Running Head: ASSIGNMENT #TWO 1
ASSIGNMENT #TWO 2
Karyl Derek Mokudai
University of Global Campus
Due Date: February 16, 2021
Community-based policing has been widely promoted as a policy intervention that builds public trust and police legitimacy by encouraging nonenforcement and positive contact between the public and police officers. The community-focused elements that form the basis for the policy intervention include decentralization of police organization, community engagement, and problem-solving. The strategies for community-based practices thus promote and recognize the active role of citizens in the process of crime prevention. They aim to define the model of the relationship of interaction between the community and the police.
Detailed research question
Training and education are among the listed interventions of community-based policing. Community relations training for police has been stated as an intervention for collaboration or community engagement. However, little research that assesses the role that such training plays in community policing is available. Training as a technique has been seen to be an effective tool of informing. However, whether it can be an effective tool for community policing is had to conclude since many factors influence the success of community policing. Hence, the research will investigate the research question: Is community relations training for police and community a factor to consider in community-based policing?
Przeszlowski, & Crichlow (2018) assesses how community-based or oriented policing affects crime reduction in small locales. The authors examine the social disorganization predictors and variables of community policing to evaluate their impacts. Various strategies that include the utilization of community surveys, problem-solving projects, among others were combined. The authors state that deeming the practice as either ineffective or effective by basing it on the ability to affect crime rates, defies its philosophical basis. Instead, we should regard community policing success on aspects such as an increase in police legitimacy and a decrease in fear of crime. Also, it should be considered a catalyst for social order and change due to its success in developing positive changes in citizen-police ethos. The author further argues that during implementation of any kind of formal control, lacking to consider social context may result in a backfire impact. This is because when the influences or risk factors of crime are considered community-oriented policing is at its strongest. Hence, when implementing the policing, community factors and building stronger relationships are encouraged.
Nawab et al., (2019), highlight insufficient financial resources, mistrust, lack of competent or educated human resources, political intervention, miscommunication, and over expectations as some of the factors promoting poor police-community relations and weak policing especially in Pakistan. They emphasize that the two core elements of community-based policing are changing the practice and methods of officers and adopting measures to create a relationship between the public and the police. Also, for communities in Pakistan, such issues as high illiteracy rates, gender-based violence, and high crime rates, makes cooperation a challenge and hence the implementation of policing.
Feltes, & Hofmann (2018) explain the challenges local culture and ownership pose to the implementation of community-based or orientation policing by examining Kosovo. The form of policing in the area was associated with police reform efforts and peacebuilding. According to the authors, a collaboration between the public and police to foster security is perceived to foster the quality of life today. When policing was being adopted, little attention was given to the training of its strategies as the emphasis was more towards order and law model. The authors state that local compliance is among the important factor for ensuring the sustainability of policing. Also, trust in police is crucial for policing success and perception of citizens on security.
Griggs (2017) argues that police actions can influence citizen or public perception and effect and impede relations between officers and citizens. This is because some communities, for example, African Americans perceive the police as being too authoritative. Besides, individual racial identity and policing practices are possible factors in influencing perceptions of the police. Hence, the influence of perception in implementing the policing problems is rooted in police-community relations.
In conclusion, the reviewed articles have identified various gaps and unveiled the complexity of community-based policing. From the articles, it can be deduced that for the success of the implementation of policing, many factors need to be fully addressed and not basing its effectiveness on some factors and disregarding others.
Feltes, T., & Hofmann, R. (2018). Local Ownership and Community Oriented Policing: The Case of Kosovo. Eur. L. Enforcement Res. Bull., 17, 19.
Griggs, A. L. (2017). African-American Perceptions of Community-Oriented Policing Programs.
Nawab, B., Ullah, S., Nyborg, I. L., & Maqsood, T. (2019). Community-oriented policing: political, institutional, and technical reforms in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) police.
