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Case Study 4

Open Posted By: surajrudrajnv33 Date: 02/03/2021 Graduate Report Writing

Case Study 

Overview:

In this case study, you will apply your Statesmanship model to a real public administration context dealing with Human Resource policies, strategies, and procedures.  Remember to discuss the importance of the following:

  • Covenant and hesed
  • Covenant and ethics
  • Performance evaluation
  • Statecraft

General Guidelines:

  • Case Study scenarios must be taken from documented (published) public administration contexts; no hypotheticals are allowed.  Students can focus on one particular public administration organization or may refer to a particular situation (well-documented by the research) that many public administrators face.
  • All ideas shared by the student must be supported with sound reason and citations from the required readings, presentations, and additional research.
  • Integrate Biblical principles within the case analysis.
  • The paper should be 4-5 pages of content in length (not counting the title page or references), double-spaced, and in APA format.
  • All required readings and presentations from the assigned module must be cited.
  • 3-5 additional sources must be used.  This need not be scholarly so long as they are provide relevant political and economic analysis of your chosen nation.  Wikipedia may not be used (though certainly the student is welcome to review its content), and informal blogs are not appropriate.
Category: Mathematics & Physics Subjects: Algebra Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Military-Madrasa-Mullah Complex 7

India Quarterly, 66, 2 (2010): 133–149

A Global Threat 7Article

Public Administration Ethics: James Svara’s Model

Ryan C. Urbano

Abstract

Ethical issues arising from public administration are quite complex and difficult. Using a monistic normative ethical approach to these issues may not be very helpful. Thus James Svara’s three-pronged approach to public administration ethics is proposed in order to show its plausibility. The case of Dr Stockman in Henrik Ibsen’s play An Enemy of the People is examined as a way of demonstrating the significance of Svara’s model.

Keywords

Civil servants, ethical analysis, public administration, Svara’s ethical problem-solving model to public administration ethics, whistle-blowing

Introduction

This article highlights James Svara’s problem-solving model in public administration ethics. The case of Dr Stockman in Henrik Ibsen’s play An Enemy of the People will be examined in order to demonstrate how Svara’s model can work in a situation of similar nature as in Ibsen’s play and whether the same model is plausible to adopt in public administration ethics in general. Specifically, the article will be guided by the question: If one were in Dr Stockman’s position as the town’s medical officer (that is, a civil servant), what would one do and why? Svara’s ethical problem-solving model to moral issues in public administration is three-pronged in the sense that it employs the three major theories of Western normative ethics, namely: deontology (principle- or duty-based ethics), consequentialism and virtue ethics. Aside from the fact that there are many reasons for moral behaviour as Williams (2011, pp. 9–10) suggests, the application of a single normative ethical theory, according to Svara, may not be sufficient in solving complex ethical issues in public administration. Moral issues arising in politics, including public administration, could become ‘messy’ so that it blurs the distinction between our moral ideals and what is practical and realistic (Coady, 2008). For Svara, ethical issues in public administration could be best addressed if the three standard theories of Western normative ethics are viewed as complementing each other. Ethical theories, Martin (2001, p. 36) argues, should not be viewed as ‘competing founda- tional principles’; rather, they should be construed as ‘alternative ways of systematizing our view of morality’ and ‘as general frameworks for organizing moral reflection and for developing moral arguments’.

Journal of Human Values 20(1) 7–17

© 2014 Management Centre for Human Values

SAGE Publications Los Angeles, London,

New Delhi, Singapore, Washington DC

DOI: 10.1177/0971685813515604 http://jhv.sagepub.com

Ryan C. Urbano, Chair, Department of Philosophy & Religious Studies, University of San Carlos, Philippines. E-mail: [email protected]

Journal of Human Values, 20, 1 (2014): 7–17

8 Ryan C. Urbano

The article will first give a synopsis of Ibsen’s play before it will analyze and apply Svara’s (2007, p. 108) ethical problem-solving model to Dr Stockman’s case.

Synopsis of Ibsen’s An Enemy of the People

Dr Thomas Stockman is a medical officer of the municipal baths in a coastal town in Norway where his brother, Peter Stockman, is the Mayor. The municipal baths, known for their therapeutic value, have recently attracted many visitors. The baths have given economic prosperity to the town—businesses have thrived, the property value of the houses and the lands have increased and unemployment has diminished. But the town’s economic success is in jeopardy upon Dr Stockman’s discovery that the baths have been polluted by the waste products coming from the town’s tanneries. This contamination has caused serious illness to some tourists. Wary of the danger the baths pose to the health of the visitors, Dr Stockman reported his findings to his brother, the Mayor, with a proposal to fix the conduit pipes that have poisoned the baths. But the Mayor rejected his report, warned him not to announce it in public, and even wanted him to withhold the report from the baths committee, mainly due to the costly rehabilitation of the baths that would burden the taxpayers and the financial loss of the town following the baths’ closure. Determined to bring his case to the public, Dr Stockman organized a town meeting in order to inform his fellow townsmen of the problem and to gain their support. To his dismay, the meeting turned out to be utterly against his favour. He found out that those whom he initially counted for support had betrayed him. The townsfolk rejected his claim for they were told that a considerable amount of their taxes would be used for the baths’ rehabilitation—an expenditure they deemed unnecessary; otherwise the baths would be closed and this would spell their town’s economic recession. Dr Stockman, unfazed by the pressure of political authorities as well as the demands of the crowd, stubbornly held to his conviction and called them (perhaps he was carried away by his emotion) contemptible names such as ‘stupid’, ‘ill-bred’ and ‘vermin’. This angered the crowd and they passed a resolution branding him ‘an enemy of the people’. As a consequence, Dr Stockman paid dearly for his action because he lost his job and his family suffered.

J. Svara’s Ethical Problem-solving Model

Description

Clarification of the facts of the situation

Dr Stockman suspected that the municipal baths have been contaminated and this has caused serious illness to some visitors in the previous year. Most of the illnesses of the tourists were typhoid cases and gastric fever. He sent samples of the water to the University for examination in order to verify and confirm his suspicions. This he did without the knowledge of the Mayor and the members of the municipal baths committee. His fear was confirmed when one day he received a letter saying that indeed the baths were contaminated and infected with infusoria.

When the baths were constructed, Dr Stockman had objected to the place where the water pipes were located because they were quite low and near the drainage of the town tanneries. His objection, however,

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Public Administration Ethics 9

fell on deaf ears. So he made a personal investigation to ascertain his suspicion that there may be a link between the tourists’ sickness and the baths. This led to his discovery that the baths were indeed contaminated.

Because of his findings, Dr Stockman wrote a detailed report on the condition of the baths and offered a proposal to build a sewer that would screen and trap the wastes from the town’s tanneries away from the pipes which supplied water to the baths and to relay the pipes as well. He submitted the report to the Mayor, his brother, with the intention of presenting it also to the baths committee for review. Meanwhile, the information that the baths were contaminated had already leaked out to some people in the media who were Dr Stockman’s friends and to some important people of the town. The Mayor however rejected the report because he thought it lacked substantial evidence and that the engineer he consulted said that it would cost approximately 20,000 pounds of tax-payers money to make the necessary adjustments of the baths, and that the work needed to accomplish this would take up to at least two years. He also warned Dr Stockman not to submit the report to the baths committee and expose the case to the public. His reason was that they would lose visitors in favour of other municipalities that also had their own baths and this would lead to their town’s financial ruin. But since the information contained in the report had already been disclosed to some people, the Mayor ordered Dr Stockman to downplay his findings by making a public announcement that the condition of the baths was not so critical and dangerous as what he initially thought and that he would ‘support and publicly affirm [his] confidence in the present directors to take thorough and conscientious measures, as necessary, to rectify any possible defects’ (Ibsen, 1970, p. 154). Dr Stockman disregarded the Mayor’s advice and expressed his intention to pursue the case in public. He argued that he had a duty to protect the health of the visitors who came to their town ‘in good faith and pay exorbitant fees to gain their health back again’ (Ibsen, 1970, p. 150). He added that the public also had the right to know the truth.

Stakeholder analysis

In the situation outlined above, there are many stakeholders whose interests are potentially affected. The stakeholders are the Mayor (political authority), the town (organization), the tourists (clients), the businessmen (that is, co-investors of the baths, the tradesmen and hostel owners) and Dr Stockman himself and his family. If Dr Stockman disregarded the Mayor’s stern advice, then he would be manifesting disloyalty to his political superior. This means, in the words of the Mayor himself: ‘Without moral authority I could hardly guide and direct affairs in the way I believe serves the general welfare’ (Ibsen, 1970, p. 152). If Dr Stockman goes public to announce the problem, he sidesteps the democratic process of resolving the issue internally within the organization and avoids exhausting all the possible mechanisms provided by the organization itself. And this can be seen as a lack of respect for the organization. If, on the one hand, the baths are to be closed, then the tourist will surely be drawn away from the town and this implies that the town will lose a substantial part of their income because the baths, as Dr Stockman himself says, are the town’s ‘main artery’ and ‘nerve center’ (Ibsen, 1970, p. 134). This could also mean that businessmen will suffer because their investments will go to waste. And if the baths are to be repaired, this will take up to at least two years and it will cost the town and its co-investors a large amount of money for the repair. Moreover, they could not afford to close the baths because there are neighbouring towns which have municipal baths with amenities attractive enough to draw tourists.

If, on the other hand, the baths will not be closed, then the consequences might even be more disastrous in the long run. Many visitors might get sick because of the infection and this would mean the death of

Journal of Human Values, 20, 1 (2014): 7–17

10 Ryan C. Urbano

the town’s tourism industry. Perhaps spending a lot of tax-payers’ money for the rehabilitation of the baths would be worthwhile after all, rather than losing their primary means of income. So, if Dr Stockman will not disclose the truth to the public, he and the town will endanger the health of the tourists. As a doctor, he has pledged to uphold his profession’s oath of protecting people from sickness. He also thinks that it is his duty as a civil servant to inform the public, through proper channels, about the true condition of the baths. But he was forewarned by the Mayor that he will be dismissed from his office if he fails to recant his position.

