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Science and Engineering Practices and Science Process Skills Presentation

Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 12/09/2020 High School Research Paper Writing

  

One of the most important goals of education is to teach students to think. Science contributes to this goal with its emphasis on hypothesizing, thinking about the physical world, and reasoning from observations and data. The term science process skills is commonly used to describe such processes and is reflective of the behavior of scientists.

Create an 8-10 slide digital presentation that you could share with your peers who teach in another content area. Describe and compare two Science and Engineering Practices from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Appendix F and three Science Processes in the Science Process Skills (https://narst.org/research-matters/science-process-skills).  Be sure to include a title slide, reference slide, and presenter’s notes.

Choose one practice or process and provide a 250-500 word rationale as to why it is your favorite. Be sure to describe a complex performance that would teach the practice or process set, aligned to science or health standards from your state.

Support your presentation with 2-3 scholarly resources.

Category: Business & Management Subjects: Human Resource Management Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $150 - $300 Pages: 3-6 Pages (Medium Assignment)

Attachment 1

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 1 of 33

APPENDIX F – Science and Engineering Practices in the NGSS

A Science Framework for K-12 Science Education provides the blueprint for developing the Next

Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The Framework expresses a vision in science education that

requires students to operate at the nexus of three dimensions of learning: Science and Engineering

Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Disciplinary Core Ideas. The Framework identified a small number

of disciplinary core ideas that all students should learn with increasing depth and sophistication, from

Kindergarten through grade twelve. Key to the vision expressed in the Framework is for students to learn

these disciplinary core ideas in the context of science and engineering practices. The importance of

combining science and engineering practices and disciplinary core ideas is stated in the Framework as

follows:

Standards and performance expectations that are aligned to the framework must take into

account that students cannot fully understand scientific and engineering ideas without

engaging in the practices of inquiry and the discourses by which such ideas are

developed and refined. At the same time, they cannot learn or show competence in

practices except in the context of specific content. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 218)

The Framework specifies that each performance expectation must combine a relevant practice of science

or engineering, with a core disciplinary idea and crosscutting concept, appropriate for students of the

designated grade level. That guideline is perhaps the most significant way in which the NGSS differs

from prior standards documents. In the future, science assessments will not assess students’ understanding

of core ideas separately from their abilities to use the practices of science and engineering. They will be

assessed together, showing students not only “know” science concepts; but also, students can use their

understanding to investigate the natural world through the practices of science inquiry, or solve

meaningful problems through the practices of engineering design. The Framework uses the term

“practices,” rather than “science processes” or “inquiry” skills for a specific reason:

We use the term “practices” instead of a term such as “skills” to emphasize that

engaging in scientific investigation requires not only skill but also knowledge that is

specific to each practice. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 30)

The eight practices of science and engineering that the Framework identifies as essential for all students

to learn and describes in detail are listed below:

1. Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)

2. Developing and using models

3. Planning and carrying out investigations

4. Analyzing and interpreting data

5. Using mathematics and computational thinking

6. Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)

7. Engaging in argument from evidence

8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

Rationale Chapter 3 of the Framework describes each of the eight practices of science and engineering and presents

the following rationale for why they are essential.

Engaging in the practices of science helps students understand how scientific knowledge

develops; such direct involvement gives them an appreciation of the wide range of

approaches that are used to investigate, model, and explain the world. Engaging in the

practices of engineering likewise helps students understand the work of engineers, as

well as the links between engineering and science. Participation in these practices also

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 2 of 33

helps students form an understanding of the crosscutting concepts and disciplinary ideas

of science and engineering; moreover, it makes students’ knowledge more meaningful

and embeds it more deeply into their worldview.

The actual doing of science or engineering can also pique students’ curiosity, capture

their interest, and motivate their continued study; the insights thus gained help them

recognize that the work of scientists and engineers is a creative endeavor—one that has

deeply affected the world they live in. Students may then recognize that science and

engineering can contribute to meeting many of the major challenges that confront society

today, such as generating sufficient energy, preventing and treating disease, maintaining

supplies of fresh water and food, and addressing climate change.

Any education that focuses predominantly on the detailed products of scientific labor—

the facts of science—without developing an understanding of how those facts were

established or that ignores the many important applications of science in the world

misrepresents science and marginalizes the importance of engineering. (NRC

Framework 2012, pp. 42-43)

As suggested in the rationale, above, Chapter 3 derives the eight practices based on an analysis of what

professional scientists and engineers do. It is recommended that users of the NGSS read that chapter

carefully, as it provides valuable insights into the nature of science and engineering, as well as the

connections between these two closely allied fields. The intent of this section of the NGSS appendices is

more limited—to describe what each of these eight practices implies about what students can do. Its

purpose is to enable readers to better understand the performance expectations. The “Practices Matrix” is

included, which lists the specific capabilities included in each practice for each grade band (K-2, 3-5, 6-8,

9-12).

Guiding Principles

The development process of the standards provided insights into science and engineering practices.

These insights are shared in the following guiding principles:

Students in grades K-12 should engage in all eight practices over each grade band. All eight

practices are accessible at some level to young children; students’ abilities to use the practices

grow over time. However, the NGSS only identifies the capabilities students are expected to

acquire by the end of each grade band (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12). Curriculum developers and

teachers determine strategies that advance students’ abilities to use the practices.

Practices grow in complexity and sophistication across the grades. The Framework suggests

how students’ capabilities to use each of the practices should progress as they mature and engage

in science learning. For example, the practice of “planning and carrying out investigations”

begins at the kindergarten level with guided situations in which students have assistance in

identifying phenomena to be investigated, and how to observe, measure, and record outcomes. By

upper elementary school, students should be able to plan their own investigations. The nature of

investigations that students should be able to plan and carry out is also expected to increase as

students mature, including the complexity of questions to be studied, the ability to determine what

kind of investigation is needed to answer different kinds of questions, whether or not variables

need to be controlled and if so, which are most important, and at the high school level, how to

take measurement error into account. As listed in the tables in this chapter, each of the eight

practices has its own progression, from kindergarten to grade 12. While these progressions are

derived from Chapter 3 of the Framework, they are refined based on experiences in crafting the

NGSS and feedback received from reviewers.

Each practice may reflect science or engineering. Each of the eight practices can be used in the

service of scientific inquiry or engineering design. The best way to ensure a practice is being used

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 3 of 33

for science or engineering is to ask about the goal of the activity. Is the goal to answer a question?

If so, students are doing science. Is the purpose to define and solve a problem? If so, students are

doing engineering. Box 3-2 on pages 50-53 of the Framework provides a side-by-side comparison

of how scientists and engineers use these practices. This chapter briefly summarizes what it

“looks like” for a student to use each practice for science or engineering.

Practices represent what students are expected to do, and are not teaching methods or

curriculum. The Framework occasionally offers suggestions for instruction, such as how a

science unit might begin with a scientific investigation, which then leads to the solution of an

engineering problem. The NGSS avoids such suggestions since the goal is to describe what

students should be able to do, rather than how they should be taught. For example, it was

suggested for the NGSS to recommend certain teaching strategies such as using biomimicry—the

application of biological features to solve engineering design problems. Although instructional

units that make use of biomimicry seem well-aligned with the spirit of the Framework to

encourage integration of core ideas and practices, biomimicry and similar teaching approaches

are more closely related to curriculum and instruction than to assessment. Hence, the decision

was made not to include biomimicry in the NGSS.

The eight practices are not separate; they intentionally overlap and interconnect. As

explained by Bell, et al. (2012), the eight practices do not operate in isolation. Rather, they tend to

unfold sequentially, and even overlap. For example, the practice of “asking questions” may lead

to the practice of “modeling” or “planning and carrying out an investigation,” which in turn may

lead to “analyzing and interpreting data.” The practice of “mathematical and computational

thinking” may include some aspects of “analyzing and interpreting data.” Just as it is important

for students to carry out each of the individual practices, it is important for them to see the

connections among the eight practices.

Performance expectations focus on some but not all capabilities associated with a practice.

