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Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 04/05/2021 High School Report Writing

Make sure all reference points are from the four attached articles.

Category: Accounting & Finance Subjects: Finance Deadline: 24 Hours Budget: $80 - $120 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

5/4/2021 China Tests A 'Social Credit Score' : NPR

https://www.npr.org/2018/10/31/662436265/china-tests-a-social-credit-score 1/10

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China Tests A 'Social Credit Score' October 31, 2018 · 5:00 AM ET

Heard on Morning Edition

STACEY VANEK SMITH CARDIFF GARCIA

3-Minute Listen P L AY L I S T Download

Transcript

China is testing a new plan to make it easier for citizens do business, but also to help

them trust each other more. It's called the social credit score.

STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:

China is testing a new plan. Its stated aim is to make it easier for citizens to do

business and help them to trust each other more. It's similar to the American credit

score, but much more sweeping. It tracks far more than financial transactions and is

called the Social Credit score. Stacey Vanek Smith and Cardiff Garcia from The

Indicator podcast explain.

STACEY VANEK SMITH, BYLINE: Many people in China don't have bank accounts,

don't really have much of a credit history.

CARDIFF GARCIA, BYLINE: So China has never created something quite like the

American credit score.

RACHEL BOTSMAN: And so there is, for lack of a better word, a trust deficit in China

that is impacting economic activity.

Play Live Radio

5/4/2021 China Tests A 'Social Credit Score' : NPR

https://www.npr.org/2018/10/31/662436265/china-tests-a-social-credit-score 2/10

VANEK SMITH: Rachel Botsman teaches trust and technology and is the author of

"Who Can You Trust." She says a lack of trust in people and businesses has held

China's economy back.

GARCIA: So when China decided to make a centralized score, the government turned

to people's behaviors to extrapolate trustworthiness from them.

VANEK SMITH: And you know who has lots of data on how people behave?

Companies, especially big companies like Alibaba. That is China's version of Amazon.

Alibaba owns one of the largest online payment systems in the country and has its own

credit scoring system called Sesame Credit. So the government has been working with

Alibaba in the development of people's Social Credit score.

GARCIA: The way people are scored, it's not simply whether they miss a bill. It could

be what they buy online. I mean, I think the example that the head of Sesame Credit

publicly gave the press was, you know, if you buy nappies, you're responsible. So your

score will go up. But if you're buying video games, you're lazy, so your school will go

down.

VANEK SMITH: But the Social Credit score will not be all about what you buy. The

government is also collecting data of its own, and that data will factor into people's

Social Credit scores, too.

GARCIA: The Social Credit system is not scheduled to be rolled out nationally until

2020, but we got a glimpse into how it might work because China is testing out

versions of it in pilot cities across the country. We talked to a 32-year-old IT engineer

named Xu Ranjan. He lives in Rongcheng, which is one of those pilot cities.

VANEK SMITH: And Xu Ranjan explained that everyone in the city starts with a score

of 1,000.

XU RANJAN: (Through interpreter) My score is full score. So it's 1,000.

GARCIA: And there's a whole letter grade system behind the points. So from 960 to

1,000-plus points is an A, 850 to 955 points is a B.

5/4/2021 China Tests A 'Social Credit Score' : NPR

https://www.npr.org/2018/10/31/662436265/china-tests-a-social-credit-score 3/10

VANEK SMITH: Eight-forty-nine to 600 is a C. And this is considered a warning level.

Below that, you are a D. You're labeled an untrustworthy citizen. You can gain or lose

points for all kinds of reasons. Get a DUI? That is an automatic downgrade to a B.

GARCIA: And if you spread rumors online - minus 50 points.

VANEK SMITH: If you have a really high score, you get discounts at a bunch of local

businesses. Your heating bill can go down. You also get special invitations to

community events.

GARCIA: Xu Ranjan says it's made people behave better. Before the pilot program,

being a pedestrian in Rongcheng was just terrifying. You basically had to hurl yourself

across the street when you saw a break in traffic.

