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Consumer Behavior Building Marketing Strategy
David L. Mothersbaugh University of Alabama
Del I. Hawkins University of Oregon
Susan Bardi Kleiser Texas Christian University
F O U R T E E N T H E D I T I O N
Linda L. Mothersbaugh Integrated Solutions, LLC
Carolyn (Casey) Findley Watson Indiana University Southeast
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CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: BUILDING MARKETING STRATEGY, FOURTEENTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright ©2020 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2016, 2013, and 2010. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
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This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LWI 24 23 22 21 20 19 ISBN 978-1-260-10004-4 (bound edition) MHID 1-260-10004-9 (bound edition) ISBN 978-1-260-15819-9 (loose-leaf edition) MHID 1-260-15819-5 (loose-leaf edition)
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Hawkins, Del I., author. | Mothersbaugh, David L., author. | Kleiser, Susan Bardi, author. Title: Consumer behavior : building marketing strategy / Del Hawkins, David Mothersbaugh, Susan Bardi Kleiser. Description: Fourteenth Edition. | Dubuque : McGraw-Hill Education,  | Revised edition of the authors’ Consumer behavior,  | Summary: “Marketing attempts to influence the way consumers behave. These attempts have implications for the organizations making them, the consumers they are trying to influence, and the society in which these attempts occur. We are all consumers, and we are all members of society, so consumer behavior, and attempts to influence it, is critical to all of us. This text is designed to provide an understanding of consumer behavior. This understanding can make us better consumers, better marketers, and better citizens”— Provided by publisher. Identifiers: LCCN 2019022154 | ISBN 9781260100044 Subjects: LCSH: Consumer behavior—United States. | Market surveys—United States. | Consumer behavior—United States—Case studies. Classification: LCC HF5415.33.U6 H38 2019 | DDC 658.8/342—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019022154
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
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paintings. If you had certain natural talents, the right teacher, and the right topic, you might even produce a masterpiece. The same approach should be taken by one wishing to become a marketing manager, a sales- person, or an advertising director. The various factors or principles that influence consumer behavior should be thoroughly studied. Then, one should practice apply- ing these principles until acceptable marketing strate- gies result. However, while knowledge and practice can in general produce acceptable strategies, great market- ing strategies, like masterpieces, require special talents, effort, timing, and some degree of luck (what if Mona Lisa had not wanted her portrait painted?).
The art analogy is useful for another reason. All of us, professors and students alike, tend to ask, “How can I use the concept of, say, social class to develop a suc- cessful marketing strategy?” This makes as much sense as an artist asking, “How can I use blue to create a great picture?” Obviously, blue alone will seldom be sufficient for a great work of art. Instead, to be successful, the art- ist must understand when and how to use blue in con- junction with other elements in the picture. Likewise, the marketing manager must understand when and how to use a knowledge of social class in conjunction with a knowledge of other factors in designing a successful marketing strategy.
This book is based on the belief that knowledge of the factors that influence consumer behavior can, with practice, be used to develop sound marketing strategy. With this in mind, we have attempted to do three things. First, we present a reasonably comprehensive descrip- tion of the various behavioral concepts and theories that have been found useful for understanding con- sumer behavior. This is generally done at the beginning of each chapter or at the beginning of major subsections in each chapter. We believe that a person must have a thorough understanding of a concept in order to suc- cessfully apply that concept across different situations.
Second, we present examples of how these concepts have been utilized in the development of marketing strategy. We have tried to make clear that these exam- ples are not “how you use this concept.” Rather, they are presented as “how one organization facing a particu- lar marketing situation used this concept.”
Marketing attempts to influence the way consumers behave. These attempts have implications for the orga- nizations making them, the consumers they are trying to influence, and the society in which these attempts occur. We are all consumers, and we are all members of society, so consumer behavior, and attempts to influ- ence it, is critical to all of us. This text is designed to provide an understanding of consumer behavior. This understanding can make us better consumers, better marketers, and better citizens.
MARKETING CAREERS AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR A primary purpose of this text is to provide the stu- dent with a usable, managerial understanding of con- sumer behavior. Most students in consumer behavior courses aspire to careers in marketing management, sales, or advertising. They hope to acquire knowledge and skills that will be useful to them in these careers. Unfortunately, some may be seeking the type of knowl- edge gained in introductory accounting classes; that is, a set of relatively invariant rules that can be applied across a variety of situations to achieve a fixed solu- tion that is known to be correct. For these students, the uncertainty and lack of closure involved in dealing with living, breathing, changing, stubborn consumers can be very frustrating. However, if they can accept dealing with endless uncertainty, utilizing an understanding of consumer behavior in developing marketing strategy will become tremendously exciting.
