Loading...

have 11 questions done by tmm from a psychology assignment

Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 02/05/2021 High School Essay Writing

I will provide the questions and some powerpoints to help you do the questions there due tmm before 5 pm 

Category: Business & Management Subjects: Human Resource Management Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $100 - $150 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Personality Psychology

Part 3

1

Social-Cognitive Approach

2

Social-Cognitive Approach

Views behavior as a function of people’s knowledge, skills, and beliefs (cognitions) and the situation.

Are you the same person at home as you are…

In class? When hanging out with friends? At work?

3

3

Social-Cognitive Approach: Structure

Self-referent cognitions: thoughts about the self

Directly affect emotion and behavior

Includes

Beliefs: ideas about yourself that you think are true.

Self-efficacy: beliefs about your own capabilities for performance

Goals: what we hope to achieve in the future.

Standards: ideas about the types of behavior that are acceptable or unacceptable.

Can vary across time and situations

4

4

Social-Cognitive Approach: Structure

Skills: abilities that develop through experience, including interpersonal skills.

Affective Systems: psychological systems that generate mood and emotional states

5

5

Social-Cognitive Approach: Process

Modeling: A form of learning in which knowledge and skills are acquired by observing others (aka observational learning)

Bobo-doll study

Self-regulation: people's efforts to control their own behavior and emotion.

Delay of gratification

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BLtQaRrDsC4

6

6

The Marshmallow Test Revisited

The original results were based on studies that included fewer than 90 children—all enrolled in a preschool on Stanford’s campus.

Recent larger replications with more diverse participants indicate that social and economic background may cause both self-regulation ability and later success

7

7

Social-Cognitive Approach: Assessment

Self-report (explicit measures)

Self-efficacy questionnaires

Implicit measures

Reaction times, e.g., me not me

Self-esteem IAT

Social context matters!

If… then… profile method

8

8

Theory Structure Processes Assessment
Psychodynamic theory Conscious and unconscious mental systems: id, ego, and superego Anxiety and defense mechanisms Free association and projective test (e.g., Rorschach test)
Humanistic theory Self-concept: the actual and the ideal self Self-actualization, conditions of worth Measures of self-concept (e.g., q-sort technique)
Trait theory Stable individual differences in average behavioral tendencies, OCEAN Traits cause behaviors Comprehensive self-report questionnaires (e.g., NEO-PI-R)
Social-cognitive theory Socially acquired cognition (self-referent cognition, skills) and affective of systems Learning skills, regulating emotion and behavior Contextualize measures of cognition and behavior (e.g., self-efficacy measures, if... then... profiles)

9

Attachment 2

Personality Psychology

Part 2

1

Trait Approach

2

Describes individual differences

Traits are relatively stable, enduring predisposition to behave in a certain way.

Traits are basically adjectives to describe people.

Trait Approach

3

3

Major structures = traits

Defining qualities of traits:

Consistency: personality traits express themselves consistently across time and place

Individual differences: differences among people

On average: what people are typically like

Traits are dimensions (not categories)

Traits cause behavior

Trait Approach: Structure

4

4

Openness

Conscientiousness

Extraversion

Agreeableness

Neuroticism

The Big Five Personality Traits

5

5

The Big Five Personality Traits

Openness

The seeking and appreciation of experience for its own sake.

Tolerance and exploration of the unfamiliar

High = curious, broad interests, creative, original, imaginative, untraditional.

Low = consistent, cautious, traditional, practical, down-to earth, prefers not to be exposed to alternative moral systems

6

The Big Five Personality Traits

Conscientiousness

The degree of organization, persistence, and motivation in goal-directed behavior

High = organized, reliable, hardworking, self-disciplined.

Low = easy-going, careless, spontaneous

7

The Big Five Personality Traits

Extraversion

Quantity and intensity of interpersonal interaction, activity level, and need for stimulation.