XU: (Through interpreter) But now, after the changes have happened, the cars, they

will wait for you.

VANEK SMITH: Now, remember, Xu Ranjan is an example of somebody with a

perfect score. If your Social Credit score is low, or if you end up on something called

the list of untrustworthy people, you can be banned from certain kinds of travel or

even subjected to public shaming. Life gets hard.

Stacey Vanek Smith.

GARCIA: Cardiff Garcia, NPR News.

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Attachment 2

5/4/2021 Protecting your online privacy is tough—but here's a start — Quartz

https://qz.com/1525661/your-digital-identity-has-three-layers-and-you-can-only-protect-one-of-them/ 1/8

FROM OUR SERIES Ideas Our home for bold arguments and big thinkers.

By Katarzyna Szymielewicz Co-founder of Panoptykon Foundation

January 25, 2019 • This article is more than 2 years old.

Your online pro�le is less a re�ection of you than a caricature.

Whether you like it or not, commercial and public actors tend to trust the string of 1s and 0s that represent you more than the story you tell them. When �ling a credit application at a bank or being recruited for a job, your social network, credit-card history, and postal address can be viewed as immutable facts more credible than your opinion.

But your online pro�le is not always built on facts. It is shaped by technology companies and advertisers who make key decisions based

WHO DO YOU THINK YOU ARE?

Your digital identity has three layers, and you can only protect one of them

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The further out the ripples go, the harder it is to control.

5/4/2021 Protecting your online privacy is tough—but here's a start — Quartz

https://qz.com/1525661/your-digital-identity-has-three-layers-and-you-can-only-protect-one-of-them/ 2/8

on their interpretation of seemingly benign data points: what movies you choose to watch, the time of day you tweet, or how long you take to click on a cat video.

Many decisions that affect your life are now dictated by the interpretation of your data pro�le rather than personal interactions. And it’s not just about advertising banners in�uencing the brand of the soap you buy—the same mechanics of pro�ling users and targeting messages apply to political campaigns and visa applications as much as supermarket metrics. When advertising looks like news and news look like entertainment, all types of content are pro�led on the basis of your data.

So what story does your data tell about you?

The layers of your online profile

It would be nice to think that we have control over our online pro�le. After all, we’re the ones who feed terabytes of personal data into mobile apps and online platforms. We decide which photos we want to share and which should remain private. We accept or reject invitations, control tags, and think twice before publishing a post or a comment. We are critical and selective about the content we like or share. So why wouldn’t we be in control?

The bad news is that when it comes to your digital pro�le, the data you choose to share is just the tip of an iceberg. We do not see the rest that is hidden under the water of the friendly interfaces of mobile apps and online services. The most valuable data about us is inferred beyond our control and without our consent. It’s these deeper layers we can’t control that really make the decisions, not us.

Let’s peel open this data onion.

5/4/2021 Protecting your online privacy is tough—but here's a start — Quartz

https://qz.com/1525661/your-digital-identity-has-three-layers-and-you-can-only-protect-one-of-them/ 3/8

(If you want to view the graphic even larger, click here.)

The �rst layer is the one you do control. It consists of data you feed into social media and mobile applications. This includes what you have revealed in your pro�le information, your public posts and private messages, likes, search queries, uploaded photos, tests and surveys you took, events you attended, websites you visited, and other types of conscious interactions.

The second layer is made of behavioral observations. These are not so much choices you consciously make, but the metadata that gives context to those choices. It contains things that you probably do not want to share with everybody, like your real-time location and a detailed understanding of your intimate and professional relationships. (By looking at location patterns that reveal devices that often meet in the same of�ce buildings or “sleep” together in the same houses, tech companies can tell a lot about who you spend your time with.) It also tracks your patterns of when you’re online and of�ine, content you clicked on, time you spent reading it, shopping patterns, keystroke dynamics, typing speed, and movements of your �ngers on the screen (which some companies believe reveal emotions and various psychological features).

The third layer is composed of interpretations of the �rst and second. Your data are analyzed by various algorithms and compared

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The three layers of your digital shadow.