Analysis

Determining Dr Stockman’s duty in the situation above considering the obligations and responsibilities of his position and his professional role

As a medical officer of the municipal baths, Dr Stockman’s main obligation is to demonstrate his loyalty to the town as an organization. He has the duty to promote public interest, display a commitment to serve, commit to procedural fairness, exercise fiduciary responsibility, uphold the law, support the democratic process and ‘be responsive to the policy goals of political superiors while fairly examining all policy options and exercising leadership appropriate to position’ (Svara, 2007, p. 28). He must know what the organization and his political superiors expect him to do in terms of his responsibility and accountability in the exercise of his role as a municipal medical officer. His primary duty is to obey and defer to the judgment and decisions of his political superiors. As the Mayor in Ibsen’s play says: ‘The individual has to learn to subordinate himself to the whole—or, I should say, to those authorities charged with the common good’ (Ibsen, 1970, p. 127). So, one of Dr Stockman’s duties as a civil servant is to promote public health in terms of maintaining the cleanliness and sanitation of the baths. Connected to this duty is his obligation to protect the health of the tourists who use the baths. He also has the duty to observe and uphold the economic goals and established policies of the town. And if necessary, make recommendations (in terms of policies and research) he deems important as a steward of public resources for the proper maintenance of the baths as well as how best to protect the health of the tourists.

Dr Stockman’s professional duty is basically defined by his profession as a medical doctor. And his primary duty in this professional capacity is to render service to anyone who needs medical attention and to protect them from illness. Svara noted that there are situations wherein there is a tension between one’s duty as a public administrator and one’s duty as a professional (Svara, 2007, p. 111). In the case under examination, this tension is seen in Dr Stockman’s duty as a public administrator to uphold the economic goals of the town concerning the baths as an income-generating venture and obedience to the legitimate orders of his superiors, on one hand, and in his duty as a doctor which is to protect the tourists whose health is jeopardised by the contaminated baths, on the other hand. But if Dr Stockman does not do something to protect the health of the tourists which could lead to grave illness or even death, he would be held morally responsible and his conscience cannot tolerate this. And granting that he discloses to the public that the baths are contaminated, the Mayor will dismiss him from his job and his family will suffer as a consequence.

Although a public administrator’s obligations to the organization and to his political superiors are very important because of his accountability to the public (or fiduciary responsibility), these obligations

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Public Administration Ethics 11

in some occasions are not necessarily binding. Svara says that a public administrator’s obligations to the organization and to political authority ‘must be weighed against the professional standards, which reflect the recommended practices of the professional group, and an assessment of how to best serve the public interest’ (Svara, 2007, p. 111). In other words, a public administrator has to balance his obligations as a civil servant with that of his professional obligations without losing sight of his main goal which is to promote public interest. In the case of Dr Stockman, the challenge he has to address concerning the tension between his obligations as a civil servant and as a professional (that is, as a doctor) is: ‘How can the public interest be advanced in this situation?’ (Svara, 2007, p. 109).

Analysing the situation according to each ethical approach

Svara strongly suggests that administrators must perform their duty to promote public welfare ‘by seeking a balance of virtue, principle, and good consequences’. Virtue alone is not enough because an administrator who thinks he has already the virtue to run his office might underestimate or overlook consequences. He might become overconfident and self-righteous that he becomes complacent and disregards the common good. To offset this tendency in a virtue approach to public administration, a civil servant has to follow external principles that guide him how and what to decide when faced with a difficult situation. He must decide based on clear and tested principles to avoid confusion and mistakes in his decisions that compromise public interest. However, to rely solely on principles already in place in the bureaucratic system might lead the public administrator to deny ‘personal responsibility for one’s own actions, policies and decisions’ and put the blame on the system itself if things go awry (Sheeran, 1993, p. 149; see also Adams & Balfour, 2008). Or, if this is not the case, the public administrator may not be able to properly assess the facts of the situation whereupon his decision is to be made because principles are rigid, too general and therefore vague, and sometimes difficult to apply to the real situation. For example, in Dr Stockman’s case, though he is obliged to apply the principle of truth-telling by virtue of the public’s right to information whose interest is at stake, it is not clear how Dr Stockman must apply this principle in such a way that it will not lead to the town’s financial loss, the businessmen’s investments will not go to waste, workers will not lose their jobs, the tourists’ health will not be jeopardized and his family will not suffer. Strictly applying the principle without regard to results misses an important component of a civil servant’s moral duty to maximize beneficial consequences to the public and equal consideration of the interests of the stakeholders.

Virtue based

A morally good civil servant who is in Dr Stockman’s shoes must possess strength of character when confronted with a difficult decision on how to promote public welfare. He must display such virtues as honesty, benevolence, respect, responsibility and prudence. Regarding the virtue of honesty, Dr Stockman ought not to withhold the truth about his findings of the real situation of the baths both to his political superiors and to the public in general. He must ensure public transparency of information. Benevolence is manifested in Dr Stockman’s inner character in preventing harm to the tourists who use the baths and in promoting public interest by helping his town’s economic development. Respect is exhibited in Dr Stockman’s high regard for public authority and in the democratic and procedural processes. Responsibility is achieved in taking good care of the job entrusted to him by his political superiors and by exercising public accountability. Prudence can be shown if Dr Stockman is able to balance and harmonise the interests of his town, political superiors, fellow town citizens, the tourists and his own family’s interest.

Journal of Human Values, 20, 1 (2014): 7–17

12 Ryan C. Urbano

Principle based

Dr Stockman must not only approach his situation from the perspective of virtue ethics. He must also consider the ethical and political principles applicable to his case. So one important principle he has to apply to his situation is democracy. In a democracy one needs to respect the opinions of others. So in the case of Dr Stockman, though he has moral and political convictions, he must also consider the decisions of his political superiors as well as of his fellow members in the committee of the municipal baths. He must not take matters solely into his own hands. As a civil servant, he has to uphold the law of the town as a political organization, particularly existing policies concerning the municipal baths. Another principle he has to observe is the principle of truth-telling. In Dr Stockman’s case, he has to apply this principle by informing his political superiors and the public of the true condition of the baths. He must also defend the principle of the sanctity of life by warning the public of the danger posed by the polluted baths.

Consequence based

Analysing the cost and benefit of Dr Stockman’s options in the situation is another important element in his decision-making process. His main duty is to promote public interest. How this duty can be effectively carried out requires not only the moral quality of his character (virtue) as a public servant and his ability to apply fundamental ethical and political principles but also the foresight to examine the results of his decisions or choices. He needs, for example, to consider the impact of his decisions to the organization, political superiors, businessmen, workers and to his own family. Equal consideration of the stakeholders’ interests is required by his duty to promote the public good.

At this point, it is important to note that ethical analysis is useful for reminding a civil servant of the broad constraints on his search for alternatives. They often do not consistently point to a single right thing to do. Hence the next stage is necessary.

List of options

Looking at Dr Stockman’s present predicament yields three possible options. Either (a) he follows the appropriate procedure of resolving a problem set in place by the town as an organization and defers to the judgment of his political superior (that is, the Mayor); (b) he informs the public about the contami- nated baths (blow the whistle); or (c) he resigns from his position, discloses the information to the public as an ordinary citizen and looks for employment elsewhere. Option (c) is actually a variant of option (b). Dr Stockman, after whistle-blowing, will either resign straightaway or wait and see whether he would be fired or forced to resign. Moreover, option (a) and option (b/c) could be seen as not mutually exclusive; they can be considered sequentially, that is, b/c is an option if option (a) fails to work.

Decision

Choosing the best alternative

Option (a) is tenable but Dr Stockman risks endangering the health of the tourists, although no such risk occurs if option (a) works or results in a satisfactory solution to the problem. Option (b) is too costly on his part because of the Mayor’s stern warning that he will lose his job. And this could be a reason why Dr Stockman should first try option (a). Besides, whistle-blowing in his case will no longer work because

Journal of Human Values, 20, 1 (2014): 7–17

Public Administration Ethics 13

the information has already leaked out to some members of the media and he has already told the Mayor about it. In fact, that leaking by Dr Stockman is already whistle-blowing. One of the requirements for effective whistle-blowing after all internal procedural mechanisms provided by the organization has been exhausted (that is, option (a), as broadly and properly understood) is to reveal a defect or misbehaviour in the organization anonymously in order to avoid retaliation. But it seems that this requirement is not satisfied in Dr Stockman’s case.

Option (c) is possible but Dr Stockman must first consider that resignation must only be resorted to if all possible internal mechanisms within the organization have been exhausted. He must not give up too easily. As Svara (2007, p. 103) explains:

Officials should not resign for frivolous reasons or refuse to follow orders because they would prefer a different approach or outcome than does their superior. They must be sensitive, however, to situations when important consequences are at stake and when their action or inaction will violate an important principle, break the law, inflict harm on innocent persons, or cause substantial waste of resources. Then they must carefully weigh all the facts, responsibilities, ethical perspectives, and options, and make a reasoned and defensible choice.

As a public servant, part of Dr Stockman’s duty is not only to uphold the law and the policy goals of his organization but also ‘to improve on the law through the governmental process; for example, by conducting research on needs and by policy recommendations’ (Svara, 2007, p. 25). His commitment to public service implies that he must ‘persist and persevere in order to carry out the tasks’ entrusted to him by his superiors as well as by the public.

It would have been prudent for Dr Stockman to first report the information to his political superior and recommend proposals to remedy the problem. As a civil servant, it is his duty to respect democratic procedure, faithfully fulfil the policies and goals of the organization and to show honesty in the identification of needs and problems pertaining to his specific role. This is option (a) as described above.

Providing a reasoned justification for the decision

As already mentioned, option (a) is the best alternative for Dr Stockman. It would have been wise for him to first resolve the problem internally in order not to cause panic to the public which could lead to protests and demands detrimental to a democratic order. This is also the prudent thing to do because it spares him from the risk of losing his job. Subscribing to the proper method of troubleshooting a problem required by the organizational set-up does not violate the principle of truth-telling or denying the public of their right to information. This is so because the political authority, which represents the people in a democratic society and which is directly accountable to them, has been informed. In other words, the people are indirectly informed when the individuals whom they have chosen to represent them have been informed. After all, political authority derived its mandate to rule from the people themselves. So here, the apparent conflict between the duty to respect the democratic process and political authority on the one hand and the duty to respect the right of the public to be informed on the other hand are reconciled and are both upheld.

