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final paper

Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 24/04/2021 High School Proofreading & Editing

 

  • Assignment (120 points)
  • Prompt: Submit your final research paper on the topic approved by your instructor. At a minimum, you must address the following items with respect to your selected topic:
    • Explanation of your topic, including definitions of key terms and a detailed discussion of what your topic encompasses or includes.
    • A discussion of the current laws and public policies applicable to the topic.
    • Identify and discuss emerging policy issues related to the topic, including a detailed discussion of the factors or influences that specifically impact the policy-making process related to each issue.
    • A discussion of how someone with a Christian worldview should approach your selected topic and the emerging issues.
    • A discussion of your recommended course of action for future policy-making, with respect to the emerging issues related to your topic. Be specific.
  • Requirements:
    • Your paper must be on the topic specifically approved by your instructor.
    • You should generally follow the outline approved by your instructor, although strict adherence is not required. You may make modifications you deem appropriate, provided all requirements for the paper are met.
    • 3,500 - 4,000 total words
    • Minimum 500 words Christian worldview discussion included in total words
    • APA-compliant format, including title and reference pages
    • Minimum of six scholarly references (not counting the textbook and Bible)
    • Turnitin similarity index should not exceed 20%
    • Paper will be graded in accordance with Appendix A “Grading Rubric for Final Paper



*** THE TOPIC IS CIVIL LAW & POLICY****

Category: Accounting & Finance Subjects: Accounting Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $150 - $300 Pages: 3-6 Pages (Medium Assignment)

Attachment 1

MPA 611

Public and Administrative Law

Belhaven University

Unit 6

Laws and Policies on Nutritional Assistance

and the Environment

1

■ Development of America’s Nutrition Assistance Policies,

Including Access, Eligibility, Benefit Levels, and

Administration

■ History of Environmental Law

■ Natural Capital and Its Protection

■ Externalities

■ The “Polluter Pays” Principle

■ Environmental Justice

■ Personal Property Rights

■ Major Environmental Legislation

2

Unit 6 Topics

■ Food Stamp Program

❑ Began during the Great Depression

■ Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

■ Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities

Reconciliation Act of 1996

❑ Temporary Assistance to Needy (TANF)

■ Food Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (the

“Farm Bill”)

■ Farm Bill of 2018 (12/20/2018)

❑ Largely, maintains SNAP benefits and eligibility requirements

3

Nutrition Assistance Legislation

■ Food and Drugs Act

■ Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

■ Wheeler-Lea Act

■ Nutrition Labeling and Education Act

■ Organic Foods Production Act

■ Food Safety Modernization Act

4

Food Safety

■ Food and Drug Administration ❑ regulatory authority over most of the food system

■ human and veterinary drugs, vaccines, medical devices,

cosmetics, supplements, tobacco, and food (except meat

and eggs)

■ Environmental Protection Agency ❑ regulates use of pesticides, including those applied to

food crops

■ Department of Agriculture ❑ regulates meats and eggs

5

Agriculture

■ Broad area of law that governs the interactions

between human beings and their environment

■ Includes regulations affecting:

❑ Pollution

❑ Natural resources

❑ Chemical use and disposal

❑ Clean-up of hazardous waste

6

Environmental Law

■ Natural capital -- air, water, soil and every manner of

natural resources

■ Externalities -- the side effects of private actions,

typically commercial, that are borne by third parties

instead of the creator

■ Polluter Pays Principle -- requires the creator or

generator of the pollution to pay for its effects,

including externalities

7

Key Terms

■ Complete reading assignments.

■ Complete writing assignments.

■ Answer discussion questions.

■ Complete unit quiz.

8

What’s Next?

■ Fandl, K. J. (2019). Law and public policy. New

York, NY: Routledge.

