Loading...

ASSIGNMENT 3/ Social Problems

Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 09/06/2021 High School Report Writing

ASSIGNMENT 3 Required Template Income inequality and poverty.pptx

Category: Mathematics & Physics Subjects: Algebra Deadline: 24 Hours Budget: $80 - $120 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 1

A profile of the working poor, 2017

About 39.7 million people, or 12.3 percent of the nation’s population, lived below the official poverty level in 2017, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.(1) (See the technical notes section for examples of poverty levels.) Although the poor were primarily adults who had not participated in the labor force during the year and children, 6.9 million individuals were among the “working poor” in 2017, according to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; this measure was down from 7.6 million in 2016. The working poor are people who spent at least 27 weeks in the labor force (that is, working or looking for work) but whose incomes still fell below the official poverty level. In 2017, the working-poor rate—the ratio of the working poor to all individuals in the labor force for at least 27 weeks—was 4.5 percent, 0.4 percentage point lower than the previous year’s figure. (See table A, chart 1, and table 1.)

Following are some highlights from the 2017 data:

• Full-time workers continued to be much less likely to be among the working poor than were part-time workers. Among persons in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, 2.9 percent of those usually employed full time were classified as working poor, compared with 10.9 percent of part-time workers. (See table 1.)

• Women were more likely than men to be among the working poor. In addition, Blacks or African Americans and Hispanics or Latinos continued to be more than twice as likely as Whites and Asians to be among the working poor.(2) (See table 2.)

• The likelihood of being classified as working poor diminishes as workers attain higher levels of education. Among those with less than a high school diploma, 13.7 percent of those who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks were classified as working poor, compared with 1.5 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree or higher. (See table 3.)

• Individuals who were employed in service occupations continued to be more likely to be among the working poor than those employed in other major occupational groups. (See table 4.)

• Among families with at least one member in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, those with children under 18 years old were over four times as likely as those without children to live in poverty. Families maintained by women were more than twice as likely as families maintained by men to be living below the poverty level. (See table 5.)

April 2019 | Report 1079

Characteristic 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Total in the labor

force(1) 146,567 147,838 147,902 146,859 147,475 148,735 149,483 150,319 152,230 153,364 154,762

Table A. Poverty status of people and primary families in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, 2007–17 (Numbers in thousands)

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 2

(1)Includes individuals in families, not shown separately. (2)Primary families with at least one member in the labor force for more than half the year. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) of the Current Population Survey (CPS).

This report presents data on the relationship between labor force activity and poverty status in 2017 for workers and their families. These data were collected in the 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the Current Population Survey. (For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used in the report, see the technical notes.) The specific income thresholds used to determine people’s poverty status vary, depending on whether the individuals are living with family members, living alone, or living with nonrelatives. For people living with family members, the poverty threshold is determined by their family’s total income; for individuals not living in families, their personal income is used as the determinant.

Characteristic 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

In poverty 7,521 8,883 10,391 10,512 10,382 10,612 10,450 9,487 8,560 7,572 6,946

Working poor

rate 5.1 6.0 7.0 7.2 7.0 7.1 7.0 6.3 5.6 4.9 4.5

Unrelated

individuals 33,226 32,785 33,798 34,099 33,731 34,810 35,061 35,018 35,953 35,789 36,959

In poverty 2,558 3,275 3,947 3,947 3,621 3,851 4,141 3,395 3,137 2,792 2,524

Working poor

rate 7.7 10.0 11.7 11.6 10.7 11.1 11.8 9.7 8.7 7.8 6.8

Primary

families(2) 65,158 65,907 65,467 64,931 66,225 66,541 66,462 66,732 67,193 67,628 67,588

In poverty 4,169 4,538 5,193 5,269 5,469 5,478 5,137 5,108 4,607 4,082 3,854

Working poor

rate 6.4 6.9 7.9 8.1 8.3 8.2 7.7 7.7 6.9 6.0 5.7

Table A. Poverty status of people and primary families in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, 2007–17 (Numbers in thousands)

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 3

Demographic characteristics Among those who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more in 2017, the number of women classified as working poor (3.8 million) was higher than that of men (3.1 million). The working-poor rate also continued to be higher for women (5.3 percent) than for men (3.8 percent). The working-poor rates for both women and men were down from a year earlier (table 2).

Blacks and Hispanics were more than twice as likely as Whites and Asians to be among the working poor. In 2017, the working-poor rate for both Blacks and Hispanics was 7.9 percent, compared with 3.9 percent for Whites and 2.9 percent for Asians (table 2 and chart 2).

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 4

Among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, the working-poor rate was higher for women than for men. The rates for White women and White men who spent at least 27 weeks in the labor force were 4.5 percent and 3.5 percent, respectively. The rate for Black women was 10.0 percent, compared with 5.6 percent for Black men. The working-poor rate for Hispanic women was 9.1 percent, while the rate for Hispanic men was 7.0 percent. Among Asians, the rates for women and men were little different from each other at 2.5 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively.

Young workers are more likely to be poor than are workers in older age groups, in part because earnings are lower for young workers and the unemployment rate for young workers is higher. Among youths who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, 8.4 percent of 16- to 19-year-olds and 8.5 percent of 20- to 24-year-olds were living in poverty in 2017. Those rates were higher than the rates for workers ages 25 to 34 (5.7 percent) and 35 to 44 (5.0 percent). Workers ages 45 to 54, 55 to 64, and 65 and older had lower working-poor rates—3.1 percent, 2.6 percent, and 1.5 percent, respectively—than did those in younger age groups (table 2).