The Framework identifies a number of features or components of each practice. The practices

matrix, described in this section, lists the components of each practice as a bulleted list within

each grade band. As the performance expectations were developed, it became clear that it’s too

much to expect each performance to reflect all components of a given practice. The most

appropriate aspect of the practice is identified for each performance expectation.

Engagement in practices is language intensive and requires students to participate in

classroom science discourse. The practices offer rich opportunities and demands for language

learning while advancing science learning for all students (Lee, Quinn, & Valdés, in press).

English language learners, students with disabilities that involve language processing, students

with limited literacy development, and students who are speakers of social or regional varieties of

English that are generally referred to as “non-Standard English” stand to gain from science

learning that involves language-intensive scientific and engineering practices. When supported

appropriately, these students are capable of learning science through their emerging language and

comprehending and carrying out sophisticated language functions (e.g., arguing from evidence,

providing explanations, developing models) using less-than-perfect English. By engaging in such

practices, moreover, they simultaneously build on their understanding of science and their

language proficiency (i.e., capacity to do more with language).

On the following pages, each of the eight practices is briefly described. Each description ends with a table

illustrating the components of the practice that students are expected to master at the end of each grade

band. All eight tables comprise the practices matrix. During development of the NGSS, the practices

matrix was revised several times to reflect improved understanding of how the practices connect with the

disciplinary core ideas.

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 4 of 33

Practice 1 Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Students at any grade level should be able to ask questions of each other about the texts

they read, the features of the phenomena they observe, and the conclusions they draw

from their models or scientific investigations. For engineering, they should ask questions

to define the problem to be solved and to elicit ideas that lead to the constraints and

specifications for its solution. (NRC Framework 2012, p. 56)

Scientific questions arise in a variety of ways. They can be driven by curiosity about the world, inspired

by the predictions of a model, theory, or findings from previous investigations, or they can be stimulated

by the need to solve a problem. Scientific questions are distinguished from other types of questions in that

the answers lie in explanations supported by empirical evidence, including evidence gathered by others or

through investigation.

While science begins with questions, engineering begins with defining a problem to solve. However,

engineering may also involve asking questions to define a problem, such as: What is the need or desire

that underlies the problem? What are the criteria for a successful solution? Other questions arise when

generating ideas, or testing possible solutions, such as: What are the possible trade-offs? What evidence

is necessary to determine which solution is best?

Asking questions and defining problems also involves asking questions about data, claims that are made,

and proposed designs. It is important to realize that asking a question also leads to involvement in another

practice. A student can ask a question about data that will lead to further analysis and interpretation. Or a

student might ask a question that leads to planning and design, an investigation, or the refinement of a

design.

Whether engaged in science or engineering, the ability to ask good questions and clearly define problems

is essential for everyone. The following progression of Practice 1 summarizes what students should be

able to do by the end of each grade band. Each of the examples of asking questions below leads to

students engaging in other scientific practices.

Grades K-2 Grades 3-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12

Asking questions and defining problems in K–2

builds on prior

experiences and progresses to simple

descriptive questions that

can be tested.

 Ask questions based

on observations to find more information

about the natural

and/or designed world(s).

 Ask and/or identify

questions that can be answered by an

investigation.

 Define a simple problem that can be

solved through the

development of a new or improved object or

tool.

Asking questions and defining problems in 3–5 builds on K–2

experiences and progresses to

specifying qualitative relationships.

 Ask questions about what would happen if a variable is

changed.

 Identify scientific (testable) and non-scientific (non-

testable) questions.

 Ask questions that can be investigated and predict

reasonable outcomes based

on patterns such as cause and effect relationships.

 Use prior knowledge to

describe problems that can be solved.

 Define a simple design

problem that can be solved through the development of

an object, tool, process, or

system and includes several criteria for success and

constraints on materials, time,

or cost.

Asking questions and defining problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and

progresses to specifying relationships

between variables, and clarifying arguments and models.

 Ask questions o that arise from careful observation

of phenomena, models, or unexpected results, to clarify

and/or seek additional information.

o to identify and/or clarify evidence and/or the premise(s) of an

argument.

o to determine relationships between independent and dependent

variables and relationships in

models. o to clarify and/or refine a model, an

explanation, or an engineering

problem. o that require sufficient and

appropriate empirical evidence to

answer. o that can be investigated within the

scope of the classroom, outdoor

environment, and museums and other public facilities with

available resources and, when

Asking questions and defining problems in 9–12 builds on K–8

experiences and progresses to

formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable

questions and design problems

using models and simulations.

 Ask questions o that arise from careful

observation of phenomena,

or unexpected results, to clarify and/or seek

additional information.

o that arise from examining models or a theory, to

clarify and/or seek

additional information and relationships.

o to determine relationships,

including quantitative relationships, between

independent and

dependent variables. o to clarify and refine a

model, an explanation, or

an engineering problem.  Evaluate a question to

determine if it is testable and

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 5 of 33

appropriate, frame a hypothesis

based on observations and scientific principles.

o that challenge the premise(s) of an

argument or the interpretation of a data set.

 Define a design problem that can be

solved through the development of an object, tool, process or system and

includes multiple criteria and

constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible

solutions.

relevant.

 Ask questions that can be investigated within the scope

of the school laboratory,

research facilities, or field (e.g., outdoor environment)

with available resources and,

when appropriate, frame a hypothesis based on a model

or theory.

 Ask and/or evaluate questions that challenge the premise(s)

of an argument, the

interpretation of a data set, or the suitability of a design.

 Define a design problem that

involves the development of a process or system with

interacting components and

criteria and constraints that

may include social, technical,

and/or environmental

considerations.

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 6 of 33

Practice 2 Developing and Using Models

Modeling can begin in the earliest grades, with students’ models progressing from

concrete “pictures” and/or physical scale models (e.g., a toy car) to more abstract

representations of relevant relationships in later grades, such as a diagram representing

forces on a particular object in a system. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 58)

Models include diagrams, physical replicas, mathematical representations, analogies, and computer

simulations. Although models do not correspond exactly to the real world, they bring certain features into

focus while obscuring others. All models contain approximations and assumptions that limit the range of

validity and predictive power, so it is important for students to recognize their limitations.

In science, models are used to represent a system (or parts of a system) under study, to aid in the

development of questions and explanations, to generate data that can be used to make predictions, and to

communicate ideas to others. Students can be expected to evaluate and refine models through an iterative

cycle of comparing their predictions with the real world and then adjusting them to gain insights into the

phenomenon being modeled. As such, models are based upon evidence. When new evidence is uncovered

that the models can’t explain, models are modified.

In engineering, models may be used to analyze a system to see where or under what conditions flaws

might develop, or to test possible solutions to a problem. Models can also be used to visualize and refine a

design, to communicate a design’s features to others, and as prototypes for testing design performance.

Grades K-2 Grades 3-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12

Modeling in K–2 builds on prior

experiences and progresses to include using and developing

models (i.e., diagram, drawing,

physical replica, diorama, dramatization, or storyboard) that

represent concrete events or

design solutions.

 Distinguish between a model

and the actual object, process, and/or events the model

represents.

 Compare models to identify common features and

differences.

 Develop and/or use a model to represent amounts,

relationships, relative scales

(bigger, smaller), and/or patterns in the natural and

designed world(s).

 Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent a

proposed object or tool.

Modeling in 3–5 builds on K–2

experiences and progresses to

building and revising simple models and using models to

represent events and design

solutions.  Identify limitations of models.

 Collaboratively develop and/or

revise a model based on evidence that shows the

relationships among variables

for frequent and regular occurring events.

 Develop a model using an

analogy, example, or abstract representation to describe a

scientific principle or design

solution.  Develop and/or use models to

describe and/or predict

phenomena.  Develop a diagram or simple

physical prototype to convey a

proposed object, tool, or process.

 Use a model to test cause and

effect relationships or

interactions concerning the

functioning of a natural or

designed system.

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5

experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising

models to describe, test, and predict

more abstract phenomena and design systems.

 Evaluate limitations of a model for a proposed object or tool.

 Develop or modify a model—

based on evidence – to match what happens if a variable or component

of a system is changed.

 Use and/or develop a model of simple systems with uncertain and

less predictable factors.

