, we cover common sources of attack or vulnerabilities of security architectures that can be attributed to failures in design, implementation, prerelease code cleanup, or out-and-out coding mistakes. Although they’re avoidable, finding and fixing such flaws requires rigorous security- conscious design from the beginning of a development project and extra time and effort spent in testing and analysis. This helps to explain the often lamentable state of software security, but it does not excuse it!

Initialization and Failure States When an unprepared system crashes and subsequently recovers, two opportunities to compromise its security controls may arise. Many systems unload security controls as part of their shutdown procedures. Trusted recovery ensures that all controls remain intact in the event of a crash. During a trusted recovery, the system ensures that there are no opportunities for access to occur when security controls are disabled. Even the recovery phase runs with all controls intact.

For example, suppose a system crashes while a database transaction is being written to disk for a database classified as top secret. An unprotected system might allow an unauthorized user to access that temporary data before it gets written to disk. A system that supports trusted recovery ensures that no data confidentiality violations occur, even during the crash. This process requires careful planning and detailed procedures for handling system failures. Although automated recovery procedures may make up a portion of the entire recovery, manual intervention may still be required. Obviously, if such manual action is needed, appropriate identification and authentication for personnel performing recovery is likewise essential.

Input and Parameter Checking One of the most notorious security violations is a buffer overflow. This violation occurs when programmers fail to validate input data sufficiently, particularly when they do not impose a limit on the amount of data their software will accept as input. Because such data is usually stored in an input buffer, when the normal maximum size of the buffer is exceeded, the extra data is called overflow. Thus, the type of attack that results when someone attempts to supply malicious instructions or code as part of program input is

called a buffer overflow. Unfortunately, in many systems such overflow data is often executed directly by the system under attack at a high level of privilege or at whatever level of privilege attaches to the process accepting such input. For nearly all types of operating systems, including Windows, Unix, Linux, and others, buffer overflows expose some of the most glaring and profound opportunities for compromise and attack of any kind of known security vulnerability.

The party responsible for a buffer overflow vulnerability is always the programmer whose code allowed nonsanitized input. Due diligence from programmers can eradicate buffer overflows completely, but only if programmers check all input and parameters before storing them in any data structure (and limit how much data can be proffered as input). Proper data validation is the only way to do away with buffer overflows. Otherwise, discovery of buffer overflows leads to a familiar pattern of critical security updates that must be applied to affected systems to close the point of attack.

Checking Code for Buffer Overflows

In early 2002, Bill Gates acted in his traditional role as the archetypal Microsoft spokesperson when he announced something he called the “Trustworthy Computing Initiative,” a series of design philosophy changes intended to beef up the often questionable standing of Microsoft’s operating systems and applications when viewed from a security perspective. As discussion on this subject continued through 2002 and 2003, the topic of buffer overflows occurred repeatedly. As is the case for many other development organizations and also for the builders of software development environments (the software tools that developers use to create other software), increased awareness of buffer overflow exploits has caused changes at many stages during the development process:

Designers must specify bounds for input data or state acceptable input values and set hard limits on how much data will be accepted, parsed, and handled when input is solicited.

Developers must follow such limitations when building code that solicits, accepts, and handles input.

Testers must check to make sure that buffer overflows can’t occur and attempt to circumvent or bypass security settings when testing input handling code.

In his book Secrets & Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World (Wiley, 2004), noted information security expert Bruce Schneier makes a great case that security testing is in fact quite different from standard testing activities like unit testing, module testing, acceptance testing, and quality assurance checks that software

companies have routinely performed as part of the development process for years and years. What’s not yet clear at Microsoft (and at other development companies as well, to be as fair to the colossus of Redmond as possible) is whether this change in design and test philosophy equates to the right kind of rigor necessary to foil all buffer overflows. (Some of the most serious security holes that Microsoft Windows continues to be plagued by are still buffer overflows or “buffer overruns,” or the cause is identified as an “unchecked buffer.”)

