Open Posted By: surajrudrajnv33 Date: 29/04/2021 High School Research Paper Writing


There are three theoretical perspectives of comparative research case studies, Focused Comparisons, and Statistical Analysis. (SEE ATTACHED FOR MORE INFORMATION) Comparative research is crucial in bringing about positive change in the field of criminal justice.

Identify two of those perspectives involving comparative research, and describe both with examples. Ensure you address the issues below.

1) Examine the concept of comparative criminal justice.

2) Assess how comparisons are made with comparative research.

Your essay must be at least three full pages in length, not counting the title page and references page. You must include an introduction. Also, make certain to include a minimum of four sources, one of which must be your textbook. All sources used must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. Follow APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment.

Category: Business & Management Subjects: Business Communication Deadline: 24 Hours Budget: $80 - $120 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Unit I

Introduction to

Comparative Criminal

Justice Move your cursor

over the audio

symbol, and then

click the play arrow

for the audio.

Unit I

Why is there a need to compare criminal justice systems?

Comparative criminal justice research can

point to ways to bring about positive

change. When required, question,

condemn, and denounce those criminal

justice practices that are ill-conceived,

ineffective, cruel, or even lethal (Pakes,


Unit I

How do we make comparisons of criminal justice systems?

Comparisons of any kind, including

criminal justice systems, can utilize

case studies, focused comparisons,

and statistics to achieve them (Pakes,


Unit I

Types of Comparisons

Case Studies

• Representative cases

• Prototypical cases

• Deviant cases

• Archetypical cases

Focused Comparisons

• Most-similar designs

• Most-different designs

Statistical Analysis

• Crime statistics (robberies, thefts, murder)

• Prison populations

• Recidivism

Unit I

Types of Case Studies

Case Studies

Representative Cases

Prototypical Cases

Deviant Cases

Archetypical Cases

(Pakes, 2019)

Unit I

Representative Cases

A representative case is a typical example

of a wider category of comparative

research. A comparative study example

would involve comparing a specific aspect

of one country’s criminal justice system

with that of another country. These could

include incarceration rates, crime statistics,

etc. (Pakes, 2019).

Unit I

Prototypical Cases

A prototypical case may become a

representative case at some future point

because of developments or changes in

laws or policy. An example may include

movements that are currently underway,

such as the movement here in the United

States to legalize and decriminalize

marijuana. Prototypical cases may provide

data for policy makers in other countries

seeking to follow the same legal path

(Pakes, 2019).

Unit I

Deviant Cases

A deviant case is utilized to illustrate

the unusual or unconventional and to

explain the contributing factors of

variables and why they act how they

do (Pakes, 2019).

Unit I

Archetypical Cases

An archetypical case is one that is influential or

seminal. Consider the example below.

When studying inquisitorial modes of justice,

the French one would be an appropriate

choice, as it can be said to be the

quintessential inquisitorial system. Similarly,

England and Wales could be said to be the

archetypical adversarial system of justice.

(Pakes, 2019, p. 18)

Unit I

Focused Comparisons

Focused comparisons are case studies

with more than one case to be studied.

Generally, the comparisons being made

involve two or three cases. Focused

comparisons are carried out using two

different research techniques: most-similar

and most-different designs (Pakes, 2019).

Unit I

Focused Comparisons (Continued)

Most-similar designs involve the

comparison of subjects with like

variables. In the criminal justice

system, this could be court systems,

the rights of the accused, and

sentencing (Pakes, 2019).

Unit I

Focused Comparisons (Continued)

Most-different designs are just the opposite

of most-similar case study designs. With the

most-different technique, the researcher is

not familiar with the various aspects of the

jurisdiction that is being researched. These

aspects include a lack of cultural awareness,

actual access to the jurisdiction, the

language, and biases (Pakes, 2019).

Unit I

Statistical Analysis

Statistical analysis may be a part of any of

the research designs previously discussed.

Statistics allow for the comparison of

different variables in a study, such as crime

statistics (robberies, thefts, murder), prison

populations, and recidivism rates (Pakes,


Unit I

Above is an example of a statistical comparison of Percent

Change in Crime Rates for Consecutive Years 2014–2018.

Years Violent crime Murder Rape1 Robbery

Aggravated assault

Property crime Burglary

Larceny- theft

Motor vehicle theft Arson

2015/2014 +1.7 +6.2 +1.1 +0.3 +2.3 -4.2 -9.8 -3.2 +1.0 -5.4

2016/2015 +5.3 +5.2 +3.5 +3.2 +6.5 -0.6 -3.4 -0.8 +6.6 -1.1

2017/2016 -0.8 +1.5 -2.4 -2.2 -0.1 -2.9 -6.1 -3.0 +4.1 -3.5

2018/2017 -4.3 -6.7 +0.6 -12.5 -2.0 -7.2 -12.7 -6.3 -3.3 -9.4

(Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], n.d.)

Unit I

Watch the video Crime Statistics to gain a better understanding on the

background involving crime statistics.

The transcript for this video can be found by clicking on “Transcript” in the gray

bar to the right of the video in the Films on Demand database.

Unit I


Cineflix (Producer). (2009). Crime statistics (Segment 6 of 17) [Video file]. Retrieved from



Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2018). 2018 January-June: Preliminary semiannual

crime report: Crime in the United States [Image]. Retrieved from


Pakes, F. (2019). Comparative criminal justice (4th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.