Although Dr Stockman is accountable to the people as a public official, he is also accountable to the organization and political authority he serves. Though he may be convinced that he has the moral duty to inform and alert the public of the danger posed by the contaminated baths, he also has the duty to support democratic procedure in place in the organization. Dr Stockman’s responsibility as a public administrator is inextricably linked to ‘institutions and processes of democracy’. John Burke calls this notion of responsibility ‘procedurally grounded conception of responsibility’ (Burke, 1994, p. 468).

Journal of Human Values, 20, 1 (2014): 7–17

14 Ryan C. Urbano

So Dr Stockman needs to go through the difficult route of democratic process in getting his moral predicament resolved before he attempts to opt for extra-organizational means of realizing his moral conviction or belief. As Svara (2007, p. 25) argues:

The ethical obligation to uphold the law requires that one subjugate one’s personal beliefs (i.e. one’s sense of morality) to discharge the duties of the office. Furthermore, it is a violation of administrative ethics to substitute one’s own view of morality for law and policy. The administrator can seek to change the policy through appropriate channels and methods within his or her organization…, but if these efforts are not successful he or she must accept the established policy. If one cannot subjugate their personal morals to the law, however, he or she should change positions or leave administrative office to seek to change the policy as a citizen through the political process. He or she should not ignore the law nor try to covertly undermine it.

Arguably, Dr Stockman’s effort to follow the democratic process was not good enough. He did not really fully exhaust the available channels or methods within the organization. His reaction to the Mayor’s disagreement to his plan was somehow excessive because he immediately exposed the defect of the baths to the community. Part of his obligation as administrator is to encourage his political superiors to fulfil their responsibilities (Svara, 2007, p. 43). He should have known that there was still time to find ways to influence his superiors because the summer season when tourists visit is still distant. A better solution to the problem could have been achieved had he reconsidered the ways to make his proposal agreeable to his political superior. So when the mayor expressed his objections to Dr Stockman’s report and his unwillingness to have it presented to the baths committee, it was advisable and prudent for Dr Stockman to consider agreeing with the mayor and then revising his report to adjust to the objections.

Dr Stockman should have thought that civil servants, in the words of Svara, ‘are not sole practitioners who set up their own practice. They operate within an authority structure, they work with others to advance organisational mission, and they have a responsibility to make the organization as strong, effective, and ethical as possible’ (Svara, 2007, p. 5). Though the mayor warned him not to disclose the information, he could have sought the opinion of the other members of the committee of the municipal baths. These members also have the right to be informed of the real condition of the baths. …

Attachment 2

898

Public Administration Review,

Vol. 76, Iss. 6, pp. 898–909. © 2016

The Authors. Public Administration Review

published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

behalf of The American Society for Public

Administration. DOI: 10.1111/puar.12562.

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

and is not used for commercial purposes.

Karen Morgan is a research fellow

in the School of Social and Community

Medicine, University of Bristol, United

Kingdom. She is currently working on a

project piloting and evaluating interventions

for male perpetrators of domestic abuse,

and also on a project exploring experiences

of female survivors of abuse. Previous work

has included looking at the service needs

of homeless women, and at the ethical

framework governing local councillors in

England.

E-mail: [email protected]

Richard Cowell is a reader in

environmental planning in the School of

Geography and Planning, Cardiff University,

United Kingdom. His research interests

cover theoretical and political aspects of

the relationship between public policy and

sustainable development. He has written

widely on issues of governance, knowledge

and decision making, policy integration,

public participation, and trust, with a

particular interest in ethics regulation.

E-mail: [email protected]

James Downe is a reader in public

management and director of the Centre for

Local and Regional Government Research,

Cardiff Business School, United Kingdom.

His current research interests include local

government performance regimes, political

accountability, public trust, and the ethical

behavior of local politicians. He has more

than 10 years of experience conducting

evaluations on local government policy

and has published widely in international

journals.

E-mail: [email protected]

Abstract : Leadership is widely seen as having an important role in fostering ethical conduct in organizations, but the ways in which the actions of leaders intersect with formal ethics regulation in shaping conduct have been little researched. This article examines this issue through a qualitative study of the operation of the “ethical framework” for English local government, which entailed all councils adopting a code of conduct to regulate the behavior of local politicians. Studying local government provides an opportunity to examine how personal and managerial factors combine to influence ethical conduct and to analyze the ways in which ethical leadership is exercised through multiple people in leadership roles (politicians and managers). The article finds that organizations that exhibit consistently good conduct have multiple leaders who demonstrate good conduct but also act to preempt the escalation of problems and thereby minimize the explicit use of ethics regulation.

Practitioner Points • The actions of leaders are important in promoting good conduct and fostering an ethical culture. • The promotion of good conduct within complex organizations can be enhanced when different categories of

leaders work in concert. • Leaders need to be willing to intervene informally to steer behavior in their organizations and resolve

emerging problems rather than relying on formal regulatory mechanisms. • The personal moral credibility of leaders can be very important in enhancing the effectiveness of formal

ethics regulation.

James Downe Richard Cowell Cardiff University , United Kingdom

Karen Morgan University of Bristol, United Kingdom

What Determines Ethical Behavior in Public Organizations: Is It Rules or Leadership?

Ethics is a key component of good governance (Perry et al. 2014 ) and has significant potential to affect public trust in all forms of government (Joyce 2014 ). Previous research has identified a number of factors that can shape standards of conduct within an organization, among which the role of leadership has attracted significant attention (Grojean et al. 2004; Steinbauer et al. 2014 ). Indeed, the ethical behavior of leaders has come to assume global importance, with leaders being implicated in high-profile ethical scandals and integrity violations (Hassan, Wright, and Yukl 2014 ; Tonge, Greer, and Lawton 2003 ).

Researchers are identifying an array of beneficial outcomes arising from “ethical leadership,” including increased willingness of employees to use voice to improve their organization, greater employee job satisfaction and sense of well-being, and increased trust in organization leaders, both from employees and the public (see, e.g., Bedi, Alpaslan, and Green 2015 ; Hassan 2015 ; Wang and Van Wart 2007 ). Much effort has also been applied to delineate the actions and behaviors that leaders can undertake to enhance ethics, including aspects of leadership style that

create a culture in which good conduct is maintained (Huberts 2014 ; Lasthuizen 2008 ). Nevertheless, analysis of the impact of leadership and its role in fostering ethical behavior remains underdeveloped (Menzel 2015 ), especially in the public sector (Heres and Lasthuizen 2012 ; Van Wart 2003; Weinberg 2014 ), with insufficient testing of theory against empirical research compared with business ethics (Lawton and Doig 2005 ; Mayer et al. 2012 ; Perry 2015 ; notable exceptions are Hassan 2015 ; Hassan, Wright, and Yukl 2014 ). Moreover, while it is widely recognized that leaders can exert influence through their character and personal conduct as well as by taking managerial actions to regulate the conduct of others (through issuing guidance or processes of sanctions and rewards), there is relatively little research that considers the causal relationships between leaders, systems of ethics regulation, and resulting standards of behavior. Indeed, Six and Lawton ( 2013 ) suggest there is little theory about the best combination of value- based and compliance-based policies.

This article responds to these gaps by examining the roles played by leaders in shaping the ethical

What Determines Ethical Behavior in Public Organizations: Is It Rules or Leadership? 899

performance of local governments in England. Local government is a vital focus for ethics research, given that local jurisdictions across the globe have democratic mandates and responsibilities for disbursing significant quantities of public funds. In addition, English local government has been subject to a period of intensified formal ethics regulation, including a reinforced role for codes of conduct. Consequently, local government in England is a valuable case study for considering our key research question: how do the activities of leaders intersect with the more formal, codified provisions of ethics regulation in promoting good conduct?

The structure of local government also makes it insightful for understanding the contextual conditions in which ethical leadership unfolds. Much literature in this area assumes an undue homogeneity to “the organization” or “the leader” (Menzel 2015 ; Van Wart 2003). Leadership/integrity research has been “relatively narrow in scope” (Palanski and Yammarino 2007 , 171), often focusing on managers in public agencies (Hassan, Wright, and Yukl 2014 ; Lasthuizen 2008 ; Macaulay and Lawton 2006 ) in largely American organizations (Eisenbeiss and Brodbeck 2014 ) more than elected representatives (exceptions are De Vries 2002; Schumaker and Kelly 2011 ). Yet English local government combines managerial and political leaders and thereby enables us to understand multiple leaders’ roles (e.g., shared leadership; see Crosby 2010 ) and the politics–administration dichotomy (Georgiou 2014 ) in promoting ethical conduct.

The structure of the article is as follows: In the next section, we review how existing research conceives of the relationship between leaders’ activities and ethics regulations, with a particular focus on leadership studies. We argue that translational models of power (after Latour 1986 ) provide valuable conceptual and methodological sensitivity to how different elements combine in the exercise of agency in organizations. We then outline the institutional context of the ethical framework for local government in England. After elaborating our research design, we set out our findings on how those in leadership positions shape ethical behavior. In the final section, we offer some conclusions and suggestions for future research.

Conceptualizing the Role of Leadership How Leaders Act on Ethics Leadership can be defined as “a process of social influence whereby a leader steers members of a group towards a goal” (Bryman 1992 , 2), and much of the literature linking leadership to ethics falls into two broad sets. As Bedi, Alpaslan, and Green ( 2015 ) explain, attention has been given to defining the moral principles or qualities that leaders ought to demonstrate and adhere to (the goals), but they also suggest a shift in research from issues of definition toward identifying the contents and actions of those who exercise leadership over ethics and capturing the influence that they exert.

An important conceptual construct in this agenda is ethical leadership, which is most commonly defined as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions

and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision-making” (Brown, Treviño, and Harrison 2005 , 120). Researchers have sought to further specify the concept by identifying its key components based on modes of promoting conduct, notably, being a moral person (exemplified by a leader ’ s traits, behaviors, and how he or she makes decisions) and a being moral manager

(when a leader creates moral codes for others through guidance, clear communication, and systems of rewards and discipline) (Treviño, Hartman, and Brown 2000 ). Similarly, De Hoogh and Den Hartog (2008) distinguish three elements of ethical leadership, consisting of morality and fairness, role clarification, and power sharing. For Hassan, Wright, and Yukl ( 2014 ), ethical leadership is made up of being an ethical role model, treating people fairly, and actively managing ethics in the organization. Overall, although grouped in different ways, the existing literature sorts the effects and actions of leaders in relation to ethics into two groups: those emanating from the nature and behavior of the leader as a person, encouraging emulation, and those arising from the systems and practices that they set up to regulate conduct on their behalf.