Maintenance Hooks and Privileged Programs Maintenance hooks are entry points into a system that are known only by the developer of the system. Such entry points are also called back doors. Although the existence of maintenance hooks is a clear violation of security policy, they still pop up in many systems. The original purpose of back doors was to provide guaranteed access to the system for maintenance reasons or if regular access was inadvertently disabled. The problem is that this type of access bypasses all security controls and provides free access to anyone who knows that the back doors exist. It is imperative that you explicitly prohibit such entry points and monitor your audit logs to uncover any activity that may indicate unauthorized administrator access.

Another common system vulnerability is the practice of executing a program whose security level is elevated during execution. Such programs must be carefully written and tested so they do not allow any exit and/or entry points that would leave a subject with a higher security rating. Ensure that all programs that operate at a high security level are accessible only to appropriate users and that they are hardened against misuse.

Incremental Attacks Some forms of attack occur in slow, gradual increments rather than through obvious or recognizable attempts to compromise system security or integrity. Two such forms of attack are data diddling and the salami attack.

Data diddling occurs when an attacker gains access to a system and makes small, random, or incremental changes to data during storage, processing, input, output, or transaction rather than obviously altering file contents or damaging or deleting entire files. Such changes can be difficult to detect unless files and data are protected by encryption or unless some kind of integrity check (such as a checksum or message digest) is routinely performed and applied each time a file is read or written. Encrypted file systems, file-level encryption techniques, or some form of file monitoring (which includes integrity checks like those performed by applications such as Tripwire) usually offer adequate guarantees that no data diddling is underway. Data diddling is often considered an attack performed more often by insiders rather than outsiders (in other words, external intruders). It should be obvious that since data diddling is an attack that alters data, it is considered an active attack.

The salami attack is more mythical by all published reports. The name of the attack refers to a systematic whittling at assets in accounts or other records with financial value, where very small amounts are deducted from balances regularly and routinely. Metaphorically, the attack may be explained as stealing a very thin slice from a salami each time it’s put on the slicing machine when it’s being accessed by a paying customer. In reality, though no documented examples of such an attack are available, most security experts concede that salami attacks are possible, especially when organizational insiders could be involved. Only by proper separation of duties and proper control over code can organizations completely prevent or eliminate such an attack. Setting financial transaction monitors to track very small transfers of funds or other items of value should help to detect such activity; regular employee notification of the practice should help to discourage attempts at such attacks.

If you want an entertaining method of learning about the salami attack or the salami technique, view the movies Office Space, Sneakers, and Superman III.

Programming We have already mentioned the biggest flaw in programming: the buffer overflow, which can occur if the programmer fails to check or sanitize the format and/or the size of input data. There are other potential flaws with programs. Any program that does not handle any exception gracefully is in danger of exiting in an unstable state. It is possible to cleverly crash a program after it has increased its security level to carry out a normal task. If an attacker is successful in crashing the program at the right time, they can attain the higher security level and cause damage to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of your system.

All programs that are executed directly or indirectly must be fully tested to comply with your security model. Make sure you have the latest version of any software installed, and be aware of any known security vulnerabilities. Because each security model, and each security policy, is different, you must ensure that the software you execute does not exceed the authority you allow. Writing secure code is difficult, but it’s certainly possible. Make sure all programs you use are designed to address security concerns.

Timing, State Changes, and Communication Disconnects Computer systems perform tasks with rigid precision. Computers excel at repeatable tasks. Attackers can develop attacks based on the predictability of task execution. The common sequence of events for an algorithm is to check that a resource is available and then access it if you are permitted. The time of check (TOC) is the time at which the subject checks on the status of the object. There may be several decisions to make before

returning to the object to access it. When the decision is made to access the object, the procedure accesses it at the time of use (TOU). The difference between the TOC and the TOU is sometimes large enough for an attacker to replace the original object with another object that suits their own needs. Time-of-check-to-time-of-use (TOCTTOU) attacks are often called race conditions because the attacker is racing with the legitimate process to replace the object before it is used.

A classic example of a TOCTTOU attack is replacing a data file after its identity has been verified but before data is read. By replacing one authentic data file with another file of the attacker’s choosing and design, an attacker can potentially direct the actions of a program in many ways. Of course, the attacker would have to have in-depth knowledge of the program and system under attack.

