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2 Pages Reflection paper

Open Posted By: highheaven1 Date: 09/10/2020 High School Proofreading & Editing

The papers should be approximately 2-3 double-spaced pages in length (12 pt. font, Times New Roman) and should focus on connecting the concepts learned in class lecture and readings to your experiences in everyday life (e.g., conversations with family and friends or things you see/read/hear in the news, popular culture, or other media). You should display evidence of critical thinking (e.g., What did the experience make you think about with regards to things we discussed?) and should bring in specific concepts or theories presented in the course content.

Category: Business & Management Subjects: Auditing Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $150 - $300 Pages: 3-6 Pages (Medium Assignment)

Attachment 1

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Sexual Strategies Theory

David M. Buss1 and David P. Schmitt2 1The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA 2Bradley University, Peoria, USA

Synonyms

Intersexual relations; Mating strategies

Definition

Sexual strategies theory (SST) is a middle-level evolutionary theory of mating strategies that both males and females adopt under different circum- stances. It differs from previous theories in that it includes multiple motives each individual can have, such as short-term versus long-term mating, as well as when and why different motives would be predominant.

Introduction

Sexual strategies theory (SST) posits that humans have evolved a complex menu of mating strate- gies, that some of these mating adaptations are tethered to the temporal dimension of mating, and that although some mating adaptations are similar in women and men, some differ

profoundly between the sexes (Buss and Schmitt 1993). Before describing the major premises, pre- dictions, and empirical tests of SST, it is useful to briefly describe theories of mating prior to its articulation.

Previous theories typically posited singular mating motives, such as a quest for similarity, a search for complementarity, or the desire for equity. These theories had five major limitations that SST sought to rectify: (1) each posited a single mating motive, rendering them extremely simplistic; (2) all failed to explain why humans would be motivated by the singular drives; (3) all failed to specify the domains or contexts in which people sought similarity, complementarity, or equity, a degree of generality that precluded any domain-specific predictions; (4) all assumed that mating psychology was identical for men and women, precluding any sex-differentiated predic- tions; and (5) none specified functions, the adap- tive problems solved by its central mating motive, thus divorcing mating psychology from any evo- lutionary anchoring. SST sought to rectify these limitations.

Nothing is closer to the central engine of the evolutionary process – differential reproductive success – than mating. Those who fail to select and attract a mate fail to become ancestors. To an evolutionary psychologist, it would defy scientific logic if evolution by selection had failed to forge a powerful set of adaptations surrounding mate selection, as it has in all known sexually reproducing species. SST posits, therefore, that

# Springer International Publishing AG 2016 T.K. Shackelford, V.A. Weekes-Shackelford (eds.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1861-1

whatever mating motives humans have exist because they solved adaptive problems that con- tributed directly or indirectly to successful repro- duction over the long course of human evolutionary history.

The Two Major Axes of Sexual Strategies Theory

The two major axes of SST are temporal duration of mating (ranging from short-term casual sexual encounters to long-term committed mating rela- tions) and biological sex (male, female). Biological sex is critical because humans differ in their funda- mental reproductive biology. One difference is that fertilization occurs internally within women, not within men. A second difference is that women require a heavy 9-month investment of pregnancy to produce a single child; men can produce that same child with as little as one act of sexual inter- course. And there are other key differences – women’s fertility is cyclical, whereas men’s fertility is not; women’s fertility is sharply age-graded, whereas men’s fertility is only gradu- ally age-graded; post-partum, women incur the costs of breast-feeding, whereas men do not. SST posits that humans have evolved psychological and strategic mating adaptations to these sex-linked differences in reproductive biology.

Regarding the temporal dimension, humans have evolved a long-term mating strategy marked by heavy commitment, long-term pair-bonding, and biparental investment. This may seem obvi- ous, but this sort of long-term committed mating is extremely rare among mammals, characterizing only 3–5%. Humans also have short-term uncom- mitted matings – one-night stands, casual hookups, brief affairs (e.g., Scelza 2011; Symons 1979). SST posits that the adaptive problems men and women recurrently had to solve differed as a function of this important temporal dimension.

