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History of Chinese Medicine

Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 29/04/2021 Graduate Case Study Writing

 Students will write a four (4) page paper double spaced, 12 point font, APA format, with at least three (3) references which are different from the lecture notes and required text books. Students will select a topic which of interest or expanding on information from class discussion or on a subject that was not discussed but related to history of Chinese medicine from the Chinese Dynasties prior to the Song dynasty 960-1279 CE. Topics include historical figures, texts, events. 

Category: Arts & Education Subjects: Education Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

OM301: HISTORY OF EASTERN MEDICINE: Week 1: Introduction & Origins of Chinese Medicine Yueqikun Wang, L.Ac, Dipl.OM [email protected]

ORIGINS OF CHINESE MEDICINE & CHINESE DYNASTIES

PÁN GǓ 盤古

NÜ WA ⼥媧

Goddess with a human head and snake body

One creation myth made humans from clay

Another story goes that she and Fú Xi ̄ 伏羲 lived together on Mt. Kunlun and were the representative of Yin and Yang

CHINESE DYNASTIES

Neolithic Period 10,000-2070 BCE

Xià Dynasty 2070-1600 BCE

Zhōu Dynasty 1046-256 BCE

Spring & Autumn Period (722- 476 BCE)

Warring States Period (Zhàn Guó) (475-221 BCE)

Six Kingdoms (Liù Guó) (475-221 BCE)

Qín Dynasty 221-206 BCE

Hàn Dynasty 202 BCE-220 CE

Three Kingdoms (Sān Guó) 220-265 CE - Wèi (220-265) Shǔ(221-263) Wú (222-288)

Jìn Dynasty 265-420

Sixteen Kingdoms (Shí Liù Guó) 304-439

Southern Dynasties (Nán Cháo) 420-579

Northern Dynasties (Běi Cháo) 386-581

Suí Dynasty 581-618

Táng Dynasty 618-907

Five Dynasties Period (Wǔ Dài) 902-979

Ten Kingdoms (Shí Guó) 907-960

Liáo Dynasty 916-1125

Sòng Dynasty 960-1279

Xià Dynasty 1038-1227

Great) Ji ̄n Dynasty 1115-1234

Yuán Dynasty 1271-1368

Míng Dynasty 1368-1644

Qi ̄ng Dynasty 1636-1912

Republic of Chinas 1912-1949

People's Republic of China 1912-1949

People's Republic of China 1949-present

BEGINNINGS OF ANCIENT CHINESE CIVILIZATION

1.7 million years ago: Yuanmou Man

400,000-500,000 years ago: Peking Man

10,000-200,000 years ago: Dali Man

8,000-5,000 years ago ❖ Hemudu Man

NEOLITHIC (10,000-2070 BCE)

Time of the Sage Kings and development of civilization around the Yellow River Valley

7000 BC: Jiahu culture began in China

Earliest pottery in China, as well as some of the oldest rice

Made “beer” out of honey, along with wild grapes (pu tao 葡萄), hawthorn berries (shan zha ⼭楂) and rice (mi ⽶).

6000 BC–3000 BC development of proto-writing in China

CĀNG JIÉ 倉頡

Cāng jié 倉頡

Attributed as the inventor of the Chinese characters

MEDICINE PRIOR TO THE HAN DYNASTY

Shamanic Medicine: Ancestor worship and Demonological medicine

Oldest grave sites found were of women/ wu ̄ 巫- shamaness

Archaeological evidence shows use of herbs

Example: Ma Huang/Ephedra found on a mummy dating around 2000 BCE

Cranial Drilling dating back 5,000 year along with axes, and bone combs

Bian Stones the precursor to the modern filiform needles

Oracles Bones providing the first “written” records & gives insight into ancient history

Bian Stones

• Mentioned in the Shan Hai Jing ⼭海經 & in Chapter 12 Sù Wèn 素問

• Tool used for external treatment for incising boils and abscesses, and for bloodletting.