Likewise, attackers can attempt to take action between two known states when the state of a resource or the entire system changes. Communication disconnects also provide small windows that an attacker might seek to exploit. Anytime a status check of a resource precedes action on the resource, a window of opportunity exists for a potential attack in the brief interval between check and action. These attacks must be addressed in your security policy and in your security model. TOCTTOU attacks, race condition exploits, and communication disconnects are known as state attacks because they attack timing, data flow control, and transition between one system state to another.

Technology and Process Integration It is important to evaluate and understand the vulnerabilities in system architectures, especially in regard to technology and process integration. As multiple technologies and complex processes are intertwined in the act of crafting new and unique business functions, new issues and security problems often surface. As systems are integrated, attention should be paid to potential single points of failure as well as to emergent weaknesses in service-oriented architecture (SOA). An SOA constructs new applications or functions out of existing but separate and distinct software services. The resulting application is often new; thus, its security issues are unknown, untested, and unprotected. All new deployments, especially new applications or functions, need to be thoroughly vetted before they are allowed to go live into a production network or the public Internet.

Electromagnetic Radiation Simply because of the kinds of electronic components from which they’re built, many computer hardware devices emit electromagnetic (EM) radiation during normal operation. The process of communicating with other machines or peripheral equipment creates emanations that can be intercepted. It’s even possible to re-create keyboard input or monitor output by intercepting and processing electromagnetic radiation from the keyboard and computer monitor. You can also detect and read network packets passively (that is, without actually tapping into the cable) as they pass along a network segment.

These emanation leaks can cause serious security issues but are generally easy to address.

The easiest way to eliminate electromagnetic radiation interception is to reduce emanation through cable shielding or conduit and block unauthorized personnel and devices from getting too close to equipment or cabling by applying physical security controls. By reducing the signal strength and increasing the physical buffer around sensitive equipment, you can dramatically reduce the risk of signal interception.

As discussed previously, several TEMPEST technologies could provide protection against EM radiation eavesdropping. These include Faraday cages, jamming or noise generators, and control zones. A Faraday cage is a special enclosure that acts as an EM capacitor. When a Faraday cage is in use, no EM signals can enter or leave the enclosed area. Jamming or noise generators use the idea that it is difficult or impossible to retrieve a signal when there is too much interference. Thus, by broadcasting your own interference, you can prevent unwanted EM interception. The only issue with this concept is that you have to ensure that the interference won’t affect the normal operations of your devices. One way to ensure that is to use control zones, which are Faraday cages used to block purposely broadcast interference. For example, if you wanted to use wireless networking within a few rooms of your office but not allow it anywhere else, you could enclose those rooms in a single Faraday cage and then plant several noise generators outside the control zone. This would allow normal wireless networking within the designated rooms but completely prevent normal use and eavesdropping anywhere outside those designated areas.

Summary Designing secure computing systems is a complex task, and many security engineers have dedicated their entire careers to understanding the innermost workings of information systems and ensuring that they support the core security functions required to safely operate in the current environment. Many security professionals don’t necessarily require an in-depth knowledge of these principles, but they should have at least a broad understanding of the basic fundamentals that drive the process to enhance security within their own organizations.

Such understanding begins with an investigation of hardware, software, and firmware and how those pieces fit into the security puzzle. It’s important to understand the principles of common computer and network organizations, architectures, and designs, including addressing (both physical and symbolic), the difference between address space and memory space, and machine types (real, virtual, multistate, multitasking, multiprogramming, multiprocessing, multiprocessor, and multiuser).

Additionally, a security professional must have a solid understanding of operating states (single state, multistate), operating modes (user, supervisor, privileged), storage types (primary, secondary, real, virtual, volatile, nonvolatile, random, sequential), and protection mechanisms (layering, abstraction, data hiding, process isolation, hardware

segmentation, principle of least privilege, separation of privilege, accountability).

No matter how sophisticated a security model is, flaws exist that attackers can exploit. Some flaws, such as buffer overflows and maintenance hooks, are introduced by programmers, whereas others, such as covert channels, are architectural design issues. It is important to understand the impact of such issues and modify the security architecture when appropriate to compensate.