9

References

Attachment 2

MPA 611

Public and Administrative Law

Belhaven University

Unit 6

Laws and Policies on Nutritional Assistance

and the Environment

1

■ Development of America’s Nutrition Assistance Policies,

Including Access, Eligibility, Benefit Levels, and

Administration

■ History of Environmental Law

■ Natural Capital and Its Protection

■ Externalities

■ The “Polluter Pays” Principle

■ Environmental Justice

■ Personal Property Rights

■ Major Environmental Legislation

2

Unit 6 Topics

■ Food Stamp Program

❑ Began during the Great Depression

■ Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

■ Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities

Reconciliation Act of 1996

❑ Temporary Assistance to Needy (TANF)

■ Food Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (the

“Farm Bill”)

■ Farm Bill of 2018 (12/20/2018)

❑ Largely, maintains SNAP benefits and eligibility requirements

3

Nutrition Assistance Legislation

■ Food and Drugs Act

■ Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

■ Wheeler-Lea Act

■ Nutrition Labeling and Education Act

■ Organic Foods Production Act

■ Food Safety Modernization Act

4

Food Safety

■ Food and Drug Administration ❑ regulatory authority over most of the food system

■ human and veterinary drugs, vaccines, medical devices,

cosmetics, supplements, tobacco, and food (except meat

and eggs)

■ Environmental Protection Agency ❑ regulates use of pesticides, including those applied to

food crops

■ Department of Agriculture ❑ regulates meats and eggs

5

Agriculture

■ Broad area of law that governs the interactions

between human beings and their environment

■ Includes regulations affecting:

❑ Pollution

❑ Natural resources

❑ Chemical use and disposal

❑ Clean-up of hazardous waste

6

Environmental Law

■ Natural capital -- air, water, soil and every manner of

natural resources

■ Externalities -- the side effects of private actions,

typically commercial, that are borne by third parties

instead of the creator

■ Polluter Pays Principle -- requires the creator or

generator of the pollution to pay for its effects,

including externalities

7

Key Terms

■ Complete reading assignments.

■ Complete writing assignments.

■ Answer discussion questions.

■ Complete unit quiz.

8

What’s Next?

■ Fandl, K. J. (2019). Law and public policy. New

York, NY: Routledge.

9

References

Attachment 3

MPA 611

Public and Administrative Law

Belhaven University

Unit 5

Security Law and Policy

1

■ Current Security Policy and Its Development As

Compared to Predecessor Policies

■ National Security and Homeland Security

■ “Classified” Information and Its Protection

■ National Defense

■ Preventing Terrorism

■ Shared Spaces (Oceans, Air, Space, and

Cyberspace) Policies

2

Unit 5 Topics

■ National Security ❑ All threats to U.S., threats to the people, property or interests of

U.S., or actions taken to counter those threats

■ Homeland Security ❑ Efforts to prevent terrorist attacks, reduce vulnerability to

terrorism, minimize damage from terrorist attacks, or recover

from terrorist attack in the U.S.

■ Terrorism -- Unlawful use of force and violence against

persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the

civilian population, or any segment in furtherance of political

or social objectives

■ Security Policy ❑ Policy matters involving both national security and homeland

security

3

Key Terms

■ Intelligence

❑ Product resulting from the collection, processing,

integration, evaluation, analysis, and

interpretation of available information concerning

foreign nations, hostile or potentially hostile

forces or elements, or areas of actual or potential

operations or the activities that result in the

product

4

Key Terms, cont.

■ Classified Information ❑ Product resulting from the collection, processing,

integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of

available information concerning foreign nations, hostile or

potentially hostile forces or elements, or areas of actual or

potential operations or the activities that result in the

product

❑ Executive Order 13526 (President Obama, 2009)

■ Military information

■ Foreign relations activities

■ Scientific, technological, or economic matters relating to

national security

5

Key Terms, cont.

