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english writing

Open Posted By: highheaven1 Date: 21/09/2020 Graduate Assignment Writing

 there are two files one for the question and you should answer in it . to answer some questions plz use the article and plz use the chapters to help you to answer. there is a flie to answer task D. 

Category: Accounting & Finance Subjects: Behavioral Finance Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

2019-2020 Academic Year Summer –Week 5Part II

Technology and

Research Methods (BUS230)

Annotated Bibliography

Before the research process à researchers go to the library à gather information

Then they choose and read before research

Once they decide on the sources they will use, they read and extract the necessary information

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sesnEcikxT8

Annotated Bibliography

o A descriptive or informative annotated bibliography describes or summarizes a source.

o It describes why the source is useful for researching a particular topic or question, its distinctive features.

o It describes the author's main arguments and conclusions without evaluating what the author says or concludes.

Annotated Bibliography

The Annotation is a brief summary that:

o Assesses the strengths and weaknesses of a source

o Outlines main arguments

o Gives background about the author and the research

o Is relevant to the topic the writer has

An Annotated Bibliography has two parts

Annotated Bibliography

Daller, M. H., Treffers-Daller, J., & Furman, R. (2011). Transfer of conceptualization

patterns in bilinguals: The construal of motion events in Turkish and German.

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, pp 95-119.

Language dominance patterns and the consistency between linguistic performances in

bilinguals were studied with focus on the lexicalization of motion events. Daller et al.

(2011) look at dominant linguistic features of the environment and the influence of

the languages based on transfer that occurs between them. The results show that the

word order structures that the bilinguals use are influenced by language structures the

monolinguals in the country they live in use. More precicely, cross linguistic

influences of the lexicon the bilinguals choose may imply the dominance or the

accessibility of the words, rather than any underlying grammatical structure.

The Reference

The Summary

o Literature Review is not an annotated bibliography

o Annotated bibliography is a useful tool and a step to help analyze the literature that is being read

o While drafting the paper, one the source, then the next are not discussed

RATHER:

The writing is organized according to the sub categories found within the literature and the synthesis of the source information to talk about those categories

Annotated Bibliography

Example: Breeding evil. (2005, August 6). Economist, 376(8438), 9. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com

This editorial from the Economist describes the controversy surrounding video games and the effect they have on people who use them. The author points out that skepticism of new media have gone back to the time of the ancient Greeks, so this controversy surrounding video games is nothing new. The article also points out that most critics of gaming are people over 40 and it is an issue of generations not understanding one another, rather than of the games themselves. As the youth of today grow older, the controversy will die out, according to the author. The author of this article stresses the age factor over violence as the real reason for opposition to video games and stresses the good gaming has done in most areas of human life. This article is distinctive in exploring the controversy surrounding video games from a generational standpoint and is written for a general audience.

Please pay attention to the last sentence. It criticizes the authors research.

Annotated Bibliography

APA-PURDUE EXAMPLE Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. Henry Holt and Company.

In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist's experiential research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individual to live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning service, and a Walmart sales employee, the author summarizes and reflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financial struggles in each situation. An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of her experiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tactics and reflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methods and supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places of employment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America. Ehrenreich’s project is timely, descriptive, and well-researched.

The annotation above summarizes and assesses the book in the citation

- The first paragraph provides a brief summary of the author's project in the book, covering the main points of the work. - The second paragraph points out the project’s strengths and evaluates its methods and presentation.

This particular annotation does not reflect on the source’s potential importance or usefulness for this person’s own research

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Writing an Annotated Bibliography TOPIC: Online Learning o What are the benefits?

o What are the effects?

o What is new?

o More ideas

o More

o more

STEP 2: Do the research Find your sources

Variety of sources: Include Books, Journal articles, etc…

STEP 3: Create the references o Authors name

o Year o Title & volume & issue number

o Page numbers o DOI or URL

Step 1: Pick a research topic

Annotated Bibliography

Writing an Annotated Bibliography

Write the citation and annotation

When writing your annotation, the complete reference should always come first and the annotation follows.

Depending on the type of annotated bibliography the general points which are included are:

o The purpose of the work

o A summary of its content

o For what type of audience the work is written

o Its relevance to the topic

o Any special or unique features about the material

o The strengths, weaknesses or biases in the material

Before You Read the Article

Skim the whole text to determine the

overall thesis, structure and

methodology.

This will help understand better

understand how the different

elements fit together once you begin

reading carefully.

o What does the title lead you to expect about the article?

o Study any sub-headings to understand how the author

organized the content.

o Read the abstract for a summary of the author's arguments.

o Study the list of references to determine what research

contributed to the author's arguments. Are the references

recent? Do they represent important work in the field?.

o Has the author made an important contribution to the field of

study?

Annotated Bibliography

Zhao, C., & Kuh, G. (2004). Adding value: Learning communities and student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 45(2), 115–138.

This study questioned whether participating in a learning community affected student success and satisfaction. The authors randomly selected approximately 80,000 first-year and senior students from four-year institutions who completed the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). By considering 47 items from the NSSE, they created scales to measure levels of student engagement, perceived quality of campus environment, and self reported learning outcomes. Results showed that participation in a learning community is positively linked with students’ overall satisfaction and academic performance.

Annotated Bibliography

Firmin, M. W., Warner, S. C., Firmin, R. L., Johnson, C. B., & Firebaugh, S. D. (2013). Attitudinal outcomes of a multicultural learning community experience: A qualitative analysis. Learning Communities Research and Practice, 1(1), Article 9. Retrieved from http://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol1/iss1/9

The authors argued that learning communities can be an effective platform for enhancing diverse interactions among students. They interviewed senior students who participated in a multicultural learning community at a small, private Midwestern university during their first year of college. Interviews revealed main findings, which included a shift in Caucasian students’ personal biases and stereotypes, as well as a generally positive experience in the learning community among most students regardless of ethnic/racial background.

Annotated Bibliography

Rodriguez, G. G., & Buczinsky, C. (2013). Linking classes: Learning communities, “high” culture, and the working class student. Learning Communities Research and Practice, 1(2), Article 6. Retrieved from http://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol1/iss2/6

Two English professors from a small, Midwestern, urban, Catholic college reported on the institution’s reformation of general education requirements to better serve their diverse and underprepared student body. They implemented a mandatory learning community—Humanities, Religion, and English Composition courses linked for first-year students—in the hopes that this restructuring would improve retention and increase student learning. Success was measured through retention data and a pretest/posttest questionnaire. The authors concluded that closely linked courses fostered the largest increase in student learning, while learning communities in general improved retention rates.

Annotated Bibliography

It is not enough to simply understand what the author is saying;

it is essential to challenge it!

Examine how the article is structured,

the types of reasons or evidence used to support the conclusions,

and whether the author is reliant on underlying assumptions or theoretical frameworks.

Annotated Bibliography

Read critically!

Reading the Article: Points to Consider

o Who is the intended audience? o What is the author's purpose? To survey and summarize research on a topic? To present an argument that builds on past

research? To refute another writer's argument? o Does the author define important terms? o Is the information in the article fact or opinion? (Facts can be verified, while opinions arise from interpretations of facts.)