It is our view that the utilization of knowledge of consumer behavior in the development of marketing strategy is an art. This is not to suggest that scientific principles and procedures are not applicable; rather, it means that the successful application of these prin- ciples to particular situations requires human judgment that we are not able to reduce to a fixed set of rules.
Let us consider the analogy with art in some detail. Suppose you want to become an expert artist. You would study known principles of the visual effects of blending various colors, of perspective, and so forth. Then you would practice applying these principles until you developed the ability to produce acceptable
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positions on these issues requires an understanding of such factors as information processing as it relates to advertising—an important part of our understanding of consumer behavior.
The debates described above are just a few of the many that require an understanding of consumer behav- ior. We present a number of these topics throughout the text. The objective is to develop the ability to apply consumer behavior knowledge to social and regulatory issues as well as to business and personal issues.
AREAS OF ONGOING CHANGE AND FOCUS Marketing and consumer behavior, like the rest of the world, are changing at a rapid pace. Both the way con- sumers behave and the practices of studying that behav- ior continue to evolve. In order to keep up with this dynamic environment, the fourteenth edition includes a number of important features.
Internet, Mobile, and Social Media The Internet, mobile marketing, and social media are dramatically changing how and where consumers shop and buy. This edition integrates the latest research, prac- tices, and examples concerning technology throughout the text and the cases.
Global Marketing Previous editions have included a wealth of global mate- rial, and this edition is no exception. Multiple global examples can be found woven into the text across the chapters. In addition, Chapter 2 and several of the cases are devoted to global issues.
Ethnic Subcultures This edition continues our emphasis on the exciting issues surrounding marketing to ethnic subcultures. Ethnic diversity is increasing, and we draw in the latest research and emerging trends to shed light on this important topic.
Strategic Application This edition continues our emphasis on the application of consumer behavior concepts and theory to exciting marketing problems and important emerging trends. We do this through our heavy emphasis on segmentation
Third, at the end of each chapter and each major section, we present a number of questions, activities, or cases that require the student to apply the concepts.
CONSUMING AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR The authors of this book are consumers, as is everyone reading this text. Most of us spend more time buying and consuming than we do working or sleeping. We consume products such as cars and fuel, services such as haircuts and home repairs, and entertainment such as television and concerts. Given the time and energy we devote to consuming, we should strive to be good at it. A knowledge of consumer behavior can be used to enhance our ability to consume wisely.
Marketers spend billions of dollars attempting to influence what, when, and how we consume. Marketers not only spend billions attempting to influence our behavior but also spend hundreds of millions of dollars studying our behavior. With a knowledge of consumer behavior and an understanding of how marketers use this knowledge, we can study marketers. A television commercial can be an annoying interruption of a favorite program. However, it also can be a fascinating opportu- nity to speculate on the commercial’s objective, its tar- get audience, and the underlying behavior assumptions. Indeed, given the ubiquitous nature of commercials, an understanding of how they are attempting to influence us or others is essential to understand our environment.
Throughout the text, we present examples that illus- trate the objectives of specific marketing activities. By studying these examples and the principles on which they are based, one can develop the ability to discern the under- lying logic of the marketing activities encountered daily.
SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR What are the costs and benefits of regulating the mar- keting of food to children? How much more needs to be done to protect the online privacy of children? Of adults? What are the appropriate type and size of warning label for cigarettes that should be mandated by the federal government? These issues are currently being debated by industry leaders and consumer advo- cacy groups. As educated citizens, we have a respon- sibility to take part in these sorts of debates and work toward positive solutions. However, developing sound
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CHAPTER 2 • New Consumer Insight on Coca-Cola’s glocalization
strategy (adapting locally, marketing globally)
• Updated tables related to global demographics CHAPTER 3 • New Chapter Opener on the reversal of gender roles • Updated tables on gender-based activities,
including social media usage
CHAPTER 4 • New Chapter Opener on changing U.S. living situa-
tions, with the rise of multigenerational households
• New Consumer Insight on the segmentation of the Generation Y market, using demographic identifiers
• New term (multigenerational household), new sec- tion on generations (Generation Alpha) added to the chapter
• Updated tables throughout, especially those refer- encing the Simmons National Consumer Survey
CHAPTER 5 • New Consumer Insight on ethnic subcultures • Updated figures and tables, including those refer-
encing the Simmons National Consumer Survey
CHAPTER 6 • New Consumer Insight on American family structures CHAPTER 7 • New Chapter Opener on brand communities with
• New Consumer Insight related to the impact on a brand of consumer-generated content posted online about that brand
• Updated Consumer Insight related to online market- ing, buzz, and WOM that deals with “astroturfing”
• New term added (brand ambassador) PART II CASES (new or updated) • IKEA Uses Market Research to Adapt for Global
• How Social Media Nearly Brought Down United Airlines
• Grace and Frankie: The Invisibility of Baby Boomer Women
schemes, as well as opening examples, featured consumer insights, and cases. This edition contains many segmenta- tion schemes that provide insights into the development of marketing strategy. The opening examples, in-text exam- ples, and consumer insights provide additional strategic insight by showing how specific companies utilize various consumer behavior concepts in developing effective mar- keting strategies. Finally, cases provide an opportunity to apply consumer behavior concepts to real-world problems.