 Develop and/or revise a model to show the relationships among

variables, including those that are

not observable but predict observable phenomena.

 Develop and/or use a model to

predict and/or describe phenomena.

 Develop a model to describe

unobservable mechanisms.  Develop and/or use a model to

generate data to test ideas about

phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those

representing inputs and outputs,

and those at unobservable scales.

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8

experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models

to predict and show relationships

among variables between systems and their components in the natural

and designed worlds.

 Evaluate merits and limitations of

two different models of the same

proposed tool, process, mechanism or system in order to

select or revise a model that best

fits the evidence or design criteria.  Design a test of a model to

ascertain its reliability.

 Develop, revise, and/or use a model based on evidence to

illustrate and/or predict the

relationships between systems or between components of a system.

 Develop and/or use multiple types

of models to provide mechanistic accounts and/or predict

phenomena, and move flexibly

between model types based on merits and limitations.

 Develop a complex model that

allows for manipulation and testing of a proposed process or

system.

 Develop and/or use a model (including mathematical and

computational) to generate data to

support explanations, predict phenomena, analyze systems,

and/or solve problems.

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 7 of 33

Practice 3 Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Students should have opportunities to plan and carry out several different kinds of

investigations during their K-12 years. At all levels, they should engage in investigations that

range from those structured by the teacher—in order to expose an issue or question that they

would be unlikely to explore on their own (e.g., measuring specific properties of materials)—

to those that emerge from students’ own questions. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 61)

Scientific investigations may be undertaken to describe a phenomenon, or to test a theory or model for

how the world works. The purpose of engineering investigations might be to find out how to fix or

improve the functioning of a technological system or to compare different solutions to see which best

solves a problem. Whether students are doing science or engineering, it is always important for them to

state the goal of an investigation, predict outcomes, and plan a course of action that will provide the best

evidence to support their conclusions. Students should design investigations that generate data to provide

evidence to support claims they make about phenomena. Data aren’t evidence until used in the process of

supporting a claim. Students should use reasoning and scientific ideas, principles, and theories to show

why data can be considered evidence.

Over time, students are expected to become more systematic and careful in their methods. In laboratory

experiments, students are expected to decide which variables should be treated as results or outputs,

which should be treated as inputs and intentionally varied from trial to trial, and which should be

controlled, or kept the same across trials. In the case of field observations, planning involves deciding

how to collect different samples of data under different conditions, even though not all conditions are

under the direct control of the investigator. Planning and carrying out investigations may include elements

of all of the other practices.

Grades K-2 Grades 3-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer

questions or test solutions to

problems in K–2 builds on

prior experiences and

progresses to simple

investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data to

support explanations or design

solutions.

 With guidance, plan and

conduct an investigation in collaboration with peers (for

K).

 Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively

to produce data to serve as

the basis for evidence to answer a question.

 Evaluate different ways of observing and/or measuring

a phenomenon to determine

which way can answer a question.

 Make observations

(firsthand or from media) and/or measurements to

collect data that can be used

to make comparisons.  Make observations

(firsthand or from media)

and/or measurements of a proposed object or tool or

solution to determine if it

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer

questions or test solutions to

problems in 3–5 builds on K–

2 experiences and progresses

to include investigations that

control variables and provide evidence to support

explanations or design

solutions.

 Plan and conduct an

investigation collaboratively to produce

data to serve as the basis

for evidence, using fair tests in which variables are

controlled and the number

of trials considered.  Evaluate appropriate

methods and/or tools for collecting data.

 Make observations and/or

measurements to produce data to serve as the basis

for evidence for an

explanation of a phenomenon or test a

design solution.

 Make predictions about what would happen if a

variable changes.

 Test two different models of the same proposed

object, tool, or process to

Planning and carrying out investigations in 6-8 builds on

K-5 experiences and

progresses to include

investigations that use

multiple variables and

provide evidence to support explanations or solutions.

 Plan an investigation individually and

collaboratively, and in the

design: identify independent and dependent

variables and controls,

what tools are needed to do the gathering, how

measurements will be

recorded, and how many data are needed to support

a claim.  Conduct an investigation

and/or evaluate and/or

revise the experimental design to produce data to

serve as the basis for

evidence that meet the goals of the investigation.

 Evaluate the accuracy of

various methods for collecting data.

 Collect data to produce

data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer

scientific questions or test

Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and

progresses to include investigations that

provide evidence for and test conceptual,

mathematical, physical, and empirical

models.

 Plan an investigation or test a design

individually and collaboratively to

produce data to serve as the basis for evidence as part of building and

revising models, supporting

explanations for phenomena, or testing solutions to problems. Consider

possible confounding variables or

effects and evaluate the investigation’s design to ensure variables are

controlled.

 Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to

produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on

types, how much, and accuracy of data

needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations

on the precision of the data (e.g.,

number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.

 Plan and conduct an investigation or

test a design solution in a safe and ethical manner including considerations

of environmental, social, and personal

impacts.  Select appropriate tools to collect,

record, analyze, and evaluate data.

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 8 of 33

solves a problem or meets a

goal.  Make predictions based on

prior experiences.

determine which better

meets criteria for success.

design solutions under a

range of conditions.  Collect data about the

performance of a proposed

object, tool, process or system under a range of

conditions.

 Make directional hypotheses that

specify what happens to a dependent variable when an independent variable

is manipulated.

 Manipulate variables and collect data about a complex model of a proposed

process or system to identify failure

points or improve performance relative to criteria for success or other variables.

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 9 of 33

Practice 4 Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Once collected, data must be presented in a form that can reveal any patterns and

relationships and that allows results to be communicated to others. Because raw data as

such have little meaning, a major practice of scientists is to organize and interpret data

through tabulating, graphing, or statistical analysis. Such analysis can bring out the

meaning of data—and their relevance—so that they may be used as evidence.

Engineers, too, make decisions based on evidence that a given design will work; they

rarely rely on trial and error. Engineers often analyze a design by creating a model or

prototype and collecting extensive data on how it performs, including under extreme

conditions. Analysis of this kind of data not only informs design decisions and enables the

prediction or assessment of performance but also helps define or clarify problems,

determine economic feasibility, evaluate alternatives, and investigate failures. (NRC

Framework, 2012, p. 61-62)

As students mature, they are expected to expand their capabilities to use a range of tools for tabulation,

graphical representation, visualization, and statistical analysis. Students are also expected to improve their

abilities to interpret data by identifying significant features and patterns, use mathematics to represent

relationships between variables, and take into account sources of error. When possible and feasible,

students should use digital tools to analyze and interpret data. Whether analyzing data for the purpose of

science or engineering, it is important students present data as evidence to support their conclusions.

Grades K-2 Grades 3-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12

Analyzing data in K–2

builds on prior experiences and progresses to

collecting, recording, and

sharing observations.  Record information

(observations, thoughts,

and ideas).

 Use and share pictures,

drawings, and/or

writings of observations.

 Use observations

(firsthand or from media) to describe

patterns and/or

relationships in the natural and designed

world(s) in order to

answer scientific questions and solve

problems.

 Compare predictions (based on prior

experiences) to what

occurred (observable

events).

 Analyze data from tests

of an object or tool to determine if it works as

intended.

Analyzing data in 3–5 builds

on K–2 experiences and progresses to introducing

quantitative approaches to

collecting data and conducting multiple trials of

qualitative observations.

When possible and feasible,

digital tools should be used.

 Represent data in tables

and/or various graphical displays (bar graphs,

pictographs and/or pie

charts) to reveal patterns that indicate relationships.

 Analyze and interpret data

to make sense of phenomena, using logical

reasoning, mathematics,

and/or computation.  Compare and contrast data

collected by different

groups in order to discuss similarities and differences

in their findings.

 Analyze data to refine a

problem statement or the

design of a proposed

object, tool, or process.  Use data to evaluate and

refine design solutions.

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5

experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations,

distinguishing between correlation and

causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

 Construct, analyze, and/or interpret

graphical displays of data and/or large

data sets to identify linear and nonlinear

relationships.

