earth science3

Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 15/09/2020 High School Research Paper Writing

Please read all questions and answer them completely no partial answers please. 

Category: Arts & Education Subjects: Art Deadline: 24 Hours Budget: $80 - $120 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Welcome to PSC 1210

Earth and Space Science for

K-8 Teachers

The mostly (but not entirely!) on-line version

Goals of PSC 1210

Understand important concepts in Earth and Space Science

Develop science process skills

Appreciate and apply the scientific method

Learn using techniques you will apply as a teacher (harder with on-line version)

On line version will differ from previous versions- less hands on, more individual research/problem solving

Goals of Today’s Lecture

Terminology, vocabulary, intro to writing techniques

Quick review of math concepts used in our class

Mapping- beginning the use of Google Earth (or google maps)

Some Science Terminology, 1

scientific fact – specific, verifiable information

  *Sulfur is a yellow mineral.

*Granite is an igneous rock.


hypothesis – possible action and/or explanation for a behavior or an observation; must be tested through experimentation


*The continents can move around

Science starts with hypotheses and sets up tests for failure.

Some Science Terminology, 2

law - generalized statement of a relationship between variables in a system based on repeated experimentation; can be used to predict behavior of a system. Laws are always true.

*Less dense fluids float above more dense fluids.

theory - generalized explanation for observations based on repeated experimentation or observations

  *Plate tectonics is the theory which explains that continents move because of convection currents in the mantle.

Laws describe things, but theories also explain them

How to recognize?

Hypothesis: If …… then……. or “I think that”

Fact: This is true

Law: This is always true. Formulas.

Theory: This is always true because.


This explains why this happens.

Scientific Method

Make an observation that raises a question State a question

Determine a possible reason for the observation Pose a hypothesis

Design and carry out an investigation to support or disprove the hypothesis Do an experiment

Or make an observation or do a simulation on a computer

Evaluate hypothesis- is your hypothesis strengthened or disproven?

What additional work needs to be done to test the hypothesis? Or…. Turn it into a law or theory?

Scientific Method

Understand variables:

Independent variable = one changed by the experimenter

Dependent variable = one that changes as a result of a change in the independent variable

Controlled variable = any property that is not being investigated and must remain the same during the experiment

Scientific Method

Make an observation that raises a question. Birds always eat at my red feeder and

ignore my blue one. Why?

Determine a possible reason for the observation. Pose a hypothesis.

Birds prefer red feeders.

Design and carry out an investigation to prove or disprove the hypothesis

Determine the variables:

Independent = color of the feeder

Dependent = # of birds at the feeder

Scientific Method

Determine the variables:

Controlled = type of feeder, type of food, time of day recorded, height of feeder, location of feeder…

Set up 3 blue and three red identical bird feeders. At a set time each day for 10 days, record how many birds are at each feeder. Record data in a suitable table.

Scientific Method

Compile information from the experiment.

Analyze the data. Make a bar graph of the number of birds at each color feeder for each day.

Decide if the hypothesis was correct. Make a conclusion

I was wrong. The number of birds were almost the same. Perhaps it was because I put different food in the red feeder than the blue feeder. I had not controlled for food type!

But this is still legitimate science testing a hypothesis

For weather observation

Hypothesis: If its 50 degrees when I wake up, then it will be 70 degrees in the


How does the afternoon temperature depend upon the morning


Collect data: Turns out that need to control for different conditions

Is it sunny or cloudy? Raining?

Is it windy? Which way is the wind blowing?

Classify for the different conditions:

Under what circumstances does the data support the hypothesis?

Theory: If its sunny, the afternoon temperature will be warmer than if

its cloudy because the sun’s rays can more readily warm the surface.

What is a Misconception?

Incorrect understanding of term or process: “Theoretical misunderstanding”

Not merely a misfact

Can be taught to you or you can come to it based on your personal experience

Highly resistant to change

Some Misconceptions in Earth/Space Science

The seasons are caused by the Earth’s distance from the Sun.

Continents do not move.

Most rivers flow “down” from north to south.

Some Misconceptions in Earth/Space Science

The soil we see today has always existed.