UNIQUE FEATURES AND NEW TO THIS EDITION Integrated Coverage of Ethical/Social Issues Marketers face numerous ethical issues as they apply their understanding of consumer behavior in the marketplace. We describe and discuss many of these issues. These dis- cussions are highlighted in the text via an “ethics” icon in the margin. In addition, Chapter 20 is devoted to social and regulation issues relating to marketing practice. Several of the cases also are focused on ethical or regula- tory issues, including all of the cases following Part Six.
Consumer Insights These boxed discussions provide an in-depth look at a particularly interesting consumer study or marketing practice. Each has several questions within it that are designed to encourage critical thinking by the students. Many of the consumer insights are new to the four- teenth edition.
New to This Edition As with our prior editions, we strive to keep pace with the changing environment surrounding consumer behavior by updating each chapter with the latest research, as well as current and relevant examples from industry. Fresh, new ads, photos, and screenshots have been added throughout the text relating to the discus- sion of various consumer behavior concepts. We detail below the specific revisions made throughout the four- teenth edition.
CHAPTER 1 • New Consumer Insight on market segmentation
based on product-related needs
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CHAPTER 16 • Updated Consumer Insight on context effects CHAPTER 17 • Major restructuring of “The Evolving Retail
Scene” section of the chapter, including learning objective 2, emphasizing omni-channel shopping and mobile retailing
• New Consumer Insight on mobile retailing • New terms added (showrooming, webrooming) • New tables on online buying behavior, including
smartphone shopping and shopping app downloads
• Updated table on shopping orientations CHAPTER 18 • Updates throughout for accuracy and currency PART IV CASES (new or updated) • Nissan Goes after the Dog Lover Niche • WAWA Dominates with Its Mobile App CHAPTER 19 • New Chapter Opener on the role of technology in
business relationship marketing
• New Consumer Insight on organizational culture PART V CASES (new or updated) • Cuties: How Commodity Fruits Became a
• Farmers’ Brand Loyalty for Heavy Farm Equipment Machinery
CHAPTER 20 • Updates on government regulations and online mar-
keting to children, including social media marketing
PART VI CASES (new or updated) • Is Crude Puppet Movie Hitting a Dead End on
• COPPA Evolves, but Technology Industries Evolve Faster
CHAPTER 8 • New Chapter Opener on brands’ use of product
placement in video games, movies, video streaming services, and music videos to reach consumers
• Updated Consumer Insight on the effectiveness of advertising in the DVR and “cord-cutting” era
• Updated tables, especially those referencing the Simmons National Consumer Survey
CHAPTER 9 • New Consumer Insight on a brand’s repositioning
to attract a new consumer segment
CHAPTER 10 • New Chapter Opener on brand personalities, based
on Gap Inc.’s brands
CHAPTER 11 • New Chapter Opener on changing consumer
attitudes, using avocados as the example
CHAPTER 12 • New Chapter Opener on lifestyles, as related to
• Updated figures and tables related to lifestyle segments, such as VALS and Global Mosaic
PART III CASES (new or updated) • Repositioning McDonald’s • Let’s Move! Campaign Celebrities Endorsing Soda?! • Meal Kits Are Shifting How Consumers Shop
• The Tale of Two Emotional Ads • The World Shares a Coke CHAPTER 13 • New Chapter Opener on rituals CHAPTER 14 • Updates throughout for accuracy and currency CHAPTER 15 • Updated Consumer Insight on the personalization
of the online search experience
• New table on segments of smartphone consumers
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Each case can be approached from a variety of angles. A number of discussion questions are provided with each case. However, many other questions can be used. In fact, while the cases are placed at the end of the major sections, most lend themselves to discussion at other points in the text as well.
Consumer Research Methods Overview Appendix A provides a brief overview of the more commonly used research methods in consumer behav- ior. While not a substitute for a course or text in marketing research, it is a useful review for students who have completed a research course. It can also serve to provide students who have not had such a course with relevant terminology and a very basic understand- ing of the process and major techniques involved in consumer research.