High = sociable, active, talkative, optimistic, fun-loving

Low = solitary, reserved, quite and independent, enjoys time alone

8

The Big Five Personality Traits

Agreeableness

the quality of interpersonal orientation and ranges from compassionate to antagonistic

High = soft-hearted, good-natured, trusting, helpful, forgiving

Low = detached, challenging, strong-willed, confidently asserts own rights/opinions

9

9

The Big Five Personality Traits

Neuroticism

emotional instability, proneness to psychological distress, unrealistic ideas, and poor coping responses

High = worrying, nervous, emotional, insecure, sensitive

Low = secure, confident, emotionally stable but can take unnecessary risks

10

The Big Five Personality Traits: Assessment

Self-report questionnaires: NEO-Personality Inventory

50 questions for each trait

Why so many?

Predicts behavior

11

11

Trait Approach Limitations

Assumes all of personality can be described by five (or six) traits

Traits simply describe behaviors rather than explain personality

Does not explain personality development/Where traits come from

Does not address the influence of the situation or variation across situations

Traits theories do not address personality processes

12

12

Traits as networks?

Neuroticism

I’m self-conscious

I’m worried

I’m anxious

Frightening thoughts enter my mind

13

13

Traits as networks?

I’m self-conscious

I’m worried

I’m anxious

Frightening thoughts enter my mind

14

14

Traits as networks?

Neuroticism

Extraversion

Openness

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

15

15

Psychology Mythbusters: Myers-Briggs

And so on…

The Myers-Briggs test has no scientific evidence supporting it

It is not predictive of people's mental experiences or behavior

Beware of pop-psychology

16

16

Attachment 3

Personality Psychology

Part 1

1

Personality

Investigating who you are

and

What makes/made you who you are.

4

Overview

What is personality?

Past Theoretical Approaches

Psychodynamic Approach

Humanists

Current Theoretical Approaches

Trait Approach

Social-Cognitive Approach

5

3

Personality, defined

An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

Relatively stable across time and place.

Consistent ways in which one person’s behavior differs from the behavior of another.

Personality is unique to the individual.

The inner psychological systems that explain these patterns

6

4

Elements of Personality Theories

Personality structures: those elements of personality that remain consistent over significant periods of time.

Between-person variability: variability across people (how are you different from your class mates)

Personality processes: Individuals’ distinctive patterns of change in psychological experiences and behavior that occur from one moment to the next.

Within-person variability: variability in one person’s personality (how are you different across time and situations)

Assessment

7

5

Psychodynamic Approach

8

Psychodynamic Approach

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

9

7

Psychodynamic Approach

Emphasizes:

Unconscious determinants of behavior

Sexual & aggressive instinctual drives

Early childhood experience

Does not emphasize:

Systematically testing the theory

10

8

Psychodynamic Approach: Structure

Id

Present from birth

Unconscious psychic energy

Irrational

Strives to satisfy basic sexual & aggressive desires

Operates on the pleasure principle – immediate gratification of all urges

11

9

Psychodynamic Approach: Structure

Ego

Develops over time

Partly conscious

Rational

Acts as a mediator between id and the world.

Ruled by the reality principle

The capacity to postpone gratification

Seeks to gratify the id’s impulses in realistic ways

If no acceptable compromise to satisfy an impulse, ego can repress the impulse

12

10

Superego

Develops as we internalize society’s rules

Partly conscious

Our conscience –standards for what is right or wrong

Self-evaluative, moralistic

If you fail to live up to your standards, imposes feelings of inferiority, guilt, shame, self-doubt, and anxiety

Psychodynamic Approach: Structure

13

11

Psychodynamic Approach: Structure

Personality structures operate at different levels:

Conscious

Things you’re aware of.

Preconscious

Things that you’re unaware of but can easily be brought to the surface.

Unconscious

Things you are unaware of and generally cannot become aware of even if you wanted to

Reservoir of all the unacceptable thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives you have.

Can be revealed in dreams and Freudian slips of the tongue

14

12

15

13

Psychodynamic Approach: Process

Defense Mechanisms: ways for the ego to protect itself from anxiety by distorting reality.