 Use graphical displays (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, and/or tables) of large

data sets to identify temporal and

spatial relationships.  Distinguish between causal and

correlational relationships in data.

 Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena.

 Apply concepts of statistics and

probability (including mean, median, mode, and variability) to analyze and

characterize data, using digital tools

when feasible.  Consider limitations of data analysis

(e.g., measurement error), and/or seek

to improve precision and accuracy of

data with better technological tools and

methods (e.g., multiple trials).

 Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings.

 Analyze data to define an optimal

operational range for a proposed object, tool, process or system that best meets

criteria for success.

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8

experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical

analysis, the comparison of data sets for

consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

 Analyze data using tools,

technologies, and/or models (e.g.,

computational, mathematical) in order

to make valid and reliable scientific

claims or determine an optimal design solution.

 Apply concepts of statistics and

probability (including determining function fits to data, slope, intercept,

and correlation coefficient for linear

fits) to scientific and engineering questions and problems, using digital

tools when feasible.

 Consider limitations of data analysis (e.g., measurement error, sample

selection) when analyzing and

interpreting data.  Compare and contrast various types of

data sets (e.g., self-generated,

archival) to examine consistency of

measurements and observations.

 Evaluate the impact of new data on a

working explanation and/or model of a proposed process or system.

 Analyze data to identify design

features or characteristics of the components of a proposed process or

system to optimize it relative to

criteria for success.

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 10 of 33

Practice 5 Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Although there are differences in how mathematics and computational thinking are applied

in science and in engineering, mathematics often brings these two fields together by

enabling engineers to apply the mathematical form of scientific theories and by enabling

scientists to use powerful information technologies designed by engineers. Both kinds of

professionals can thereby accomplish investigations and analyses and build complex

models, which might otherwise be out of the question. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 65)

Students are expected to use mathematics to represent physical variables and their relationships, and to

make quantitative predictions. Other applications of mathematics in science and engineering include

logic, geometry, and at the highest levels, calculus. Computers and digital tools can enhance the power of

mathematics by automating calculations, approximating solutions to problems that cannot be calculated

precisely, and analyzing large data sets available to identify meaningful patterns. Students are expected to

use laboratory tools connected to computers for observing, measuring, recording, and processing data.

Students are also expected to engage in computational thinking, which involves strategies for organizing

and searching data, creating sequences of steps called algorithms, and using and developing new

simulations of natural and designed systems. Mathematics is a tool that is key to understanding science.

As such, classroom instruction must include critical skills of mathematics. The NGSS displays many of

those skills through the performance expectations, but classroom instruction should enhance all of science

through the use of quality mathematical and computational thinking.

Grades K-2 Grades 3-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12

Mathematical and computational thinking in

K–2 builds on prior experience and progresses

to recognizing that

mathematics can be used to describe the natural and

designed world(s).

 Decide when to use

qualitative vs.

quantitative data.  Use counting and

numbers to identify and describe patterns in the

natural and designed

world(s).  Describe, measure,

and/or compare

quantitative attributes of different objects and

display the data using

simple graphs.  Use quantitative data to

compare two alternative

solutions to a problem.

Mathematical and computational thinking in

3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses

to extending quantitative

measurements to a variety of physical properties and

using computation and

mathematics to analyze

data and compare

alternative design

solutions.

 Decide if qualitative or quantitative data are

best to determine

whether a proposed object or tool meets

criteria for success.

 Organize simple data sets to reveal patterns

that suggest

relationships.  Describe, measure,

estimate, and/or graph

quantities (e.g., area, volume, weight, time)

to address scientific and

engineering questions and problems.

 Create and/or use

graphs and/or charts generated from simple

algorithms to compare

alternative solutions to an engineering problem.

Mathematical and computational thinking in 6–8 builds on K–5

experiences and progresses to identifying patterns in large data

sets and using mathematical

concepts to support explanations and arguments.

 Use digital tools (e.g.,

computers) to analyze very

large data sets for patterns

and trends.  Use mathematical

representations to describe and/or support scientific

conclusions and design

solutions.  Create algorithms (a series of

ordered steps) to solve a

problem.  Apply mathematical concepts

and/or processes (e.g., ratio,

rate, percent, basic operations, simple algebra) to

scientific and engineering

questions and problems.  Use digital tools and/or

mathematical concepts and

arguments to test and compare proposed solutions

to an engineering design

problem.

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9- 12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to

using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including

trigonometric functions, exponentials and

logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and

model data. Simple computational simulations

are created and used based on mathematical

models of basic assumptions.

 Create and/or revise a computational model or simulation of a phenomenon, designed

device, process, or system.  Use mathematical, computational, and/or

algorithmic representations of phenomena

or design solutions to describe and/or support claims and/or explanations.

 Apply techniques of algebra and functions

to represent and solve scientific and engineering problems.

 Use simple limit cases to test mathematical

expressions, computer programs, algorithms, or simulations of a process or

system to see if a model “makes sense” by

comparing the outcomes with what is known about the real world.

 Apply ratios, rates, percentages, and unit

conversions in the context of complicated measurement problems involving quantities

with derived or compound units (such as

mg/mL, kg/m3, acre-feet, etc.).

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Practice 6 Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

The goal of science is to construct explanations for the causes of phenomena. Students are

expected to construct their own explanations, as well as apply standard explanations they learn

about from their teachers or reading. The Framework states the following about explanation:

“The goal of science is the construction of theories that provide explanatory accounts of the world. A theory becomes accepted when it has multiple lines of empirical evidence and greater

explanatory power of phenomena than previous theories.”(NRC Framework, 2012, p. 52)

An explanation includes a claim that relates how a variable or variables relate to another variable

or a set of variables. A claim is often made in response to a question and in the process of

answering the question, scientists often design investigations to generate data.

The goal of engineering is to solve problems. Designing solutions to problems is a systematic

process that involves defining the problem, then generating, testing, and improving solutions.

This practice is described in the Framework as follows.

Asking students to demonstrate their own understanding of the implications of a scientific idea by developing their own explanations of phenomena, whether based on observations they have

made or models they have developed, engages them in an essential part of the process by which

conceptual change can occur.

In engineering, the goal is a design rather than an explanation. The process of developing a

design is iterative and systematic, as is the process of developing an explanation or a theory in science. Engineers’ activities, however, have elements that are distinct from those of scientists.

These elements include specifying constraints and criteria for desired qualities of the solution, developing a design plan, producing and testing models or prototypes, selecting among

alternative design features to optimize the achievement of design criteria, and refining design

ideas based on the performance of a prototype or simulation. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 68-69)

Grades K-2 Grades 3-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12

Constructing

explanations and designing solutions in

K–2 builds on prior

experiences and progresses to the use of

evidence and ideas in

constructing evidence- based accounts of

natural phenomena and

designing solutions.

 Make observations

(firsthand or from media) to construct

an evidence-based

account for natural phenomena.

 Use tools and/or

materials to design

and/or build a device

that solves a specific

problem or a solution to a specific problem.

 Generate and/or

compare multiple solutions to a

problem.

Constructing explanations

and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2

experiences and progresses

to the use of evidence in constructing explanations

that specify variables that

describe and predict phenomena and in

designing multiple

solutions to design problems.

 Construct an explanation of observed

relationships (e.g., the

distribution of plants in the back yard).

 Use evidence (e.g.,

measurements,

observations, patterns)

to construct or support

an explanation or design a solution to a problem.

 Identify the evidence

that supports particular points in an explanation.

 Apply scientific ideas to

solve design problems.  Generate and compare

multiple solutions to a

problem based on how

Constructing explanations and

designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K– 5 experiences and progresses to include

constructing explanations and designing

solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific

ideas, principles, and theories.

 Construct an explanation that

includes qualitative or quantitative

relationships between variables that predict(s) and/or describe(s)

phenomena.

 Construct an explanation using models or representations.

 Construct a scientific explanation

based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from sources (including the

students’ own experiments) and the

assumption that theories and laws

that describe the natural world

operate today as they did in the past

and will continue to do so in the future.

