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week three project ADHD

Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 15/09/2020 Graduate Dissertation & Thesis Writing

 

This week, you will begin by choosing a psychological characteristic on which people differ. A simple, narrow characteristic works best for this assignment. You may want to look ahead to the next two weeks as you will be continuing the project based on your work this week.

Conduct a brief literature review of the psychological characteristic you chose, learning more about it and how it has been defined and measured in the past. Then, answer the following questions about your test. You may use this template to help organize your paper:   Test proposal template 1.docx

Test Topic:

  • What is the name of your test?
  • What is your test designed to measure? Be specific.
  • How do you define the construct being measured? Remember, that to create a test the construct should be defined in ways that can be quantified and measured.
  • What is the purpose of your test? What real-world behavior will it predict?

Background:

  • How has your construct been tested in the past? Include a focused review of the literature in this area, discussing information on specific measures.
  • Is there a need for your test? How will your test benefit society? How will your test be better or not better than previous tests.

Conceptualization:

  • What is the content of your test? Explain why it is covering this content.
  • Who are the proposed test-users? Be specific.
  • In what setting(s) will the test be used? Be specific.
  • Who are the proposed test-takers?
  • What cultural factors might affect test-taker response?

Be sure to respond to each question completely and provide your reasoning to demonstrate you understand the material. At the same time, be concise - 2 to 3 pages should be sufficient to address these questions. Be sure to appropriately give credit to your sources (e.g., APA style citations and references).

Example Test Development Part I Assignment (without title page or identifying information):   Test Development Project Example 1.pdf

Click the title above to submit the assignment. This assignment is due by Sunday.

Category: Accounting & Finance Subjects: Accounting Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Running head: TEST PROPOSAL PART 1 1

The [Identifying Information Removed] Narcissus Index

The following proposal will discuss a hypothetical psychological test, the [Identifying

Information Removed] Narcissus Index (MNI), created to measure the existence of narcissism

within organizational leaders. The term narcissism is derived from the fictitious Greek figure,

Narcissus, who fell in love with his own reflection seen in a pool of water (Miller, Nicols, Clark,

Daniels, & Grant, 2018). For the purposes of this proposal, narcissism is defined as having a

grandiose sense of self-importance, characterized by desires of limitless success and power,

oversensitivity to criticism, the need for extreme admiration, feelings of entitlement, exploitative

tendencies, as well as exhibition of envious and arrogant behaviors or attitudes towards others

(Afek, 2019; Shulman & Ferguson, 1988). The definition as well as associated characteristics of

this construct is derived in part from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health

Disorders third edition, from the section relevant to the narcissistic personality disorder, as well

as the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Schulman & Ferguson, 1988).

The purpose of creating the MNI is to measure narcissism within organizational leaders

in an effort to better understand whether or not this construct significantly contributes to

organizational concerns such as high turnover rates, employee stress and job burnout.

Additionally, it will be used in recruiting processes in hiring or promoting new organizational

leadership. A key factor in the construction of the MNI was to draw a distinction between

narcissism in the positive sense and that which leads to maladaptive behaviors. Leaders who are

toxically narcissistic exhibit the characteristics discussed previously which can often result in

suppressing the intellectual abilities and enrichment of their subordinates (Wang, Zhang, Ding,

& Cheng, 2018). When workers are not comfortable collaborating with their superiors, this may

TEST PROPOSAL PART 2 2

foster an environment of rigidity which in turn has negative implications for the organization as a

whole. Moreover, leaders who are overtly narcissistic tend to lack the ability to share a socialized

vision of organizational success; rather their tendency to fulfill self-interests can potentially

hinder organizational accomplishments (Owens, Wallace, & Waldman, 2015).

Background

There has been much debate surrounding the construct of narcissism and whether or not it

should be considered a negative psychological trait. Some professionals suggest that narcissism

is essential to successful job performance; yet others argue that it can cause workplace deviance

(Judge, LePine, & Rich, 2006). Several studies were done in the past to determine if narcissism

is effective in leader success. One such study was conducted by Deluga (1997) on American

presidents’ narcissistic behaviors. The study suggested that narcissism actually has desirable

features and is a component of charismatic leadership (Deluga, 1997). Additionally, Franklin

Roosevelt was cited in the research as an impactful and effective president who was charismatic

and exhibited narcissism (Deluga, 1997). Contrarily, Liu, Chiang, Xu, Fehr, and Wang (2017)

conducted a study to examine how narcissistic leaders deal with perceived unfairness; the results

indicated that these leaders exhibit self-oriented behaviors when they sense unfairness against

themselves, in turn causing downstream negative implications for their followers such as

decreased pro-social behaviors (Liu et al., 2017).

There is a need to establish this specific test given the contradictory research findings

thus far about narcissism and how it does or does not contribute to effective leadership.