Educational attainment Achieving higher levels of education reduces the incidence of living in poverty. Individuals who complete more years of education usually have greater access to higher paying jobs—such as management, professional, and related occupations—than those with fewer years of education. Among people in the labor force for 27 weeks or more in 2017, those with less than a high school diploma had the highest working-poor rate, at 13.7 percent, while those with a bachelor’s degree or higher had the lowest, at 1.5 percent (table 3).

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 5

In 2017, at all levels of educational attainment except for bachelor’s degree or higher, women were more likely than men to be among the working poor. Among those with a bachelor’s degree or higher, men and women were equally likely to be classified as working poor (1.5 percent). Blacks and Hispanics generally were more likely to be among the working poor than were Whites and Asians with the same educational attainment.

Occupation The likelihood of being among the working poor varies widely by occupation. Workers in occupations requiring higher education and characterized by relatively high earnings—such as management, professional, and related occupations —were least likely to be classified as working poor. For example, 1.4 percent of those in management, professional, and related occupations were among the working poor in 2017. By contrast, individuals employed in occupations that typically do not require high levels of education and that are characterized by relatively low earnings were more likely to be among the working poor. For instance, 9.0 percent of service workers who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks were classified as working poor in 2017. The 2.3 million working poor employed in service occupations accounted for 36 percent of all those classified as working poor. Among those employed in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, 6.0 percent were classified as working poor (table 4).

Families In 2017, 3.9 million families were living below the poverty level despite having at least one member in the labor force for half the year or more. This figure was down from 4.1 million in 2016. Among families with only one member in the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 2017, married-couple families were less likely to be living below the poverty level, at 7.1 percent, than were families maintained by women, at 21.5 percent, or families maintained by men, at 10.9 percent (table 5).

Among families with at least one member in the labor force for more than half the year, those with children in the household were much more likely to live below the poverty level than those without children. The proportion of families with children under age 18 who lived in poverty was 9.2 percent, compared with 2.0 percent for families without children. Among families with children under 18, the working-poor rate for those maintained by women (22.4 percent) was higher than that for those maintained by men (10.1 percent). Married-couple families with children under 18 had a working-poor rate of 5.0 percent in 2017.

Unrelated individuals The “unrelated individuals” category includes individuals who live by themselves or with others not related to them. Of the 37.0 million unrelated individuals who were in the labor force for half the year or longer, 2.5 million lived below the poverty level in 2017, down from 2.8 million a year earlier. The working-poor rate for unrelated individuals was 6.8 percent, a decrease of 1.0 percentage point from last year’s figure. (See table 6.)

Within the group of unrelated individuals, teenagers continued to be the most likely to be among the working poor. In 2017, 30.9 percent of teens who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more and who lived on their own or with others not related to them lived below the poverty level. Overall, the working-poor rate for men living alone or with nonrelatives was 6.2 percent, and the rate for women was 7.5 percent. The working-poor rates for unrelated individuals were higher for Hispanics and Blacks (9.9 percent and 9.6 percent, respectively) than for Whites (6.2 percent), and Asians (4.6 percent). (See table 7.)

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 6

Of the 2.5 million unrelated individuals considered to be among the working poor in 2017, about 3 out of 5 lived with others. These individuals had a higher working-poor rate than individuals who lived alone. Many unrelated individuals living below the poverty level may live with others out of necessity. By contrast, many of those who live alone do so because they have sufficient income to support themselves. Unrelated individuals’ poverty status, however, is determined by each person’s resources. The pooling of resources and sharing of living expenses may permit some individuals in this category—who are technically classified as poor—to live at a higher standard than they would have if they lived alone.

Labor market problems As noted earlier, people who usually work full time are less likely to live in poverty than are those who work part time, yet there remains a sizable group of full-time workers who live below the poverty threshold. Among those who participated in the labor force for 27 weeks or more and usually worked in full-time wage and salary jobs, 3.3 million, or 2.7 percent, were classified as working poor in 2017—little different than the 3.4-million figure a year earlier. (See table 8).

There are three major labor market problems that can hinder a worker’s ability to earn an income that is above the poverty threshold: low earnings, periods of unemployment, and involuntary part-time employment. (See the technical notes section for detailed definitions.)

In 2017, 80 percent of the working poor who usually work full time experienced at least one of the major labor market problems. Low earnings continued to be the most common problem, with 67 percent subject to low earnings, either as the only problem or in combination with other labor market problems. About 28 percent experienced unemployment as the main labor market problem or in conjunction with other problems. Three percent of the working poor experienced all three problems: low earnings, unemployment, and involuntary part-time employment (table 8).

Some 659,000, or 20 percent, of the working poor who usually worked full time did not experience any of the three primary labor market problems in 2017. Their classification as working poor may be explained by other factors, including short-term employment, some weeks of voluntary part-time work, or a family structure that increases the risk of poverty.

Notes

(1) “Income and Poverty in the United States: 2017,” Current Population Reports, P60-263 (U.S. Census Bureau, September 2018), table 3, https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/demo/p60-263.pdf.

(2) People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 7

Statistical Tables

Poverty status and work experience Total in labor force 27 weeks or more in labor force

Total 50 to 52 weeks

Total

Total in the labor force 167,538 154,762 141,425

Did not work during the year 2,375 1,067 907

Worked during the year 165,163 153,694 140,519

Usual full-time workers 132,784 128,271 120,513

Usual part-time workers 32,379 25,424 20,006

Involuntary part-time workers 6,144 5,282 4,446

Voluntary part-time workers 26,235 20,141 15,560

At or above poverty level

Total in the labor force 158,195 147,816 135,730

Did not work during the year 1,529 661 551

Worked during the year 156,666 147,155 135,178

Usual full-time workers 128,244 124,494 117,309

Usual part-time workers 28,422 22,661 17,869

Involuntary part-time workers 4,916 4,311 3,631

Voluntary part-time workers 23,506 18,350 14,238

Below poverty level

Total in the labor force 9,343 6,946 5,696

Did not work during the year 846 407 355

Worked during the year 8,497 6,539 5,340

Usual full-time workers 4,540 3,777 3,204

Table 1. People in the labor force: poverty status and work experience by weeks in the labor force, 2017 (Numbers in thousands)

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 8

(1)Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total in the labor force. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) of the Current Population Survey (CPS).