Does the information seem well-researched or is it unsupported? o What are the author's central arguments or conclusions? Are they clearly stated? Are they supported by evidence & analysis? o If the article reports on an experiment or study, does the author clearly outline methodology and the expected result? o Is the article lacking information or argumentation that you expected to find? o Is the article organized logically and easy to follow? o Does the writer's style suit the intended audience? Is the style stilted or unnecessarily complicated? o Is the author's language objective or charged with emotion and bias? o If illustrations or charts are used, are they effective in presenting information?

Annotated Bibliography

Read the article carefully. Take note of your impressions and sections/ideas suitable for quoting

Structure What type of text is it? Is it original research or a comment on original research? What are the different sections and how do they fit together? Are any of the sections particularly effective or ineffective?

Annotated Bibliography

Writing Based on Part of a Paper

Methodology Is the research quantitative or qualitative? Does the methodology have any weaknesses? How does the design of the study address the hypothesis?

Reasons/Evidence What kind of sources does the author use (interviews, peer-reviewed journals, government reports, journal entries, newspaper accounts, etc.)? What type of evidence is provided (empirical, statistical, logical, etc. ?

Conclusions Does the data adequately support the conclusion drawn by the researcher(s)? Are other interpretations meaningful and clearly stated? Are the conclusions dependent on a particular theoretical formulation? What does the work contribute to the field?

Logic What assumptions does the author make? Does the author account for all of the data? Are there any logical flaws in the construction of the argument?

Examine all elements. All aspects of the text—the structure, the methods, the reasons and evidence, the conclusions, and, especially,

EXAMINE the logical connections between all of these—should be considered.

The types of questions asked will vary depending on the discipline in which you are writing

Annotated Bibliography

Prepare an Outline

1. Read over your notes

2. Choose a statement that expresses the central purpose or thesis of your review

3. When thinking of a thesis, consider the author's intentions and whether or not you think those intentions were successfully realized

4. Eliminate all notes that do not relate to your own paper

5. Organize your remaining points into separate groups such as points about structure, style, or argument

6. Devise a logical sequence for presenting these ideas. Remember that all of your ideas must support your central thesis

Annotated Bibliography

Writing the Annotated Bibliography

o Typed, double-spaced, on standard-sized paper (8.5x11), o 1 inch margins on all sides

Note: Microsoft Word generally is pre-set for these margins, so you do not have to adjust them o Times New Roman is recommended, 12 pt. font o Two spaces after punctuation that ends a sentence o The running head continues at the top of each page o The title of the paper is on the first page after the Abstract o Page number in the upper right corner o Titles of long works (books, journals, plays, movies, CDs, paintings, etc.) are italicized o Titles of short works (articles, poems, short stories, songs, etc.) are in “quotation marks” o Headings may be used to organize the text of advanced research papers.

Remember

Basic APA Format

Questions?

Final Weekly Assignment

Date posted on Moodle Due Date Weight

Monday, 21 September 2020

Sunday, 27 September, 23:59

20%

TASK A. Read the in-text citations. a. Identify if the in-text citation is a Direct or Indirect citation. b. State whether it is a Long or Short Quotation, or a Paraphrase/Summary.

Final Weekly Assignment

TASK B. The information for the references below has been given in mixed order. Using all of the information in the boxes, rewrite the reference using the correct APA format.

Final Weekly Assignment

TASK C.Using the quote and the reference information provided in the question file for Task C, Section O1, insert the quotation using a signal phrase, the correct APA format for the specific quotation; integrating it into the space given in the extract titled “Your text”.

TASK D. For tasks D1 and D2, use the the Journal Article “A Possible Managerial Approach for Internal Organizational Communication Characterization” provided for you as a PDF in your Final Assessment Folder. D1. Create the reference for the Journal Article using APA format. Reference in APA format:

D2. Read the Journal Article and write a 150-200 word annotated bibliography entry in your own words, using the techniques covered in class. Write your answer on your answer sheet.

Attachment 2

2019-2020 Academic Year Summer –Week 5Part I

Technology and

Research Methods (BUS230)

Lecture 5

Objectives

By the end of this session students should be able to

- Have an awareness of research paper structure and formatting

- Identify parts of a research paper

- Basic referencewriting and in-text citation

- How towrite an Annotated Bibliography (AB)

Outline Research Paper Writing and APA Conventions Annotated Bibliography Sample paper

Lecture 5

Writing a Research Paper

APA Conventions

• Sets standards for scientific communication

• Specifies procedures (style rules) concerning:

o Structure and Content – Presentation and Layout of Page Structure

– Organization of Manuscript Elements

o Crediting Sources – In-text Citations

– Referencing

o Mechanics of Language (Sentence Level Concerns)

Writing a Research Paper

APA Conventions

An APA Paper

Form

Function

when organizing the paper

o Title page

o Abstract

o (Table of Contents)

o (Heading Levels)

o (Tables and Figures)

o Discussion and Conclusion

o Reference Page

o Appendix Page

A Research Paper written according to APA Conventions is guided on writing:

o Introduction

o Literature Review

o Methodology

o Results

The Research Paper

Introduction

Literature Review

Methodology

Results

Discussion/Conclusion

References

Appendix

Title Page

Font and Size

Title

Running Head

DOUBLE SPACED Times New Roman – 12pt

The Title of the Paper is Centered

Running Head: THE TITLE OF THE PAPER

Running Head

Page Number

Title of the Paper

Author(s)

Institutional Affiliation

Title Page for Student

Paper

Title of the Paper

Running Head Page Number

Institutional Affiliation

Author(s)

Abstract

Paragraph

Title

Number of Words

One paragraph, no indentation

Abstract (Centered)

150-250

Indented

Keywords (Italicized)

Between three to five words

Keywords

Title

Running Head Page

Number

Keywords

Level Format

1 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings

2 Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

3 Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period.

4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.

5 Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.

APA Heading Levels

Introduction

• The body of the paper opens with an introduction

• Introduce the specific problem under study (research questions)

• Summarize the argument/s & main aim of the paper

• Explore the importance of the problem

• Describe the research strategy

• Give the reader a firm understanding of what has been done and why

à Discuss the relevant literature in the Literature Review

Main Body of the Paper

Literature Review

Is the most essential part of a research process since it enables understanding

o the scope of the study, o the development of the ideas, o and the hypotheses

The part where o the rationale and justification of the research

topic with a relevant background are set up

Overview of prior research, what other researchers have published on a particular topic, to determine

o what is known o and yet unknown about the topic

Main Body of the Paper

Literature Review

Main Body of the Paper

Research Question

A question that the researcher intends to answer

Example: Are young people motivated to join airlines as pilots because they perceive it to be a glamorous job?

Hypothesis

A statement the researcher aims to either prove or disprove

Example: Young people are motivated to become pilots because they perceive it as a glamorous job.

Research Objectives

Describes what the research aims to achieve

Example: To identify whether young people are motivated to join airlines as pilots because they perceive it to be a glamorous job.

Research Questions/ Research Objectives / Hypothesis

Main Body of the Paper

Methodology

The methodology explains the details of how the research was carried out. It includes:

o An outline and description of the study

o Procedures for the experiment/case, sample collection (sampling), and research design

o How the data was analyzed

o Justification for why these procedures were used

A methodology enables any researcher to replicate the study implemented in the paper. Therefore, it should be in as much detail as possible.