■ Protect the American people, the homeland, and

the American way of life

■ Promote American prosperity

■ Preserve peace through strength

■ Advance American influence

6

Current U.S. Security Policy -- 4 Pillars

■ President submits within 150 days of taking office and

annually, thereafter

■ Details the country’s national security strategy

❑ Goals and objectives

❑ Foreign policy and defense capabilities

❑ Proposed uses of political, economic, military, and other

power

❑ Evaluation of capabilities to carry out the strategy

■ Quadrennial Homeland Security Review -- report

submitted every 4 years by Secretary of Homeland

Security

7

National Security Strategy Report (1986)

■ Article I of the Constitution ❑ Congress has power to declare war

■ Article II of the Constitution ❑ President is Commander-in-Chief of military

■ Authorization for Use of Military Force

❑ Passed after 9/11 terrorist attacks

❑ Gives President the authority to use all necessary

force in response to attacks

8

National Defense

■ Systems and assets vital to U.S.

■ Physical or virtual

■ Incapacity or destruction would have debilitating impact

on security, national economic security, public health, or

safety

■ National Infrastructure Protection Plan (2013)

❑ 16 critical infrastructures

❑ Creates many formal and informal councils to help identify

risks, plan for contingencies, and coordinate responses

9

Homeland Security Defense -- Critical

Infrastructure

■ 4th Amendment to Constitution

❑ Protects against unreasonable searches and seizures

❑ No warrants to be issued unless probable cause exists

and specifies place to be searched and persons or things

to be seized

■ Communications technology ❑ Largely electronic

■ National Security Act of 1947 ❑ Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) created

■ Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978

10

Intelligence and Terrorism -- Difficulties

■ Oceans ❑ Territorial sea

■ 12 nautical miles

■ Part of each country’s sovereign area subject to its laws and

regulations ❑ Any ship may pass through without permission on the way

somewhere else -- “innocent passage”

❑ Contiguous zone ■ 24 nautical miles

■ Right to enforce only customs, tax, immigration, and

pollution laws

❑ Exclusive economic zone ■ 200 nautical miles

■ Right to exploit natural resources, fishing, oil, natural gas

11

Shared Spaces -- Global Commons

■ Convention on International Civil Aviation

(“Chicago Convention”)

❑ Absolute sovereignty of every country’s air space

above their territory, including territorial sea

❑ No automatic authority to fly over another

country’s territory

❑ Prohibits the use of weapons against civil (non-

military) aircraft while flying

12

Shared Spaces -- Air

■ Outer Space Treaty (1967)

❑ National sovereignty does not exist in space

❑ Forbids nuclear weapons from being placed in

orbit

13

Shared Spaces -- Outer Space

■ No consensus among countries

■ 1st Amendment constraints, although body of criminal laws

■ 2017 National Security Strategy (Trump)

❑ Counter cyber criminals

❑ Identify and prioritize risks

❑ Deter and disrupt malicious cyber actors

❑ Improve information sharing and sensing

❑ Deploy layered defense

❑ Improve attribution, accountability, and response

❑ Enhance cyber tools and expertise

❑ Improve integration and agility

14

Shared Spaces -- Cyberspace

■ Complete reading assignments.

■ Complete writing assignments.

■ Answer discussion questions.

■ Complete unit quiz.

15

What’s Next?

■ Fandl, K. J. (2019). Law and public policy. New

York, NY: Routledge.

16

References

Attachment 4

MPA 611

Public and Administrative Law

Belhaven University

Unit 4

Foreign Law and Policy

1

■ “Foreign Policy” Defined

■ Goals of Foreign Policy

■ Historical Context and Foundations of Foreign Policy

■ Treaties and Executive Agreements

■ The Role of Each Governmental Branch in Foreign

Policy

■ Process of Creating Foreign Policy

■ Contemporary Foreign Policy Issues

2

Unit 4 Topics

■ Romans 3:19-31-- Now we know that whatever the law

says, it says to those who are under the law, so that

every mouth may be silenced and the whole world held

accountable to God. Therefore, no one will be declared

righteous in God’s sight by the works of the law; rather,

through the law we become conscious of our sin.