Poverty status and work experience Total in labor force 27 weeks or more in labor force

Total 50 to 52 weeks

Usual part-time workers 3,957 2,762 2,137

Involuntary part-time workers 1,228 971 816

Voluntary part-time workers 2,729 1,791 1,321

Rate(1)

Total in the labor force 5.6 4.5 4.0

Did not work during the year 35.6 38.1 39.2

Worked during the year 5.1 4.3 3.8

Usual full-time workers 3.4 2.9 2.7

Usual part-time workers 12.2 10.9 10.7

Involuntary part-time workers 20.0 18.4 18.3

Voluntary part-time workers 10.4 8.9 8.5

Table 1. People in the labor force: poverty status and work experience by weeks in the labor force, 2017 (Numbers in thousands)

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 9

Age and gender Total Below poverty level Race(1)

Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or

Latino Total White Black or African

American Asian Hispanic or

Latino Total White Black or African

American Asian Hispanic or

Latino

Total, 16 years

and older 154,762 120,750 19,225 9,699 26,371 6,946 4,754 1,518 279 2,082 4.5 3.9 7.9 2.9 7.9

16 to 19

years 3,620 2,851 462 119 769 305 196 74 5 89 8.4 6.9 16.1 4.3 11.6

20 to 24

years 13,170 9,883 1,951 591 2,890 1,115 672 325 27 241 8.5 6.8 16.6 4.6 8.3

25 to 34

years 35,065 26,235 4,958 2,420 6,968 1,997 1,324 510 65 603 5.7 5.0 10.3 2.7 8.7

35 to 44

years 32,662 24,740 4,271 2,519 6,539 1,646 1,170 309 68 645 5.0 4.7 7.2 2.7 9.9

45 to 54

years 32,769 25,812 3,930 2,136 5,354 1,023 744 166 59 329 3.1 2.9 4.2 2.8 6.1

55 to 64

years 27,190 22,359 2,845 1,458 3,061 709 533 108 51 147 2.6 2.4 3.8 3.5 4.8

65 years and

older 10,286 8,870 808 455 791 152 116 27 4 27 1.5 1.3 3.3 0.9 3.4

Men, 16 years

and older 82,562 65,721 9,047 5,202 15,085 3,132 2,291 503 166 1,051 3.8 3.5 5.6 3.2 7.0

16 to 19

years 1,772 1,397 212 67 377 114 74 25 3 42 6.4 5.3 11.6 - 11.1

20 to 24

years 6,842 5,193 965 317 1,592 475 292 119 16 109 6.9 5.6 12.3 5.0 6.8

Table 2. People in the labor force for 27 weeks or more: poverty status by age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 (Numbers in thousands)

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 10

Age and gender Total Below poverty level Race(1)

Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or

Latino Total White Black or African

American Asian Hispanic or

Latino Total White Black or African

American Asian Hispanic or

Latino

25 to 34

years 18,987 14,509 2,366 1,349 4,038 824 614 126 44 290 4.3 4.2 5.3 3.3 7.2

35 to 44

years 17,740 13,788 2,003 1,366 3,837 787 602 107 38 352 4.4 4.4 5.3 2.8 9.2

45 to 54

years 17,230 13,889 1,799 1,100 3,048 496 363 76 35 165 2.9 2.6 4.2 3.2 5.4

55 to 64

years 14,182 11,829 1,330 764 1,735 363 287 41 27 83 2.6 2.4 3.1 3.6 4.8

65 years and

older 5,810 5,116 371 240 458 74 58 10 2 9 1.3 1.1 2.6 0.9 2.0

Women, 16

years and older 72,199 55,030 10,178 4,497 11,286 3,814 2,463 1,015 113 1,032 5.3 4.5 10.0 2.5 9.1

16 to 19

years 1,848 1,454 250 52 392 191 122 50 2 47 10.3 8.4 19.9 - 12.1

20 to 24

years 6,328 4,690 986 274 1,298 640 379 205 11 132 10.1 8.1 20.8 4.1 10.2

25 to 34

years 16,078 11,726 2,591 1,072 2,930 1,173 710 384 21 313 7.3 6.1 14.8 1.9 10.7

35 to 44

years 14,922 10,952 2,268 1,154 2,702 859 567 202 30 293 5.8 5.2 8.9 2.6 10.8

45 to 54

years 15,539 11,923 2,131 1,036 2,306 527 381 90 24 164 3.4 3.2 4.2 2.3 7.1

Table 2. People in the labor force for 27 weeks or more: poverty status by age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 (Numbers in thousands)

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 11

(1)Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total in the labor force for 27 weeks or more. Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash represents zero, rounds to zero, or indicates that base is less than 80,000. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) of the Current Population Survey (CPS).