Format

Tables

Numberà Above table Titleà Under table number in italic and

mixed case Spacingà Single or one-and-a-half Alignedà Left

Figures

Numberà Below figure and in italic with period Titleà Same line as figure number and in

lowercase Spacingà Single or one-and-a-half Alignedà Left

Main Body of the Paper

Results Discussion/Conclusion

Results of the research are presented.

They are not analyzed but simply reported in detail.

This information should include:

o Results and findings (qualitative or quantitative)

o Statistics (if any)

Discussion

The discussion analyzes and evaluates the data reported in the results section.

Conclusion

The conclusion reviews the objective. It:

Reminds the introduction and importance of the study

Makes connections to the literature review and initial hypotheses

Combines a review of the data with the researcher’s interpretations and further implications

Main Body of the Paper

References

The format of the reference page should be as follows: o Start on a new page

o Center the title as a level 1 heading, References

o List references in alphabetical order

o Left align the text

o Have the consecutive lines of each reference with a ½ inch hanging indentation

Note: Each source has certain formatting conventions that should be followed according to APA Style

In Alphabetical O rder

References

Example Bourke, J. R., & Sam, F. (2013). Understanding the theory of teaching English

grammar in French high schools. Journal of International Grammars, 5(11), 53-67.

Journal Article in Print

In-text citations Parenthetical (Bourke & Sam, 2013) Narrative Bourke and Sam (2013)

References

Example Newport, K. & Gerry, C. (2010). Neural pathways in child development. Portland:

Bush House Publishing.

Authored Book in Print

In-text citations Parenthetical (Newport & Gerry, 2010) Narrative Newport and Gerry (2010)

References

Example Artunian, J. (2017, February 22). Writing a company history. Business. Retrieved

from https://www.business.com/articles/writing-a-company-history/

Webpage

In-text citations Parenthetical (Artunian, 2017) Narrative Artunian(2017)

References

Reference Page

References

References

Daller, M. H., Treffers-Daller, J. & Furman, R. (2011). Transfer of conceptualization patterns in bilinguals:

The construal of motion events in Turkish and German. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition,

14(1), pp 95-119.

Lightbrown, P. M. & Spada, N. (1998). How languages are learned. ISBN: 0194371697

Wolchover, N. (2020, July 14). How Gödel’s proof works. Quanta Magazine. Retrieved from

https://www.quantamagazine.org/how-godels-incompleteness-theorems-work-20200714/#

Paraphrasing

EXAMPLE Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student's style and a student's ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content, and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.

Differentiation is a way to encourage equality between the approach and talent of the student (Thompson, 2009). This type of instruction gives students different ways to deal with and grasp information, and for establishing new learning to move on in education (Thompson, 2009).

Teachers use differentiated instruction to help students learn, allowing the teacher to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student's skill (Thompson, 2009).

Which one has been paraphrased better?

A

B

Paraphrasing

EXAMPLE Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student's style and a student's ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content, and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically.

Differentiation is a way to encourage equality between the approach and talent of the student (Thompson, 2009). This type of instruction gives students different ways to deal with and grasp information, and for establishing new learning to move on in education (Thompson, 2009).

Teachers use differentiated instruction to help students learn, allowing the teacher to cater lessons to the way each student learns and each student's skill (Thompson, 2009).

Which one has been paraphrased better?

A

B

Short Quotations

o Fewer than 40 words o Has double quotation marks around the borrowed phrases or sentences (“_______”) o Includes author, year of publication, and page or paragraph number o Indicates page and paragraph numbers as (p. xxx) or (para. xxx) after the quotation, before the ending punctuation

mark of the short quotation

Long (Block) Quotations

o 40 or more than 40 words o Does not use quotation marks o Includes author, year of publication, and page or paragraph number o Indicates page and paragraph numbers as (p. xxx) or (para. xxx) after the ending punctuation mark of the quotation o Starts from a new line, indented ½ inch from the left margin, in a freestanding block of text o Uses a signal phrase to introduce the block quotation

.

In-Text Citations

These results suggest that morning people, as measured on the morningness–eveningness continuum are more proactive than are evening types. Additionally, the misalignment of social and biological time, as assessed by the difference between rise times on weekdays and on free days, correlated with proactivity, suggesting that people with a high misalignment of social and biological time may be less able to act in a proactive manner, probably because of sleep delay. Their biological schedules seem not to fit neatly into social demands (e.g., school, university, work schedules) as do those of less misaligned people.

Randler, C. (2009). Proactive people are morning people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(12), 2787-2797.

In-Text Citations

These results suggest that morning people, as measured on the morningness–eveningness continuum are more proactive than are evening types. Additionally, the misalignment of social and biological time, as assessed by the difference between rise times on weekdays and on free days, correlated with proactivity, suggesting that people with a high misalignment of social and biological time may be less able to act in a proactive manner, probably because of sleep delay. Their biological schedules seem not to fit neatly into social demands (e.g., school, university, work schedules) as do those of less misaligned people.

Randler, C. (2009). Proactive people are morning people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(12), 2787-2797.

Randler (2009) states that people who are naturally morning people often also display traits that are considered proactive. He also suggests that late risers may not show as many proactive traits because they naturally operate on a different sleep schedule (p. 2793).

Paraphrasing and using an in-text citation

People who are naturally morning people have been shown to also display traits that are considered proactive, and late risers display fewer of these traits because they don’t get enough sleep on days when they have to go to work or school (Randler, 2009, p. 2793).

In-Text Citations

These results suggest that morning people, as measured on the morningness–eveningness continuum are more proactive than are evening types. Additionally, the misalignment of social and biological time, as assessed by the difference between rise times on weekdays and on free days, correlated with proactivity, suggesting that people with a high misalignment of social and biological time may be less able to act in a proactive manner, probably because of sleep delay. Their biological schedules seem not to fit neatly into social demands (e.g., school, university, work schedules) as do those of less misaligned people.

Randler, C. (2009). Proactive people are morning people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(12), 2787-2797.

Quoting and using an in-text citation

Randler (2009) states that late risers have “a high misalignment of social and biological time” which results in a mismatch between their natural schedules and the normal workday (p. 2793).

“People with a high misalignment of social and biological time may be less able to act in a proactive manner, probably because of sleep delay” (Randler, 2009, p. 2793).

In-Text Citations

Randler, C. (2009). Proactive people are morning people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(12), 2787-2797.

Randler (2009) states that people who are naturally morning people often also display traits that are considered proactive. He also suggests that late risers may not show as many proactive traits because they naturally operate on a different sleep schedule (p. 2793).

Paraphrasing and using an in-text citation

People who are naturally morning people have been shown to also display traits that are considered proactive, and late risers display fewer of these traits because they don’t get enough sleep on days when they have to go to work or school (Randler, 2009, p. 2793).

Quoting and using an in-text citation

Randler (2009) states that late risers have “a high misalignment of social and biological time” which results in a mismatch between their natural schedules and the normal workday (p. 2793).

“People with a high misalignment of social and biological time may be less able to act in a proactive manner, probably because of sleep delay” (Randler, 2009, p. 2793).

• The research on the use of Napster clarifies

assumptions (Spitz & Hunter, 2005) and provides

suggestions on how …

• Napster is a software used in a variety of fields (Spitz &

Hunter, 2005).