• Stone found in Mongolia had one was sharp & pointed like a pyramid while the other was flat and in the shape of an arch knife

SAGE KINGS & CULTURAL HEROES OF CHINESE MEDICINE

FÚ XĪ 伏羲

Drew the Ba Gua ⼋卦 / Eight Trigrams

Has a connection to the Yi Jing (I-Ching)

Said to have invented the compass and was given fire from the Legendary Emperors

Ba Gua ⼋卦

• Essential part of ancient Chinese Philosophy

• Consists of 3 lines

• This would be further developed in the Zhou Dynasty by King Wen and recorded in the Yi Jing/Book of Changes

SHÉN NÓNG 神農

The“Divine Farmer”

Taught people about herbal drugs and agriculture (invented plough & introduced crop planting)

Tasted more 70 herbs per day of herbs & grasses. Got poisoned frequently but found other herbs to detoxify

Credited as the author of the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing 神農 本草經

HUÁNG DÌ ⿈帝

Considered thesage/father of medicine and formulated the medical classics

Credited for the invention Chinese characters/ language, music/bamboo pitch pipes, mathematics, the Chinese calendar

QÍBÓ岐伯

Huáng Dì’s imperial doctor & advisor.

Helped compile together the medical classics

XIA DYNASTY (2194-1600 BC)

The legendary/mythical “first” dynasty in ancient China & links Neolithic cultures with the historically documented Shang Dynasty.

Described in ancient historical chronicles such as the Zhushu Jinjian/Bamboo Annals, the Shu Jing/Classic of History & the Shi Ji/Records of the Grand Historian

Established by the legendary Yu the Great

Archaeologists discovered 400 ceremonial vases from the Xia and Shang which 1098 characters with 4200 variation

Established a calendar system that used both lunar and solar movements

Belief that disease was caused by supernatural influences, especially curses

Folk herbal knowledge

DÀ YǓ ⼤禹

Legendary ruler in ancient China famed for his introduction of flood control

Inaugurating dynastic rule in China by establishing the Xia Dynasty, and for his upright moral character

Attachment 2

OM301: HISTORY OF EASTERN MEDICINE Week 2: Shang Dynasty to Warring States Period

Yueqikun Wang, L.Ac, Dipl.OM

[email protected]

QUESTIONS FROM LAST WEEK?

SHANG DYNASTY (1600-1046 BC)

Known for their iconic cast bronze ritual vessels and bells to communicate with ancestors

Development of Chariots

Early knowledge of disease and surface anatomy detailed on Oracle bones

Treatment methods included surgical lancing, massage, bone setting, teeth extraction, and herbal medicine

No evidence that “needles” were used in any energetic form but for lancing.

ORACLES BONES/JIǍ GǓ 甲⾻

Earliest known body of writing

Used as divination tools by diviners, invocators, shamans

Records about life in ancient history

Found as by an archaeologist in a herbal pharmacy (Long Gu & Gui Ban)

Approx. 20 diseases names recorded

Involved seasonal epidemic diseases and diseases caused by excess rain

Understanding of the human body & diseases were described in the various characters such as.. head, ear, eyes, nose mouth, tongue, tooth, nape, arm, buttocks, toe and heart.

WŪ 巫/SHAMANESS

Earliest gravesites found were of wū 巫 shaman

Role in society was to perform divination rituals, dream interpretation, healing, exorcisms, and performing rain dances

TĀNG YÈ JĪNG 湯液經/DECOCTION CLASSIC

Yi ̄ Yi ̌n 伊尹: First to “develop” decoctions/ta ̄ng 湯

• Author of the tāng yè ji ̄ng 湯 液經/Decoction Classic

• Han dynasty physician Zhang Zhong Jing 張仲景 will be highly influenced by the work

The text describes Chinese herbs and their interactions in terms of the Five Phases and flavors. It is one of the first text we know of solely devoted to herbal formulas...