Dinosaurs and humans existed at the same time.

The phases of the Moon are caused by a shadow from the Earth.

General theme to misconceptions:  earth/space does not change

In this class we’ll learn about how the earth changes and evolves

Different cycles

Rock cycles

Earth’s crust and interior cycles

Water (hydrology) cycle

Atmospheric and climate cycles

Outer Space also changes

other planets have cycles, not always the same as the earth!

solar systems and stars are formed, destroyed and reform

Math in PSC 1210

1. Fractions  better known as ratios in science

Consider fraction 1/2. Compares the number 1 (numerator)

to the number 2 (denominator)

In science, the numerator and denominator often describe different


Example: Driving- mph. Miles per hour

Speed or velocity: A ratio of distance divided by time

60 mph = 60 miles/1 hour = 120 miles/2 hours = 30 miles/0.5 hours

Verbally, the word “per” is key in describing a ratio

What kind of ratios will we use?

(notice the word “per” in all three examples)

Density. Amount of mass per volume.

 typically the mass is in grams (or maybe kilograms)

and the volume is in cubic centimeters (a cube a centimeter

long on all sides. A centimeter is about the size of your


Density tells you how packed together the molecules and

atoms are.

2. Velocity- as discussed on the other page

3. Gradients- rate of change. Like a mountain slope- is it steep or flat?

 feet per mile

A steep slope is walking one mile and going up (or down) a

thousand feet: 1000 ft/mile (same as 2000 ft/2 miles etc.)

Flat is walking one mile and only going up (or down) 20 feet or


Another gradient- change in temperature

You drive 100 miles and its 30 degrees warmer (this can

happen and we’ll discuss how)

30 degrees/100 miles = 0.3 degrees/mile

Calculations with ratios- basic algebra

You are given two things, find the third

Example: you have 4 hours and you drive 65 miles

per hour. How far do you go?

velocity x time = distance

65 miles/hour x 4 hours = 260 miles

Complication with using ratios- need to pay attention to units

Consider: you drive 60 mph- how many miles do you drive in 60 seconds?

60 miles 1 hour

------ x ------- x 60 seconds Need conversion!

hour 3600 seconds

Units appear on top and bottom cancel out. We’re left with

60 x 60

-------- = 1 mile so….. 60 mph is 1 mile per 60 seconds or 1 mile per minute


60 miles 1 hour

----- x ------- x 60 seconds

hour 3600 seconds

(only thing left is “miles”)

Another example of conversions using density

How much does a gallon of water weigh??

We know density of water is 1 gram/cc (cc means cubic centimeter)

Need conversion factor: how many cc’s in a gallon?

(from google: 3785 cc’s per gallon)

1 gram 3785 cc’s

----- x ----- = 3785 grams

cc gallon

Last conversion: 454 grams/pound

3785 grams x 1 pound

------ = 8.3 pounds

454 grams

The key to these conversions is to put the unit you want to eliminate on both top and bottom

Math in PSC 1210- PART 2

Be comfortable with big numbers! Exponents

The Earth is 4.5 billions of years old.

The solar system (sun + planets) is 6 billion miles across.

Billions, millions, thousands, hundreds………….. etc

1,000,000,000 = 109 = 1 billion, i.e. 1 followed by 9 zeros

1,000,000 = 106 = 1 million

1,000 = 103 = 1 thousand

1 million x 1 thousand (6 zeros + 3 zeros = 9 zeros)  = 1 billion

1 thousand x 1 thousand (3 zeros + 3 zeros = 6 zeros)  = 1 million

In between we have 10,000 or 100,000 (4 zeros, 5 zeros) etc.

What we’re interested in about these numbers

Not so much exact values (very hard to know), but how many zeros-

what is the exponent?