Although research on ethical leadership has grown rapidly, analysis in this field faces a number of issues. The first of these concerns whether ethical leadership is conceptually distinct from other leadership models such as transactional leadership or transformational leadership. The latter entails providing individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence (Bass 1990 ). Thus, leaders are in a position to set an example and influence the behavior of people around them as people learn by observing and emulating attractive and credible models (Bandura 1977 ). With transactional leadership, leaders intervene only to set parameters, reward good performance, and discipline when standards are not met. It is often characterized as a more passive style of leadership. The ethical behavior of leaders also forms a key component of other leadership theories, including authentic leadership, spiritual leadership, and servant leadership (Eisenbeiss 2012 ; Yukl et al. 2013 ). For example, “ethical leaders use transactional forms of leadership and authentic leaders don ’ t” (Kalshoven, Den Hartog, and De Hoogh 2011b, 52). If the relationship between such leadership theories is “blurred” and overlapping (Bedi, Alpaslan, and Green 2015 ), this is unsurprising given that most such theories—explicitly ethical or otherwise—are essentially concerned with agency, that is, how influence over others can be achieved.

This leads to a second issue: the criticism that ethical leadership constructs remain vague because in focusing on influencing mechanisms, they do not specify normative reference points that ethical leaders can use in promoting followers to behave ethically (Bedi, Alpaslan, and Green 2015 ; Eisenbeiss 2012 ). In principle, therefore, transformational leaders can promote ethical or unethical behavior. We do not seek to define normative principles of conduct in this article, although we note that researchers might do more to connect the modes of governance of ethics to the different objects (different norms and principles) to be governed (Jessop 1997 ).

Local government is a vital focus for ethics research, given that local jurisdictions across

the globe have democratic man- dates and responsibilities for

disbursing signifi cant quantities of public funds.

900 Public Administration Review • November | December 2016

On a prima facie basis, one might regard the categorization of ethical leadership as a sufficient explanatory construct, in that it represents an effort comprehensively to specify dimensions of agency. However, questions remain about how leaders combine action as “moral persons” and “moral managers” to influence ethical conduct (Kalshoven, Den Hartog, and De Hoogh 2011a). Statistical analysis can tell us the explanatory power of techniques of moral management, vis-á-vis being a “moral person,” but not how leaders combine formal regulatory processes with social learning. One question in particular is that of “reach,” which concerns how far leaders can shape what happens across organizations, including in the myriad contexts in which they are not co-present with others. Such concerns direct our attention to examining the use of ethics regulation mechanisms.

The Use of Ethics Codes A common device for regulating conduct is to draw up an ethics code, which is a written framework used by organizations to specify and then shape what is regarded as appropriate conduct. The International City/County Management Association, for example, has had an ethics code in place for more than 90 years (Svara 2014 ). The use of codes, with supportive guidance and mechanisms of reward or sanction, has proliferated since the 1980s. Such techniques form a component of ethical leadership as examples of the practices required for being “a moral manager” (Huberts 2014 ). The growth in the use of codes has not, however, been accompanied by sufficient analysis into their impact and whether ethical behavior has improved as a result (Beeri et al. 2013 ; Jensen, Sandström, and Helin 2009 ), and there remains much debate about how codes intersect with other actions and regulatory institutions for ensuring compliance (Svara 2014 ).

The role of leaders is important here. At a basic level, in the private sector, it will fall to senior managers to decide whether to introduce ethics codes and what their form and content will be. Leaders may be aware that the adoption of an ethics code can be effective in increasing awareness of ethical principles and a useful management tool in fostering an ethical climate within an organization (Beeri et al. 2013 ; Treviño et al. 1999 ). However, how leaders effect the implementation of ethics codes warrant as much attention as adoption decisions (Svara 2014 ), and here the limited research available suggests a rather nuanced set of processes at work. In their meta-analysis of ethical leadership outcomes, Bedi, Alpaslan, and Green ( 2015 ) usefully unpack the “transactional” dimension of being a moral manager, embracing (1) active management (based on monitoring conduct, issuing rewards), (2) passive management (taking action after a problem), or (3) leaders adopting a more laissez-faire approach. They found negative correlations between ethical leadership and (3) but also (2) and some positive correlations with more proactive measures.

The sense emerging from ethical leadership research is that passive transactional approaches to influencing conduct, relying on regulation, are unlikely to be adequate (Eisenbeiss 2012 ), a finding that chimes with wider research on ethics codes. Codes have been criticized as being too abstract, coercive, and unworkable while

producing red tape and restricting practical options (OECD 1996 ). Codes of ethics are also seen as insufficient to achieve change or govern conduct without other social processes. Ultimately, the success of codes is dependent on the culture of the organization (Ethics Resource Center 2005 ), “where people naturally do the right thing when faced with dilemmas” (Back 2006 , 9). Leaders can play a significant role in helping set this ethical culture (Hassan, Wright, and Yukl 2014 ), as they have the scope formally to waive or less formally to ignore ethics codes (as with Enron; see Tonge, Greer, and Lawton 2003 ). Attention to the potential role of leaders shows that codes do not “act” unless interpreted and translated into actions by human agents.

Our task is to trace the causal mechanisms through which leaders work with ethics regulation, and the outcomes that arise, to elucidate the predominantly statistical analyses of ethical leadership research to date (Bedi, Alpaslan, and Green 2015 ). In so doing, we can determine how the “moral person” dimensions of ethical leadership come to bear on managerial actions rather than viewing them as separate modes of influence. The importance of doing this becomes clearer,

once we acknowledge both the complexity of ethics in organizations and the limits of codification.

Leaders, Codes, and Agency in Complex Organizations Much of the research on ethical governance and leadership has taken a rather simplistic view of organizations. Those who are the leaders is assumed to be clear. They are few in number and occupy a clear hierarchical position of authority within an organization from which influence on conduct can be exercised. Indeed, in response to the potential existence of a multiplicity of ethical cultures in organizations, the role of leaders is to create a “unified climate,” playing different roles at different levels and providing strategic leadership. There is some evidence to suggest that if leaders across different levels of the organization convey similar messages through training, this will create shared cognitions (Grojean et al. 2004). However, this simple and rather linear view of how agency is exercised faces two problems.

One is that organizations can embrace multiple normalization processes, acting on and through human agents positioned within heterogeneous networks. Local government, for example, embraces political and managerial leaders, and norms for judgment may emanate from conceptions of electoral mandate, party, and constituency (for politicians) or from professional values or divergent goals such as efficiency and delivery (for managers) (Cowell, Downe, and Morgan 2014 ). Thus, the enhancement of conduct across an organization can be seen not just as a simple issue of implementing a single code of ethics but also as a struggle to assert the importance of a particular set of principles in the face of other bases for judgment. In shared-power worlds, multiple norms must be navigated (Crosby 2010 ).

The second problem is that the codification of ethics in documented statements—as a basis for communication and regulation—can never fully capture and direct how decisions should be made across the

A common device for regulat- ing conduct is to draw up an

ethics code, which is a written framework used by organiza-

tions to specify and then shape what is regarded as appropriate

conduct.

What Determines Ethical Behavior in Public Organizations: Is It Rules or Leadership? 901

diversity of situations when ethical issues arise (Jensen, Sandström, and Helin 2009 ; West and Davis 2011 ). Applying principles to contexts often entails further reinterpretation. Moreover, there is potential for principles of good governance to conflict, such as the tensions between integrity, transparency, and efficiency (De Vries 2002; Van der Wal, de Graaf, and Lawton 2011). The ultimate expression of dilemmas arising from the incompleteness of moral principles is the so-called dirty hands debate (Newbold 2005 ; Walzer 1973 ), concerning the morality of overriding important ethical principles to achieve greater goals. One can imagine that such dilemmas fall heavily on those in leadership roles, especially in governments where multiple constituencies are involved.

Tracing the means by which agency is exercised over conduct in practice requires a conceptual and methodological perspective that can integrate the different effects of leaders (personal or through rules or other practices). A valuable approach, already used in other areas of business ethics (Jensen, Sandström, and Helin 2009 ) and public administration research (Feldman et al. 2006 ), is the conception of power as translation. For Latour ( 1986 ), it is unhelpful to conceive of power in potentia , as something inherently possessed by someone (e.g., a leader, or an idea or principle), as it may not automatically lead to anything. Rather, power is better analyzed in actu , as an effect resulting from (and revealed by) the translation of an order or principle into the actions of others. By focusing on agency as a social process of translation, we can observe the combination of elements that come together to align conduct and see this as a collective, composite process entailing an array of practices—“countless, often competing local tactics of education, persuasion, inducement, management, incitement, motivation and encouragement” (Rose and Miller 1992 , 175)—linking the actions of leaders, others, and regulations.

Through such a perspective on power, it becomes clearer which individuals actually lead on ethics, in terms of whether their actions change the frame of reference for others and the basis of their authority (e.g., moral, political, or technical expertise). It may be that ethics codes give durability to social practices and extend the agency of leaders into domains where they cannot be present. Alternatively, we may find that leaders are more thoroughly implicated in shaping adherence to the regulations and that aspects of character have reinforcing effects—that is, the nature of moral management is shaped by the detailed interventions of moral persons.

The next section addresses the policy context in which leaders behave before examining the methods we used to assess the ways in which leaders can influence ethical behavior.