Consists of twenty five herbs, classified in sets of five according to Flavors and 5 Phase identification

ZHOU DYNASTY (1046-256 BC)

Fall of the Shang Dynasty due to cruel and autocratic rulers

First historical case where right to rule was based on ethical justification instead of power

Initiation of the “Mandate of Heaven”

Herbal medicine still mixed with folklore and superstitions

Development of the Yi Jing易經

FOUR KEY ASPECTS OF THE MANDATE OF HEAVEN

The right to rule is granted by heaven

There can be only one ruler because there is only one heaven

The right to rule is based on ruling fairly, justly, & wisely

Right to rule is not limited to one dynasty

The right to rule granted by Heaven and the will of ancestral spirits...

• The Son of Heaven

• Given to fair and virtuous rulers

Lost of the mandate due to…

• Corrupt & Lazy officials and rules with poor morals

• High Taxes

• Revolts, invasions, civil wars, crimes

• Natural Disasters

BRONZE BELLS

Displays of bronze bells and other bronze vessels were an indicator of wealth & political status

Part of a ritualized form of court music that also included strings, percussion and wind instruments

• Wood- Jue (Mi)

• Fire- Zhi (So)

• Earth- Gong (Do)

• Metal- Shang (Re)

• Water- Yu (La)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJaMCKVOFJM

ZHŌU YÌ 周易 (YÌ JĪNG易經)

Considered the oldest Chinese classic texts

This would later become Yì ji ̄ng 易經/Book of Changes

King Wen helped to arrange the hexagrams and the Duke of Zhou wrote the line statements/commentaries

Offered a model for understanding and predicting change and transformation

Contains the fundamental principles for all aspects of life and philosophers, politicians, mystics, shamans, alchemists, even todays mathematicians and scientists highly regard this text

SPRING & AUTUMN PERIOD (722- 476 BCE) & WARRING STATES PERIOD (475-221 BC)

SPRING AND AUTUMN PERIOD (722- 476 BCE)

Due to numerous rebellions and poor relations to neighboring states the Western Zhou fragments into 170 smaller states

A period of great spiritual & philosophical development during the Spring & Autumn Period (722- 476 BCE)

• Mo Zi - Mohism

• Confucius - Confucianism

• Lao Zi- Daoism

• Shang Yang- Legalism

• Zuo Yan - Naturalism

CONFUCIANISM It takes the spring and autumn period Confucius as the teacher, takes the Six Skills(Ritual, Music, archery, driving, calligraphy and arithmetic 礼、乐、射、御、书、数) as the method, advocates the "rites and music" and "benevolence and justice", advocates the"doctrine of the mean", advocates the "rule of virtue" and "benevolent governance", and attaches importance to moral and ethical education and people's self- cultivation.

Confucianism emphasizes the function of education and believes that the only way for a country to be stable and the people to be prosperous and happy is to lay emphasis on enlightenment and light punishment. Advocate "teach without class", to the ruler and the ruled should carry on the education, make the whole country all become the moral person.

In politics, they also advocate the rule of the country by etiquette and the moral persuasion.

LEGALISM

• Created by Shāng Yāng • Rejected all notions of religion and

practices, and believed a nation should be governed by strict law

DAOISM

• Advocated by Lǎo Zi ̌ • Believed that human nature was good and

can achieve perfection by returning to original state.

• Believed that like a baby, humans are simple and innocent although with development of civilizations it lost its innocence only to be replaced by fraud and greed.

YIN YANG SCHOOL (NATURALISM)

• Developed by Zou Yan • Synthesized the concepts of yin- yang and

the Five Elements.

• Attempted to explain the universe in terms of basic forces in nature

WARRING STATES PERIOD (475-221 BC)

Four main states at the time ❖ Qin, Jin, Qi & Chu

Iron technology spreads and is cheaper to produce than bronze.