Biological sex and temporal context generate a two-by-two matrix of adaptive problems, as shown in Table 1.

The Psychology of Short-Term Mating for Men and Women

Based in part on Trivers’s (1972) theory of paren- tal investment and sexual selection, SST posits that men had to solve adaptive problems of short-term mating such as increasing the number of sex partners accessible, identifying which women are sexually available or accessible, and minimizing the cost, risk, and amount of invest- ment in each mating opportunity. A large volume of empirical data supports these predictions. Men, compared to women, are more motivated by short-term sex, desire a larger number of sex part- ners, let less time elapse before seeking sexual intercourse, find attractive women who display cues to easy sexual accessibility, and show a psy- chology and attendant behavior to minimize investment and entangling commitments in short-term mating contexts (Buss and Schmitt 1993; Haselton and Buss 2001; Schmitt 2003).

Women pursuing a short-term mating strategy face a different set of adaptive challenges. These include securing immediate access to economic resources, choosing sex partners with high-quality genes, evaluating short-term mates as potential long-term prospects, and cultivating potential backup mates for the goal of mate switching. Numerous studies support these predictions. Women prioritize extravagant resource displays in short-term mating (Buss and Schmitt 1993). They shift to preferring men high in masculine appearance and symmetrical features, two of which are hypothesized cues to good genes (Gildersleeve et al. 2014). They cultivate backup mates, become distressed when their backup mates fall in love with others, and sometimes use short-term mating to exit an unhappy mating rela- tionship to trade up to a better partner (e.g., Buss et al. 2017). SST, in brief, posits that both women and men have short-term mating within their strategic repertoire and that their psychology of short-term mating is differentiated in precisely the domains in which the sexes have had to solve different adaptive challenges of short-term mating recurrently over evolutionary history.

2 Sexual Strategies Theory

The Psychology of Long-Term Mating for Men and Women

In long-term mating, women and men face many similar adaptive problems, such as identifying a mate who will commit to them over the long haul, someone who will be a reliable partner, and some- one who will be a good parent. Both sexes appear to have adaptations to solve these problems, such as looking for signs of love (a cue to commit- ment), prioritizing dependability and emotional stability in long-term mate preferences, and valu- ing good parent and good partner qualities such as kindness and agreeableness (Buss 1989, 2016; Buss and Shackelford 2008).

Men seeking a long-term mate have had to solve a critical adaptive problem – choosing a fertile mate or one who has high future reproduc- tive potential. Since ovulation is relatively concealed in humans and fertility cannot be detected directly, SST posited that men would prioritize cues statistically correlated with fertility. Since women’s fertility is sharply age-graded, this yielded the predictions that men would prioritize physical attractiveness, since appearance provides a bounty of observable cue to youth and health and hence to fertility. Abundant empirical evi- dence supports this set of predictions. Men world- wide, compared with women, place a greater priority on physical attractiveness and relative

youth in long-term mating (Buss 1989; Buss and Schmitt 1993; Kenrick and Keefe 1992). Due to the adaptive problem of internal female fertiliza- tion and gestation, men seeking long-term mates also had to prioritize cues to mates that would increase probability of their paternity in offspring. And indeed, men place tremendous value on sex- ual fidelity in a long-term mate and dislike any indications of a history of promiscuous mating (Buss and Schmitt 1993). Men also have post- mate selection adaptations, such as sexual jeal- ousy and mate-guarding effort, that function to increase the odds that their long-term commitment in one woman will result in offspring that are their own rather than those of rivals (Buss 2000; Daly et al. 1982).