The Ethical Framework for Local Government in England The emergence of the ethical framework for politicians in local government in England echoes international trends, as concerns about conduct and declining trust in public institutions have been translated into ethical codes, statements of values, and other organizational machinery for regulating conduct (Pharr and Putnam 2000 ). The 1997–2010 Labour governments were seeking to address public concerns about “sleaze” in political life as well as high- profile corruption scandals in a few local councils. One of its main interventions was to greatly reinforce the arrangements for regulating

conduct in local government (the ethical framework). Under the Local Government Act 2000, all English local authorities were obliged to (1) adopt a code of conduct to regulate the behavior of elected members (also known as councillors); (2) establish a register of members’ interests, and (3) set up a standards committee to advise on the code, monitor its operation, and promote high standards of conduct. The act also created new bodies, notably, the Standards Board for England. Initially, the Standards Board took the lead role in the assessment and investigation of complaints, but when this task was decentralized to standards committees for each local council beginning in 2008, it adopted a more strategic regulatory role. It is important to note that the ethical framework was imposed on local government and its leaders and required them to adopt it.

Rather than being made the responsibility of a single leader, the ethical framework implicated an array of leadership roles within English local councils. On the political side, these were the council leader (usually taken from the dominant political group) but also the leaders of the other political parties. On the officer side, a senior manager called the monitoring officer had responsibility for the management of the ethical framework and reported to the chief executive in each council. Standards committees were required to include independent chairs and a proportion of independent members to separate them from political influence (Lawton and Macaulay 2014 ). Therefore, we see how the implementation of the ethical framework was shaped by leaders with different forms of authority—electoral, professional/legal, and the moral authority of “independence.” Moreover, operationalizing the ethical framework had to take place within “a collection of agencies, laws and processes” that made up a wider integrity system (Six and Lawton 2013 , 640), including internal organizational efforts and external actors such as financial auditors, rules governing political parties, and the justice system.

Methodology The majority of the research on ethical leadership is statistical and cross-sectional in nature (Bedi, Alpaslan, and Green 2015 ; Hassan 2015 ), relying on surveys to measure ethical leadership and correlate it with effects (e.g., De Hoogh and Den Hartog 2008; Kalshoven, Den Hartog, and De Hoogh 2011b; Kolthoff, Erakovich, and Lasthuizen 2010 ; Mayer et al. 2012 ; Yukl et al. 2013 ). What remains deficient is research that moves from statistical associations to elucidating causal mechanisms. To address this, we have responded to the call for more detailed qualitative research (Hassan 2015 ) and used case studies to enable a deeper assessment of causal processes.

Our research site is English local government, which consists of 353 local councils spanning small district councils (in a two-tier structure in which responsibility for council services is split with county councils) to larger unitary and metropolitan authorities. Councils are predominantly financed by grants from the central government (about 48 percent), with the remainder made up of business rates (charged to local companies, about 25 percent) and council tax (charged to local people, also about 25 percent). To this field, we applied a multiple case study design (Yin 1984 ), centered on nine local councils.

Cases were selected purposively to embrace an array of contextual conditions and leadership situations deemed likely to bear on

902 Public Administration Review • November | December 2016

patterns of conduct and their governance. Table 1 outlines the main variables that we used to select cases, and table 2 summarizes how these mapped onto each of our case studies. Structuring case study selection in this way was designed to provide a framework in which the causal effects of different leadership actions on conduct, the roles performed by ethics regulations, and the conditions that facilitated these effects could be teased out. The individuals and councils have been treated anonymously in all published output from this research.

This article reports on data gathered in 2008 and 2010, a pivotal period in the implementation of the ethical framework, when more responsibility was being devolved from the Standards Board for England to individual councils. Visits were made to nine case studies in 2008, and repeat visits were made to six cases (A, B, C, D, E, and F) in 2010; the abolition of the Standards Board meant that we were unable to revisit the remaining three case studies. The principal source of data was semistructured interviews with key informants, including council leaders and leaders of party groups, chief executives, monitoring officers, chairs of standards committees, a range of nonexecutive councillors from different political parties, and senior officers. We felt that it was important to gather the views of not just the formal leaders in the organization (both political and managerial) but also a range of followers (e.g., those councillors not in formal leadership positions) to gain a wider perspective on how conduct was shaped, embracing both those leaders …

Attachment 3

Public Integrity, 17: 315–318, 2015 Copyright # American Society for Public Administration ISSN: 1099-9922 print/1558-0989 online DOI: 10.1080/10999922.2015.1065113

GUEST EDITORIAL

Leadership in Public Administration: Creative and/or Ethical?

Donald C. Menzel

Northern Illinois University

Is it possible for a leader to be both ethical and creative? Assuming you don’t think the categories are mutually exclusive, have you ever wondered about what creative leadership is and how it might be achieved? There is a substantial literature about creative leadership, and a more modest one on ethical leadership, yet almost no reported research linking the two. In principle, the constructs are not in situ compatible with one another; one can be a creative leader without being an ethical one, or an ethical leader without being especially creative.

But, and it’s a big but, can creative leadership and ethical leadership be learned as complementary components of effectiveness? One school of thought asserts the “no” side and views all leadership traits as innate: You’re either born with them, or you’re not. Those on the “yes” side refuse to accept such determinism, but still struggle to understand the process by which one becomes an effective leader, a process that can often seem elusive, even mystical. Nonetheless, it is an axiom of modern management and education that not only can both creative and ethical leadership be learned, but that they should be learned. Indeed, there is no shortage of educational and training programs in the United States that purport to teach leadership and ethical decision-making skills.

Nearly every textbook on the subject typically describes the transactional, transformational, entrepreneurial, transcendent, and charismatic styles of leadership. But could these not also have a creative dimension? A transactional leader is, by definition, one who is capable of ensur- ing that organizational members and processes work with minimum friction, thus producing a product or service that is high on quality and low on cost. Would not Henry Ford’s amazing success in the development of a factory-assembled Model T qualify him as a transactional and creative leader? Or, how about Steve Jobs’s transformational skills and vision that turned Apple into the giant success it is today? Surely he would be regarded as a creative leader as well. Further, consider Bill Gates and Microsoft, or Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook—they

Correspondence should be sent to Donald C. Menzel, Ethics Management International, Northern Illinois University, 3421 Reynoldswood Drive, Tampa, FL 33618, USA. E-mail: [email protected]

unquestionably could be considered entrepreneurial leaders with a creative bent. Transcendent leadership, demonstrating leadership beyond self-interest, comes to mind when the names of Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., and Nelson Mandela are mentioned—surely creative leaders too! U.S. Presidents Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton shared a strongly charismatic leadership quality that could be interpreted as creative. Therefore, creative leadership, as these examples suggest, is not necessarily a distinct quality that cannot coexist with other traits.

Creative leadership is something more than having a vision or creating value or attracting followers. Creative leadership draws together three distinct but interconnected constructs— creativity, leadership, and innovation (Puccini, Mance, & Zacko-Smith, 2015). The ability to generate and execute innovative ideas is what separates creative from noncreative leaders. Traditional leaders tend to execute “tried-and-true” strategies, such as cost-cutting or product/ service extensions, but they rarely disrupt their governing bodies or industries, or create new product/service categories.

What is ethical leadership? There are three basic ingredients: being an ethical role model to others, treating people fairly, and actively managing ethics in the organization. Leading with integrity is yet another way of describing ethical leadership. A person with integrity is honest, truthful, and unwilling to compromise values or principles for advancement or personal gain. It means taking personal responsibility for errors one may commit, and recognizing and crediting others for their work and contributions to the organization’s mission.

Why is ethical leadership important? Does this question even need to be asked? The question does need to be asked—and answered, because we too often take it for granted, and it is much too important to ignore. Two obvious, compelling reasons that it is important is that ethical leadership (1) makes a positive difference in organizational performance, and (2) builds public trust and confidence in public agencies. Consider a recent study of the impact of ethical leadership on workplace behavior. Hassan, Wright, and Yukl (2014) surveyed 161 managers in a large U.S. state government agency and reviewed reports and personnel records. The findings supported their hypothesis that ethical leadership (1) increases the willingness of public sector employees to report ethical problems to management, (2) strengthens the organizational commitment of employees, and (3) reduces the frequency of absenteeism.

Building public trust and confidence in government organizations is no easy task. Indeed, there are numerous examples of the lack of ethical leadership corroding public trust. Several years ago, I conducted a case study of the ethical meltdown of a professionally managed local government in the Tampa Bay, Florida, region. The case involved educated, politically astute elected and appointed county officials who found themselves invoking the oft-used rationalization when there was no other direction to turn—“I didn’t do anything unethical, illegal, or immoral.” The story revolved around the attempt of a property appraiser employed by the government to sell his private property to the county; in the aftermath, the county attorney and the county administrator both had to resign, the property appraiser decided not to run for a fifth term of office, and a grand jury presentment concluded that the breadth of scandal surrounding this affair “will have a lasting impact on how the citizens view their officials and government” (van Sant, Abel, & Blackwell, 2007). As a distraught citizen observed in a letter to the editor, this “sort of back-door deal causes residents to distrust the commission . . . a wink and a nod won’t do” (Keep Delving Into What’s Behind Sordid Land Deal, 2007). Did local government officials demonstrate ethical leadership? Hardly! Was public trust diminished? Without question!

316 D. C. MENZEL

So the important question is: How does one become an ethical leader? Step one is to become ethically competent. It is hard to imagine an ethical leader who is not ethically competent. What, then, are the skills and qualities needed to become ethically competent? I would list five: (1) a commitment to high standards of personal and professional behavior, (2) a knowledge of relevant ethics codes and laws, (3) the ability to engage in ethical reasoning when confronted with challenging ethical situations, (4) the ability to identify and act on public service ethics and values, and (5) a commitment to promoting ethical practices and behaviors in public agencies and organizations. Implied in these five components are knowledge of the normative founda- tions of administrative ethics and a thorough grounding in organizational theory and behavior.

The pursuit of ethical competence as a foundational building block for ethical leadership is not a one-time affair. Rather, it is a life-long endeavor that can involve missed opportunities, blind alleys, and, sometimes, blind spots and traps that can lead even the most ethically minded person astray. Consider the utilitarian trap. That is, leaders who believe it is their job to always make decisions that satisfy most employees in their organization may also, in doing so, be sacrificing the right thing to do. A manager who supports across-the-board pay raises may make many employees happy, but is it the fair thing to do for those who work is meritorious compared to those whose work is substandard? Majoritarianism has its place in a democratic society, but it can’t be the only decision rule to follow in making ethical decisions. A utilitarian approach— calculating the best outcome for the most employees—can be perceived as, if not constitute the reality of, an exercise in manipulating the means to a desired end.