• Spitz and Hunter (2005) illustrate that …

• The research carried out by Spitz and Hunter (2005) …

• Results in the Spitz and Hunter (2005) study indicate …

Integration

In-text citations are used in Last Name and Last Name (Year)

format and can be at the start of a sentence or at the middle

In-text citations are used in (Last Name & Last Name, Year)

format and can be at the middle of a sentence or at the end

EXAMPLES

Start of sentence Middle of

sentence

Middle of sentence

End of sentence

In-Text Citations

Attachment 3

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 124 ( 2014 ) 496 – 503

1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of SIM 2013 / 12th International Symposium in Management. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.02.512

ScienceDirect

SIM 2013

A Possible Managerial Approach for Internal Organizational Communication Characterization

Cristina Borcaa,b*, Viorica Baesua

aPolitehnica University Timisoara, Management Faculty, 14 Remus str., 300191 Timisoara, Romania bAquatim SA, Water and Wastewater Operator in Timis County, 11A Ghe. Lazar str., 300081 Timisoara, Romania

Abstract

The paper will present a proposed approach for the organizational communication diagnosis. Based on relevant references, the context and the motivation of the research will be outlined. The proposed methodology will be applied for the characterization of the communication style (for administrative staff, including top management team) in the case of an extant company. The research conclusion (as SWOT matrix) underlines the improvements that should be made in accordance to the criteria described in order to gain organizational communication success.

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of SIM 2013/12th International Symposium in Management.

Keywords: organizational communication, communication style, survey, diagnosis, effectiveness.

1. Introduction

In the last years, scientists of all categories have conducted various research projects regarding organizational communication from different perspectives, such as: human resources, management, psychology, sociology, organizational studies, public relations etc. Organizational communication is a field of study within the communication science. This type of communication represents the way that businesses, enterprises, companies, firms, institutions or groups communicate in their internal environment to their own members or employees, and

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +4-074-309-9555; fax: +4-025-629-4753. E-mail address: [email protected]

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of SIM 2013 / 12th International Symposium in Management.

497 Cristina Borca and Viorica Baesu / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 124 ( 2014 ) 496 – 503

how the organization as a whole communicates with people (clients, customers, vendors, suppliers, stakeholders, media, general public etc) outside its environment. Organizational communication is important to the health of an organization's members, as well as to the organization's relationship with outsiders.

It is important to establish a general definition of organizational communication because there are many different definitions that scholars have used in the past. Establishing one definition will allow the literature review and the study to focus on one specific area of organizational communication (Figure 1).

Creating efficient and effective internal communication is not an easy process. Managers of different levels need to communicate goals and tasks to employees, while the employees need to understand their tasks in order to be able to help achieve the goals of the organization. For a better understanding of what the determinants of successful internal communication are, this paper will present an overview of the main definitions.

Some references define organizational communication as a basic exchange of information within an organization. According to (Norbin, S., Halib, M. & Ghazali, Z., 2011) internal communication is the exchange of information and ideas within an organization. Other researchers offer a broader definition that takes into consideration the social dynamics of the workplace. For example, (Norbin, S., Halib, M. & Ghazali, Z., 2011) argues that internal communication is about creating an atmosphere of respect for all employees within an organization. There have been recognized that communication from management should come directly from one manager to the next, as well as from supervisor to employee, but as companies grow larger and more complex, this often becomes more difficult - hence the need for the internal communication function. Consequently, (Norbin, S., Halib, M. & Ghazali, Z., 2011) defines internal communication as “the communication transactions between individuals and/or groups at various levels and in different areas of specialization that are intended to design and redesign organizations, to implement designs, and to co-ordinate day-to-day activities.”

It has been observed through the research referenced above that organizational communication definitions address the exchange of knowledge and opinions in the organization, but also that this concept can be credited for creating a positive atmosphere for all the employees of an organization. Therefore, internal communication has an interdisciplinary function, integrating elements of human resources management, communication and marketing (Tkalac Verčič, A., Verčič, D. & Sriramesh, K., 2012). This definition establishes organizational communication as a wider dimensional concept.

Fig. 1. The Organizational Communication – Overview Based on Definitions

Organizational communication

Internal organizational comunication

External organizational comunication

Employees Managers Stakeholders

Public Society Media

Custumers Clients Users

Market actors

Vendors Suppliers Business partners

Administrative organizations

Camber of Commerce

Professional organizations

Contact, data, information and knowledge exchange in order to attend organizational objectives

Increase organizational

performance and competitiveness

Improve organization

imagine

498 Cristina Borca and Viorica Baesu / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 124 ( 2014 ) 496 – 503

When organizations grow and become more complex, organizational communication also need to align to organizational needs and quality increases (Ince, M. & Gül, H., 2011). In this context, the communication processes in a given organization is about creating and exchanging information in a dependent relationship network, as well as about transmitting work-related news from the organization to employees, and through employees. According to (Altinöz, M., 2008), organizational communication is the structural communication of all the employees of the organization with their internal and external environments. Thus, the internal communication’s objective is to make employees feel valuable through their participation in programs aimed at achieving organizational objectives (Abdullah, Z. & Antonay, C. 2012). The internal communicator’s job is to convince the top management that employees need to be aware of the organizational plans, objectives and outcomes. This helps the top management communicate its goals efficiently and effectively, and will lead to employees aligning their efforts as to maximize effective management. From this perspective, all organizations have to understand that communicating with employees is a success factor for the whole activity. The main objective of organizational communication is to inform, disseminate and convince employees about the organization’s goals and policy. This can be done by providing a platform to interact for employees working in various departments and different-level managers, and will also increase job motivation and satisfaction, will maintain the operations of the organization and will help attain the organization’s objectives (Ince, M. & Gül, H., 2011).

In the context of the conducted research, organizational communication is seen as a technical-economic and social process that provides contact, data, information and knowledge exchange between the departments and units of an organization and its environment, with the motivation of organization, its employees and other related actors (including stakeholders) interests, requirements accomplishment (attending objectives, get informed, attending performance etc). This definition describes the environment of a company named AQUA – the focus of my research (a company that is state owned and has monopoly on public services – water supply for Timisoara, Romania). In the proposed approach the internal organizational communication of the company will be considered in order to indentify, describe, and characterize the dominant style employed in building a trustworthy environment (between the organization’s employees) (Abdullah, Z. & Antonay, C., 2012). Also, the role of the public relations department for the success of the internal organizational communication will also be emphasized in the case of the analyzed company.

2. Successful Internal Communication Techniques

Knowing the types of internal communication (vertical, horizontal, grapevine and consensus; formal and informal) is not enough when trying to create a successful and trustworthy communication environment within an organization. Rather, being aware of techniques that have worked for different organizations will help create a successful organizational communication environment. According to (Altinöz, M., 2008), efficient communication is the primary device for the adequate implementation of administrative and organizational activities. For this purpose, the management needs to specify the kind of communication system to be set up and the kind of communication devices to be used. Communication is vital for any organization. The practices of internal communication in organizations are crucial as it treats employees with an immense value to attain organizational objectives (Abdullah, Z. & Antonay, C., 2012). The communication processes in organizations are closely related to the subjectivity of those involved, as well as to the symbolic process being used. In this context, the perception of employees and managers about the communication process must be considered, because what they think or feel affects how they interact and act with the organizational environment (Arnold, E. & Silva, N., 2011). Several structures and policies need to be followed in order to ensure the effectiveness of internal communication, such as making sure that employees receive copies of strategies, plans, missions, and goals to be reached. In addition, employers need to engage in face-to-face communication with the internal publics in order to maintain an effective internal communication and build a trustworthy organizational environment. Moreover, this could help managers develop a positive working relationship with their employees, as it encourages an enhanced two-way communication (Abdullah, Z. & Antonay, C., 2012). Usually, communication in organizations takes place within the hierarchical pyramid called the organizational structure, and it is known as formal or informal communication. Formal communication works in specified structures within the organizational rules and towards the organizational

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goals. Informal communication, on the other hand, is unofficial - taking place among staff as face-to-face, telephone or video-conference interaction (Altinöz, M., 2008).