SST posits that women pursuing a long-term mating strategy will prioritize, among other things, men who are both able to acquire resources and willing to invest those resources in them rather than in rival women. A large body of cross-cultural evidence supports this hypothesis. Women worldwide, compared to men, value resources and the qualities that lead to resources in long-term mates such as social status, ambition, and industriousness (Buss 1989). SST also posits that women had to solve the problem of protection and so will value men capable of protecting them from other men. Women indeed prioritize physi- cal formidability, tallness, and athletic prowess,

Sexual Strategies Theory, Table 1 Mate selection problems men and women confront in short-term and long-term mating contexts

Mating type Men Women

Short-term Increasing partner number Immediate resources

Identifying sexually accessible women Evaluating ST as LT mates

Minimizing cost and risk Identifying good genes

Minimizing commitment Mate insurance, backup mates

Identifying fertile women Mate switching

Long-term Paternity probability Men able to invest

Female reproductive value Men willing to invest

Commitment Commitment

Good parenting abilities Good parenting abilities

Gene quality Gene quality

Relationship load Relationship load

Longevity probability Physical protection

Table is adapted from Table 1 of Buss and Schmitt (1993), p. 207

Sexual Strategies Theory 3

suggesting adaptations to solve this adaptive problem (Buss 2016).

Mating Psychology Is Context Dependent

Sexual strategies theory was designed as a com- plex theory of mating, positing a psychology con- tingent on biological sex and temporal context as central. Although abundant evidence has cumu- lated since it was first proposed in 1993, SSTwas designed to be open ended rather than the “last word” on evolved human mating strategies. Indeed, its authors articulated an agenda for future theorists and researchers that identified other likely contexts to which our psychology of mating would be contingent. One is mate value or a person’s level of desirability on the mating mar- ket. A second is sex ratio or the relative proportion of men to women in any given mating pool. A third is an ecology of parasite prevalence. Research has confirmed that these and other con- texts do importantly influence mating strategies (e.g., Buss and Shackelford 2008; Gangestad and Buss 1993; Schmitt 2016).

The authors of SST also speculated that indi- vidual differences were important and had to be explained by any complete theory of human mat- ing strategies. Research since 1993 has increas- ingly focused on individual differences. As one example, research on the “dark triad” of person- ality traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) has shown that high scorers are more likely to pursue short-term mating, more likely to use deception as a mating tactic, and may even be more likely to use coercion or force by bypassing a cardinal feature of women’s mat- ing strategy – female choice (Jonason et al. 2009). A second example, only dimly recognized by SST in 1993, is the importance of “good genes” in mate selection (e.g., Miller 2000).

Conclusions

Our evolved psychology of mating is extremely complex. We now know that theories of

mating prior to SST were extraordinarily simplistic. Humans do not have a single mating motive that remains invariant across domains, tem- poral contexts, and biological sexes. Instead, humans have mating adaptations sensitive to tem- poral context, to the challenges each sex has recur- rently faced, and to personal, social, and ecological factors such as mate value, sex ratio, and parasite prevalence. Every month, new “design features” of mating adaptations are being discovered, such as the importance of cues to sexual exploitability to short-term sexual attraction (Goetz et al. 2012), the relevance of personality to mating strategy pursued (Jonason et al. 2009; Schmitt 2016), and shifts from one sexual strategy to another depending on circumstances such as age, relationship history, ecology, and culture. Although we believe that SST, as originally formulated, provides many of the fundamentals of human mating that have been robustly supported by subsequent decades of empirical research, much new knowledge has been discovered about mating that requires addi- tions and expansions of its original formulation.

Cross-References

▶David Buss ▶Differential Parental Investment ▶Long-Term Mating ▶Men’s Long-Term Strategies ▶Men’s Short-Term Strategies ▶ Sex Differences in Parenting and Parental Investment

▶ Sex Differences in Short-Term Mating Preferences

▶ Sex Differences Long-Term Mating in Preferences

▶ Sexual Conflict and Sex Differences in Parental Investment

▶ Sexual Strategies Theory ▶ Short-Term Mating ▶The Evolution of Desire ▶Women’s Long-Term Strategies ▶Women’s Short-Term Strategies

4 Sexual Strategies Theory

References

Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate pref- erences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(01), 1–14.

Buss, D. M. (2000). The dangerous passion. New York: The Free Press.

Buss, D. (2016). The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating. New York: Basic Books.

Buss, D. M., & Schmitt, D. P. (1993). Sexual strategies theory: An evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review, 100, 204–232.

Buss, D. M., & Shackelford, T. K. (2008). Attractive women want it all: Good genes, economic investment, parenting proclivities, and emotional commitment. Evolutionary Psychology, 6, 134–146.