Additionally, many researchers have called into the question, the reliability and validity of the

most widely used test for narcissism, the NPI, because it tends to only measure for one facet of

narcissism which is normal or adaptive narcissism (Schoenleber, Roche, Wetzel, Pincus, &

TEST PROPOSAL PART 2 3

Roberts, 2015). Also, despite the NPI being the most prominent scale used to assess narcissism,

its structure does not account for vulnerable narcissism; a type of narcissism with masked

qualities that are often associated with some other aspect of personality (Glover, Miller, Lynam,

Crego, & Widiger, 2012).

The MNI will be different and better than existing tests related to narcissism in that it will

be able to identify a threshold level of narcissistic attitudes and behaviors, which if exceeded will

indicate that a person is at a toxic level of narcissism. Therefore, the MNI will not just designate

whether or not an individual is narcissistic because narcissism is sometimes considered intuitive

to leader success. Instead it will help in identifying individuals who have healthy levels of

narcissism conducive for leadership positions as well as those who possess this trait at levels that

may pose detrimental effects to their work environment.

Conceptualization

The test-users for the MNI are potential candidates for employment into leadership roles

as well as existing leaders in organizational settings that are plagued by increased turnover rates,

and high levels of work-related stress and burnout. The content of the MNI contains a

combination of statements relating to leader personality characteristics, narcissistic behaviors,

and views on organizational culture. The reason the test needs to cover this content relates to the

circumstances for which it will be used. The MNI can be used for recruiting and promotion

purposes by identifying individuals who may be predisposed to exhibiting toxic narcissistic

behaviors in leadership roles. Furthermore, the test can also be used to assess the levels of

narcissism among organizational leaders and managers to identify whether or not leaders

contribute to poor workplace outcomes. The content of the MNI will not only identify positive

leader qualities, it will also provide helpful information relating to the extent of narcissism that

TEST PROPOSAL PART 2 4

exists among leaders and how these leaders view organizational culture; primarily if they share a

collectivist or individualist mindset. The test itself is not specific to any particular culture;

however, in understanding how the test taker views organizational culture, assessors will be able

to draw valuable conclusions regarding the other portions of the test such as leadership and

narcissistic characteristics. This information will prove valuable for various decision making

processes as well as for evaluative reasoning associated with various work-related concerns.

TEST PROPOSAL PART 2 5

References

Afek O. (2019). Reflections on Kohut’s theory of self psychology and pathological narcissism—

Limitations and concerns. Psychoanalytic Psychology. 36(2), 166-172.

Clark, D.R. (2011). Transformational Leadership Survey. Retrieved from

http://nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/transformational_survey.html.

Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M. E. (2018). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction

to tests and measurement (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Deluga, R. J. (1997). Relationship among American presidential charismatic. Leadership

Quarterly, 8(1), 49.

Liu, H., Chiang, J., Xu, M., Fehr, R., & Wang, S. (2017). How Do Leaders React When Treated

Unfairly? Leader narcissism and self-interested behavior in response to unfair

treatment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(11), 1590–1599.

Glover, N., Miller, J. D., Lynam, D. R., Crego, C., & Widiger, T. A. (2012). The five-factor

narcissism inventory: A five-factor measure of narcissistic personality traits. Journal of

Personality Assessment, 94(5), 500–512.

Judge, T. A., LePine, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2006). Loving yourself abundantly: Relationship of

the narcissistic personality to self- and other perceptions of workplace deviance,

leadership, and task and contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4),

762–776.

Miller, B.K., Nicols, K.M., Clark, S., Daniels, A., & Grant, W. (2018). Meta-analysis of

coefficient alpha for scores on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.” PLoS ONE 13(12).

Miller, J. D., McCain, J., Lynam, D. R., Few, L. R., Gentile, B., MacKillop, J., & Campbell, W.

K. (2014). A comparison of the criterion validity of popular measures of narcissism and

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narcissistic personality disorder via the use of expert ratings. Psychological

Assessment, 26(3), 958–969.

Owens, B. P., Wallace, A. S., & Waldman, D. A. (2015). Leader narcissism and follower

outcomes: The counterbalancing effect of leader humility. Journal of Applied

Psychology, 100(4), 1203–1213.

Schoenleber, M., Roche, M. J., Wetzel, E., Pincus, A. L., & Roberts, B. W. (2015). Development

of a brief version of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychological

Assessment, 27(4), 1520–1526.

Shulman, D. G., & Ferguson, G. R. (1988). Two methods of assessing narcissism: Comparison

of the Narcissism-Projective (N-P) and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory

(Npi). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(6), 857–866.

Triandis, H. C. & Gelfland, M. J. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical

individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 118-

128.

Wang, H., Zhang, G., Ding, Z., Cheng, Z. (2018). How supervisor narcissism contributes to

employee silence: Roles of negative anticipations and leader-member exchange. Social

Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 46(4), 653-666.