Age of earth: measured in billions years (OK, this we know is 4.5 billion)

Movement of continents: measured in tens and hundreds of millions (7 or 8 zeros)

Ice ages: measured in thousands of years (3 to 4 zeros)

Changes in stream flow, erosion etc: could be tens, hundreds or thousands

of years (1,2 or 3 zeros)

Damage from Earthquakes: less than 1 year (more likely a tiny fraction of a year)


Size of earth and smaller planets: thousands of miles across (3 zeros)

Size of Jupiter and bigger planets: tens of thousands of miles across (4 zeros)

Size of sun and stars: hundreds of thousands of miles or even millions of miles

across (5 or 6 zeros)

Goal for end of class

Be able to make some simple estimates of time, space and speed of

events in earth and space science.

Over a wide ranges of spatial and temporal scales

(from seconds to billions of years and from centimeters to billions of

miles (kilometers)

Google Maps vs. Google Earth

Similar but not the same

Google Maps (good for driving directions)


Street views, traffic, driving directions

2. Google Earth – like “Maps” but for earth as a planet

Go to https://www.google.com/earth/ and then launch it. (or perhaps download or get from app store depending upon device


Google Maps is for navigating around, Google Earth is for exploring our planet as a whole and is better for now, but

I think google maps can work. Google Earth works better on a computer/laptop than a ipad/phone.

Google Earth shows



details of surface (and not only that!)

but not clouds

Satellite photo shows



lots of clouds

but not details of surfaces

Using Google Earth vs. Satellite image

 what are the differences?

Using Google Earth and Google Maps

4 skills to practice today

1. Learn to zoom in and out. The picture of the earth as a planet is very

zoomed “out”. You can zoom in all the way to see buildings.

2. Learn to see the place names in Google Earth

3. Learn to mark distances between two points in Google Earth. Try different


4. Some simple analysis of geography

When we zoom out……….. What do we see?

(either +/- on computer, or with spreading fingers on

touch screen)

4 colors

Blue (Earth is a “blue marble”)- surface is mostly water

Green – biology (not really subject of this class, but we’ll mention

it on occasion)

brown- surface without biology, deserts

(we will discuss why they occur and why they are located

where they are)

white- ice

Interesting to compare to Mars and Moon (not sure

how to get this on my ipad, it’s a tab on top on the computer)

What colors do they show? How do they

agree or disagree with Earth’s colors

Google Moon and Google Mars for comparison

Which object is more similar to earth? And why?

Zoom in- look for places

On laptop:

Expand the layers tab on left. Check borders and labels,

places, roads

Countries- yellow labels on computer, white on Ipad

States- white

Places/natural features- green

(compare Blue Ridge Mountains with Appalachian Mountains-

Whats the difference? Unfortunately, not shown in Ipad)

On ipad:

go to triple line tab on left, and touch “map style” (the symbol

is called the “layers” symbol),

play with checking “clean” or “exploration” or everything

In general, the Ipad is more finicky when names show up- I have to

play with zooming in or out

Look at countries, cities, continents

How many continents and oceans?

 What is the meaning of a continent or ocean. Not a good answer!


 large, continuous, discrete mass of land,

ideally separated by an expanse of water. 


But when is it a continent and when is it an island? Somewhat arbitrary.

Comparing Greenland (island) vs. Australia (continent).

A combination of reasons, some of which we’ll discuss.

- Greenland animals and plants are similar to N. America; Australia is

more unique

- Australia is its own tectonic plate (whats that? Stay tuned!)

- Culturally, very different than the rest of Asia

None of these are great reasons, but they add up

Europe is considered a separate continent from Asia. Does that make sense?

Look at Google Earth and you decide!

Oceans- how many oceans do we have?

4 (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic)


Just 1!

Look at google earth

Finally, where are there mountains? What do you see where its blue?

Google Earth shows the terrain under the water – hugely important for

earth science.

Attachment 2

Combination of minerals  rocks


Rock Types




Rock Types - Igneous

Igneous means “formed from fire”

Rocks formed by cooling and crystallization of molten material called magma (or lava)

(remember the two types of magma: basaltic and granitic and their differences)

Granite and basalt look quite different because of a key difference in how they are formed

Granite vs. Basalt


Granitic magma is less dense- silica rich.

Granitic magma crystallizes last (remains liquid longer)


Magma that comes out of the ground quickly and becomes lava

is basaltic. Hasn’t had time for the heavy stuff to settle out. Lava cools

very quickly- days/weeks.