3

Biblical Foundation

■ Romans 7 -- The Law and Sin ❑ So I find this law at work: Although I want to do good, evil

is right there with me. … Thanks be to God, who delivers

me through Jesus Christ our Lord! I myself in my mind am

a slave to God’s law, but in my sinful nature a slave to the

law of sin. (v. 21, 25)

■ Oppression of foreigners

❑ Exodus 22:21, 23:9

❑ Leviticus 19:33

❑ Deuteronomy 10:19

4

Biblical Foundation, cont.

■ Sovereignty ❑ States have the right to operate as autonomous

actors in the international political system.

■ Foreign Policy

❑ State’s reaction to and interaction with other states

and non-state actors, such as terrorist groups

❑ Explains the behavior of government, shapes

national policies, and influences relations among

nation-states

5

Key Terms

■ Nation

❑ A named, human community residing in a perceived homeland,

and having common myths and a shared history, a distinct

public culture, and common laws and customs for all members.

❑ Not a state and need not be affiliated with a state

❑ Often does seek recognition, nationhood, sovereignty, and

territory

■ State

❑ Governing body, defined by a sovereign territory, borders, and a

populace

❑ Has authority to promulgate laws, regulate policy, collect taxes,

and maintain military and police force

❑ Impacts the political, economic, and social well-being of its

inhabitants

6

Nation-State System

■ Stated in the mission of U.S. Department of State ❑ To shape and sustain a peaceful, prosperous, just, and

democratic world and foster conditions for stability and

progress for the benefit of the American people and people

everywhere

■ Directly relates to the U.S. diplomatic, political,

economic, social, military, security, and humanitarian

interests

■ Monroe Doctrine ❑ Critical element of U.S. foreign policy that warned European

states (Old World) against future colonization and

interference in the New World, while also affirming the U.S.

policy of non-interventionism toward European countries

7

Goal of U.S. Foreign Policy

■ Intergovernmental organization of 193 member

states (originally 51), formed June 26, 1945

■ Mission to facilitate international cooperation and

prevent future conflict

■ Permanent members of U.N. Security Council

❑ U.S.

❑ Soviet Union

❑ China

❑ France

❑ UK

8

United Nations

■ 29 member states (originally 12) formed in 1949

■ Purpose is to guarantee freedom and security of its

members through political and military means

■ Collective defence clause -- an attack against one

or several of its members is considered as an attack

against all

9

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

■ Isolationist

❑ Retreats from active leadership role with regard to

world affairs

❑ Primarily focused on national and domestic concerns

■ Internationalist ❑ Pursuit of policies that are outward looking and

support a leadership role with respect to world affairs

10

Role of President in Crafting Foreign Policy

■ Appoints the Secretary of State (head of U.S.

Department of Secretary)

■ Negotiates and enters into international agreements and

treaties

■ Issues executive orders and executive agreements

■ Hosts and attends summit meetings

■ Appoints ambassadors of the U.S. Foreign Service

11

Essential Presidential Powers Related to

Foreign Policy

■ Make treaties ❑ Subject to ⅔ concurrence of Senators present

■ Appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and

consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other

officers of the U.S. established by law ❑ Consent of Senate

■ Executive Agreements ❑ Senate approval not required

12

Limitations on Presidential Powers

■ Diplomacy -- building relationships

❑ Unilaterally

❑ Bilaterally

❑ Multilaterally

■ Foreign aid

■ Economic sanctions

13

Presidential Tools of Foreign Policy

■ Complete reading assignments.

■ Complete writing assignments.

■ Answer discussion questions.

■ Complete unit quiz.

14

What’s Next?

■ Fandl, K. J. (2019). Law and public policy. New

York, NY: Routledge.