Age and gender Total Below poverty level Race(1)

Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or

Latino Total White Black or African

American Asian Hispanic or

Latino Total White Black or African

American Asian Hispanic or

Latino

55 to 64

years 13,008 10,530 1,515 695 1,326 347 245 67 23 64 2.7 2.3 4.4 3.3 4.9

65 years and

older 4,476 3,755 437 215 332 78 58 17 2 18 1.7 1.6 3.9 0.9 5.4

Table 2. People in the labor force for 27 weeks or more: poverty status by age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 (Numbers in thousands)

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 12

Educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total Men Women Below poverty level Rate(1)

Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total, 16 years and older 154,762 82,562 72,199 6,946 3,132 3,814 4.5 3.8 5.3

Less than a high school diploma 12,013 7,488 4,525 1,640 925 715 13.7 12.4 15.8

Less than 1 year of high school 3,792 2,496 1,296 548 351 197 14.4 14.0 15.2

1–3 years of high school 6,398 3,822 2,576 901 457 444 14.1 12.0 17.2

4 years of high school, no diploma 1,823 1,169 654 192 117 75 10.5 10.0 11.4

High school graduates, no college(2) 40,550 24,017 16,534 2,531 1,076 1,455 6.2 4.5 8.8

Some college or associate's degree 43,673 21,789 21,885 1,888 690 1,198 4.3 3.2 5.5

Some college, no degree 27,236 14,142 13,094 1,370 534 836 5.0 3.8 6.4

Associate's degree 16,437 7,647 8,790 518 156 362 3.2 2.0 4.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(3) 58,524 29,269 29,255 886 441 445 1.5 1.5 1.5

White, 16 years and older 120,750 65,721 55,030 4,754 2,291 2,463 3.9 3.5 4.5

Less than a high school diploma 9,482 6,164 3,318 1,185 715 471 12.5 11.6 14.2

Less than 1 year of high school 3,150 2,170 980 442 291 150 14.0 13.4 15.3

1–3 years of high school 4,992 3,097 1,895 614 328 286 12.3 10.6 15.1

4 years of high school, no diploma 1,339 896 443 130 95 34 9.7 10.6 7.8

High school graduates, no college(2) 31,517 19,023 12,493 1,697 775 922 5.4 4.1 7.4

Some college or associate's degree 33,806 17,287 16,519 1,216 473 743 3.6 2.7 4.5

Some college, no degree 20,737 11,051 9,686 863 352 511 4.2 3.2 5.3

Associate's degree 13,069 6,236 6,833 353 121 232 2.7 1.9 3.4

Bachelor's degree and higher(3) 45,946 23,247 22,699 655 328 327 1.4 1.4 1.4

Black or African American, 16 years and older 19,225 9,047 10,178 1,518 503 1,015 7.9 5.6 10.0

Table 3. People in the labor force for 27 weeks or more: poverty status by educational attainment, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 2017 (Numbers in thousands)

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 13

Educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total Men Women Below poverty level Rate(1)

Total Men Women Total Men Women

Less than a high school diploma 1,344 676 668 296 121 174 22.0 17.9 26.1

Less than 1 year of high school 220 94 126 36 14 22 16.4 15.0 17.5

1–3 years of high school 801 413 388 214 92 123 26.8 22.3 31.6

4 years of high school, no diploma 323 169 154 45 15 30 14.0 9.0 19.4

High school graduates, no college(2) 6,026 3,284 2,742 609 185 424 10.1 5.6 15.4

Some college or associate's degree 6,402 2,808 3,595 489 145 343 7.6 5.2 9.5

Some college, no degree 4,283 1,977 2,306 380 126 254 8.9 6.4 11.0

Associate's degree 2,119 831 1,288 109 19 89 5.1 2.3 6.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(3) 5,453 2,279 3,174 124 51 74 2.3 2.2 2.3

Asian, 16 years and older 9,699 5,202 4,497 279 166 113 2.9 3.2 2.5

Less than a high school diploma 564 279 285 59 34 25 10.4 12.2 8.6

Less than 1 year of high school 236 109 127 38 22 16 16.1 20.4 12.5

1–3 years of high school 238 114 124 16 8 8 6.7 7.2 6.2

4 years of high school, no diploma 91 56 35 5 4 1 5.3 - -

High school graduates, no college(2) 1,551 870 681 86 52 34 5.6 6.0 5.1

Some college or associate's degree 1,727 872 855 56 28 28 3.3 3.2 3.3

Some college, no degree 1,041 551 490 33 19 14 3.2 3.5 2.8

Associate's degree 687 321 365 23 9 14 3.4 2.8 3.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(3) 5,857 3,181 2,676 78 52 26 1.3 1.6 1.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and older 26,371 15,085 11,286 2,082 1,051 1,032 7.9 7.0 9.1

Less than a high school diploma 5,987 4,008 1,979 893 553 340 14.9 13.8 17.2

Table 3. People in the labor force for 27 weeks or more: poverty status by educational attainment, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 2017 (Numbers in thousands)

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 14

(1)Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total in the labor force for 27 weeks or more. (2)Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent. (3)Includes people with bachelor’s, master’s, professional, and doctoral degrees. Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash represents zero, rounds to zero, or indicates that base is less than 80,000. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) of the Current Population Survey (CPS).

Educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total Men Women Below poverty level Rate(1)

Total Men Women Total Men Women

Less than 1 year of high school 2,851 1,954 897 405 260 145 14.2 13.3 16.2

1–3 years of high school 2,428 1,542 887 401 225 177 16.5 14.6 20.0

4 years of high school, no diploma 708 513 195 87 69 18 12.3 13.5 9.3

High school graduates, no college(2) 8,411 5,164 3,247 676 322 354 8.0 6.2 10.9

Some college or associate's degree 7,003 3,512 3,491 368 112 256 5.3 3.2 7.3

Some college, no degree 4,695 2,448 2,246 277 85 191 5.9 3.5 8.5

Associate's degree 2,309 1,064 1,244 91 27 64 4.0 2.5 5.2

Bachelor's degree and higher(3) 4,970 2,401 2,569 145 63 82 2.9 2.6 3.2

Table 3. People in the labor force for 27 weeks or more: poverty status by educational attainment, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 2017 (Numbers in thousands)

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 15

Occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total Men Women Below poverty level Rate(1)

Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total, 16 years and older(2) 153,694 81,945 71,749 6,539 2,911 3,628 4.3 3.6 5.1

Management, professional, and related occupations 61,894 29,947 31,948 892 387 505 1.4 1.3 1.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations 25,723 14,205 11,518 267 156 111 1.0 1.1 1.0

Professional and related occupations 36,171 15,742 20,429 625 232 394 1.7 1.5 1.9

Service occupations 25,902 11,160 14,742 2,341 713 1,628 9.0 6.4 11.0

Sales and office occupations 32,901 12,929 19,972 1,446 394 1,052 4.4 3.0 5.3

Sales and related occupations 15,418 7,885 7,534 880 253 627 5.7 3.2 8.3

Office and administrative support occupations 17,482 5,044 12,438 566 141 425 3.2 2.8 3.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 14,332 13,574 758 860 775 85 6.0 5.7 11.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 1,181 864 317 115 66 49 9.7 7.7 15.4

Construction and extraction occupations 8,220 7,982 238 584 553 31 7.1 6.9 12.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 4,931 4,728 203 161 155 6 3.3 3.3 2.9

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations 18,579 14,261 4,318 997 642 355 5.4 4.5 8.2

Production occupations 8,681 6,097 2,583 420 222 199 4.8 3.6 7.7

Transportation and material-moving occupations 9,898 8,164 1,734 577 420 157 5.8 5.1 9.0

White, 16 years and older(2) 120,135 65,385 54,750 4,529 2,172 2,358 3.8 3.3 4.3

Management, professional, and related occupations 49,277 24,176 25,101 645 286 359 1.3 1.2 1.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations 21,233 12,026 9,207 213 126 87 1.0 1.0 0.9

Professional and related occupations 28,044 12,149 15,895 432 160 272 1.5 1.3 1.7

Service occupations 18,634 8,168 10,467 1,570 511 1,059 8.4 6.3 10.1

Sales and office occupations 25,931 10,327 15,604 932 271 661 3.6 2.6 4.2

Table 4. People in the labor force for 27 weeks or more who worked during the year: poverty status by occupation of longest job held, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 2017 (Numbers in thousands)

See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Page 16

Occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total Men Women Below poverty level Rate(1)

Total Men Women Total Men Women

Sales and related occupations 12,417 6,538 5,879 553 175 378 4.5 2.7 6.4

Office and administrative support occupations 13,514 3,788 9,725 378 96 282 2.8 2.5 2.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 12,440 11,805 635 720 653 67 5.8 5.5 10.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 1,071 805 266 96 57 39 9.0 7.1 14.6

Construction and extraction occupations 7,184 6,969 215 492 466 26 6.9 6.7 12.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 4,184 4,031 153 132 130 2 3.2 3.2 1.4

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations 13,790 10,850 2,940 663 450 212 4.8 4.1 7.2

Production occupations 6,624 4,862 1,763 253 144 109 3.8 3.0 6.2

Transportation and material-moving occupations 7,165 5,988 1,177 409 306 104 5.7 5.1 8.8

Black or African American, 16 years and older(2) 18,873 8,833 10,040 1,357 417 940 7.2 4.7 9.4

Management, professional, and related occupations 5,934 2,258 3,676 142 34 108 2.4 1.5 2.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations 2,129 943 1,186 27 5 22 1.3 0.5 1.9

Professional and related occupations 3,806 1,316 2,490 115 29 86 3.0 2.2 3.4

Service occupations 4,567 1,835 2,732 556 127 429 12.2 6.9 15.7

Sales and office occupations 4,181 1,510 2,671 368 86 282 8.8 5.7 10.6

Sales …

Attachment 2

Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018 Current Population Reports

Issued September 2019 P60-266

By Jessica Semega, Melissa Kollar, John Creamer, and Abinash Mohanty

Acknowledgments Jessica Semega and Melissa Kollar prepared the income section of this report under the direction of Jonathan L. Rothbaum, Chief of the Income Statistics Branch. John Creamer and Abinash Mohanty prepared the poverty section under the direction of Ashley N. Edwards, Chief of the Poverty Statistics Branch. Trudi J. Renwick, Assistant Division Chief for Economic Characteristics in the Social, Economic, and Housing Statistics Division, provided overall direction.

Vonda Ashton, David Watt, Susan S. Gajewski, Mallory Bane, and Nancy Hunter, of the Demographic Surveys Division, and Lisa P. Cheok of the Associate Directorate for Demographic Programs, processed the Current Population Survey 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement file.

Andy Chen, Kirk E. Davis, Raymond E. Dowdy, Lan N. Huynh, Chandararith R. Phe, and Adam W. Reilly programmed and produced the historical, detailed, and publication tables under the direction of Hung X. Pham, Chief of the Tabulation and Applications Branch, Demographic Surveys Division.

Nghiep Huynh and Alfred G. Meier, under the supervision of KeTrena Phipps and David V. Hornick, all of the Demographic Statistical Methods Division, conducted statistical review.