Becoming an ethically competent leader is not an easy or simple task. One must sidestep traps and blind alleys and, above all, make a long-term commitment to leading with integrity. Such a commitment involves taking advantage of opportunities to stay ethically fit through programs and experiences offered by professional associations, educational institutions, and frequent self-study and reflection. Of course, an ethically competent person can become a de facto ethical leader merely by setting an example and engaging in advocacy. Ethical leadership is not rooted in a particular job title.

So, what do creative leadership and ethical leadership have in common? Let’s begin with motivation. Self-motivation and the ability to motivate others is a common property of both creative and ethical leadership. As an intrinsic property, self-motivation is essential to being creative and becoming ethically competent. Motivating others is central to creative leadership and an intentional, sometimes unconscious, feature of ethical leadership. While change and innovation are always forces to be reckoned with in creative leadership, they can be confound- ing influences on ethical leadership. Creative leaders must be able to master complexity to cre- ate change and, in a similar manner, ethical leaders face complexity in resolving thorny moral dilemmas. A persuasive argument can be made that ethical leadership and creative leadership share relational qualities, are both grounded in process (ethical reasoning), and both require self-reflection and imagination to produce positive results (Puccini et al., 2015). As Terry Cooper (2012) reminds us, one must develop a capacity to exercise one’s moral imagination. While creative leadership, like its more generic form, can be viewed as improvisational, perhaps even as an experimental art, ethical leadership requires one to anticipate desired ethical outcomes while taking into consideration the situation at hand (Heifetz, Grashow, & Linsky, 2009). In this sense, ethical leadership is improvisational, as it is not determined solely by the situation. There is no place for situational ethics in leading with integrity, and ethical leaders know that.

LEADERSHIP IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 317

Becoming a creative leader is just as great a challenge as becoming an ethical leader. In fact, perhaps it’s time to consider that ethicality and creativity, rather than existing on two separate continuums, are points along the same leadership spectrum. Both require persistence, patience, and much trial and error, along with a significant investment of self-reflection. Both also require that leaders maintain an insatiable quest over the course of their careers, an open mind for new knowledge, and a propensity to be responsible risk-takers. Above all else, creative and ethical leaders cannot compromise their authenticity, as to do so would surely sow de-motivating doubt among followers. Are you ready for the challenge this presents? Ready, set, go!…

REFERENCES

Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (6th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hassan, S., Wright, B. E., & Yukl, G. (2014). Does ethical leadership matter in government? Effects on organizational commitment, absenteeism, and willingness to report ethical problems. Public Administration Review, 74(3), 333–343. doi:10.1111/puar.12216

Heifetz, R., Grashow, A., & Linsky, M. (2009). Leadership in a (permanent) crisis. Harvard Business Review, 87(7/8), 62–69.

Keep Delving Into What’s Behind Sordid Land Deal. (2007, June 27). St. Petersburg Times, p. A16. Puccini, G. J., Mance, M., & Zacko-Smith, J. (2015). Creative leadership: Its meaning and value for science, tech-

nology and innovation. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1958027/CREATIVE_LEADERSHIP_ITS_- MEANING_AND_VALUE_FOR_SCIENCE_TECHNOLOGY_AND_INNOVATION

van Sant, W., Abel, J., & Blackwell, T. (2007, August 29). Grand jury critical of Smith. St. Petersburg Times, p. A1.

318 D. C. MENZEL

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  • REFERENCES

Attachment 4

ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT  20/2013

Ethical Values and the Human Resources Behaviour in Public Management

49

Ethical Values and the Human Resources Behaviour

in Public Management

Armenia ANDRONICEANU1

Abstract: The role of ethical behaviour in public management is crucial for the

public organizations’ results and for the citizens’ satisfaction. This idea is already

demonstrated by several studies and the practitioners share it. There are limited knowledge

about how the newly emerged politico-administrative dichotomy in the Balkans has

influenced the formation of ethical behaviour along the management process and how this

should be updated, taking into account that it is permanently influenced by regional

cultures, by public managers and politicians. The main objectives of this paper are: (1) to

identify some features of the human resources behaviour during the management process;

(2) to underline the main reasons for unethical behaviour, (3) to identify some

recommendations for creating and maintaining an ethically-oriented behaviour. The

research methodology was based on questionnaire and included forty persons from the

central government level. The paper concludes with some recommendations for improving

the ethical behaviour of the human resources involved in the public management process at

the central Romanian government.

Keywords: ethics; human resources; public management

JEL: J21; J24; D23. Introduction

The research starts from the assumption that decisions and behaviours are

influenced by values. People often have different values and ways of behaving.

Although these different values make people behave differently, yet they should

work together in organizations that have common values and ethical behaviour. A key role in this adaptation process have public managers. They have to set up the

values and to follow them in the management process. It is necessary for the public

managers to foster common value systems within their structures, if they want

decisions and human behaviours to be consistent with their objectives. This

consistency is possible if the organizations' values are known and agreed by every

employee. It should be a sort of “soft” partnership based on ethical values.

(Burlacu, 2011).

The word "ethics" is often in the news nowadays. Ethics is a philosophical

term derived from the Greek word "ethos" meaning character or custom (Calciu,

1 Professor PhD, The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Faculty of Administration and

Public Management, Bucharest, Romania, e-mail: [email protected]

ADMINISTRAŢIE ŞI MANAGEMENT PUBLIC  20/2013

Ethical Values and the Human Resources Behavior in Public Management

50

2009). This definition is linked with effective leadership in organizations.

(Bovaird, Hughes, 1995).

Certain organizations will commit themselves to this philosophy through a

formal pronouncement of a Code of Ethics or Standards of Conduct. Other private

organizations, however, will be concerned with aspects of ethics of greater

specificity, usefulness, and consistency. Formally defined, ethical behaviour is

morally accepted as "good" and "right" as opposed to "bad" or "wrong" in a

particular setting (Androniceanu, Abaluta, 2008). Organizations face a variety of

changes and challenges that will have a profound impact on organizational

dynamics and performance (Halachmi, 1995). A long-standing tradition of ethical

behaviour is based on the principles of honesty, integrity and trustworthiness.

The ethical climate of an organization is composed by a set of beliefs about

what correct behaviour is and how ethical issues will be handled. This climate sets

the tone for decision making at all levels and in all circumstances (Androniceanu,

2011). Some of the factors and variables presented below were involved in the

survey in order to emphasize the fact that ethical behaviour of the human resources

is strongly influenced by ethical organizational environment which is based on

ethical core values of each person involved in the management process. The main

attributes included in the survey are the following: personal self-interest; public

interest; operating efficiency; individual friendships; team interests; social

responsibility; personal morality; rules and standards of procedure; laws and

professional codes.

Standards for what constitutes ethical behaviour lie in a "grey area" where

clear-cut right-versus-wrong answers may not always exist. As a result, unethical

behaviour is sometimes imposed on public organizations by the formal

environment (Popescu, R.I., 2008). However, ethical behaviour is in many cases

strongly influenced by values in which public managers and the politicians believe.

Their personal behaviour gives the others possibility to make a comparison

between what the public managers and the politicians are saying about core ethical

values of the public organization and how they apply these values in the

management process. The research survey demonstrates that there are enough

differences between these two dimensions. The differences are influences by

several factors and variables. Identifying and knowing the content and the causes

of these factors and variables may lead to the identification of ways to improve the

ethical behaviour of human resources who are working in a public organization.

The effective management of ethical issues requires that public

organizations ensure that their public managers, politicians and the civil servants

know which are the ethical values - and how to deal with ethical issues in their

everyday work (Moldoveanu, Sabie, 2009).

1. Empirical survey on specific ethical values and ethical behaviour of public managers, civil servants and politicians

It is now necessary for the Romanian public managers and for the

politicians to reconsider their fundamental values and beliefs, to see which

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represent now deviates from what we think we set out to be, and what we would

like public employees to see us to be. Ethical behaviour is acknowledged as a

necessity in modern governments.

There are some recent research studies conducted by different scholars. In

the period 15-20 February 2006, one Romanian academic group working inside the

International Research Centre for Public Management from the Bucharest

University of Economic Studies initiated an empirical survey on the ethical

behaviour in the Centre of the Romanian Government (CRG). We set up this

survey having the main objectives to know what the people understand by ethical

values and ethical behaviour and to identify the main reasons for unethical

behaviour occurrence in the CRG. Based on this, we made some recommendations

for improving ethical behaviour, taking into account the general principles for

managing ethics in the public sector. The survey was replicated in 2012 and the

current paper includes the main findings. The purpose of the survey was to identify

the main changes of human resources ethical behaviour. The results have been used

afterwards for making recommendation regarding the appropriate essential ethical

values and the needed changes for the Romanian public administration and

especially for the central government body.

The main dimensions of ethical behaviour considered and the meaning of

each of them are the following:

 Utilitarian view of ethics — greatest good to the greatest number of people;

 Individualist view of ethics — primary commitment to one’s long-term self-interests;

 Moral-rights view of ethics — respects and protects the fundamental rights of all people;

 Justice view of ethics — fair and impartial treatment of people according to legal rules and standards.

Forty persons from the CRG have answered to the questionnaire,

conceived having in mind the identification of the ethical profile of the people at

this level of the Romanian public administration. The sample consisted of

40 people including 32 men and 8 women. The structure by age group was:

23-30 years – 10%; 31-40 years – 20%; 41-50 years – 40%; over 50 years – 30%.

Structure grouped by level of education and the last graduate school was the

following: graduate studies - 85%, post graduate studies – 10% and meanwhile

college studies - 5%. Regarding the experience in public administration it is

notable that most participants (55%) have 15 years of experience in central public

administration, followed by other 20% represented by people with an experience

between 5 and 14 years. The rest of them (25%) have less than 4 years experience

(between 1- 4 years).

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41-50

years

40%

over 50

years

30% 31-40

years

20%

23-30

years

10%

Figure 1. The sample structure by age

Figure 2 shows the group structure on both political and administrative

levels while figure 3 details the structure of the political group composed by

10 persons including 6 executive directors and 4 counsellors or advisors of the

ministers.