 Apply scientific ideas, principles,

and/or evidence to construct, revise and/or use an explanation for real-

world phenomena, examples, or

events.  Apply scientific reasoning to show

why the data or evidence is adequate

for the explanation or conclusion.

Constructing explanations and designing

solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations

and designs that are supported by multiple

and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific

ideas, principles, and theories.

 Make a quantitative and/or qualitative

claim regarding the relationship

between dependent and independent variables.

 Construct and revise an explanation

based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources

(including students’ own investigations,

models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that

theories and laws that describe the

natural world operate today as they did

in the past and will continue to do so in

the future.

 Apply scientific ideas, principles, and/or evidence to provide an

explanation of phenomena and solve

design problems, taking into account possible unanticipated effects.

 Apply scientific reasoning, theory,

and/or models to link evidence to the claims to assess the extent to which the

reasoning and data support the

explanation or conclusion.

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 12 of 33

well they meet the

criteria and constraints of the design solution.

 Apply scientific ideas or principles

to design, construct, and/or test a design of an object, tool, process or

system.

 Undertake a design project, engaging in the design cycle, to construct

and/or implement a solution that

meets specific design criteria and constraints.

 Optimize performance of a design by

prioritizing criteria, making tradeoffs, testing, revising, and re-

testing.

 Design, evaluate, and/or refine a

solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific

knowledge, student-generated sources

of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 13 of 33

Practice 7 Engaging in Argument from Evidence

The study of science and engineering should produce a sense of the process of argument necessary for advancing and defending a new idea or an explanation of a phenomenon and

the norms for conducting such arguments. In that spirit, students should argue for the

explanations they construct, defend their interpretations of the associated data, and advocate

for the designs they propose. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 73)

Argumentation is a process for reaching agreements about explanations and design solutions. In science,

reasoning and argument based on evidence are essential in identifying the best explanation for a natural

phenomenon. In engineering, reasoning and argument are needed to identify the best solution to a design

problem. Student engagement in scientific argumentation is critical if students are to understand the

culture in which scientists live, and how to apply science and engineering for the benefit of society. As

such, argument is a process based on evidence and reasoning that leads to explanations acceptable by the

scientific community and design solutions acceptable by the engineering community.

Argument in science goes beyond reaching agreements in explanations and design solutions. Whether

investigating a phenomenon, testing a design, or constructing a model to provide a mechanism for an

explanation, students are expected to use argumentation to listen to, compare, and evaluate competing

ideas and methods based on their merits. Scientists and engineers engage in argumentation when

investigating a phenomenon, testing a design solution, resolving questions about measurements, building

data models, and using evidence to evaluate claims.

Grades K-2 Grades 3-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12

Engaging in argument from

evidence in K–2 builds on prior experiences and

progresses to comparing

ideas and representations about the natural and

designed world(s).

 Identify arguments that

are supported by

evidence.  Distinguish between

explanations that account for all gathered evidence

and those that do not.

 Analyze why some evidence is relevant to a

scientific question and

some is not.  Distinguish between

opinions and evidence in

one’s own explanations.  Listen actively to

arguments to indicate

agreement or disagreement based on

evidence, and/or to retell

the main points of the argument.

 Construct an argument

with evidence to support a claim.

 Make a claim about the

effectiveness of an object, tool, or solution

that is supported by

relevant evidence.

Engaging in argument from

evidence in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to

critiquing the scientific

explanations or solutions proposed by peers by citing

relevant evidence about the

natural and designed world(s).

 Compare and refine arguments

based on an evaluation of the evidence presented.

 Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on

research findings, and

speculation in an explanation.  Respectfully provide and

receive critiques from peers

about a proposed procedure, explanation, or model by citing

relevant evidence and posing

specific questions.  Construct and/or support an

argument with evidence, data,

and/or a model.  Use data to evaluate claims

about cause and effect.

 Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem by

citing relevant evidence about

how it meets the criteria and constraints of the problem.

Engaging in argument from

evidence in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to

constructing a convincing

argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or

solutions about the natural and

designed world(s).

 Compare and critique two

arguments on the same topic and analyze whether they

emphasize similar or different evidence and/or interpretations

of facts.

 Respectfully provide and receive critiques about one’s

explanations, procedures,

models, and questions by citing relevant evidence and

posing and responding to

questions that elicit pertinent elaboration and detail.

 Construct, use, and/or present

an oral and written argument supported by empirical

evidence and scientific

reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a

phenomenon or a solution to a

problem.  Make an oral or written

argument that supports or

refutes the advertised performance of a device,

process, or system based on

empirical evidence concerning whether or not the technology

meets relevant criteria and

constraints.

Engaging in argument from evidence in

9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and

sufficient evidence and scientific

reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and

designed world(s). Arguments may also

come from current scientific or

historical episodes in science.

 Compare and evaluate competing arguments or design solutions in

light of currently accepted explanations, new evidence,

limitations (e.g., trade-offs),

constraints, and ethical issues.  Evaluate the claims, evidence,

and/or reasoning behind currently

accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments.

 Respectfully provide and/or receive

critiques on scientific arguments by probing reasoning and evidence,

challenging ideas and conclusions,

responding thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, and determining

additional information required to

resolve contradictions.  Construct, use, and/or present an

oral and written argument or

counter-arguments based on data and evidence.

 Make and defend a claim based on

evidence about the natural world or the effectiveness of a design solution

that reflects scientific knowledge

and student-generated evidence.  Evaluate competing design solutions

to a real-world problem based on

scientific ideas and principles,

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 Evaluate competing design

solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon

design criteria.

empirical evidence, and/or logical

arguments regarding relevant factors (e.g. economic, societal,

environmental, ethical

considerations).

April 2013 NGSS Release Page 15 of 33

Practice 8 Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Any education in science and engineering needs to develop students’ ability to read and

produce domain-specific text. As such, every science or engineering lesson is in part a

language lesson, particularly reading and producing the genres of texts that are intrinsic

to science and engineering. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 76)

Being able to read, interpret, and produce scientific and technical text are fundamental practices of

science and engineering, as is the ability to communicate clearly and persuasively. Being a critical

consumer of information about science and engineering requires the ability to read or view reports of

scientific or technological advances or applications (whether found in the press, the Internet, or in a town

meeting) and to recognize the salient ideas, identify sources of error and methodological flaws,

distinguish observations from inferences, arguments from explanations, and claims from evidence.

Scientists and engineers employ multiple sources to obtain information used to evaluate the merit and

validity of claims, methods, and designs. Communicating information, evidence, and ideas can be done in

multiple ways: using tables, diagrams, graphs, models, interactive displays, and equations as well as

orally, in writing, and through extended discussions.

Grades K-2 Grades 3-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in

K–2 builds on prior experiences

and uses observations and texts to communicate new

information.

 Read grade-appropriate texts

and/or use media to obtain

scientific and/or technical information to determine

patterns in and/or evidence

about the natural and designed world(s).

 Describe how specific images

(e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) support a

scientific or engineering idea.

 Obtain information using various texts, text features

(e.g., headings, tables of

contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons), and

other media that will be

useful in answering a scientific question and/or

supporting a scientific claim.

 Communicate information or design ideas and/or solutions

with others in oral and/or written forms using models,

drawings, writing, or numbers

that provide detail about

scientific ideas, practices,

and/or design ideas.

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 3–5

builds on K–2 experiences and

progresses to evaluating the merit and accuracy of ideas and methods.

 Read and comprehend grade- appropriate complex texts and/or

other reliable media

to summarize and obtain scientific and technical ideas and

describe how they are supported

by evidence.  Compare and/or combine across

complex texts and/or other

reliable media to support the engagement in other scientific

and/or engineering practices.

 Combine information in written text with that contained in

corresponding tables, diagrams,

and/or charts to support the engagement in other scientific

and/or engineering practices.

 Obtain and combine information from books and/or other reliable

media to explain phenomena or

solutions to a design problem.  Communicate scientific and/or

technical information orally and/or in written formats,

including various forms of

media as well as tables,

diagrams, and charts.

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6–8

builds on K–5 experiences and

progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.