Weapon and Armor improvements: Crossbows, axes etc

Rise of the Shì ⼠ /Scholar & Fa ̄ng shì ⽅⼠ /Prescription gentlemen

No formal academies existed at the time but the rise of the professionally educated physicians & medical apprenticeships existed

“THE ART OF WAR” RELATED TO MEDICINE

Written by Sun Zi 孫⼦

Scholars started using the military strategies and putting into medical domain

• Weak/Deficient (xu虛)

• Replete/Excess (shi 實)

• Inner (nei內)

• Outer (wai 外)

BIǍN QUÈ 扁鵲 (407-310

The “first” recorded physician to combine folk shamanism with theoretical doctrine

Yao Wang 藥王 - Medicine King

Preformed heart transplants

Gained X-ray-like ability and could see through peoples bodies - zàng xiàng 藏象/ visceral manifestation

sì zhěn 四診/four pillars of examinations (looking, listening-smelling, questioning & palpation)

Pulse taking methods

Attributed author of Nàn Ji ̄ng 難經/ Difficult Issues Classic

Attachment 3

OM301: HISTORY OF EASTERN MEDICINE: Week 4: Qin & Han Dynasty to Three Kingdom Period part 2 Yueqikun Wang, L.Ac, Dipl.OM [email protected]

SHÉN NÓNG BĚN CǍO JĪNG 神農本草經

First “Materia Medica”

Běn Cǎo 本草 “roots and grasses”

365 medicinal substances, including indications, taste, toxicity, dosage, identification & sources

52 are plant derived, 67 animal 46 minerals

Herb Categories : Jade/ Stones; Herbs; Woods; Animals; Fruits & Vegetables; Grains

Breaks herbs into levels: upper level; middle level; lower level

• The upper-level herbs consist of 120 types. These function as rulers[ju ̄n 君]. They are in charge of nurturing Destiny and thereby correspond to Heaven. They are not poisonous and, [even] when taken in large quantities or over a long time, do not harm the person. If you want to lighten the body, boost qì, avoid aging, and extend your lifespan, root [your prescriptions] in the upper [section of the] Classic.

• The mid-level herbs consist of 120 types. These function as Ministers [chén ⾂]. They are in charge of nurturing the Heavenly Nature and thereby correspond to Humanity. Some of them are poisonous and some are not, so deliberate their suitability carefully. If you want to check illness and supplement vacuity emaciation, root [your prescriptions] in the middle [section of the] Classic. (

• The lower-level herbs consist of 125 types. These function as the assistants[zuo ̌ 佐] and messengers[or Envoys/shǐ 使]. They are in charge of treating illness and thereby correspond to Earth. In most cases, they are poisonous and may not be taken over a long period of time. If you want to eliminate the evil qì of cold and heat, break up accumulations and gatherings, and cure diseases, root [your prescriptions] in the lower [section of the Classic].

Channel Entering of Herbs/ guī jīng 歸經

• Refers to the selective therapeutic effect of a herb on a certain part of the body

• Herbs can enter more than one channel

• Properties of herbs such as shape, color, qi and flavor determine channel entering

SHĀNG HÁN ZÁ BÌNG LÙN傷寒雜病論

Shāng 傷 - Injury

Hán 寒 - Cold

Zá 雜 - Mixed or Miscellaneous

Bìng 病 - Diseases

Lùn 論 - Treatise/Theory/Discussion

ZHĀNG ZHÒNG-JǏNG 張仲景(142 – 220 AD)

Lived in a village with over 200 family members

An epidemic killed 2/3rd of family in a ten year period

7/10th of those were caused by invasion of exterior cold

Author of Shāng Hán Zá Bìng Lùn 傷寒雜病論

SHĀNG HÁN ZÁ BÌNG LÙN 傷寒雜病論/ON COLD DAMAGE & MISCELLANEOUS DISEASES TREATISE

Comprised of two parts

Sha ̄ng Hán Lùn 傷寒論/ Discussion on Cold Damage

Jīn Guì Yào Lüè ⾦匱要略/ Essential Prescriptions from the Golden Cabinet

More than 25% of the key formulas in modern day fa ̄ng jì⽅劑/prescription books come from this text

THREE KINGDOMS 220-280CE

HISTORY OF PULSE TAKING

The practice of taking the pulse on the radial artery was started by the Nàn Jīng 難經/ Classic of Difficulties

In the Sù Wèn 素問 the pulse was felt at nine different arteries which reflected the state of the energy of the Upper, Middle and Lower Burners

WÁNG SHŪ HĒ 王叔和

Best known for composing the 10 volume Mài Jīng 脈經/Pulse Classic

This included the 24 pulse qualities. Later will become 28 qualities

Described the different positions and depths and their Zang Fu resonance and diagnostic significance

MIDTERM PAPER

Students will write a four (4) page paper double spaced, 12 point font, APA format, with at least three (3) references which are different from the lecture notes and required text books.