Exam Essentials Be able to explain the differences between multitasking, multithreading, multiprocessing, and multiprogramming. Multitasking is the simultaneous execution of more than one application on a computer and is managed by the operating system. Multithreading permits multiple concurrent tasks to be performed within a single process. Multiprocessing is the use of more than one processor to increase computing power. Multiprogramming is similar to multitasking but takes place on mainframe systems and requires specific programming.

Understand the differences between single state processors and multistate processors. Single state processors are capable of operating at only one security level at a time, whereas multistate processors can simultaneously operate at multiple security levels.

Describe the four security modes approved by the federal government for processing classified information. Dedicated systems require that all users have appropriate clearance, access permissions, and need to know for all information stored on the system. System high mode removes the need-to-know requirement. Compartmented mode removes the need-to-know requirement and the access permission requirement. Multilevel mode removes all three requirements.

Explain the two layered operating modes used by most modern processors. User applications operate in a limited instruction set environment known as user mode. The operating system performs controlled operations in privileged mode, also known as system mode, kernel mode, and supervisory mode.

Describe the different types of memory used by a computer. ROM is nonvolatile and can’t be written to by the end user. The end user can write data to PROM chips only once. EPROM chips may be erased through the use of ultraviolet light and then can have new data written to them. EEPROM chips may be erased with electrical current and then have new data written to them. RAM chips are volatile and lose their contents when the computer is powered off.

Know the security issues surrounding memory components. Three main security issues surround memory components: the fact that data may remain on the chip after power is removed, the fact that memory chips are highly pilferable, and the control of access to memory in a multiuser system.

Describe the different characteristics of storage devices used by computers. Primary storage is the same as memory. Secondary storage consists of magnetic and optical media that must be first read into primary memory before the CPU can use the data. Random access storage devices can be read at any point, whereas sequential access devices require scanning through all the data physically stored before the desired location.

Know the security issues surrounding secondary storage devices. There are three main security issues surrounding secondary storage devices: removable media can be used to steal data, access controls and encryption must be applied to protect data, and data can remain on the media even after file deletion or media formatting.

Understand security risks that input and output devices can pose. Input/output devices can be subject to eavesdropping and tapping, used to smuggle data out of an organization, or used to create unauthorized, insecure points of entry into an organization’s systems and networks. Be prepared to recognize and mitigate such vulnerabilities.

Understand I/O addresses, configuration, and setup. Working with legacy PC devices requires some understanding of IRQs, DMA, and memory-mapped I/O. Be prepared to recognize and work around potential address conflicts and misconfigurations and to integrate legacy devices with Plug and Play (PnP) counterparts.

Know the purpose of firmware. Firmware is software stored on a ROM chip. At the computer level, it contains the basic instructions needed to start a computer. Firmware is also used to provide operating instructions in peripheral devices such as printers.

Be able to describe process isolation, layering, abstraction, data hiding, and hardware segmentation. Process isolation ensures that individual processes can access only their own data. Layering creates different realms of security within a process and limits communication between them. Abstraction creates “black-box” interfaces for programmers to use without requiring knowledge of an algorithm’s or device’s inner workings. Data hiding prevents information from being read from a different security level. Hardware segmentation enforces process isolation with physical controls.

Understand how a security policy drives system design, implementation, testing, and deployment. The role of a security policy is to inform and guide the design, development, implementation, testing, and maintenance of some particular system.

Understand cloud computing. Cloud computing is the popular term referring to a concept of computing where processing and storage are performed elsewhere over a network connection rather than locally. Cloud computing is often thought of as Internet- based computing.

Understand mobile device security. Device security involves the range of potential security options or features that may be available for a mobile device. Not all portable electronic devices (PEDs) have good security features. PED security features include full

device encryption, remote wiping, lockout, screen locks, GPS, application control, storage segmentation, asset tracking, inventory control, mobile device management, device access control, removable storage, and the disabling of unused features.

Understand mobile device application security. The applications and functions used on a mobile device need to be secured. Related concepts include key management, credential management, authentication, geotagging, encryption, application whitelisting, and transitive trust/authentication.