15

References

Attachment 5

MPA 611

Public and Administrative Law

Belhaven University

Unit 3

Economic Law and Policy

1

■ Economic History

■ Capitalism and Free Markets

■ The Commerce Clause, The Contract Clause,

and Business Regulation

2

Unit 3 Topics

■ 16th Amendment (1913)

❑ Allowed Congress to collect taxes from individuals

❑ Realization that import taxes caused more harm than good and

restricted access to foreign goods and markets

❑ Recognition that an alternative mechanism to fund the federal

government was necessary

■ Laffer Theory

❑ Cutting income taxes → business growth --> increased

government revenue (trickle-down effect)

❑ Higher tax rate → less incentive to operate or expand business

operations

❑ “Kansas Experiment” -- failure

3

Case Study on Taxes

■ Study of the production, consumption, and

transfer of wealth

■ Perplexing problem -- Inequality

❑ Why do some have more than others?

❑ How does economic policy explain this?

4

Economics

■ Gibbons v. Ogden

■ “Congress shall have power to regulate commerce with

foreign nations, and among the several States, and with

the Indian tribes.”

❑ Comprehends every species of commercial intercourse

between the U.S. and foreign nations

❑ No sort of trade can be carried on between the country

and any other to which this power does not extend

❑ Commerce among the States cannot stop at the external

boundary line of each State, but may be introduced into

the interior

5

The Commerce Clause

■ Article 1, Section 10 of U.S. Constitution

■ Prohibits states from interfering with private

contracts

■ Enacted to prevent state legislatures from giving

special privileges, such as waivers from debts owed

under private contracts, to friends and supporters

■ The free market should be left top operate absent

government interference in most cases

6

The Contract Clause

■ Extended equal protection to all U.S. citizens

❑ Primarily to prohibit discrimination against

African-Americans

❑ Corporations saw it as an opportunity to acquire

more rights as legal entities than their historic

charters afforded them

7

14th Amendment

■ Interstate Commerce Act (1887)

❑ Established Interstate Commerce Commission

❑ Regulated railroads, bus, and trucking industries

❑ Dissolved after deregulation of these industries

■ Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) ❑ Prevent corporations from placing unreasonable restraints

on trade through use of monopolies or other barriers to

interstate trade

■ Clayton Act (1914) ❑ Added price discrimination and exclusive dealing

arrangements to criminal violations

8

Early Business Regulations

■ Social Security Act (1935)

■ Medicare and Medicaid National Health

Insurance Program (1965)

❑ Prevent corporations from placing unreasonable

restraints on trade through use of monopolies or

other barriers to interstate trade

9

Other Regulations

■ Complete reading assignments.

■ Complete writing assignments.

■ Answer discussion questions.

■ Complete unit quiz.

10

What’s Next?

■ Fandl, K. J. (2019). Law and public policy. New

York, NY: Routledge.

11

References

Attachment 6

MPA 611

Public and Administrative Law

Belhaven University

Unit 2 – Lecture 1

The Structure of Government and How It Works

1

■ Lecture 1 (Chapter 2)

❑ The Electoral College

❑ Key Provision of the U.S. Constitution and How They Impact the

Political Process

❑ Congressional Districts and Apportionment, Including Issues of

Redistricting and Gerrymandering

❑ Development of Political Parties

❑ History and Current Status of Voting

■ Lecture 2 (Chapter 3)

❑ The Three Branches of U.S. Government

❑ Relationship Between Federal and State Government

❑ Governing Structures Around the World

2

Unit 2 Topics

■ Lecture 1 -- Chapter 2

❑ Identify the purpose and process of the electoral college.

❑ Examine the constitutional provisions related to the

election process.

❑ Examine the basis and purpose of congressional districts

and apportionments, including issues of redistricting and

gerrymandering.

❑ Explain the historical development and purposes of

political parties.

❑ Identify modern issues related to voting, including

registration, disenfranchisement, and the Voting Rights

Act.