 Critically read scientific texts adapted for classroom use to

determine the central ideas

and/or obtain scientific and/or technical information to describe

patterns in and/or evidence

about the natural and designed world(s).

 Integrate qualitative and/or

quantitative scientific and/or technical information in written

text with that contained in media

and visual displays to clarify claims and findings.

 Gather, read, and synthesize

information from multiple appropriate sources and assess

the credibility, accuracy, and

possible bias of each publication and methods used, and describe

how they are supported or not

supported by evidence.  Evaluate data, hypotheses,

and/or conclusions in scientific and technical texts in light of

competing information or

accounts.

 Communicate scientific and/or

technical information (e.g. about

a proposed object, tool, process, system) in writing and/or

through oral presentations.

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12

builds on K–8 experiences and

progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods,

and designs.

 Critically read scientific literature

adapted for classroom use to

determine the central ideas or conclusions and/or to obtain

scientific and/or technical

information to summarize complex evidence, concepts, processes, or

information presented in a text by

paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms.

 Compare, integrate and evaluate

sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g.,

visually, quantitatively) as well as in

words in order to address a scientific question or solve a problem.

 Gather, read, and evaluate scientific

and/or technical information from multiple authoritative sources,

assessing the evidence and

usefulness of each source.  Evaluate the validity and reliability

of and/or synthesize multiple claims, methods, and/or designs that appear

in scientific and technical texts or

media reports, verifying the data

when possible.

 Communicate scientific and/or

technical information or ideas (e.g. about phenomena and/or the process

of development and the design and

performance of a proposed process or system) in multiple formats (i.e.,

orally, graphically, textually,

mathematically).

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Reflecting on the Practices of Science and Engineering

Engaging students in the practices of science and engineering outlined in this section is not

sufficient for science literacy. It is also important for students to stand back and reflect on how

these practices have contributed to their own development, and to the accumulation of scientific

knowledge and engineering accomplishments over the ages. Accomplishing this is a matter for

curriculum and instruction, rather than standards, so specific guidelines are not provided in this

document. Nonetheless, this section would not be complete without an acknowledgment that

reflection is essential if students are to become aware of themselves as competent and confident

learners and doers in the realms of science and engineering.

References

Bell, P., Bricker, L., Tzou, Carrie, Lee., T., and Van Horne, K. (2012). Exploring the science

framework; Engaging learners in science practices related to obtaining, evaluating, and

communicating information. Science Scope, 36(3), 18-22.

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Science and

Engineering Practices K–2 Condensed Practices 3–5 Condensed Practices 6–8 Condensed Practices 9–12 Condensed Practices

Asking Questions and Defining Problems

A practice of science is to ask and refine questions that lead to descriptions and explanations of how the

natural and designed world(s) works and which can be empirically tested.

Engineering questions clarify problems to determine criteria for successful solutions and identify constraints to solve problems about the designed world.

Both scientists and engineers also ask questions to clarify ideas.

Asking questions and defining problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple descriptive questions that can be tested.

Asking questions and defining problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.

Asking questions and defining problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to specifying relationships between variables, and clarifying arguments and models.

Asking questions and defining problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.

 Ask questions based on observations to find more information about the natural and/or designed world(s).

 Ask questions about what would happen if a variable is changed.

 Ask questions

o that arise from careful observation of phenomena, models, or unexpected results, to clarify and/or seek additional information.

o to identify and/or clarify evidence and/or the premise(s) of an argument.

o to determine relationships between independent and dependent variables and

relationships in models.. o to clarify and/or refine a model,

an explanation, or an engineering problem.

 Ask questions o that arise from careful

observation of phenomena, or unexpected results, to clarify and/or seek additional information.

o that arise from examining models or a theory, to clarify and/or seek additional information and relationships.

o to determine relationships, including quantitative

relationships, between independent and dependent variables.

o to clarify and refine a model, an explanation, or an engineering problem.

 Ask and/or identify questions that can be answered by an investigation.

 Identify scientific (testable) and non-scientific (non- testable) questions.

 Ask questions that can be investigated and predict reasonable outcomes based on patterns such as cause and

effect relationships.

 Ask questions that require sufficient and appropriate empirical evidence to answer.

 Ask questions that can be investigated within the scope of the classroom, outdoor environment, and museums and other public

facilities with available resources and, when appropriate, frame a hypothesis based on observations and scientific principles.

 Evaluate a question to determine if it is testable and relevant.

 Ask questions that can be investigated within the scope of the school laboratory, research facilities, or field (e.g., outdoor environment) with available

resources and, when appropriate, frame a hypothesis based on a model or theory.

 Ask questions that challenge the premise(s) of an argument or the interpretation of a data set.

 Ask and/or evaluate questions that challenge the premise(s) of an argument, the interpretation of a data set, or the suitability of

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a design.

 Define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

 Use prior knowledge to describe problems that can be solved.

 Define a simple design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system and includes several criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.

 Define a design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process or system and includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions.

 Define a design problem that involves the development of a process or system with interacting components and criteria and constraints that may include social, technical and/or environmental considerations.

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Science and

Engineering Practices K–2 Condensed Practices 3–5 Condensed Practices 6–8 Condensed Practices 9–12 Condensed Practices

Developing and Using Models

A practice of both science and engineering is to use

and construct models as helpful tools for representing ideas and explanations. These tools include diagrams, drawings, physical replicas, mathematical representations, analogies, and computer simulations.

Modeling tools are used to develop questions, predictions and explanations;

analyze and identify flaws in systems; and communicate ideas. Models are used to build and revise scientific explanations and proposed engineered systems. Measurements and observations are used to revise models and designs.

Modeling in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to include using and developing models (i.e., diagram, drawing, physical replica, diorama, dramatization, or storyboard) that represent concrete events or design solutions.

Modeling in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to building and revising simple models and using models to represent events and design solutions.

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

 Distinguish between a model and the actual object, process, and/or events the model represents.

 Compare models to identify common features and differences.

 Identify limitations of models.  Evaluate limitations of a model for a proposed object or tool.

 Evaluate merits and limitations of two different models of the same proposed tool, process, mechanism, or system in order to select or revise a model that best fits the evidence or design criteria.

 Design a test of a model to ascertain its reliability.

 Develop and/or use a model to

represent amounts, relationships, relative scales (bigger, smaller), and/or patterns in the natural and designed world(s).

 Collaboratively develop and/or

revise a model based on evidence that shows the relationships among variables for frequent and regular occurring events.

 Develop a model using an analogy, example, or abstract representation to describe a scientific principle or design solution.

 Develop and/or use models to describe and/or predict phenomena.

 Develop or modify a model—based

on evidence – to match what happens if a variable or component of a system is changed.

 Use and/or develop a model of simple systems with uncertain and less predictable factors.

 Develop and/or revise a model to show the relationships among variables, including those that are not observable but predict observable phenomena.

 Develop and/or use a model to predict and/or describe phenomena.

 Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms.

 Develop, revise, and/or use a model

based on evidence to illustrate and/or predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

 Develop and/or use multiple types of models to provide mechanistic accounts and/or predict phenomena, and move flexibly between model types based on merits and limitations.

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 Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent a proposed object or tool.

 Develop a diagram or simple physical prototype to convey a proposed object, tool, or process.

 Use a model to test cause and effect relationships or interactions concerning the functioning of a natural or designed system.

 Develop and/or use a model to generate data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales.

 Develop a complex model that allows for manipulation and testing of a proposed process or system.

 Develop and/or use a model (including mathematical and computational) to generate data to support explanations, predict phenomena, analyze systems, and/or solve problems.

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Science and

Engineering Practices K–2 Condensed Practices 3–5 Condensed Practices 6–8 Condensed Practices 9–12 Condensed Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Scientists and engineers plan and carry out investigations in the field or laboratory, working collaboratively as well as individually. Their investigations are systematic and require clarifying what counts as data and identifying variables or parameters.

Engineering investigations identify the effectiveness, efficiency, and durability of designs under different conditions.

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in K– 2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data to support explanations or design solutions.

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design

solutions.

Planning and carrying out investigations in 6-8 builds on K-5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or solutions.

Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

 With guidance, plan and conduct an investigation in collaboration with peers (for K).

 Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer a question.

 Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, using fair tests in which variables are controlled and the number of trials considered.

 Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.

 Conduct an investigation and/or

evaluate and/or revise the experimental design to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence that meet the goals of the investigation.

 Plan an investigation or test a design individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence as part of building and revising models, supporting explanations for phenomena, or testing solutions to problems. Consider possible confounding variables or effects and evaluate the investigation’s design to ensure variables are controlled.

 Plan and conduct an investigation

individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.

 Plan and conduct an investigation or test a design solution in a safe and ethical manner including considerations of environmental, social, and personal impacts.

 Evaluate different ways of observing and/or measuring a phenomenon to determine which way can answer a question.

 Evaluate appropriate methods and/or tools for collecting data.

 Evaluate the accuracy of various methods for collecting data.

 Select appropriate tools to collect, record, analyze, and evaluate data.

 Make observations (firsthand or from media) and/or measurements to collect data

 Make observations and/or measurements to produce data to serve as the basis for

 Collect data to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer scientific questions or test

 Make directional hypotheses that specify what happens to a dependent variable when an independent variable is

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that can be used to make comparisons.

 Make observations (firsthand or from media) and/or measurements of a proposed object or tool or solution to determine if it solves a problem or meets a goal.

 Make predictions based on prior experiences.

evidence for an explanation of a phenomenon or test a design solution.

 Make predictions about what would happen if a variable changes.

 Test two different models of the same proposed object, tool, or process to determine which better meets criteria for success.

design solutions under a range of conditions.

 Collect data about the performance of a proposed object, tool, process, or system under a range of conditions.

manipulated.  Manipulate variables and collect data

about a complex model of a proposed process or system to identify failure points or improve performance relative to criteria for success or other variables.

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Science and Engineering

Practices K–2 Condensed Practices 3–5 Condensed Practices 6–8 Condensed Practices 9–12 Condensed Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Scientific investigations produce data that must be analyzed in order to derive meaning. Because data patterns and trends are not always obvious, scientists use a range of tools—including tabulation, graphical interpretation, visualization, and statistical analysis—to identify the significant features and patterns in the data. Scientists identify sources of error in the investigations and calculate the degree of certainty in the results. Modern technology makes the

collection of large data sets much easier, providing secondary sources for analysis.

Engineering investigations include analysis of data collected in the tests of designs. This allows comparison of different solutions and determines how well each meets specific design criteria—that is, which design best solves the problem within given constraints.

Like scientists, engineers require a range of tools to identify patterns within data and interpret the results. Advances in science make analysis of proposed solutions more efficient and effective.

Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing observations.

Analyzing data in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to introducing quantitative approaches to collecting data and conducting multiple trials of qualitative observations. When possible and feasible,

digital tools should be used.

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

 Record information (observations, thoughts, and ideas).

 Use and share pictures, drawings, and/or writings of observations.

 Use observations (firsthand or from media) to describe patterns and/or relationships in the natural and designed world(s) in order to answer scientific questions and solve problems.

 Compare predictions (based on prior experiences) to what occurred (observable events).

 Represent data in tables and/or various graphical displays (bar graphs, pictographs, and/or pie charts) to reveal patterns that indicate relationships.

 Construct, analyze, and/or interpret graphical displays of data and/or large data sets to identify linear and nonlinear relationships.

 Use graphical displays (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, and/or tables) of large data sets to identify temporal and spatial relationships.

 Distinguish between causal and correlational relationships in data.

 Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena.

 Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution.

 Analyze and interpret data to make sense of phenomena, using logical reasoning, mathematics, and/or computation.

 Apply concepts of statistics and probability (including mean, median, mode, and variability) to analyze and characterize data, using digital tools when feasible.

 Apply concepts of statistics and probability (including determining function fits to data, slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient for linear fits) to scientific and engineering questions and problems, using digital tools when feasible.

 Consider limitations of data analysis (e.g., measurement error), and/or seek to improve precision and accuracy of data with better technological tools and methods (e.g., multiple trials).

 Consider limitations of data analysis (e.g., measurement error, sample selection) when analyzing and interpreting data.

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 Compare and contrast data collected by different groups in order to discuss similarities and differences in their findings.

∙ Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and

differences in findings.

 Compare and contrast various types of data sets (e.g., self- generated, archival) to examine consistency of measurements and observations.

 Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended.

 Analyze data to refine a problem statement or the design of a proposed object, tool, or process.

 Use data to evaluate and refine design solutions.

 Analyze data to define an optimal operational range for a proposed object, tool, process or system that best meets criteria for success.

 Evaluate the impact of new data on a working explanation and/or model of a proposed process or system.

 Analyze data to identify design features or characteristics of the

components of a proposed process or system to optimize it relative to criteria for success.

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Science and Engineering

Practices K–2 Condensed Practices 3–5 Condensed Practices 6–8 Condensed Practices 9–12 Condensed Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

In both science and engineering, mathematics and computation are fundamental tools for representing physical variables and their relationships. They are used for a range of tasks such as constructing simulations; solving equations exactly or approximately; and recognizing, expressing, and applying quantitative relationships. Mathematical and computational approaches enable scientists and engineers to predict the behavior of systems and test the validity of such predictions.

Mathematical and computational thinking in K–2 builds on prior experience and progresses to recognizing that mathematics can be used to describe the natural and designed world(s).

Mathematical and computational thinking in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative measurements to a variety of physical properties and using computation and mathematics to analyze data and compare

alternative design solutions.

Mathematical and computational thinking in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to identifying patterns in large data sets and using mathematical concepts to support explanations and arguments.

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 and experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical

analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

 Decide when to use qualitative vs. quantitative data.

 Decide if qualitative or quantitative data are best to determine whether a proposed object or tool meets criteria for success.

 Use counting and numbers to identify and describe patterns

in the natural and designed world(s).

 Organize simple data sets to reveal patterns that suggest

relationships.

 Use digital tools (e.g., computers) to analyze very

large data sets for patterns and trends.

 Create and/or revise a computational model or simulation of a

phenomenon, designed device, process, or system.

 Describe, measure, and/or compare quantitative attributes of different objects and display the data using simple graphs.

 Describe, measure, estimate, and/or graph quantities such as area, volume, weight, and time to address scientific and engineering questions and problems.

 Use mathematical representations to describe and/or support scientific conclusions and design solutions.

 Use mathematical, computational, and/or algorithmic representations of phenomena or design solutions to describe and/or support claims and/or explanations.

 Use quantitative data to compare two alternative solutions to a problem.

 Create and/or use graphs and/or charts generated from simple algorithms to compare alternative solutions to an

engineering problem.

 Create algorithms (a series of ordered steps) to solve a problem.

 Apply mathematical concepts

and/or processes (such as ratio, rate, percent, basic operations, and simple algebra) to scientific and engineering questions and problems.

 Use digital tools and/or mathematical concepts and arguments to test and compare

 Apply techniques of algebra and functions to represent and solve scientific and engineering problems.

 Use simple limit cases to test

mathematical expressions, computer programs, algorithms, or simulations of a process or system to see if a model “makes sense” by comparing the outcomes with what is known about the real world.

 Apply ratios, rates, percentages, and unit conversions in the context of

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proposed solutions to an engineering design problem.

complicated measurement problems involving quantities with derived or compound units (such as mg/mL, kg/m3, acre-feet, etc.).

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Science and Engineering

Practices

K–2 Condensed

Practices

3–5 Condensed

Practices 6–8 Condensed Practices 9–12 Condensed Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

The end-products of science are explanations and the end- products of engineering are solutions.

The goal of science is the construction of theories that provide explanatory accounts of the world. A theory becomes accepted when it has multiple lines of empirical evidence and greater explanatory power of phenomena than previous theories. The goal of engineering design is to find a systematic solution to problems that is based on scientific knowledge and models of the material world. Each proposed solution results from a process of balancing competing criteria of desired functions, technical feasibility, cost, safety, aesthetics, and compliance with legal requirements. The optimal choice depends on how well the proposed solutions meet criteria and constraints.