Understanding the importance of organizational communication and the necessary techniques to meet the criteria for a successful internal communication system, objectives and strategy. To meet the criteria for a successful organizational communication, it is important to understand that an organization is a unit set up to achieve certain goals, and communication helps implement the basic functions of management, such as planning, organizing, decision and control; and thus organizations can fulfill their objectives (Figure 2).

Fig. 2. Criteria for Organizational Communication Success

The first essential criterion for organizational communication is decision-making by management. Without the necessary information problems cannot be solved, nor can a decision be reached on any issue (Altinöz, M., 2008). In today’s business environment effective communication becomes a fundamental requirement (Arnold, E., Silva, N., 2011). The lack of communication that occurs at higher levels and spreads within the whole organization may cause misunderstanding among the employees (Ince, M. & Gül, H., 2011). The need for the right information in conducting business processes (including management and decision-making) is met by communication, which is mandatory for increasing work efficiency and mobilizing organizational resources (Altinöz, M., 2008).

The second essential criterion for organizational communication is the way the organization is structured for communication (the internal organizational communication system). Cooperation is not possible when employees are unaware of one another’s needs and emotions (Altinöz, M., 2008). Duties and responsibilities must be segregated fairly to employees in an organization so as to enhance internal relations (Abdullah, Z. & Antonay, C., 2012). With efficient communication taking place, and with the support of a trustworthy organizational environment, success is assured (Altinöz, M., 2008).

The third essential criterion for organizational communication is how organizations distribute, disseminate and spread information internally, since they need to absorb desired/required information in order to function effectively (Abdullah, Z. & Antonay, C., 2012). It has been suggested that knowledge of information should be disseminated properly in an internal communication practice. Proper information dissemination requires individuals and project teams to understand how to deliver information within the organization (Abdullah, Z. & Antonay, C., 2012). When it comes to working in groups, communication is strengthened through an intergroup central channel. Furthermore, the ease of information transmission makes it possible to reach the information at the source, allowing for efficient and correct decisions. Virtual offices (as tools of virtual teams) can present as a whole the elements of information,

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which conventional offices produce in different environments (Aldea, C., Draghici, A. & Dragoi, G., 2012). Employees need information in order to accomplish their duties, tasks and objectives; top management expects communicators not only to inform employees and help boost morale, but also craft messages that influence employees’ behavior (Abdullah, Z. & Antonay, C., 2012).

The fourth essential criterion for organizational communication is providing the organization and its employees with the ability to adapt to the technological environment. According to (Arnold, E. & Silva, N., 2011), technology has made an impact in the workplace through the use of Internet and mobile technologies that reduces the costs for travel, transportation, mail etc. services. Communication in a virtual environment, as well as in conventional offices, is essential for obtaining the right information during business processes, including decision-making. Virtual communication technologies increase the efficiency of communication, especially in virtual teams (Aldea, C., Draghici, A. & Dragoi, G., 2012).

3. Research Methodology, Results and Conclusions

The research done about organizational communication in the case of AQUA Company has followed the framework described in Figure 3. The main objective of the diagnosis was to build-up a SWOT analysis of the whole organizational communication system that could help top managers improve their work visibility, not only in the internal environment, but also in the external environment. The research results could affect the company’s business process in such a way as to achieve its main objectives: (1) health and convenience for the company’s consumers; (2) environmental safety and protection of water resources. At the same time, the diagnosis results (SWOT analysis) are able to deliver important information regarding the main measures that could be taken in order to obtain a successful organizational communication. In the context of this paper we shall focus on describing how the communication style has been investigated. The other methodological framework issues include information about AQUA Company that cannot be used in the scientific dissemination.

Fig. 3. Research Methodology – A Proposed Approach for the Communication Management Diagnosis

3.1. Research Scenario for the Communication Style Characterization

In order to identify which is the dominant communication style characterizing the administrative staff (including managers) of the AQUA Company a survey, based on a questionnaire, was conducted (distributed face-to-face and on-line). The research objectives were: (a) the most used communication style; (b) the optimal style of communication in certain operational situations or at certain stages of group development. The method used was based on a questionnaire.

The required sample size s has been determinate based on N = 55 the population size (total number of the administrative staff), in accordance with the formula (Krejcie, R. & Morgan, D.,1970):

Diagnosis Analysis

A. Internal communication processes characterization:

Formal / informal communication Vertical / horizontal communication

B. External communication processes characterization (the communication mix):

Communication with clients Communication with general public Publicity strategy: public relation,

advertising, selling policies

Visual indentity elements

Market notoriety (imagine)

Communication style

Public Realtion (PR)

Department

Employees

PR specialists and managers

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s = χ 2 NP(1 − P ) : d2 (N – 1) + χ 2 P (1 – P) (1)

where: χ 2 - is the table value of chi-square for 1 degree of freedom at the desired confidence level (3.841); P - is the population proportion (assumed to be .50 since this would provide the maximum sample size); D - is the degree of accuracy expressed as a proportion (.05). The required sample size was s = 48. The research sample characteristics were: age average 40 – 49 years old;

62% of the respondents were female (38% were male); 23% of the respondents were managers (from different levels) and 77% were employees from the administrative staff and also from the PR department; 61% of the respondents had a university degree (highly-qualified human resources).

A total of 54 fill-in questionnaires were collected but six of them were not valid (48 questionnaires were considered for processing and getting the research results). The research has been conducted from April 29 to May 13, 2013. The research independent variables used were: age, sex, position held and the educational background. The questionnaire used to assess the communication style consisted of 80 possible statements, grouped in pairs. The respondents had to choose from each pair of statements the one that best suited his/her communication style (in a given situation). The responds were given fast and spontaneous in order to identify the reflex behavior of the subjects being studied. For each fill-in questionnaire, a score related to each category was calculated: (1) communication style process-oriented; (2) communication style oriented towards people; (3) communication style action-oriented; (4) communication style ideas-oriented (Table 1). The calculations have been done using an Excel spreadsheet that also allowed a graphical representation of the results.

3.2. Research results and conclusions

From the 48 questionnaires completed correctly, the following communication styles of the administrative staff of the AQUA Company have been identified: 8 employees are action-oriented; 23 employees are process-oriented; 22 are oriented towards people; 2 are oriented towards ideas (Figure 4, e - General research results).

Table 1. Characteristics of the Communication Styles as Research Results

Communication style “this people talk about …” “those people are:” Process oriented Numbers, methods, planning, organization,

control, test, analysis, comments, demonstrations, details.