Magma that remains underground where the silica rich liquid will separate

out will also cool much more slowly and can take millions of years to finally

get cold enough to crystallize

Analogy: shake up olive oil and water and stick it immediately in the freezer (basalt)

vs. let it for a long time and cool gradually degree by degree so that it freezes

very very slowly (the olive oil is like the granitic magma which will float to the top)

Granite and Basalt look very different

Granite: has time to grow large visible crystals in various random patterns

Granite is often sparkly

Basalt- black volcanic rock.

Crystals are microscopic. Really fast cooling gives you glass (no crystals)

Basalt on the beaches of Oregon

Look at rock samples on webcam…..


(“dragon-glass in Game of Thrones”!)

Some terminology

Crystal: a solid with an organized structure. Atoms have exact

and repetitive spacing, angles etc.

These can be different

atoms depending upon chemical

formula. But it will be in a regularly

repeating pattern

In glass, it cooled so quickly the

the atoms aren’t lined up in any

particular way.

Table salt has a

crystal pattern of

alternating sodium

and chlorine atoms

Can be different atoms, depending

Upon chemical formula, but the

Pattern will be repetitive

Rock Types - Sedimentary

Rock formed from accumulation of weathered* materials (sediments)

may contain fossils;

may show layering;

may have a conglomerate nature with rounded particles or cementation evident;

may contain only one mineral as a result of chemical deposition

Generally dull in appearance (no sparkles!)

* So what’s “weathered” mean???  (future lesson: means “broken up”)

Types of sedimentary rocks- depends upon size of sediments

Mud – smallest particles

Sand- medium sized

Gravel- can look like pebbles glued together

All involved with water  sedimentary rock requires

liquid water to form

What does that imply for the Grand Canyon?

Sedimentary rocks-picutures


Andrew Alden




fossiliferous rock

See webcam for samples…

Rock Types - Metamorphic

Term means “changed from”

Rock formed from pre-existing rocks through the action of high heat (no melting) and pressure

May be very hard and may show crystals but they will be in a linear pattern (foliation) or may show elongation or folding that results from high pressure; certain minerals only form in metamorphic rocks.

Process for making metamorphic rock is like putting clay in a kiln and making pottery

Two types of Metamorphic - 1




flat crystals formed in when sedimentary

rocks are heated and compressed

(a folio is a flat sheet of paper)


Look at webcam

Crystals and foliation:

Crystals will grow perpendicular to the pressure

Flat sheets like with mica (found in


Two types of Metamorphic - 2




Non-foliated (no flat, elongated crystals)

(harder to ID, won’t have to recognize)

(metamorphosed limestone)

Checklist for Identifying Rocks

Rock type Visible crystals (sparkles)? Banded or layered? Fossils? Pebbles glued together?
Igneous Yes for granite No, crystals are random No, never No
Sedimentary No- dull in color Often Flat Yes Yes for conglomerates
Metamorphic Yes for foliated Yes, for foliated but irregular No, never No

Why can’t igneous rock or metamorphic rock have fossils?

Rock Cycle

Rocks can be changed from one type to another through natural geological processes.

The series of processes that comprise these transformations is called the rock cycle.

See Figure 20.37 of text

Deposition of:

Studying the details of the rock cycle

Deposition of:

We next will look at the left side of the cycle. How, where and why rocks are heated,

melted and crystallized. Right hand side (sedimentary rock formation) is

part of water cycle- this will be our 2nd unit starting in a couple of weeks

Attachment 3

Given a random pile of stones-

how would you sort them?

What classification system would you adopt?

Given a random pile of stones-

how would you sort them?

What classification system would you adopt?

My favorite: purity

All one composition

Rocks and Minerals I


What distinguishes rocks from minerals?


A mineral is a homogeneous solid and has a fixed composition. It is formed through natural processes and is usually inorganic. It has a defined crystal structure (glass is not a mineral. Its pure, but does not have a crystal structure- more on this next time).

John Veevaert

John H. Betts

What distinguishes rocks from minerals?


A rock is heterogeneous and formed from two or more minerals.