Lisa P. Cheok of the Associate Directorate for Demographic Programs, provided overall direction for the survey implementation. Roberto Cases and Aaron Cantu of the Associate Directorate for Demographic Programs, and Charlie Carter and Agatha Jung of the Information Technology Directorate prepared and pro- grammed the computer-assisted interviewing instrument used to conduct the Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Additional people within the U.S. Census Bureau also made significant contribu- tions to the preparation of this report. Gloria G. Guzmán, Bernadette D. Proctor, Bruce H. Webster, Jr., Kurt Bauman, and Jason Fields reviewed the contents.

Census Bureau field representatives and telephone interviewers collected the data. Without their dedication, the preparation of this report or any report from the Current Population Survey would be impossible.

Corey T. Beasley, Amanda J. Perry, and Christine E. Geter provided publication management, graphics design and composition, and editorial review for print and electronic media under the direction of Janet Sweeney, Chief of the Graphic and Editorial Services Branch, Public Information Office. William A. Burbano and George E. Williams of the Census Bureau’s Administrative and Customer Services Division provided printing management.

U.S. Department of Commerce Wilbur Ross,

Secretary

Karen Dunn Kelley, Deputy Secretary

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU Steven Dillingham,

Director

P60-266

Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018 Issued September 2019

Suggested Citation Semega, Jessica, Melissa Kollar, John

Creamer, and Abinash Mohanty, U.S. Census Bureau,

Current Population Reports, P60-266,

Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018,

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC,

2019.

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU Steven Dillingham, Director

Ron Jarmin, Deputy Director and Chief Operating Officer

Victoria A. Velkoff, Associate Director for Demographic Programs

David G. Waddington, Chief, Social, Economic, and Housing Statistics Division

U.S. Census Bureau Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018 iii

Contents TEXT

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Summary of Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

INCOME IN THE UNITED STATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Household Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Caution for Historical Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Type of Household . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Age of Householder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Income Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Equivalence-Adjusted Income Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Earnings and Work Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

POVERTY IN THE UNITED STATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Work Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Disability Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Educational Attainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Shared Households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Depth of Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Ratio of Income to Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Income Deficit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON INCOME AND POVERTY . . . . . . . . . 19 State and Local Estimates of Income and Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Longitudinal Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 The Supplemental Poverty Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Interagency Technical Working Group on Evaluating Alternative Measures of Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

SOURCE AND ACCURACY OF THE ESTIMATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

iv Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018 U.S. Census Bureau

FIGURES

Figure 1. Median Household Income and Percent Change by Selected Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Figure 2. Real Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1967 to 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Figure 3. Income Distribution Measures and Percent Change Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Figure 4. Median Earnings and Percent Change by Selected Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Figure 5. Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio and Median Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers 15 Years and Older by Sex: 1960 to 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 6. Total and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers With Earnings by Sex: 1967 to 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Figure 7. Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Figure 8. Poverty Rate and Percentage Point Change by Selected Characteristics: People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Figure 9. Poverty Rate and Percentage Point Change by Type of Family Families and People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Figure 10. Poverty Rates by Age and Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Figure 11. Poverty Rates by Age: 1959 to 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Figure 12. Demographic Makeup of the Population at Varying Degrees of Poverty: 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

APPENDIXES

Appendix A. Estimates of Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

How Income Is Measured . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Business Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) Using Current Methods

All Items: 1947 to 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Cost-of-Living Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Poverty Threshold Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Appendix B. Estimates of Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

How Poverty Is Calculated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Poverty Thresholds for 2018 by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years . . . . . . . . . 49 Weighted Average Poverty Thresholds in 2018 by Size of Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Appendix C. Replicate Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Appendix D. Comparison of 2017 Income and Poverty Estimates using the Legacy and Updated

Processing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Appendix E. Additional Data and Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Customized Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 New Data Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Public Use Microdata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 CPS ASEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Taxes and Noncash Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Census Data API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Topcoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

U.S. Census Bureau Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018 v

APPENDIX TABLES

Table A-1. Income Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2017 and 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Table A-2. Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2018 . . . . 26

Table A-3. Income Distribution Measures Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income: 2017 and 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Table A-4. Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Table A-5. Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Table A-6. Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2017 and 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Table A-7. Number and Real Median Earnings of Total Workers and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers by Sex and Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio: 1960 to 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Table B-1. People in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2017 and 2018. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Table B-2. Families and People in Poverty by Type of Family: 2017 and 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Table B-3. People With Income Below Specified Ratios of Their Poverty Thresholds by Selected Characteristics: 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Table B-4. Income Deficit or Surplus of Families and Unrelated Individuals by Poverty Status: 2018 . . . . . . . . . 53

Table B-5. Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2018 . . . . . . . 54

Table B-6. Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Table B-7. Poverty Status of Families by Type of Family: 1959 to 2018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Table D-1. Income Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2017 Legacy and Updated Processing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Table D-2. Income Distribution Measures Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income: 2017 Legacy and Updated Processing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Table D-3. Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2017 Legacy and Updated Processing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Table D-4. People in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2017 Legacy and Updated Processing Systems . . . 76

U.S. Census Bureau Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018 1

Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018

INTRODUCTION

The U.S. Census Bureau collects data and publishes estimates on income and poverty in order to evaluate national economic trends as well as to understand their impact on the well-being of households, families, and individuals. This report pres- ents data on income and poverty in the United States based on infor- mation collected in the 2019 and earlier Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and Economic Supplements (ASEC) conducted by the Census Bureau.1

The Census Bureau has been engaged, for the past several years, in implementing improvements to the CPS ASEC. These changes have been implemented in a two-step process, beginning first with ques- tionnaire design changes incor- porated over the period of 2014 to 2016, followed by more recent changes to the data processing system. This report is the first time income and poverty measures reflect both data collection and process- ing system changes. The 2017 and 2018 income and poverty estimates presented in this report are based on the updated processing system and therefore the 2017 estimates may differ from those released in

1 The Census Bureau reviewed this data product for unauthorized disclosure of confidential information and approved the disclosure avoidance practices applied to this release. CBDRB-FY19-POP001-0028.