Buss, D. M., Goetz, C., Duntley, J. D., Asao, K., & Conroy-Beam, D. (2017). The mate switching hypoth- esis. Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 143–149.

Daly, M., Wilson, M., & Weghorst, S. J. (1982). Male sexual jealousy. Ethology and Sociobiology, 3, 11–27.

Gangestad, S. W., & Buss, D. M. (1993). Pathogen preva- lence and human mate preferences. Ethology and Sociobiology, 14, 89–96.

Gildersleeve, K., Haselton, M. G., & Fales, M. R. (2014). Do women’s mate preferences change across the ovu- latory cycle? A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 1205–1259.

Goetz, C. D., Easton, J. A., Lewis, D. M., & Buss, D. M. (2012). Sexual exploitability: Observable cues and their link to sexual attraction. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 417–426.

Haselton, M. G., & Buss, D. M. (2001). Emotional reac- tions following first-time sexual intercourse: The affec- tive shift hypothesis. Personal Relationships, 8, 357–369.

Jonason, P. K., Li, N. P., Webster, G. D., & Schmitt, D. P. (2009). The Dark Triad: Facilitating short-term mating in men. European Journal of Personality, 23, 5–18.

Kenrick, D. T., & Keefe, R. C. (1992). Age preferences in mates reflect sex differences in human reproductive strategies. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15, 75–91.

Miller, G. (2000). The mating mind: How sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature. New York: Penguin.

Scelza, B. A. (2011). Female choice and extra-pair pater- nity in a traditional human population. Biology Letters, 7(6), 889–891.

Schmitt, D. P. (2003). Universal sex differences in the desire for sexual variety: Tests from 52 nations, 6 con- tinents, and 13 islands. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 85.

Schmitt, D. P. (2016). Fundamentals of human mating strategies. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The evolutionary psy- chology handbook (2nd ed., pp. 294–316). New York: Wiley.

Symons, D. (1979). The evolution of human sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.

Trivers, R. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selec- tion. In Sexual selection & the descent of man, 1871–1971 (pp. 136–179). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Sexual Strategies Theory 5

  • 1861-1:
  • Sexual Strategies Theory
    • Synonyms
    • Definition
    • Introduction
    • The Two Major Axes of Sexual Strategies Theory
    • The Psychology of Short-Term Mating for Men and Women
    • The Psychology of Long-Term Mating for Men and Women
    • Mating Psychology Is Context Dependent
    • Conclusions
    • Cross-References
    • References

Attachment 2

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Good writers will tell you what they are going to do. That is what's happening here.
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Here they describe the incompatibility of these two approaches
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Also note the use of active voice here. "We want to suggest..." Another example of good writing
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This is a very empirical, rather than theory-driven argument, which is emblematic of the overall argument they are making
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This marks the end of the 'introduction' section and gives a road map of where the rest of the article is going.
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Intro of the theory
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Data that support the theory
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Actually, we will discuss this claim ^ with some new thoughts/evidence.
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More theory
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More data for this new piece of the theory
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Think: Any problems with this strategy?
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Specifically, these neurochemicals are released when children snuggle with their mothers AND when lovers touch each other (and when people pet dogs)
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Aha, see!
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Do you think only in pairs?
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You should be familiar with these from other psych classes. Now applied to human sex

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Can you think of a useful example to illustrate this?
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Remember this when we get to reparative therapy programs later
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Make sense? The language here is kind of technical
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We use this in IO psych a LOT
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Similar to equity theory, if you are familiar with that
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Aha, this is equity theory here
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This is now describing something similar to expectancy theory. It's interesting how these theories for sexual behavior are also used in other domains (e.g., work motivation)
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Again, an assumption of just two people here
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So, here we are shifting to the other main types of arguments that were introduced earlier
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I'm noticing here that the language is now a bit harder to follow and much more technical. I'm guessing that one author wrote the previous section and the other wrote this one. This is a sign of bad writing (we shouldn't be able to tell a difference)
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This is important but notice how the flowery language obscures meaning
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Do you think it is possible to convey these ideas in a more simple way? Why do you think this last sentence is so long?
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You can skip the rest and stop reading here if you like