Andrew Alden


So my favorite characteristic for

sorting the piles, is purity. (recognizing that

it doesn’t cover glass). But it is generally

good for distinguishing rocks vs.


Might have noticed that the pure specimens

tended to be smaller


Let’s take a look at some of the characteristics of minerals and their tests.

Mineral Formulas

A mineral has a definite chemical formula such as: NaCl, called halite; CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4(H2O), known as turquoise; or (K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10)(OH)2) which is biotite.

Don’t worry about the details of these complicated formulas!

Mineral Color

Color alone is not the best identifier of

a mineral. This is related to part of the

homework “fools gold” looks “gold”.

Patrick Laird

Patrick Laird

Floyd Hawk

Mike Streeter

Mineral Streak

The powdered color of a mineral is characteristic. You can see the color by dragging the mineral across a rough surface. The result is called a streak.

Patrick Laird


Mineral Luster

Mineral luster is a term for describing the way light is reflected from the surface of a mineral.













Galena - metallic

Spodumene – glassy



Mineral Hardness

Hardness is a mineral’s resistance to being scratched. A harder mineral will scratch a softer one. Hardness is a relative measure and is assigned a number based on the Mohs Scale.


Lou Perloff





Mineral Hardness

Hardness (Mohs) Mineral Some familiar objects
1 Talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2)
2 Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Fingernail: 2.5 Gold or silver 2.5-3
3 Calcite (CaCO3) Copper penny: 3
4 Fluorite (CaF2)
5 Apatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH-,Cl-,F-)) Regular knife blade 5-6
6 Orthoclase Feldspar (KAlSi3O8) Glass: 5-7
7 Quartz (SiO2) Hardened steel file: 7”
8 Topaz (Al2SiO4(OH-,F-)2)
9 Corundum (Al2O3)
10 Diamond (C)

Try and scratch


Other Mineral Properties: Chemistry



Some carbonate (they must have CO3 as part of their formula) minerals react to an acid such as HCl. The reaction produces carbon dioxide gas which will “fizz” on the mineral surface.

Some minerals show magnetism or are attracted to magnets. Magnetite is the best example and has been used to make magnets. Has iron (Fe) and oxygen (O)

All minerals have a density

Density: amount of matter in a given volume of the substance.


M: mass (related to weight). Typically expressed in grams (gm) or kilograms (kg). A kg is a bit over 2 pounds. A gm is less than 1 ounce.

V: volume. Typically expressed in cubic centimeters (written either as cc or as cm3) or cubic meters (m3) .

Densities that are high or low may be helpful in identifying the mineral.

How can we measure density? Two steps

How can we measure density?

Step 1: find the mass  weigh your sample on a scale

Answer will be in grams

(If desired, can convert 454 grams per pound, but

densities are typically given as gm/cc)

Step 2: find out how big it is (the volume) 

use water displacement method (next slide)

(also Section 5.3 of text covers this but in more detail

than we need)

Measuring volume- the water displacement method

Fill beaker partway with water- measure the water level

the answer is in milliliters (ml) which conveniently happen

to equal cubic centimeters (cc)

1 ml = 1 cc

2. Plop your sample in- what happens to the water level?

3. Measure the water level again

Displacement = final volume – initial volume = volume of sample

Put it all together

mass of sample

Density = ----------------------

final volume – initial volume

Instructor Demo: measure density of quartz, olivine, hematite

(why these three minerals?........ Stay tuned)

Specimen Mass (gm) Initial water volume (ml) Final water level (ml) Displacement volume (ml) (final-initial) Density measured (actual) gm/cc
Quartz 76 95 125 30 2.5
Olivine 85 95 120 25 3.4
Hematite 100 95 113 18 5.55

If you know two of three (mass, volume (i.e displacement), density), you

can always find the third.

Why those three minerals?

Quartz: composed of Silicon and oxygen SiO2

Si and O are the most common elements in earth’s crust

Combination called “silica”. Quartz is pure silica. So is

(often) beach sand

Other common minerals are silica + some metal  called silicates.