September 2018. See Appendix D for more information.2

This report contains two main sec- tions, one focuses on income and the other on poverty. Each section presents estimates by characteristics such as race, Hispanic origin, nativ- ity, and region. Other topics, such as earnings and family poverty rates, are included only in the relevant section.

Summary of Findings

• Median household income was $63,179 in 2018, not statistically different from the 2017 median, following 3 consecutive years of annual increases.

• Between 2017 and 2018, the real median earnings of all workers increased 3.4 percent to $40,247.

• The 2018 real median earnings of men and women who worked full- time, year-round increased by 3.4 percent and 3.3 percent, respec- tively, between 2017 and 2018.3

• The number of full-time, year- round workers increased by 2.3 million, between 2017 and 2018.

2 Given the impact of the new income ques- tions introduced in 2014, the new relationship categories introduced in 2015–2016, and the 2019 implementation of an updated processing system, comparisons of 2018 estimates to pre- 2017 estimates should be made with caution. In this report, comparisons to earlier years are made when questionnaire and processing system changes did not result in statistically significant differences in the estimates. See Appendix D and <www.census.gov/library /stories/2019/09/how-2018-household -income-compares-to-prior-years.html> for more details.

3 The difference between the 2017–2018 percent changes in median earnings for men and women working full-time, year-round was not statistically significant.

The number of men and women full-time, year-round workers increased by about 700,000 and 1.6 million, respectively.

• The official poverty rate in 2018 was 11.8 percent, a decrease of 0.5 percentage points from 2017. This is the fourth consecutive annual decline in the national poverty rate. In 2018, for the first time in 11 years, the official poverty rate was significantly lower than 2007, the year before the most recent recession.

• The number of people in poverty in 2018 was 38.1 million, 1.4 million fewer people than 2017.

For all demographic groups shown in Figure 1 (see page 2), the 2018 median household income estimates were higher or were not statistically different from the 2017 estimates. For most demographic groups shown in Figure 8 (see page 13), pov- erty rates in 2018 were either lower than in 2017 or not statistically differ- ent. The only group to experience a statistically significant increase in poverty rates from 2017 to 2018 was people aged 25 or older with no high school diploma.

INCOME IN THE UNITED STATES

Highlights

• Median household income was $63,179 in 2018, not statistically different from the 2017 median (Figure 1 and Table A-1).

• The 2018 real median income of family households and nonfamily households increased 1.2 percent and 2.4 percent, respectively,

2 Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018 U.S. Census Bureau

Change: 20171 to 20182018 median income

Figure 1. Median Household Income and Percent Change by Selected Characteristics

1 The 2017 data reflect the implementation of an updated processing system. See Appendix D for more information. Notes: Households as of March of the following year. Inflation-adjusted estimates may differ slightly from other published data due to rounding. Statistically significant indicates the change is statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level. For more details, see Table A-1. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, and definitions, see <https://www2.census.gov/programs-survey/cps/techdocs/cpsmar19.pdf>. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2018 and 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

0.9

1.2

2.4

0.8

1.1

2.6

4.6

0.1

1.0

3.3

1.4

1.7

4.3

2.3

0.3

1.4

1.6

$63,179

$80,663

$38,122

$66,943

$70,642

$41,361

$87,194

$71,659

$43,696

$64,243

$70,113

$64,069

$57,299

$69,520

$66,164

$51,450

$58,776

$49,867

$70,928

$59,358

Denotes a statistically significant change

5.4

-1.0

1.5

HOUSEHOLDS

All households

Type of Household Family households

Nonfamily households

Race and Hispanic Origin of Householder White

White, not Hispanic

Black

Asian

Hispanic (any race)

Age of Householder Under 65 years

65 years and older

Nativity of Householder Native-born

Foreign-born

Region Northeast

Midwest

South

West

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) Status Inside MSA

Inside principal cities

Outside principal cities

Outside MSA

U.S. Census Bureau Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018 3

between 2017 and 2018 (Figure 1 and Table A-1).4 This is the fourth consecutive annual increase in median household income for family households.

• The 2018 real median income of Asian households increased 4.6 percent from 2017 to $87,194, while the real median incomes of non-Hispanic White ($70,642), Black ($41,361), and Hispanic ($51,450) households were not statistically different from their 2017 medians (Figure 1 and Table A-1).5

• For householders under the age of 65, real median household income was not statistically differ- ent between 2017 and 2018, while real median household income for householders aged 65 and over increased 3.3 percent from 2017 (Figure 1 and Table A-1).6

• The real median income of house- holds maintained by a native-born person increased 1.4 percent between 2017 and 2018, while the 2018 real median income of households maintained by a foreign-born person was not statistically different from 2017 (Figure 1 and Table A-1).7

4 The difference between the 2017–2018 percent changes in median income for fam- ily (1.2 percent) and nonfamily (2.4 percent) households was not statistically significant.

5 The only significant difference between the 2017–2018 percent changes in median income for each race group was Asian (4.6 percent) and Hispanic (0.1 percent).

6 The difference between the 2017–2018 percent changes in median income for house- holders under the age of 65 (1.0 percent) and by householders aged 65 and over (3.3 per- cent) was not statistically significant.

7 The difference between the 2017–2018 percent changes in median income for house- holds maintained by a native-born person (1.4 percent) and those maintained by a foreign- born person (1.7 percent) was not statistically significant.

• Between 2017 and 2018, the real median earnings of all workers increased 3.4 percent to $40,247 (Figure 4 and Table A-6).