Consumer Behavior Audit Appendix B provides a format for doing a consumer behavior audit for a proposed marketing strategy. This audit is basically a list of key consumer behavior ques- tions that should be answered for every proposed mar- keting strategy. Many students have found it particularly useful if a term project relating consumer behavior to a firm’s actual or proposed strategy is required.
AACSB TAGGING McGraw-Hill Education is a proud corporate member of AACSB International. Understanding the impor- tance and value of AACSB accreditation, Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy recognizes the curricula guidelines detailed in the AACSB standards for business accreditation by connecting selected questions in the text and the test bank to the six gen- eral knowledge and skill guidelines in the AACSB standards. The statements contained in Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy are provided only as a guide for the users of this textbook. The AACSB leaves content coverage and assessment within the pur- view of individual schools, the mission of the school, and the faculty. While the Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy teaching package makes no claim of any specific AACSB qualification or evaluation, we have labeled selected questions according to the six gen- eral knowledge and skills areas.
END OF CHAPTER ACTIVITIES Review Questions The review questions at the end of each chapter allow students or the instructor to test the acquisition of the facts contained in the chapter. The questions require memorization, which we believe is an important, though insufficient, part of learning.
Discussion Questions These questions can be used to help develop or test the students’ understanding of the material in the chapter. Answering these questions requires the student to utilize the material in the chapter to reach a recommendation or solution. However, they can generally be answered without external activities such as customer interviews; therefore, they can be assigned as in-class assignments.
Application Activities The final learning aid at the end of each chapter is a set of application exercises. These require the students to utilize the material in the chapter in conjunction with external activities such as visiting stores to observe point-of-purchase displays, interviewing customers or managers, or evaluating ads. They range in complexity from short evening assignments to term projects.
ADDITIONAL LEARNING MATERIALS Three useful sets of learning material are presented outside the chapter format—cases, an overview of con- sumer research methods, and a format for a consumer behavior audit.
Cases There are cases at the end of each major section of the text except the first. Many of the cases are new to the fourteenth edition. Many of the cases can be read in class and used to generate discussion of a particular topic. Students like this approach, and many instructors find it a useful way to motivate class discussion.
Other cases are more complex and data intense. They require several hours of effort to analyze. Still others can serve as the basis for a term project. We have used sev- eral cases in this manner with success (the assignment is to develop a marketing plan clearly identifying the con- sumer behavior constructs that underlie the plan).
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Acknowledgments We enjoy studying, teaching, consulting, and writing about consumer behavior. Most of the faculty we know feel the same. As with every edition of this book, our goal for the fourteenth edition has been to make a book that students enjoy reading and that excites them about a fascinating topic.
Numerous individuals and organizations helped us in the task of writing this edition. We are grateful for their assistance. At the risk of not thanking all who deserve credit, we would like to thank Dr. Sijun Wang at Loyola Marymount University, Dr. Junwu Dong at Guangdong University, Patricia Breman at Strategic Business Insights, Dr. Nancy Sirianni at The University of Alabama, and Dr. Edward Bardi, Professor Emeritus at The University of Toledo. Thanks also to Maggie Kleiser at The University of Oklahoma for her research assistance.
We would also like to thank the many members of the McGraw-Hill Higher Education team, including Editorial Coordinator Christian Lyon, Freelance Developer Gabriela Velasco, Product Development Manager Kelly Delso, Executive Portfolio Manager Meredith Fossel, Content Project Manager Vicki Krug, Assessment Content Project Manager Katie Reuter, Content Licensing Specialist Carrie Burger, and Executive Marketing Manager Nicole Young.
Finally, to our families and colleagues at Alabama, Oregon, and TCU—Thanks for your ongoing support, encouragement, patience, and friendship.
David L. Mothersbaugh Del I. Hawkins Susan Bardi Kleiser
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Brief Contents CHAPTER NINE
Learning, Memory, and Product Positioning 322
Motivation, Personality, and Emotion 364
Attitudes and Influencing Attitudes 396
Self-Concept and Lifestyle 432
Part Three Cases Cases 3–1 through 3–9 458
Part Four Consumer Decision Process 484
Situational Influences 486
Consumer Decision Process and Problem Recognition 512
Information Search 534
Alternative Evaluation and Selection 566
Outlet Selection and Purchase 596
Postpurchase Processes, Customer Satisfaction, and Customer Commitment 640
Part Four Cases Cases 4–1 through 4–8 674
Part One Introduction 2
Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy 4
Part Two External Influences 34
Cross-Cultural Variations in Consumer Behavior 36
The Changing American Society: Values 78
The Changing American Society: Demographics and Social Stratification 110
The Changing American Society: Subcultures 150