Olivine: A silicate often bound up with iron. Iron is very dense

which is why olivine is more dense than pure silica

Hematite: not a silicate. Combination of iron and oxygen. Extra

presence of ion makes this the densest of the three.

These three elements: Iron (symbol Fe), Silicon, and oxygen are the

Most important elements to know for the solid earth.

1. Oxygen: most common element earth’s crust

2. Silicon: #2 most common in earth’s crust (always bound w/ oxygen)

3. Iron: tied with oxygen for most common element in whole earth, but most of it is deep down towards the earth’s center. Less (but some) in crust

1. Oxygen: Part of air, water and solid earth, most common in rocks we see

2. Silicon: #2 important for rocks we see, combines with oxygen to make silica

3. Iron: Most important for deep within the earth. Densest of these 7.

4. Carbon: combines with oxygen

carbonates in rock (acid test), carbon dioxide in air (plants use)

5. Hydrogen: part of water, simplest element, most common element in universe

6. Helium: #2 most common in universe, #2 simplest

7. Nitrogen: most common constituent of the air (not oxygen!)

For rocks and minerals we’re only interested in 1-3, altho 4 is present

Elements you will encounter in this course (and need to know)

 The Magnificent Seven!

Getting ready to mix minerals together.

Lets just summarize mineral properties

Color: not as reliable due to effects of small impurities

Streak: color of powered form

Luster: reflectivity

Hardness: resistance to scratching

Density: reflects chemical composition  important

for rocks

Reactivity to acid- useful for chemical compositon

Magnetism?  can tell you if you have iron (high density)

Consider combinations of minerals (i.e. rocks)

To combine, we melt. We then get …………?

Where does the heat come from to melt?

Magma (molten material underground)

Lava (molten material on the surface)

Only two sources of heat for the earth

1. the sun (not hot enough to melt rock/minerals)

2. the earth’s deep interior

So melting of the solid earth occurs underground where the temperature

is hotter. This produces magma.

Note: a misconception- the earth underground is not always molten

It depends upon other factors like the pressure

Magma will have different densities depending upon the mixture of


What happens when you mix liquids of different densities? (or a solid

and liquid when they are different densities).

See demo with olive oil, ice cube, plain water

Melting different combinations of minerals

Density of Olive oil = 0.92 gm/cc

Density of Ice = 0.93 gm/cc

Density of Water = 1.0 gm/cc

Fun website (if you have adobe flash)


Buoyancy: less dense floats above more dense

What happens when a liquid is cooled and solidifies?

ice  freezes

More rigorous term crystallization

What happens when magma crystallizes?

you get igneous rock, the first of the 3 main types of rock

Different types of magma  different types of igneous rock with different


Two types of igneous rock

Silica rich magma (i.e. ½ pure quartz, no iron, some other lighter metals):

forms granite

Density about 2.6-2.7 gm/cc

Silica poor magma (i.e. has silicates, but no pure quartz, more metals

including iron from melted olivine):

forms basalt

Density about 2.9-3 gm/cc

Since silica has a lower density than iron, granite is lower

density than basalt.

Silica also melts more easily and crystallizes more slowly

Section 20.7 of text: two categories of igneous rock

basalt  crystallized lava (surface or ocean floor)

granite  crystallized magma below surface

Silica rich vs. silica poor (fig 20.13 in text)


(forms basalt)


(forms granite)

Melting temp

Order of






Order of


This is how magma can generate different

Igneous rocks- the silica-poor stuff crystallizes first, sinks and lets

the silica-rich magma flow upwards



Granite “floats” on top of basalt

Granitic magma stays liquid longer. Is less dense

 “floats” higher than basalt

(see Section 5.4 of text on buoyancy picture of floating


Basalt  Oceanic Crust (bottom of the sea floor)

Granite  Continental Crust which sits on top of basalt

In our ordinary daily life, what kind of igneous rocks will we usually see?

Basalt is most common igneous rock, but harder to see on earth’s surface. So whats the best way to see it?


Minerals and their properties

How density can vary, can be measured and can be used

to understand mixtures of minerals.

Lays foundation for understand structure of earth’s

outer shell, the crust.

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