0

20

40

60

80

100

Political Level

Administrative Level

Figure 2. Sample structure on administrative and political levels

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Cabinet directors

Councellors

Figure 3. The specific structure of the political level

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Figure no. 4 presents the structure of the group from the administrative

level: 30 persons -7 executive directors, 10 head of functional departments, 10 civil

servants and 3 contracting people.

0

2

4

6

8

10

Executive Directors

Head of Departm ents

Civil servants

Contracting people

Figure 4. The structure of the administrative level

In our survey, we have considered the following three categories of values

as influencing the ethical behaviour of the human resources:

a) Personal values – family influences, religious values, standards, and needs;

b) Government values – supervisory behaviour, peer group norms and behaviour, policy statements and written rules;

c) Environment values – government laws and regulations, societal norms and values.

It is found (see Figure 5) that most of the people from the administrative

level which have been questioned feel a strong influence on their ethical behaviour

coming from the last two categories of values. On the opposite part is the opinion

of the people from the political level, who consider that their ethical behaviour is

influenced by other factors and variables from the first category plus their political

values.

The main specific values considered in our survey were: political self-

interest; individual friendships; team interest; social responsibility; personal

morality; rules and standards procedures; laws and professional codes. Concerning

the understanding of ethical values and behaviour through our survey, we

discovered that more then 80% of the investigated people do not know much about

the ethical values and behaviour.

Figure 5 shows the extent to which each specific value influences the

ethical behaviour of subjects during the management process: political self-interest

– 30%; individual friendships – 15%; team interests – 5%; social responsibility –

5%; personal morality – 10%; rules and standard procedures – 30%; laws and

professional codes – 5%.

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Political self

interest; 30%

Individual

friendship; 15%

Team interest;

5%

Personal

morality; 10%

Rules and

procedures;

30%

Laws and

professional

codes

5%

Social

responsibility

5%0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

P ol

it ic

al s el

f in

te re

st

In di

vi du

al f ri

en ds

hi p

T ea

m in

te re

st

P er

so na

l m or

al it y

R ul

es a

nd p

ro ce

du re

s

L aw

s an

d pr

of es

si on

al c od

es

So ci

al r es

po ns

ib ili

ty

Figure 5. Values that influence ethical behaviour

More than 80% of the people involved in the survey mentioned that their

ethical behaviour is strongly influenced by many other individual factors and

variables: personal perceptions, own belief, education, rules, administrative

procedures and their status in the central public administration (see figure 6). The

remaining respondents believe that their behaviour is influenced by their position

and status in the central government body.

Status at the

central level;

17%

Rules; 22%

Education;

18%

Admin.

procedures;

37%

Own belief;

3%

Personal

perception;

2%

Figure 6. The main factors and variables that influence the behaviour of the human

resources

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All people from the political level considered the first and the second

factors as the most important in influencing their ethical behaviour. The rest of the

investigated people appreciated that their ethical values and the behaviour are

strongly influenced by the administrative procedures, which had the highest rank

followed by rules and education. Only 5% from the administrative level considered

that their ethical behaviour is influenced by their personal perceptions and beliefs.

As can be seen there is a strong difference between the political and the

administrative level from the perspective of ethical values. Nobody refer to the

clear system of ethical values for the people who are working at the level of the

government. More than 90% of the investigated people declared that they know the

ethical values and follow them in their daily activities because they understand how

important are in their relations with others and for the image of the institution they

are working for.

As demonstrated by our empirical research, people look at their leader and

say, ‘should I follow this person?’ One very important attribute is Integrity. When

the leader loses legitimacy, the entire basis of an effective body comes down –

fairness, equality and long lasting values. The proper governmental culture will

collapse, and that is something no public manager or politician can afford.

If one government is known to hold corrupt structures with bad image and

non-ethical behaviour of their politicians and public managers, no one would like

to co-operate with such government. In the longer run, citizens and the business

environment do not want to be associated with such structures. Once a government

or the public management representatives are regarded as corrupts, their level of

legitimacy declines.

The corollary is that, in a system where one government subverts the law,

it becomes much harder for other public organizations to operate “cleanly”. This is

why ethical behaviour and ethical leadership are a necessity. The experience proves

the fact that is a real need for public managers and politicians to set up clear ethical

values and build a sustainable and effective system of practices to implement them.

Following the results of our empirical study, credible leaders and

politicians challenge the process by experimenting and taking risks in their work as

a means to finding new and better ways of doing things. They inspire a shared

vision among employees by envisioning the future and enlisting others to bring

about that vision. They enable others to act by fostering collaboration and

strengthening others.

Nearly half of public managers involved in research are credible leaders

that encourage people by recognizing individual contributions and by celebrating

their accomplishments. That means an ethical behaviour based on ethical values

and morality. Most of the subjects considered that ethical behaviour is absolutely

necessary when leaders attempt to implement reforms that are transformational in

nature.

The survey pointed out that there are two categories of leadership

competences related with public managers and with politicians: one category called

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“soft skills” and the second called “strong/technical skills”. It has been

demonstrated that there are some critical leadership competencies confirmed as

baseline for promoting ethical behaviour inside the centre of the government:

understanding the policies of other departments; understanding the particularities

of the ministries and their environment; building relationships and networks;

managing change; managing the public; managing the relationship with the media;

influencing, motivating, developing, retaining talent and creative human resources;

managing conflict and dealing with problems of employees.

According to the survey results, most of the public managers are focused

most of the time on their department activities only and therefore fail to identify the

necessary links with other departments for the success of their work. The survey highlights the fact that leaders both civil servants and politicians need to fully

understand how their departments: (1) fit into and support the larger government

policy process and (2) enable their jurisdiction/agency to serve stakeholders.

We can conclude that the ethical behaviours and the performance

expectations are strongly influenced by the leadership knowledge, skills, attitudes,

and individual abilities. Most of the investigated people mentioned that there is a

special internal code containing the main ethical values, but the problem is how to

create an internal mechanism for meeting them along the management process. The

code of ethics for the civil servants has been approved few years ago, but the effect

is minimal. The public managers and the civil servants are much more motivated to

follow the legal framework and the job description than to make an effort for

integrate the ethical values in their daily activities. Most of them said that if their

initiatives are legal, that means they are ethical too. Nobody explained them the

difference between rules, legal framework and ethical values and how could be

possible to integrate all of this in their daily ethical behaviour. The majority of our

respondents pointed out the lack of an internal mechanism with ethical standards

for public sector. They mentioned that respect ethical values remain at the

discretion of each employee which should comply with internal and regulatory

framework only. They know the obligations from the job descriptions, but most of

these documents are very similar. So most of them have the same rights and

obligations.

Concerning the political commitment for the ethical values it depends on

the politicians, Cabinet Directors and also the personal counsellors of the ministers.

Some of them, in a very empirically way, try to have an ethical behaviour, but not

all the time. They are politicians and feel public institutions like a temporary

placement of their political carrier. They are not very much interested to build a

consistent and effective commitment of ethics to reinforce ethical conduct of

people who are working in public institutions.

Related with the decision making process, the survey identified a poor

consultation between the politicians and the public managers. Usually, the dialogue

between the politicians, executive public managers and the civil servants at the

centre of the government is very poor. Most of the time the people working on the

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administrative level are very much involved in the implementation process of

public policies not in the decision-making process. In this context the ethical values

are not enough part of the politician working life. They consider these subject like

secondary and because of that they are not interested for spending time in

designing a functional mechanism for ethical values. Research has shown that

people involved in the management process at the central government level have

different opinions about the ethical values. The people from the administrative

level are interested in having an ethical values system and they want to follow them

together with the representatives from the political levels while politicians prefer

not to have it. In conclusion, the people that were directly involved in management

process at the CRG level do not have a unitary and coherent vision on these ethical

values and behaviour. Based on the research results, in the next section of the paper

were proposed several recommendations for increasing the ethical behaviour at the

centre of the Romanian government.

2. Recommendations for increasing ethical behaviour at the centre of the Romanian government

One of the greatest challenges confronting any leader in this twenty first

century is bridging the gap between strategy and getting people to execute. Leaders

(politicians, executive public managers) direct people to focus on the right strategic

issues. Too often people cannot identify with a government’s strategy and likewise.

Sometimes leaders are disconnected from the realities that people must face within

the organization. If the leaders can properly bridge this gap (strategic vs.

organizational capacity), then they should be able to create value.

The decision making process at the centre of the government should be

based on a strong dialogue between leaders and their people. If the right people are

engaged, then everyone should be able to cut their way through the strategic jungle.

If leaders fail to engage people in strategic execution, then creating value through

leadership will be exceedingly difficult. Although it is true that most people are not

good strategic thinkers, it is also true that people want to contribute to a larger

purpose that only the leader can convey. Therefore, communication is at the

cornerstone of creating value through leadership. And given great communication,

leaders from the centre of the government can close the gap between strategy and

strategic execution.

Although governments have sometimes different cultural, political and

administrative expectations, they often face similar ethical challenges, and the

responses in their ethics management show common characteristics. The

participants to the management process at the central government level need to

have a point of reference in their approach. A consensus regarding the content of

the ethical values is needed. Leaders, politicians and public managers should be

open and flexible along the management process and to follow the same values,

rules and regulations. In the next paragraphs are presented some recommendations

for building an efficient system of ethical values in public institutions.

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2.1. Training on the specific values concerning ethics and ethical behavior

The training programs should be designed to help participants to

understand ethical aspects of their work, their status and also the ethical aspects of

the decision making process inside the public institutions. It should help them to

know how to incorporate high ethical standards in their daily organizational life.

During the training program people should learn how to deal with ethical issues

under legal and political pressure. Professional socialization should contribute to

the development of them necessary judgment and skills enabling people to apply

ethical principles in concrete circumstances. The participants should learn how to

behave in order to get an impartial advice that can help the public managers and the

politicians to create an environment in which people are more willing to confront

and resolve ethical tensions and problems then to rise conflicts and dissatisfaction.

Guidance and internal consultation mechanisms should be set up and explained in

order to help the human resources to apply basic ethical standards in the workplace.

2.2. Setting up a special department in public institutions to monitor ethical values and behaviour

The name of this special team could be “moral quality circles” and can

work at the centre of the Romanian government as an independent body based on

the same principles like “management quality circles”.