Students will select a topic which of interest or expanding on information from class discussion or on a subject that was not discussed but related to history of Chinese medicine from the Chinese Dynasties prior to the Song dynasty 960-1279 CE.

Topics include historical figures, texts, events.

Attachment 4

OM301: HISTORY OF EASTERN MEDICINE Week 3: Qin & Han Dynasty to Three Kingdom Period (part 1) Yueqikun Wang, L.Ac, Dipl.OM [email protected]

QIN DYNASTY 221-206 BC

QÍN SHǏ HUÁNG 秦始皇(259-210 BC)

Unification of China & First Emperor of China

Favored the philosophy and practice of Legalism

Known for the Great Wall & Terracotta Warriors

Interest in external alchemy/wài dān 外丹

CINNABAR/ZHŪ SHĀ 朱砂

External alchemy/wài da ̄n外丹

The fascination lead to many fundamental techniques in basic chemistry such as distillation, filtration, and sublimation, and the changes during chemical reactions

HAN DYNASTY 206 BC - 221 CE FOUNDING OF “CLASSICAL” MEDICINE

HAN DYNASTY 206 BC - 221 CE

Period of peace & stability, allowing civilization to reach a high point and propel the advancement of medical thought

Improved & rationalized medicine by eliminating magic, spirit possession with yin yang & wu ̌ xíng/ five phase theory

Embodied aspects of the 100 Schools of Thoughts

The shì ⼠/ scholars systematized medicine to map the relationship between all things observable in the heavens on earth and in mankind

SHĀN HǍI JĪNG ⼭海經/MOUNTAINS & SEAS CLASSIC

Mythical geography text that discusses mythic plants & animals

Not a medical text

Lists 38 diseases and symptoms

68 herbs mentioned.. ròu guì ⾁ 桂/cinnamon, da ̄ng guī 當歸/ angelica, shè xia ̄ng 麝⾹/musk

MEDICAL CLASSICS OF THE HAN DYNASTY

Huáng Dì Nèiji ̄ng ⿈帝內經/ Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic

Nàn Ji ̄ng 難經/Classic of Difficult Issues

Shén Nóng Běncǎo Ji ̄ng 神農本草經/Divine Farmer’s Materia Medica

Shāng Hán Zá Bìng Lùn 傷寒雜病論/On Cold Damage & Miscellaneous Diseases

Huáng Dì Nèi Jīng ⿈帝內經/ Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic

• Brought with it a new approach to the concepts of health & disease

• New understandings of the human body and its functions

• Seeing the person or organism as an integrated whole

• Theoretical science based on natural laws

• With new sciences and technology and therapeutic techniques

• The promise of health, if one adheres to the laws of nature

Nàn Jīng 難經/Difficult Issues

• Discussions of difficult passages in the Nèi Jīng

• Important source of 5 Element theory

• Pulse diagnosis (first 23 chapters) & Origin of the cùn kǒu ⼨又 pulse( Radial pulse)

• Systematic Analysis of the qí ji ̄ng bā mài 奇經⼋脈 Meridians (8 Extraordinary Vessels)

• 命⾨ /Gate of Fire mìng mén

• Not an herbal text

Mǎ Wáng Duī ⾺王堆 Manuscript & Tomb

• Sealed during 168 BC in a aristocratic women’s tomb written & on silk bamboo and discovered in 1973 with an early copy of the Yi Jing and two copies of the Dao De Jing

• Wu Shi Er Bing Fang mentions 400 medicinals & 283 formulas. And the the treatment for certain conditions

• Dao Yin Tu: Illustrates 44 health exercises

• Discusses nourishing life techniques ya ̌ng shēng 養⽣

• Figurine found with 11 mài 脈/vessels

• Discussed only Moxibustion techniques and Bian stone needling but not mention of acupuncture.