Understand BYOD. Bring your own device (BYOD) is a policy that allows employees to bring their own personal mobile devices to work and then use those devices to connect to (or through) the company network to business resources and/or the Internet. Although BYOD may improve employee morale and job satisfaction, it increases security risks to the organization. Related issues include data ownership, support ownership, patch management, antivirus management, forensics, privacy, on-boarding/off-boarding, adherence to corporate policies, user acceptance, architecture/infrastructure considerations, legal concerns, acceptable use policies, and on-board cameras/video.

Understand embedded systems and static environments. An embedded system is typically designed around a limited set of specific functions in relation to the larger product of which it’s a component. Static environments are applications, OSs, hardware sets, or networks that are configured for a specific need, capability, or function, and then set to remain unaltered.

Understand embedded systems and static environment security concerns. Static environments, embedded systems, and other limited or single-purpose computing environments need security management. These techniques may include network segmentation, security layers, application firewalls, manual updates, firmware version control, wrappers, and control redundancy and diversity.

Understand how the principle of least privilege, separation of privilege, and accountability apply to computer architecture. The principle of least privilege ensures that only a minimum number of processes are authorized to run in supervisory mode. Separation of privilege increases the granularity of secure operations. Accountability ensures that an audit trail exists to trace operations back to their source.

Be able to explain what covert channels are. A covert channel is any method that is used to pass information but that is not normally used for information.

Understand what buffer overflows and input checking are. A buffer overflow occurs when the programmer fails to check the size of input data prior to writing the data into a specific memory location. In fact, any failure to validate input data could result in a security violation.

Describe common flaws to security architectures. In addition to buffer overflows, programmers can leave back doors and privileged programs on a system after it is deployed. Even well-written systems can be susceptible to time-of-check-to-time-of-use (TOCTTOU) attacks. Any state change could be a potential window of opportunity for an

attacker to compromise a system.

Written Lab 1. What are the terms used to describe the various computer mechanisms that allow

multiple simultaneous activities?

2. What are the four security modes for systems processing classified information?

3. Name the three pairs of aspects or features used to describe storage.

4. Name some vulnerabilities found in distributed architectures.

Review Questions 1. Many PC operating systems provide functionality that enables them to support the

simultaneous execution of multiple applications on single-processor systems. What term is used to describe this capability?

A. Multiprogramming

B. Multithreading

C. Multitasking

D. Multiprocessing

2. What technology provides an organization with the best control over BYOD equipment?

A. Application whitelisting

B. Mobile device management

C. Encrypted removable storage

D. Geotagging

3. You have three applications running on a single-core single-processor system that supports multitasking. One of those applications is a word processing program that is managing two threads simultaneously. The other two applications are using only one thread of execution. How many application threads are running on the processor at any given time?

A. One

B. Two

C. Three

D. Four

4. What type of federal government computing system requires that all individuals

accessing the system have a need to know all of the information processed by that system?

A. Dedicated

B. System high

C. Compartmented

D. Multilevel

5. What is a security risk of an embedded system that is not commonly found in a standard PC?

A. Software flaws

B. Access to the Internet

C. Control of a mechanism in the physical world

D. Power loss

6. What type of memory chip allows the end user to write information to the memory only one time and then preserves that information indefinitely without the possibility of erasure?

A. ROM

B. PROM

C. EPROM

D. EEPROM

7. Which type of memory chip can be erased only when it is removed from the computer and exposed to a special type of ultraviolet light?

A. ROM

B. PROM

C. EPROM

D. EEPROM

8. Which one of the following types of memory might retain information after being removed from a computer and, therefore, represent a security risk?

A. Static RAM

B. Dynamic RAM

C. Secondary memory

D. Real memory

9. What is the most effective means of reducing the risk of losing the data on a mobile device, such as a notebook computer?

A. Defining a strong logon password

B. Minimizing sensitive data stored on the mobile device

C. Using a cable lock

D. Encrypting the hard drive

10. What type of electrical component serves as the primary building block for dynamic RAM chips?

A. Capacitor

B. Resistor

C. Flip-flop

D. Transistor

11. Which one of the following storage devices is most likely to require encryption technology in order to maintain data security in a networked environment?