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to the use of evidence and ideas in constructing evidence-based accounts of natural phenomena and designing solutions.

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems.

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K– 5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K– 8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

 Use information from observations (firsthand and from media) to construct an evidence-based account for natural phenomena.

 Construct an explanation of observed relationships (e.g., the distribution of plants in the back yard).

 Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict(s) and/or describe(s) phenomena.

 Construct an explanation using models or representations.

 Make a quantitative and/or qualitative claim regarding the relationship between dependent and independent variables.

 Use evidence (e.g., measurements, observations, patterns) to

construct or support an explanation or design a solution to a problem.

 Construct a scientific explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from sources (including the

students’ own experiments) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.

 Apply scientific ideas, principles, and/or evidence to construct, revise and/or use an explanation for real- world phenomena, examples, or events.

 Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources

(including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.

 Apply scientific ideas, principles, and/or evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems, taking into account

possible unanticipated effects.

 Identify the evidence that supports particular points in an explanation.

 Apply scientific reasoning to show why the data or evidence is adequate for the explanation or conclusion.

 Apply scientific reasoning, theory, and/or models to link evidence to the claims to assess the extent to which the reasoning and data support the explanation or conclusion.

 Use tools and/or materials to design and/or build a

 Apply scientific ideas to solve design problems.

 Apply scientific ideas or principles to design, construct, and/or test a

 Design, evaluate, and/or refine a solution to a complex real-world

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device that solves a specific problem or a solution to a specific problem.

 Generate and/or compare multiple solutions to a problem.

 Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design solution.

design of an object, tool, process or system.

 Undertake a design project, engaging in the design cycle, to construct and/or implement a solution that meets specific design criteria and constraints.

 Optimize performance of a design by prioritizing criteria, making tradeoffs, testing, revising, and re- testing.

problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.

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Science and Engineering

Practices K–2 Condensed Practices 3–5 Condensed Practices 6–8 Condensed Practices 9–12 Condensed Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Argumentation is the process by which evidence-based conclusions and solutions are reached.

In science and engineering, reasoning and argument based on evidence are essential to identifying the best explanation for a natural phenomenon or the best solution to a design problem. Scientists and engineers use argumentation to listen to, compare, and evaluate competing ideas and methods based on merits.

Scientists and engineers engage in argumentation when investigating a phenomenon, testing a design solution, resolving questions about measurements, building data models, and using evidence to evaluate claims.

Engaging in argument from evidence in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to comparing ideas and representations about the natural and designed world(s).

Engaging in argument from evidence in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to critiquing the scientific explanations or solutions proposed by peers by citing relevant evidence about the natural and designed world(s).

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world(s).

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

 Identify arguments that are supported by evidence.

 Distinguish between explanations that account for all gathered evidence and those that do not.

 Analyze why some evidence is relevant to a scientific question and some is not.

 Distinguish between opinions and evidence in one’s own

explanations.

 Compare and refine arguments based on an evaluation of the evidence presented.

 Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in an explanation.

 Compare and critique two arguments on the same topic and analyze whether they emphasize similar or different evidence and/or interpretations of facts.

 Compare and evaluate competing arguments or design solutions in light of currently accepted explanations, new evidence, limitations (e.g., trade-offs), constraints, and ethical issues.

 Evaluate the claims, evidence, and/or reasoning behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments.

 Listen actively to arguments to indicate agreement or disagreement based on evidence, and/or to retell the main points of the argument.

 Respectfully provide and receive critiques from peers about a proposed procedure, explanation or model.by citing relevant evidence and posing specific questions.

 Respectfully provide and receive critiques about one’s explanations, procedures, models and questions by citing relevant evidence and posing and responding to questions that elicit pertinent elaboration and detail.

 Respectfully provide and/or receive critiques on scientific arguments by probing reasoning and evidence and challenging ideas and conclusions, responding thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, and determining what additional information is required to resolve contradictions.

 Construct an argument with evidence to support a claim.

 Construct and/or support an argument with evidence, data, and/or a model.

 Use data to evaluate claims about cause and effect.

 Construct, use, and/or present an oral and written argument supported by empirical evidence

and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem.

 Construct, use, and/or present an oral and written argument or counter-arguments based on data

and evidence.

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 Make a claim about the effectiveness of an object, tool, or solution that is supported by relevant evidence.

 Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem by citing relevant evidence about how it meets the criteria and constraints of the problem.

 Make an oral or written argument that supports or refutes the advertised performance of a device, process, or system, based on empirical evidence concerning whether or not the technology meets relevant criteria and constraints.

 Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria.

 Make and defend a claim based on evidence about the natural world or the effectiveness of a design solution that reflects scientific knowledge, and student-generated evidence.

 Evaluate competing design solutions to a real-world problem based on scientific ideas and principles, empirical evidence, and/or logical arguments regarding relevant factors (e.g. economic, societal, environmental, ethical considerations).

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Science and Engineering

Practices K–2 Condensed Practices 3–5 Condensed Practices 6–8 Condensed Practices 9–12 Condensed Practices

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Scientists and engineers must be able to communicate clearly and persuasively the ideas and methods they generate. Critiquing and communicating

ideas individually and in groups is a critical professional activity.

Communicating information and ideas can be done in multiple ways: using tables, diagrams, graphs, models, and equations as well as orally, in writing, and through extended discussions. Scientists and engineers employ multiple sources to obtain information that is used to

evaluate the merit and validity of claims, methods, and designs.

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in K–2 builds on prior experiences and uses observations and texts to communicate new information.

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to evaluating the merit and accuracy of ideas and methods.

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

 Read grade-appropriate texts and/or use media to obtain

scientific and/or technical information to determine patterns in and/or evidence about the natural and designed world(s).

 Read and comprehend grade- appropriate complex texts

and/or other reliable media to summarize and obtain scientific and technical ideas and describe how they are supported by evidence.

 Compare and/or combine across complex texts and/or other reliable media to support the engagement in other scientific and/or engineering practices.

 Critically read scientific texts adapted for classroom use to

determine the central ideas and/or obtain scientific and/or technical information to describe patterns in and/or evidence about the natural and designed world(s).

 Critically read scientific literature adapted for classroom use to

determine the central ideas or conclusions and/or to obtain scientific and/or technical information to summarize complex evidence, concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms.

 Describe how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) support a scientific or engineering idea.

 Combine information in written text with that contained in corresponding tables, diagrams, and/or charts to support the engagement in other scientific and/or engineering practices.

 Integrate qualitative and/or quantitative scientific and/or technical information in written text with that contained in media and visual displays to clarify claims and findings.

 Compare, integrate and evaluate sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a scientific question or solve a problem.

 Obtain information using various texts, text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons), and other media that will be useful in answering a scientific question and/or supporting a scientific claim.

 Obtain and combine information from books and/or other reliable media to explain phenomena or solutions to a design problem.

 Gather, read, synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used, and describe how they are supported or not supported by evidence.

 Evaluate data, hypotheses, and/or conclusions in scientific and technical texts in light of competing information or accounts.

 Gather, read, and evaluate scientific and/or technical information from multiple authoritative sources, assessing the evidence and usefulness of each source.

 Evaluate the validity and reliability of and/or synthesize multiple claims, methods, and/or designs that appear in scientific and technical texts or media reports, verifying the data when possible.

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 Communicate information or design ideas and/or solutions with others in oral and/or written forms using models, drawings, writing, or numbers that provide detail about scientific ideas, practices, and/or design ideas.

 Communicate scientific and/or technical information orally and/or in written formats, including various forms of media as well as tables, diagrams, and charts.

 Communicate scientific and/or technical information (e.g. about a proposed object, tool, process, system) in writing and/or through oral presentations.

 Communicate scientific and/or technical information or ideas (e.g. about phenomena and/or the process of development and the design and performance of a proposed process or system) in multiple formats (including orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically).

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References

Lee, O., Quinn, H., & Valdés, G. (2013). Science and language for English language learners in relation to Next Generation Science

Standards and with implications for Common Core State Standards for English language arts and mathematics. Educational Researcher.