5/4/2021 Protecting your online privacy is tough—but here's a start — Quartz

https://qz.com/1525661/your-digital-identity-has-three-layers-and-you-can-only-protect-one-of-them/ 4/8

with other users’ data for meaningful statistical correlations. This layer infers conclusions about not just what we do but who we are based on our behavior and metadata. It is much more dif�cult to control this layer, as although you can control the inputs (posting photos of your newborn), you don’t know the algorithm that is spitting the output (that you might need to order nappies).

Here’s how it works in practice:

The task of these pro�le-mapping algorithms is to guess things that you are not likely to willingly reveal. These include your weaknesses, psychometric pro�le, IQ level, family situation, addictions, illnesses, whether we are about to separate or enter in a new relationship, your little obsessions (like gaming), and your serious commitments (like business projects).

Those behavioral predictions and interpretations are very valuable to advertiser. Since advertising is meant to create needs and drive you to make decisions that you haven’t made (yet), marketers will try to exploit your subconscious mechanisms and automatic reactions. Since they cannot expect that you will tell them how to do this, they hunt for behavioral data and employ algorithms to �nd meaningful correlations in this chaos.

Binding decisions made by banks, insurers, employers, and public of�cers are made by big data and algorithms, not people. It saves a lot time and money to look at data instead of talking to humans,

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5/4/2021 Protecting your online privacy is tough—but here's a start — Quartz

https://qz.com/1525661/your-digital-identity-has-three-layers-and-you-can-only-protect-one-of-them/ 5/8

after all. And it seems more rational to place statistical correlations over a messy individual story.

Therefore, there’s a shared belief in the advertising industry that big data does not lie—that statistical correlations tell the “truth” about humans, their behavior, and their motivations.

But do they?

When your data double is wrong

The troubling thing is that we as users might not like or recognize ourselves in the pro�les that are created for us. How would it feel if you discovered your “data double” is sick or emotionally unstable, not credit worthy, or not simply not cool enough, all because of the way you type, your search queries, or any “strange” relationships you may have?

Your online simulation may look nothing like your real-life one—yet it’s the one that the internet will treat you as.

Market players do not care about you—they care about numbers. Algorithms make decisions based on statistical correlations. If you happen to not be a typical individual, showing unusual characteristics, there is a chance that an algorithm will misinterpret

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5/4/2021 Protecting your online privacy is tough—but here's a start — Quartz

https://qz.com/1525661/your-digital-identity-has-three-layers-and-you-can-only-protect-one-of-them/ 6/8

your behavior. It may make a mistake regarding your employment, your loan, or your right to cross the border. As long as those statistical correlations remain true, nobody will care to revise this particular judgement. You’re an anomaly.

If the result of this algorithmic analysis is discriminatory or unfair— for example, your credit application is refused because you live in the “wrong” district, or your job application does not make it through because your social network is not “robust enough”—there is no market incentive to correct it. Why would they? You’re a single data point in a wave of billions. Why make an exception in the system just for you?

We can already see this playing out in China. As part of their “social credit score” system, every citizen is ranked on professional and personal interactions, online activity, and public appearances. Fail to pay a parking ticket? Look up banned topics online? Your actions in real life have lasting effects, such as your ability to buy train tickets or send your kids to good schools.

Scoring systems in the West place the same blind trust in big data, ignoring the speci�city and uniqueness of individual cases. We can shake our heads at the absurdity of China’s social credit score all we like—but are we really that far off ourselves?

Will the real digital you please stand up?

We must take back control of our digital shadows. If we don’t, we’ll continue to be incorrectly and unfairly penalized in our lives, both online and off.

5/4/2021 Protecting your online privacy is tough—but here's a start — Quartz

https://qz.com/1525661/your-digital-identity-has-three-layers-and-you-can-only-protect-one-of-them/ 7/8

We can take measures to control the �rst layer of our online pro�le. Even though we are often impulsive or spontaneous with the data we share, we have the tools to control this process. We can choose not to post status updates or like pages. We do not have to use messaging systems embedded into social media platforms. We can encrypt our private communication by choosing certain messaging apps and block tracking scripts by installing simple plug-ins. We can even switch off metadata being stored in our photos by changing the default settings on our phones and making sure that they don’t have access to our locations.