• The 2018 real median earnings of men ($55,291) and women ($45,097) who worked full-time, year-round increased by 3.4 per- cent and 3.3 percent, respectively, (Figure 4 and Table A-6) between 2017 and 2018.8 The 2018 female- to-male earnings ratio was 0.816, not statistically different from the 2017 ratio (Figure 5).

• The number of full-time, year- round workers increased by 2.3 million, between 2017 and 2018. The number of men and women full-time, year-round workers

8 The difference between the 2017–2018 percent changes in median earnings for men (3.4 percent) and women (3.3 percent) work- ing full-time, year-round was not statistically significant.

increased by about 700,000 and 1.6 million, respectively.

Household Income9

Following 3 consecutive years of annual increases in the real median income of all households in the United States, the 2018 median income ($63,179) was not statisti- cally different in real terms from the 2017 median of $62,626 (Figure 1 and Table A-1).

9 The householder is the person (or one of the people) in whose name the home is owned or rented and the person to whom the relationship of other household members is recorded. If a married couple owns the home jointly, either spouse may be listed as the householder. Since only one person in each household is designated as the householder, the number of householders is equal to the number of households. This report uses the characteristics of the householder to describe the household.

Caution for Historical Comparisons

Although 2018 median household income appears to be the highest median household income ever reported from the CPS ASEC, compari- sons to income and poverty estimates prior to 2017 must be made with caution as the income questions were redesigned in 2014 and estimates for 2018 are only available using a new processing system.

To better understand how these survey changes would affect income and poverty estimates, the 2014 CPS ASEC used a split-panel design. In the split-panel design, about 70 percent of the sample was randomly selected to receive the traditional income questions, which matched those administered prior to 2014. The other 30 percent of the sample received the redesigned questions. Likewise, two sets of estimates are available from the 2018 CPS ASEC, providing estimates of income and poverty for 2017 under the legacy and updated data processing systems. In each case, dual estimates are available for a single year. Comparisons across these estimates help to account for the changes in the questionnaire and processing system when making comparisons over time. For more details, see Appendix D and <www.census.gov /library/stories/2019/09/how-2018-household-income-compares-to -prior-years.html>.

4 Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018 U.S. Census Bureau

Type of Household10

The 2018 real median income of fam- ily households and nonfamily house- holds increased 1.2 percent and 2.4 percent, respectively, between 2017 and 2018 (Figure 1 and Table A-1).11 This is the fourth consecutive annual increase in median house- hold income for family households. Real median income among family households maintained by women with no spouse present increased 5.8 percent between 2017 and 2018, while median income of married- couple households and family households maintained by men with no spouse present were not statisti- cally different from 2017 medians in real terms.12 For family households, married-couple households had the highest median income in 2018 ($93,654), followed by households maintained by men with no spouse present ($61,518). Family house- holds maintained by women with no spouse present had the lowest median income ($45,128).

Looking at nonfamily households, real median income for male house- holders ($45,754) increased 4.4 per- cent between 2017 and 2018, while the change in real median income

10 A family household is a household maintained by a householder who is related to at least one other person in the household by birth, marriage, or adoption and includes any unrelated individuals who may be residing there. A nonfamily household is a householder living alone (a one-person household) or shar- ing the home exclusively with nonrelatives.

11 The difference between the 2017–2018 percent changes in median income for fam- ily (1.2 percent) and nonfamily (2.4 percent) households was not statistically significant.

12 The following differences between the 2017–2018 percent changes in median …

Attachment 3

Income inequality and poverty

Social Problems Project: Assignment 3

POVERTY

USING COMPLETE SENTENCES, ANSWER EACH OF THESE QUESTIONS IN YOUR PRESENTATION:

Using table B1 (p50) in the Current Population Report, 2018 data only

How many people lived in poverty in 2018?

What percent of the population lived in poverty?

IMPORTANT NOTE: When numbers in any table are reported in the thousands, a number such as 1,000 actually means 1,000,000 or 1 million. For example, in the table for 2018, the total population measured was 323.847 MILLION people.

POVERTY

INSTRUCTIONS: Study Table B1 (p50), focusing on 2018 data only, in the Current Population report and identify the variation found for the different characteristics presented.

For each of the characteristics in table B1, for 2018 only, identify the NUMBER of people with that characteristic who lived in poverty AND identify the PERCENT of people with that characteristic who lived in poverty in 2018. NOTE: You don’t have to write this up—you’ll do that on the next slide.

For example, in 2018, over 24 million whites lived in poverty. This was approximately 10.1 percent of the white population. There were over 8.8 million blacks living in poverty in 2018, which was about 21 percent of the black population. Looking at these two groups alone, while there were significantly more whites living in poverty (number), a much higher percent of the black population lived in poverty as compared to the white population.

After your analysis, answer the following questions on this slide:

Think about why is it important to look at BOTH the number and the percent of any group who live in poverty? What did you find in the data? Poverty does not affect all groups equally.

Note: this is an instruction slide only; remove from your final project

PRESENTING THE FACTS: poverty

Present 5 facts on POVERTY after analyzing the 2018 data in Table B1 in the Current Population Report. Use complete sentences and support all statements with data from the table (refer back to the previous slide for an example of a fact—you can not use the one from the previous slide regarding differences in poverty numbers and percent between Whites and Blacks).

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

[feel free to add additional slides for space if you need them!]

Profile of the working poor

After reading the report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, a Profile of the Working Poor, 2017 (provided for you on Canvas), Present 5 distinct and unique (from each other) facts about the working poor. Use complete sentences and support all statements with data. Do not copy directly from the report, but rather summarize the information and present it here.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.