Systematized, logical thinking, realistic, talkative (excellent communication skills), insensitive, prudent, patient.

Oriented towards people

Needs, motivation, team, communication, feelings, team spirit, understanding, sensitivity, conscience, cooperation, faith, values, expectations, relationships.

Spontaneous, nice, warm, sentimental, perceptive, wise, empathic.

Action oriented Results, objectives, performance, productivity, efficiency, advancement, responsibility, feed-back, experience, challenges, achievement.

Pragmatic, direct, excited, decide, fast (jumping from one idea to another), energy (challenging).

Ideas oriented Concepts, innovation, creativity, opportunities, possibilities, major projects, interdependence, new ways and methods, improvements, problems solving potential, alternative.

Imaginative, charismatic, difficult to understand, creative, full of new ideas, challenging, vain.

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Fig. 4. Research Results - the Communication Style of Administrative Staff

Action-oriented and idea-oriented communication styles are characteristic of the administrative staff aged 40-59, signifying that young employees have to learn how to be action and ideas oriented. People and process oriented employees are present in all age groups (Figure 4, a). The most common communication styles are people and process oriented for both female and male administrative employees of the AQUA Company (Figure 4, b). The dominant communication style of the top management is ideas-oriented (as well as people and process) and the other administrative staff questioned is process and people oriented in the communication process (Figure 4, c). We have discovered that the ideas-oriented style of communication style is a characteristic of the employees that have post-graduate studies (Figure 4, d). Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the dominant style in AQUA Company is process-oriented, but should increase percentages among the company's employees to be ideas, innovation and new opportunities oriented (Figure 4, e). Furthermore, the research results and analysis (developed in accordance with the presented methodology in Figure 3), there have been developed the SWOT matrix (Table 2) that will allowed the organization management to re-formulate and improve the whole communication system strategy. The SWOT matrix has also allowed a deep analysis of the key success factors of the organizational communication (Figure 2). It has been underlined that A + C success factor is related to SO, but B + D success factor is related to (and depends on) WP components of the SWOT matrix.

a. Communication style by administrative staff age b. Communication style by administrative staff gender

c. Communication style by administrative staff position d. Communication style by administrative staff education

e. General research result

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Table 2. SWOT Analysis – Research Results

S Transparency –company’s evaluation, audit results are often published.

Promptness - Prompt response in the general public debate; good image in the market; continuous cooperation with counterparts in the EU institutions.

Qualified Resources - Staff from the PR department has been trained and has experience in this activity.

W Budget Restraints - Legal limits regarding access to information concerning the company's operative.

New Communication Technologies.

O Systematic Cooperation With Mass Media Institutions.

Availability Of European Structural Funds /projects.

Reinforcing Relationships With Public Institutions.

Restricting Operating Personnel due to budget austerity measures could be offset by good procedure activity and by improving working time, following the implementation of integrated software solutions.

P Media Attacks.

Policymakers.

Cyber Attacks.

Information Workflows established between institutions / authorities and state owned company.

4. Conclusions and future research

After a brief overview of the organizational communication definitions and approaches, the article has described key success factors for organizational communication. These were taken into consideration for the proposed approach of the communication management diagnosis. The last part of the article presented research results for the communication style characterization in a real company. The research results have underlined that the communication style is adequate to the type of company and its activity. The communication system has to be modernized with new technologies in order to increase effectiveness of information and knowledge exchange.

Furthermore, organizational communication has positively affected organizational outputs such as organizational commitment, performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, and job satisfaction. In the future, the proposed model for the organizational communication style characterization will be extended for empirical researchers and will assist them in documenting and defining the effectiveness of communication systems of both for-profit and not- for-profit organizations. Future research intends to characterize the employees job satisfaction degree in accordance with regular communication activities and administrative staff behavioral style.

References

Abdullah, Z. & Antonay, C. (2012). Perception of Employees on Internal Communication of a Leading Five Star Hotel in Malaysia. Asian Social Science. Vol. 8, No. 2.

Aldea C., Draghici A. & Dragoi G. (2012). New Perspectives of Virtual Teams` Collaboration. In Putnik G. D. & Cruz-Cunha M. M. (Eds.), Procedings of the ViNOrg 2011, CCIS 248, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012, 176-185.

Altinöz, M. (2008). An Overall Approach to the Communication of Organizations in Conventional and Virtual Offices. Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. Vol. 31, ISSN 1307-6884.

Arnold, E. & Silva, N. (2011). Perceptions of Organizational Communication Processes in Quality Management. Revista de Psicolgia. Vol. 29 (1), ISSN 0254-9247.

Krejcie, R. & Morgan, D. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement. 30, 607-610.

Ince, M. & Gül, H. (2011). The Role of the Organizational Communication on Employees’ Perception of Justice: A Sample of Public Institution from Turkey. European Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 21 (1).

Norbin, S., Halib, M. & Ghazali, Z. (2011). Strengthening Internal Communication: A Case of Communication Satisfaction in an Organization. European Journal of Social Sciences. Volume 24, Number 4.

Tkalac Verčič, A., Verčič, D. & Sriramesh, K. (2012). Internal communication. Definition, parameters, and the future. Public relations review, 38(2), 223-230.

Attachment 4

Varying Definitions of Online Communication and

Their Effects on Relationship Research

Elizabeth L. Angeli

State University

Author Note

Elizabeth L. Angeli, Department of Psychology, State University.

Elizabeth Angeli is now at Department of English, Purdue University.

This research was supported in part by a grant from the Sample Grant

Program.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Elizabeth

Angeli, Department of English, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 55555.

Contact: [email protected]

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Running head: VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 1

The author note should appear on printed articles and identifies each author’s department and institution affiliation and any changes in affiliation, contains acknowledgements and any financial support received, and provides contact information. For more information, see the APA manual, 2.03, page 24-25. Note: An author note is optional for students writing class papers, theses, and dissertations.. An author note should appear as follows: First paragraph: Complete departmental and institutional affiliation Second paragraph: Changes in affiliation (if any) Third paragraph: Acknowledgments, funding sources, special circumstances Fourth paragraph: Contact information (mailing address and e-mail)

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

2

Abstract

This paper explores four published articles that report on results from research conducted

on online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships and their relationship to

computer-mediated communication (CMC). The articles, however, vary in their

definitions and uses of CMC. Butler and Kraut (2002) suggest that face-to-face (FtF)

interactions are more effective than CMC, defined and used as “email,” in creating

feelings of closeness or intimacy. Other articles define CMC differently and, therefore,

offer different results. This paper examines Cummings, Butler, and Kraut’s (2002)

research in relation to three other research articles to suggest that all forms of CMC

should be studied in order to fully understand how CMC influences online and offline

relationships.

Keywords: computer-mediated communication, face-to-face communication

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VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

3

Varying Definitions of Online Communication and

Their Effects on Relationship Research

Numerous studies have been conducted on various facets of Internet relationships,

focusing on the levels of intimacy, closeness, different communication modalities, and

the frequency of use of computer-mediated communication (CMC). However,

contradictory results are suggested within this research because only certain aspects of

CMC are investigated, for example, email only. Cummings, Butler, and Kraut (2002)

suggest that face-to-face (FtF) interactions are more effective than CMC (read: email) in

creating feelings of closeness or intimacy, while other studies suggest the opposite. To

understand how both online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships are affected

by CMC, all forms of CMC should be studied. This paper examines Cummings et al.’s

research against other CMC research to propose that additional research be conducted to

better understand how online communication affects relationships.