A. Hard disk

B. Backup tape

C. Removable drives

D. RAM

12. In which of the following security modes can you be assured that all users have access permissions for all information processed by the system but will not necessarily need to know of all that information?

A. Dedicated

B. System high

C. Compartmented

D. Multilevel

13. The most commonly overlooked aspect of mobile phone eavesdropping is related to which of the following?

A. Storage device encryption

B. Screen locks

C. Overhearing conversations

D. Wireless networking

14. What type of memory device is usually used to contain a computer’s motherboard BIOS?

A. PROM

B. EEPROM

C. ROM

D. EPROM

15. What type of memory is directly available to the CPU and is often part of the CPU?

A. RAM

B. ROM

C. Register memory

D. Virtual memory

16. In what type of addressing scheme is the data actually supplied to the CPU as an argument to the instruction?

A. Direct addressing

B. Immediate addressing

C. Base+offset addressing

D. Indirect addressing

17. What type of addressing scheme supplies the CPU with a location that contains the memory address of the actual operand?

A. Direct addressing

B. Immediate addressing

C. Base+offset addressing

D. Indirect addressing

18. What security principle helps prevent users from accessing memory spaces assigned to applications being run by other users?

A. Separation of privilege

B. Layering

C. Process isolation

D. Least privilege

19. Which security principle mandates that only a minimum number of operating system processes should run in supervisory mode?

A. Abstraction

B. Layering

C. Data hiding

D. Least privilege

20. Which security principle takes the concept of process isolation and implements it using physical controls?

A. Hardware segmentation

B. Data hiding

C. Layering

D. Abstraction

Chapter 10 Physical Security Requirements THE CISSP EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

✓ 3) Security Engineering (Engineering and Management of Security)

J. Apply secure principles to site and facility design

K. Design and implement physical security

K.1 Wiring closets

K.2 Server rooms

K.3 Media storage facilities

K.4 Evidence storage

K.5 Restricted and work area security (e.g., operations centers)

K.6 Data center security

K.7 Utilities and HVAC considerations

K.8 Water issues (e.g., leakage, flooding)

K.9 Fire prevention, detection and suppression

✓ 7) Security Operations (e.g., Foundational Concepts, Investigations, Incident Management, Disaster Recovery)

O. Implement and manage physical security

O.1 Perimeter (e.g., access control and monitoring)

O.2 Internal security (e.g., escort requirements/visitor control, keys and locks)

The topic of physical and environmental security is referenced in several domains. The two primary occurrences are in domain 3) Security Engineering (Engineering and Management of Security) and domain 7) Security Operations (e.g., Foundational Concepts, Investigations, Incident Management, Disaster Recovery). Several sub-sections of these two domains of the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) for the CISSP certification exam deal with topics and issues related to facility security, including foundational principles, design and implementation, fire protection, perimeter security, internal security, and many more.

The purpose of physical security is to protect against physical threats. The following physical threats are among the most common: fire and smoke, water (rising/falling), earth movement (earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes), storms (wind, lightning, rain, snow, sleet, ice), sabotage/vandalism, explosion/destruction, building collapse, toxic materials, utility loss (power, heating, cooling, air, water), equipment failure, theft, and

personnel loss (strikes, illness, access, transport).

This chapter explores these issues and discusses safeguards and countermeasures to protect against them. In many cases, you’ll need a disaster recovery plan or a business continuity plan should a serious physical threat (such as an explosion, sabotage, or natural disaster) occur. Chapter 3, “Business Continuity Planning,” and Chapter 18, “Disaster Recovery Planning,” cover those topics in detail.

Apply Secure Principles to Site and Facility Design It should be blatantly obvious at this point that without control over the physical environment, no collection of administrative, technical, or logical access controls can provide adequate security. If a malicious person can gain physical access to your facility or equipment, they can do just about anything they want, from destruction to disclosure or alteration. Physical controls are your first line of defense, and people are your last.

There are many aspects of implementing and maintaining physical security. A core element is selecting or designing the facility to house your IT infrastructure and your organ