3

Unit 2 Objectives

■ 1 Timothy 2:1-6 -- I urge, then, first of all, that petitions,

prayers, intercession and thanksgiving be made for all

people—for kings and all those in authority, that we may

live peaceful and quiet lives in all godliness and holiness.

This is good, and pleases God our Savior, who wants all

people to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the

truth. For there is one God and one mediator between

God and mankind, the man Christ Jesus, who gave

himself as a ransom for all people. This has now been

witnessed to at the proper time.

4

Biblical Foundation

■ Matthew 7:1-12 -- “Do not judge, or you too will be judged. For in

the same way you judge others, you will be judged, and with the

measure you use, it will be measured to you … So in everything, do

to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the

Law and the Prophets … “Therefore everyone who hears these

words of mine and puts them into practice is like a wise man who

built his house on the rock. The rain came down, the streams rose,

and the winds blew and beat against that house; yet it did not fall,

because it had its foundation on the rock. But everyone who hears

these words of mine and does not put them into practice is like a

foolish man who built his house on sand. The rain came down, the

streams rose, and the winds blew and beat against that house, and it

fell with a great crash.” When Jesus had finished saying these things,

the crowds were amazed at his teaching, because he taught as one

who had authority, and not as their teachers of the law.

5

Biblical Foundation, cont.

■ Deuteronomy 1:9-18 -- At that time I said to you, “You are too heavy a burden for me to carry alone. The Lord your God has increased your

numbers so that today you are as numerous as the stars in the sky. May the

Lord, the God of your ancestors, increase you a thousand times and bless

you as he has promised! But how can I bear your problems and your

burdens and your disputes all by myself? Choose some wise, understanding

and respected men from each of your tribes, and I will set them over you.”

You answered me, “What you propose to do is good.” So I took the leading

men of your tribes, wise and respected men, and appointed them to have

authority over you—as commanders of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties and

of tens and as tribal officials. And I charged your judges at that time, “Hear

the disputes between your people and judge fairly, whether the case is

between two Israelites or between an Israelite and a foreigner residing

among you. Do not show partiality in judging; hear both small and great

alike. Do not be afraid of anyone, for judgment belongs to God. Bring me any

case too hard for you, and I will hear it.” And at that time I told you

everything you were to do.

6

Biblical Foundation, cont.

■ Result of compromise between the 13 original states

over how to establish fair representation in the new

federal government

■ Created by Article II of the Constitution

■ Each state is allotted a number of electors based upon

their number of representatives.

■ D.C. allotted number equal to smallest state (23rd

Amendment to Constitution)

■ Electors are usually affiliated with party.

■ Each state determines its electors.

7

Electoral College

■ Winner-take-all approach

Popular vote → Electors cast electoral votes

■ Possibility that a presidential candidate may win

electoral votes but not popular vote

8

Electoral College, cont.

■ Redistricting -- states are required to reapportion

their congressional districts following the

decennial census if population has shifted

■ Constitution requires that each state draw

districts to equally apportion population within

those districts (within 1% of the average

population of all districts)

9

Districting

■ Gerrymandering -- process of drawing congressional

districts in a way that gives the party in power an

advantage over the minority party, even if that minority

party would have a majority of the popular vote in the

district

❑ Cracking -- breaks apart majorities of a single party in

order to dilute their voting power

❑ Packing -- consolidation of voters of a single political party

into compact districts to minimize their overall effect on

the election; by giving up some districts, the party drawing

the lines can maximize the overall number of districts in

which they will have a majority share.

10

Districting, cont.

■ Registration

❑ Timing

❑ Voter ID

■ Disenfranchisement

11

Voting -- Current Issues

■ Complete reading assignments.

■ Complete writing assignments.

■ Answer discussion questions.

■ Complete unit quiz.

12

What’s Next?

■ Fandl, K. J. (2019). Law and public policy. New

York, NY: Routledge.

13

References