Block anxiety-provoking ideas

Distort anxiety-provoking ideas

16

14

Defense Mechanisms

Repression: the person refuses to consciously remember a threatening or unacceptable event, instead pushing those events into the unconscious mind

Denial: the person refuses to acknowledge or recognize a threatening situation

Displacement: redirecting feelings from a threatening target to a less threatening one

Rationalization: the person invents acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior

17

15

Defense Mechanisms

Projection: unacceptable or threatening impulses or feelings a person has are seen as originating with someone else, usually the target of the impulses or feelings

Reaction formation: the person forms an emotional or behavioral reaction opposite to the way he or she really feels in order to keep those true feelings hidden from self and others

Regression: the person falls back on childlike patterns of responding in reaction to stressful situations

18

Defense Mechanisms

Compensation (substitution): the person makes up for deficiencies in one area by becoming superior in another area

Sublimation: channeling socially unacceptable impulses and urges into socially acceptable behavior

19

Defense mechanisms, examples

Denial: refusal to recognize or acknowledge a threatening situation. Pat is an alcoholic who denies being an alcoholic.
Repression: “pushing” threatening or conflicting events or situations out of conscious memory. Regan, who was sexually abused as a child, cannot remember the abuse at all.
Rationalization: making up acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior. “if I don’t have breakfast, I can have that piece of cake later on without hurting my diet.”
Projection: placing one’s own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts belonged to them and not to oneself. Charlotte is attracted to her sister’s husband but denies this and believes the husband is attracted to her.
Reaction formation: forming an emotional reaction or attitude that is the opposite of one’s threatening or unacceptable actual thoughts. Charley is unconsciously attracted to Sean but outwardly voices an extreme hatred of homosexuals.

20

18

Defense mechanisms, examples

Displacement: expressing feelings that would be threatening if directed at the real target onto a less threatening substitute target. Sandra gets reprimanded by her boss and goes home to angrily pick a fight with her husband.
Regression: falling back on childlike patterns as a way of coping with stressful situations. Four-year-old Blaine starts wetting his bed after his parents bring home a new baby.
Compensation (substitution): trying to make up for areas in which a lack is perceived by becoming superior in some other area. Ethan is not good at athletics, so he puts all of his energies into becoming an academic scholar.
Sublimation: turning socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behavior. Ryder, who is very aggressive, becomes a mixed martial arts fighter.

21

Psychodynamic Approach: Assessment

Free association: psychologists encourage people to let their thoughts flow freely and say whatever comes to mind

Projective test: assessment tool in which test items are ambiguous and psychologists are interested in how test takers interpret the ambiguity.

Rorschach inkblot test

22

20

Rorschach Inkblot Test

23

21

Freud was correct about…

The idea that much of mental life is unconscious

Childhood experiences can influence our adult behavior

Individual differences in self-regulation

24

Freud’s Theory Challenged

Inadequacy of evidence

Generalizability?

Aspects of theory are unsupported

Not scientifically testable

Lacked the tools to precisely and objectively measure the structures of the personality

Overemphasized sex

Sexist

25

23

Humanistic Approach

26

Humanists

Humans are innately good.

Emphasized personal growth, and the process of moving toward a meaningful life and psychological health.

Personality is based on the individual’s conscious feelings/beliefs about the self and the world.

27

25

Humanists

Abraham Maslow

Self-actualization is the realization of one's true intellectual and emotional potential

We can only satisfy higher needs once the lower needs have been met.

28

Humanists: Maslow

29

Humanists: Carl Rogers

Structure

Focused on the self-concept

The “Actual” and “Ideal” selves

People strive for congruence: When our concept matches our ideal self.

30

28

Humanists: Carl Rogers

Assessment

Q-sort: compares the actual self to the ideal self

Actual Self

Ideal Self

Incongruent

The actual self is different from the ideal self

There is only a little overlap

Self-actualization would be difficult

Actual Self

Ideal Self

Congruent

The actual self is similar to the ideal self

There more overlap

This person can achieve self-actualization

31

29

Humanists: Carl Rogers

Process

Self-actualization: a motivation to realize one's inner potential

Condition of worth: A behavioral requirement imposed by others, such as parents, as a condition for being fully valued, loved, and respected.

People should work toward unconditional positive regard.

Seeing someone as they actually are, while accepting and giving positive regard without conditions or strings attached

This also forms the basis for Roger’s therapy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o0neRQzudzw

32

30

Humanists

Issues with the Humanist approach

Not comprehensive enough

Biological aspect of personality: individual differences in personality that may be inherited and evident early in life

However, it opened to the door to the study of “positive psychology” and human flourishing

Previous theories focus on treating disorders and human suffering.

33