But even if we make that effort, we cannot control what is observed and interpreted by algorithms. The second and third layer of our pro�les will continue to be generated by machines.

The only way to regain full control over our pro�les is to convince those who do the pro�ling to change their approach. Instead of hiding this data from us, they could become more transparent. Instead of guessing our location, relationships, or hidden desires behind our backs, they could ask questions and respect our answers.

Instead of manipulation, let’s have a conversation. Imagine that instead of having data brokers guess who you are, you could just tell them. Sharing real information would help make your online experience (and any of�ine rami�cations) more accurate.

Sounds too radical or naive? Not really. European law already requires companies that engage in tracking and pro�ling to make it more transparent. The data protection regulation GDPR that was put in place in May 2018 gives European users the right to verify their data, including marketing pro�les generated by data brokers, internet platforms, or online media. While companies can still protect their code and algorithms as business secrets, they can no longer hide personal data they generate about their users.

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5/4/2021 Protecting your online privacy is tough—but here's a start — Quartz

https://qz.com/1525661/your-digital-identity-has-three-layers-and-you-can-only-protect-one-of-them/ 8/8

GDPR and its logic gives users a good starting point for negotiating the new power balance in data-driven industry. But what will make further transactions possible in the future is building trust. As long as we treat data brokers and marketers as the enemy and they treat us as an exploitable resource, there is no space for open conversation.

It is therefore time to treat users as active players, not passive participants. With GDPR in force and new companies building their competitive advantage on trust and transparency, new models of marketing and �nancing online content become realistic. Solutions that seem counterintuitive and risky may turn out to be the most natural way forward: Instead of telling users who they are, try listening to what they say.

📬 Kick o�f each morning with co�fee and the Daily Brief (BYO co�fee).

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Attachment 3

5/4/2021 How to Make Data Privacy Real - The New York Times

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/19/technology/how-to-make-data-privacy-real.html 1/4

ON TECH

How to Make Data Privacy Real We need control over how our data is used. Thanks to California, theres̓ a promising new path.

By Shira Ovide

Jan. 19, 2021

This article is part of the On Tech newsletter. You can sign up here to receive it weekdays.

The U.S. government last week settled with an app that lets women track their periods over claims that it shared its users’ health information with Google and Facebook. A photo- storage app also settled claims that it used people’s images to build a facial recognition system.

These app makers got in trouble not because what they did seemed creepy — but because they weren’t upfront about it.

In the United States, as long as companies don’t mislead their customers, there aren’t many legal limits on what they can do with our private information.

That’s not great, is it? But California has a relatively new data privacy law that — while awkward and flawed — is starting to show intriguing ways to empower Americans to limit how our data can be used.

Last week, the Federal Trade Commission said that the women’s app, Flo Health, broke its promise to its users to keep their information private when it shared sensitive data including women’s pregnancy status with other companies.

According to the terms of the settlement, Flo is now required to obtain people’s consent before it shares their health information. (Flo didn’t admit it did anything wrong. The company said that it doesn’t share users’ health data without permission.)

People should be able to choose which companies to trust with our personal information as long as they’re honest about what they’re doing. However, it’s often an all-or-nothing, confusing choice: Either say yes to a vaguely worded privacy document, or don’t use the website or app at all.

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And it feels bizarre to me that if Flo just releases a new privacy policy, it then can share women’s intimate information. But that’s mostly how it works in the United States. Companies can do pretty much whatever they want concerning their users’ data if they first outline their actions in a privacy policy.

The California Consumer Privacy Act, which went into effect a year ago, is starting to chart a promising alternative path.

Under the law, state residents — and in some cases, all Americans — can demand that large companies show people what data they have about you and whom they’ve shared it with. People can also instruct the companies to delete and not “sell” the data they have about you. (There isn’t agreement on the legal definition of “selling.”)