Przeszlowski, K. S., & Crichlow, V. J. (2018). An exploratory assessment of community-oriented policing implementation, social disorganization and crime in America. Social Sciences, 7(3), 35.
Running head: PUBLIC SAFETY POLICY 1
PUBLIC SAFETY POLICY 2
Protecting First Responders
Karyl Derek Mokudai
University of Global Campus
Due Date: 02 February 2021
Protecting First Responders
Despite first responders being referred to by many as heroes, they have continued to be unrecognized on countless occasions. One of the significant issues that have continued to impose fear is the lack of necessary resources to communicate effectively among the five core disciplines. They include public safety telecommunicators (COMMS), law enforcement (LE), emergency medical services (EMS), and firefighting (FF) (White & Girard, 2012). Although there have been efforts to acquire equipment to support their work, continuous changes in technology have continued to revolutionize when disaster is managed on day-to-day events. Due to this reason, I have chosen to discuss the issue highlighting obstacles observed in information sharing concerning first responders in public safety.
Problem Statement/Research Question
This paper will therefore focus on assessing the effectiveness of current communication channels. This issue has been seriously undermined, not the entire public safety environment's complexity. To understand the clear 'picture' of the matter hand, in any incident, there is usually a 911 call, response, arrival of first responders, monitoring, and lastly having conclusive investigation or monitoring to a given event. For all these agencies to play their role as expected, there must be means following each particular incident without any unprecedented bombarding. With this in mind, the research question will be, “What are the necessary changes required to have effective communication that will be sustainable enough for first responders?” The policy's outcome will also allow continuous improvement of a communication system to focus on both the technological and social environment.
Research Analysis and Findings
By analyzing our first responders' governance, the approach of using local jurisdictions has somehow created various obstacles in communication across disciples within the same jurisdiction (e.g., local enforcement and local medical institutions) and across jurisdictional borders (e.g., state and federal agencies). The situation gets worse that despite the lack of proper means of communication system, almost half of the first responder is not well acquainted with the current procedures and policies required to observed in multi-discipline response (White & Girard, 2012). This issue is one of the many that first responders suggest and the many other barriers affecting their communication with public safety agencies and law enforcement.
Analysis of the Independent Variable
Some of the responder's feedback also suggests that most agencies operate in different systems; it becomes even more complicated when trying to communicate with one another. For example, data sharing is seemingly complex when an agency uses Excel to save its data while another agency chooses to use DOS (Palmieri, Ficco, Pardi, & Castiglione, 2016). This issue is categorized as an independent variable where each agency must develop a standardized communication system. To effectively solve this issue, policymakers should review information restriction policies that create unwanted data sharing barriers and transparency. To measure the result of this policy, it would only require a simple feedback platform that can assess how effective is standardized system is.
Analysis of Dependent Variable
Besides having an effective and standardized communication system, the second variable will develop proper communication channels between public safety agencies and other external agencies (private hospitals and businesses, nonprofit organizations, courts, and other government agencies. For instance, a right communication channel between first responders and other government agencies such as the education department, emergency management agencies, and transportation department can significantly improve how day-to-day response is carried out (Stager, 2012). Through this approach, I believe a right communication channel with the community can also ease the first responder's workload by far less and thereby improving public safety for all at large.
In summary, like how ambulance responders can effectively communicate with their emergency responder’s counterparts in hospitals, I think that poor communication can be eradicated with the right perspective. Therefore, this would mean creating policies that will embark in R&D in technological innovation that will assist each particular team of responders effectively carrying out their mandate while still using open communication channels with no department restrictions (Palmieri et al., 2016).
Palmieri, F., Ficco, M., Pardi, S., & Castiglione, A. (2016). A cloud-based architecture for emergency management and first responder’s localization in smart city environments. Computers & Electrical Engineering, 56, 810-830.
Stager, R. (2012). Wireless Communication: Selection & Use to Improve Team Safety. Professional Safety, 57(3), 60.
White, P. E., & Girard, N. (2012). U.S. Patent No. 8,107,457. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.