Literature Review

In Cummings et al.’s (2002) summary article reviewing three empirical studies on

online social relationships, it was found that CMC, especially email, was less effective

than FtF contact in creating and maintaining close social relationships. Two of the three

reviewed studies focusing on communication in non-Internet and Internet relationships

mediated by FtF, phone, or email modalities found that the frequency of each modality’s

use was significantly linked to the strength of the particular relationship (Cummings et

al., 2002). The strength of the relationship was predicted best by FtF and phone

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VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

4

communication, as participants rated email as an inferior means of maintaining personal

relationships as compared to FtF and phone contacts (Cummings et al., 2002).

Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed an additional study conducted in 1999 by the

HomeNet project (see Appendix A for more information on the HomeNet project). In

this project, Kraut, Mukhopadhyay, Szczypula, Kiesler, and Scherlis (1999) compared

the value of using CMC and non-CMC to maintain relationships with partners. They

found that participants corresponded less frequently with their Internet partner (5.2 times

per month) than with their non-Internet partner (7.2 times per month) (as cited in

Cummings et al., 2002). This difference does not seem significant, as it is only two times

less per month. However, in additional self-report surveys, participants responded

feeling more distant, or less intimate, towards their Internet partner than their non-

Internet partner. This finding may be attributed to participants’ beliefs that email is an

inferior mode of personal relationship communication.

Intimacy is necessary in the creation and maintenance of relationships, as it is

defined as the sharing of a person’s innermost being with another person, i.e., self-

disclosure (Hu, Wood, Smith, & Westbrook, 2004). Relationships are facilitated by the

reciprocal self-disclosing between partners, regardless of non-CMC or CMC. Cummings

et al.’s (2002) reviewed results contradict other studies that research the connection

between intimacy and relationships through CMC.

Hu et al. (2004) studied the relationship between the frequency of Instant

Messenger (IM) use and the degree of perceived intimacy among friends. The use of IM

instead of email as a CMC modality was studied because IM supports a non-professional

Use an appendix to provide brief content that supplement s your paper but is not directly related to your text.

If you are including an appendix, refer to it in the body of your paper.

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

5

environment favoring intimate exchanges (Hu et al., 2004). Their results suggest that a

positive relationship exists between the frequency of IM use and intimacy, demonstrating

that participants feel closer to their Internet partner as time progresses through this CMC

modality.

Similarly, Underwood and Findlay (2004) studied the effect of Internet

relationships on primary, specifically non-Internet relationships and the perceived

intimacy of both. In this study, self-disclosure, or intimacy, was measured in terms of

shared secrets through the discussion of personal problems. Participants reported a

significantly higher level of self-disclosure in their Internet relationship as compared to

their primary relationship. In contrast, the participants’ primary relationships were

reported as highly self-disclosed in the past, but the current level of disclosure was

perceived to be lower (Underwood & Findlay, 2004). This result suggests participants

turned to the Internet in order to fulfill the need for intimacy in their lives.

In further support of this finding, Tidwell and Walther (2002) hypothesized CMC

participants employ deeper self-disclosures than FtF participants in order to overcome the

limitations of CMC, e.g., the reliance on nonverbal cues. It was found that CMC partners

engaged in more frequent intimate questions and disclosures than FtF partners in order to

overcome the barriers of CMC. In their 2002 study, Tidwell and Walther measured the

perception of a relationship’s intimacy by the partner of each participant in both the CMC

and FtF conditions. The researchers found that the participants’ partners stated their

CMC partner was more effective in employing more intimate exchanges than their FtF

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

6

partner, and both participants and their partners rated their CMC relationship as more

intimate than their FtF relationship.

Discussion

In 2002, Cummings et al. stated that the evidence from their research conflicted

with other data examining the effectiveness of online social relationships. This statement

is supported by the aforementioned discussion of other research. There may be a few

possible theoretical explanations for these discrepancies.

Limitations of These Studies

The discrepancies identified may result from a number of limitations found in the

materials reviewed by Cummings et al. These limitations can result from technological

constraints, demographic factors, or issues of modality. Each of these limitations will be

examined in further detail below.

Technological limitations. First, one reviewed study by Cummings et al. (2002)

examined only email correspondence for their CMC modality. Therefore, the study is

limited to only one mode of communication among other alternatives, e.g., IM as studied

by Hu et al. (2004). Because of its many personalized features, IM provides more

personal CMC. For example, it is in real time without delay, voice-chat and video

features are available for many IM programs, and text boxes can be personalized with the

user’s picture, favorite colors and text, and a wide variety of emoticons, e.g., :). These

options allow for both an increase in self-expression and the ability to overcompensate

for the barriers of CMC through customizable features, as stated in Tidwell and Walther

Because all research has its limitations, it is important to discuss the limitations of articles under examination .

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VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

7

(2002). Self-disclosure and intimacy may result from IM’s individualized features,

which are not as personalized in email correspondence.

Demographic limitations. In addition to the limitations of email, Cummings et

al. (2002) reviewed studies that focused on international bank employees and college

students (see Appendix B for demographic information). It is possible the participants’

CMC through email was used primarily for business, professional, and school matters

and not for relationship creation or maintenance. In this case, personal self-disclosure

and intimacy levels are expected to be lower for non-relationship interactions, as this

communication is primarily between boss and employee or student and professor.

Intimacy is not required, or even desired, for these professional relationships.

Modality limitations. Instead of professional correspondence, however,

Cummings et al.’s (2002) review of the HomeNet project focused on already established

relationships and CMC’s effect on relationship maintenance. The HomeNet researchers’

sole dependence on email communication as CMC may have contributed to the lower

levels of intimacy and closeness among Internet relationships as compared to non-

Internet relationships (as cited in Cummings et al., 2002). The barriers of non-personal

communication in email could be a factor in this project, and this could lead to less

intimacy among these Internet partners. If alternate modalities of CMC were studied in

both already established and professional relationships, perhaps these results would have

resembled those of the previously mentioned research.

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

8

Conclusions and Future Study

In order to gain a complete understanding of CMC’s true effect on both online

and offline relationships, it is necessary to conduct a study that examines all aspects of

CMC. This includes, but is not limited to, email, IM, voice-chat, video-chat, online

journals and diaries, online social groups with message boards, and chat rooms. The

effects on relationships of each modality may be different, and this is demonstrated by

the discrepancies in intimacy between email and IM correspondence. As each mode of

communication becomes more prevalent in individuals’ lives, it is important to examine

the impact of all modes of CMC on online and offline relationship formation,

maintenance, and even termination.

The conclusion restates the problem the paper addresses and can offer areas for further research. See the OWL resource on conclu- sions: http://owl. english.pur due.edu/ow l/resource/ 724/04/

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

9

References

Cummings, J. N., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The quality of online social

relationships. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 103-108.

Hu, Y., Wood, J. F., Smith, V., & Westbrook, N. (2004). Friendships through IM:

Examining the relationship between instant messaging and intimacy. Journal of

Computer-Mediated Communication, 10, 38-48.

Tidwell, L. C., & Walther, J. B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication effects on

disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one

another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research, 28, 317-348.