The law isn’t perfect, and it’s complicated. People must go to each organization that might have their data to delete or restrict what it can do with it.

But the California law also envisioned the possibility of “authorized agents” that would exercise data rights on our behalf. Instead of you filling out 100 forms to ask 100 companies to delete your data, you would pick a privacy assistant to do it for you. Consumer Reports last month started offering to be a privacy assistant as a test project.

The most intriguing idea is that the privacy assistant might just be a web browser where you check a box once and each site you visit then gets an automated notice to prohibit the personal information collected there from being shared or sold. Think of it as a version of the telemarketer “Do Not Call” list.

Let Us Help You Protect Your Digital Life

With Apple s̓ latest mobile software update, we can decide whether apps monitor and share our activities with others. Here s̓ what to know.

A little maintenance on your devices and accounts can go a long way in maintaining your security against outside partiesʼ unwanted attempts to access your data. Here s̓ a guide to the few simple changes you can make to protect yourself and your information online.

Ever considered a password manager? You should.

There are also many ways to brush away the tracks you leave on the internet.

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So far, a few websites have started to add this privacy agent feature. (The New York Times is among the organizations involved, both helping to develop the browser specifications and agreeing to implement people’s choices.) If California determines that this kind of privacy agent is legally binding, I expect this project to expand.

These privacy ideas are just getting off the ground. But I’m intrigued by the possibility of giving Americans real power over our digital lives.

TIP OF THE WEEK

Troubleshooting your stupid (GAHHHH!) printer Many Americans working from home during the pandemic bought printers — and with that often came cursing and screaming. Brian X. Chen, the New York Times personal technology columnist, is here to help:

Printers are probably the worst technology product ever made. My first job out of college involved reviewing printers for a small tech magazine. So I know more than I ever wanted to about the machines. Here are some common problems and solutions:

My wireless printing stopped working: Last week you printed that Amazon return label over your Wi-Fi network. Today you can’t. Why?

Occasionally, printers go into sleep mode and disconnect from your internet network. Sometimes, restarting the printer gets it going again.

Another possibility is that the printer changed its IP address — the identifying number assigned to each internet-connected device — and now your computer can’t find it. You can fix this by going into the advanced settings of your internet router and setting a static IP address for the printer. (Do a Google search for the make and model of your router and instructions on setting a static IP.)

I get an error when I try to print: This is common and maddening. Often the problem is outdated software. Do a web search on your printer model to look for what are called new drivers or firmware updates and follow the instructions to update the software.

I run out of ink too quickly: This can happen if you bought an off-brand ink cartridge. If this becomes a recurring problem, try switching to a different brand — preferably the ink cartridge made by the printer’s manufacturer.

Another possibility is that the printer software is misfiring and the printer mistakenly states that it’s out of ink. Again, a firmware or driver update might help.

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Lastly, remember the golden rule of printers: When in doubt, reboot your printer and the device you’re trying to print from. That sometimes makes the issues go away.

Before we go … More on a possible smoking gun in the Google antitrust lawsuit: One of the intriguing claims in a government antitrust lawsuit against Google is that the company and Facebook teamed up to help their businesses at the expense of everyone else’s. New reporting by my colleagues Dai Wakabayashi and Tiffany Hsu found that Google gave Facebook preferential treatment in computerized advertising auctions and that the two companies worried they might be investigated for reducing competition as a result.

Saying you’re doing something is not the same as doing it: Facebook has said that it stopped automatically recommending people join the kinds of partisan political or social groups that sometimes steer people to extreme ideas. An analysis of some Facebook users’ news feeds by the Markup found the site did not actually stop those automatic recommendations.

It’s an opportune time to wallow in nostalgia: On eBay, you can indulge in a childhood love of Sassy magazine.

Hugs to this

Two groups of penguins — one going to the water and the other coming back — stop for a chat. (OK, I don’t know if they’re chatting. Indulge my imagination.)

We want to hear from you. Tell us what you think of this newsletter and what else you’d like us to explore. You can reach us at [email protected]

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