Underwood, H., & Findlay, B. (2004). Internet relationships and their impact on primary

relationships. Behaviour Change, 21(2), 127-140.

Start the reference list on a new page, center the title “References,” and alphabetize the entries. Do not underline or italicize the title. Double-space all entries. Every source mentioned in the paper should have an entry.

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

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Appendix A

The HomeNet Project

Started at Carnegie Mellon University in 1995, the HomeNet research project has

involved a number of studies intended to look at home Internet usage. Researchers began

this project because the Internet was originally designed as a tool for scientific and

corporate use. Home usage of the Internet was an unexpected phenomenon worthy of

extended study.

Each of HomeNet’s studies has explored a different facet of home Internet usage,

such as chatting, playing games, or reading the news. Within the past few years, the

explosion of social networking has also proven to be an area deserving of additional

research. Refer to Table A1 for a more detailed description of HomeNet studies.

Table A1 Description of HomeNet Studies by Year Year  of  Study   Contents  of  Study   1995-­‐1996   93 families in Pittsburgh involved in school

or community organizations 1997-­‐1999   25 families with home businesses 1998-­‐1999   151 Pittsburgh households 2000-­‐2002   National survey

Begin each appendix on a new page., with the word appendix in the top center. Use an identifying capital letter (e.g., Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) if you have more than one appendix. If you are referring to more than one appendix in your text, use the plural appendices (APA only).

The first paragraph of the appendix should flush with the left margin. Additional paragraphs should be indented.

Label tables and figures in the appendix as you would in the text of your manuscript, using the letter A before the number to clarify that the table or figure belongs to the appendix.

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

11

Appendix B Demographic Information for Cummings et al. (2002)’s Review

If an appendix consists entirely of a table or figure, the title of the table or figure should serve as the title of the appendix.

Attachment 5

Name and Surname: _______________________ ID Number: ___________ Section: ____

BUS230_Final_Version O1 (20%)

This document contains the questions and content for BUS230 Final Assessment.

Your answers should be filled in on the Answer Sheet, provided in the same FOLDER on your Moodle page.

You will only submit the answer sheet.

TASK A. Read the following in-text citations.

a. Identify if the in-text citation is a Direct or Indirect citation.

b. State whether it is a Long or Short Quotation, or a Paraphrase/Summary.

Write your answers on your answer sheet. (4p x 10 = 40p)

1. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that effective internal communication plays a vital role in developing positive employee attitudes, such as job satisfaction (Gray & Laidlaw, 2004), identification with the organization (Smidts, Pruyn, & van Riel, 2001), and trust and organizational commitment (Jo & Shim, 2005).

2. Internal communication also impacts the development of positive employee–organization relationships. According to Means, "Technology supports exactly the kinds of changes in content, roles, organizational climate, and affect that are at the heart" of constructivist educational reform movements (1993, p. 1).

3. More specifically, understanding the mechanisms by which effective internal communication influences employee engagement has emerged as a key question in the corporate communication and public relations literature (Welch, 2011).

4. Sluss, Klimchak, and Holmes (2008) point out that although a myriad of potential exchange relationships exist within and between organisations, all employees have two seemingly preeminent relationships at work; one with the immediate supervisor, and one with the organisation. Organisational identification, based on social identity theory, is the degree of oneness with the organisation and has been found to be associated with job satisfaction, job involvement, turnover intentions, and in role and extra-role performance.

5. In fact, a Gallup Management study (Robison, 2012) found that engaged employees “are deeply committed to their employer, leading to key improvements in business outcomes, including reductions in absenteeism, turnover, shrinkage, safety incidents, and product defects” (p. 1).

6. Internal communication can be defined as “Communication which takes place within the boundaries of an organisation in the form of one-way, inter-personal, and non-verbal exchange” (Blundel & Ippolito, 2008, p. 11).

7. Social exchange theory offers a lens to explore social exchange relationships through principles of perceived support, namely perceptions of quality (Gersick, Dutton, & Bartunek, 2000).

8. In their review of employee engagement in the UK, MacLeod and Clarke (2009, p. 8) came across 50 definitions. They conclude (2009) that engagement is much broader than individual job resources:

We believe it is most helpful to see employee engagement as a workplace approach designed to ensure that employees are committed to their organisation’s goals and values, motivated to contribute to organisational success, and are able at the same time to enhance their own sense of well-being. (p. 9)

9. Dundon and Gollan, (2007) consider that the “perception, among employees, that their voice arrangements afford little utility, could be interpreted as a sign that management is untrustworthy” (p. 1188).

10. One of the key assumptions of social exchange theory is that workplace relationships are viewed as an exchange relationship, whereby resources are exchanged between individuals or groups (Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005). Therefore, this research is underpinned by social exchange theory.

TASK B. The information for the references below have been given in mixed order. Using all the information given for each of the boxes, rewrite each reference entry using the correct APA format. (12 points)

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(2017). Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 36-46.

Yun, X. & Gardner. L. Stress-strain curves for hot-rolled steels. 133,

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https://www.theatlantic.com/technology /archive/2018/12/influencers-are- faking-brand-deals/578401/

Rising Instagram stars are posting fake sponsored content.

Lorenz, T.

The Atlantic. (2018, December 18). Retrieved from

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(2011). Fundamentals of machine component design Wiley.

(5th ed.). Juvinall, R. C., & Marshek, K. M. Hoboken:

TASK C. Below is a quote and the reference information provided in the box. Insert the quotation using a signal phrase. Use the correct APA format for the specific quotation when integrating it into the space given in the extract underneath (Titled “Your text”). (16 points)

“A manufacturer is not through with his customer when a sale is completed. He has then only started with his customer. In the case of an automobile the sale of the machine is only something in the nature of an introduction.” From page 21

YOUR TEXT

In this regard, the sale of a product was not simply the outcome and end of the transaction; rather, it signaled the beginning of the relationship. Importantly, many early organizations were owner managed, with the customer the ultimate arbiter of value. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

This relational focus was even more pronounced within business-to-business exchange, where cooperative relationships and reciprocity were prevalent from the early 1900s.

Ford, H. (1922). My life and work. New York, NY: Doubleday, Page & Company.

TASK D. For tasks D1 and D2, use the the Journal Article “A Possible Managerial Approach for Internal Organizational Communication Characterization” provided for you as a PDF in your Final Assessment Folder.

D1. Create the reference for the Journal Article using APA format. (7 points)

D2. Read the Journal Article and write a 150-200 word annotated bibliography entry in your own words, using the techniques covered in class. Write your answer on your answer sheet. (25 points)

Grading Criteria Points

A. Each type of in-text citation is correctly identified. 4x10=40

B. Each reference has been written according to APA format and includes all of the information given in Task B, for BUS230 Final Assignment, Section O1.

4x3=12

C. The integration of the quote uses a signal phrase and provides the name, year, page number based on the reference details, using APA format.

16

D. D1. The reference for the Journal Article “A Possible Managerial Approach for Internal Organizational Communication Characterization” is written according to APA format.

7

D2. The Annotated Bibliography for the Journal Article “A Possible Managerial Approach for Internal Organizational Communication Characterization”

- Assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the source

- Outlines main arguments

- Gives background about the author and the research

- Is between 150-200 words.

25

Total 100

Deductions

Off topic answers 15%