2.3. Designing and implementing a special ethical accounting mechanism in public organizations

The internal mechanism should be based on the following values:

 Respect for human dignity meaning to create culture that values employees, citizens, politicians; to produce safe public policies;

 Respect for basic rights meaning to protect rights of employees, public managers, citizens, and communities; to avoid anything that threatening safety,

health, education, and living standards;

 Respect for good public leadership meaning: to support social interest; to work inside the government and institutions to support and protect the public

interest.

Public leaders should be accountable for their actions to the public.

Accountability should focus both on compliance with rules and ethical principles -

and on the results achievement. Accountability mechanisms can be internal or can

be provided by civil society. Mechanisms promoting accountability can be

designed to provide adequate controls while allowing for appropriately flexible

management.

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The main steps for creating such mechanism are:

o Clarifying the vision and mission statement, setting goals and objectives;

o Presenting the principles and designing the core ethical values and the ethical standards at the workplace;

o Disseminating, motivating and communicating the ethical standards and values;

o Building teams oriented on ethical values and results; o Measuring performance; o Developing human resources; o Increasing participative management; o Preparing for transition to the new public management model based on

ethical values and competitive leadership in public organizations.

2.4. Create a code of moral principles

That means to establish set standards of “good” and “bad” as opposed to

“right” and “wrong”. Public servants need to know what their rights and

obligations are in terms of exposing actual or suspected wrong doing within the

public service. These should include clear rules and procedures for politicians and

executive public managers to follow - and a formal chain of responsibility. Civil

servants and some of the politicians also should know their rights and obligations

related to ethical values.

2.5. Create an ethical role model

Following the experiences from other developed countries, usually top

public managers and the politicians serve as ethical role models. All public

managers and politicians can influence the ethical behaviour of people who work

for and with them. The practice rose that excessive pressure can foster unethical

behaviour. Because of that, public managers should be realistic in setting

performance goals for others (Ojo and Adebayo, 2012). They also must observe the

ethical values through their daily life inside the public organizations. In this way

they can become models for others around them.

2.6. Create a special codes of ethics for all people who are working for the

centre of the government and also for other public organizations

That means a formal statement of the centre of the government and also an

organization’s values and ethical principles regarding how to behave in situations

susceptible to the creation of ethical dilemmas. It should be reflected in the legal

framework too. The Public Management Committee and the OECD Council

recommended that the member countries have to take actions to ensure well-

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functioning institutions and systems for promoting ethical conduct in the public

service. This can be achieved by:

Attachment 5

A Biblical-Covenantal Perspective on

Organizational Behavior & Leadership

© Dr. Kahlib Fischer, 2010 Basic organizational behavior concepts derived from Organizational Behavior (2009), by Robbins, Pearson Custom Publishing.

1

CONTENTS CONTENTS ......................................................................................................................... 2 LESSON 1: A Worldview Perspective on Organizational Behavior ................... 5

What is a Worldview? ...................................................................................................... 5 Worldview as a Home ...................................................................................................... 5 What is Your Worldview? ................................................................................................ 6 Defining the Christian Worldview ................................................................................... 7 Application to Organizational Behavior .......................................................................... 7 The Biblical Idea of Covenant ......................................................................................... 8 Important Covenantal Terms .......................................................................................... 8 History of Covenant ......................................................................................................... 9 A Covenantal Model for Organizational Behavior ........................................................ 10 OB/COVENANT MATRIX ............................................................................................ 12 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 12

LESSON 2: Individual Behavior in the Organization .......................................... 13 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 13 Personality and Abilities ................................................................................................ 13 Values ............................................................................................................................. 14 Ethical Perspectives ....................................................................................................... 15 Outputs .......................................................................................................................... 15 Emotions and Moods ..................................................................................................... 16 Perceptions ..................................................................................................................... 17 Emotional Intelligence .................................................................................................. 18 Job Satisfaction.............................................................................................................. 18 Effective Job Attitudes .................................................................................................. 19 Decision Making Constraints ........................................................................................ 20 Dealing with Constraints and Biases ............................................................................. 21

LESSON 3: Motivating Employees ........................................................................... 22 Motivational Theories ................................................................................................... 22 Early Motivation Theories ............................................................................................. 22 Contemporary Motivation Theories .............................................................................. 23 Employee Participation ................................................................................................. 23 Payment Programs ........................................................................................................ 24

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Flexible Benefits ............................................................................................................ 24 Intrinsic Rewards .......................................................................................................... 25 Biblical Summary .......................................................................................................... 25

LESSON 4: Group Behavior and Work Teams ...................................................... 27 Group Behavior .............................................................................................................. 27 Stages of Group Development ....................................................................................... 27 Group Properties ........................................................................................................... 27 Group Decision Making ................................................................................................. 28 Differences between Groups and Teams ....................................................................... 29 Types of Teams .............................................................................................................. 29 Factors Relating to Successful Teams ........................................................................... 30 Turning Individuals into Team Players......................................................................... 34 When Should Teams Be Used? ...................................................................................... 35

LESSON 5: Organizational Communication ......................................................... 36 Formal and Informal Channels ..................................................................................... 36 Direction of Communication ......................................................................................... 36 Interpersonal Communication ...................................................................................... 38 Organizational Components .......................................................................................... 39 Which Channel to Use? ................................................................................................. 41

LESSON 6: Leadership ................................................................................................ 42 Defining leadership ....................................................................................................... 42 Trait Theories ................................................................................................................ 43 Behavioral Theories ....................................................................................................... 44 Contingency Theories .................................................................................................... 45 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory .................................................................... 47 Inspirational Approaches .............................................................................................. 47 Authentic Leadership .................................................................................................... 49 Defining Trust ................................................................................................................ 49 Mentoring as Leadership ............................................................................................... 50 Self-Leadership .............................................................................................................. 51 Challenges to Leadership Construct.............................................................................. 51

LESSON 7: Politics, Negotiation and Conflict Resolution ................................. 53 Motivations for Power ................................................................................................... 53 Dependency and Power ................................................................................................. 55 Sources of Power............................................................................................................ 55

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Power Tactics ................................................................................................................. 57 Sexual Harrassment ...................................................................................................... 58 The Interactionist View of Conflict ............................................................................... 58 The Conflict Process ...................................................................................................... 59 Negotiation: Bargaining Strategies ............................................................................... 61

LESSON 8: Structure and Culture ............................................................................ 63 History of Organizational Perspectives ......................................................................... 63 Work Specialization & Structure ................................................................................... 64 Control, Effectiveness & Structure ................................................................................ 65 Departmentalization and StRucture ............................................................................. 66 Cultures as Shared Meaning .......................................................................................... 66 Creating a Positive Culture ............................................................................................ 68 Spirituality in the Workplace ........................................................................................ 69

LESSON 9: Human Resource Policies ...................................................................... 71 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 71 Selection Practices .......................................................................................................... 71 Effective Selection Processes ......................................................................................... 73 Training and Development ............................................................................................ 75 Performance Evaluation ................................................................................................ 76 HR Policies and Labor Relations .................................................................................. 78 Managing a Diverse Workforce ..................................................................................... 79

LESSON 10: Organizational Change and Stress Management ......................... 81 The Context of Change .................................................................................................. 81 Overcoming Resistance to Change ................................................................................ 82 Strategies for Change ..................................................................................................... 84 Creating a Culture of Change ........................................................................................ 86 Managing Stress through Covenantal behavior ............................................................ 87

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LESSON 1: A Worldview Perspective on Organizational Behavior

WHAT IS A WORLDVIEW? For starters, it’s important to recognize that our view on organizational behavior, and indeed on life itself, is influenced by our worldview. A worldview is an intellectual, emotional, and spiritual framework by which every person views reality, makes sense of life, and applies meaning to every area of life. Everyone has a worldview, but the sad fact is that most people don’t really know that they have one, or how their unspoken assumptions about truth, meaning, values, and humanity influence every decision they make and every perception they have. As a result, most people’s worldviews are undeveloped, which means that most people are making decisions based not upon a coherent view of reality and life, but more likely an unclear, hodge-podge collection of vaguely defined and unverified assumptions about life. If we want to be effective leaders and managers in our organizations, and even more importantly, if we want to be successful human beings, shouldn’t we know what we believe and why we believe it?

WORLDVIEW AS A HOME One way of better understanding one’s worldview and what it is made up of is to compare it the home in which we live. Consider your home—what characteristics do you ascribe to it? Do you think of it in terms of how many rooms it has, what type of furnishings it possesses, how big the yard is, etc.? Those are indeed relevant descriptors, but what about the foundation and framework of your home? When was the last time you thought about those two very important features of your home? Most of us give very little thought to those components because they are not visible. And yet, if either of those are structurally lacking, the house will fall, no matter how nice the yard, how many rooms the house has or how beautifully decorated the home is. It’s the same with our worldview perspectives—we rarely if ever give any thought to the foundational or framework assumptions associated with our worldviews. So let’s take a look at each of these vital components. The foundation of your worldview is what you believe about God. Do you believe in a personal, intelligent Creator-being who is eternal and created the universe, or do you believe that life evolved from nothing, by pure chance? You might even believe in some sort of nebulous God-like being who is out there but doesn’t do much to communicate with the rest of us. Perhaps you view Nature as some sort of spiritual entity to which we are all attached in

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some cosmic sort of way. If so, your worldview likely has more in common with an atheistic worldview foundation than a Christian-theistic one, because in both cases there is no personal, intelligent Creator being who interacts meaningfully and intelligently with His creation. The framework assumptions are based upon this foundation, just like the framework of any home is built upon the foundation. What one believes about God will determine what one believes about truth and meaning (epistemology), values (axiology), and who we are as human beings (ontology).

WHAT IS YOUR WORLDVIEW? A good leader or manager, and indeed, a successful organization, is able to evaluate internal strengths, weaknesses, and blind spots, so take a moment to evaluate any potential weaknesses or inconsistencies in your worldview. For starters, what do you believe about God? In the previous section, some basic options were presented with regards to who this God might be (or might not be). But now consider the implications of each choice, because your belief about God will greatly impact your perspective upon meaning, values, and humanity. For instance, epistemology is the study of how we arrive at truth and meaning. If you believe in a personal creator-being, it is possible to believe in absolute truth and meaning, because that God-being could communicate with us in meaningful and intelligent ways. But if you believe in random chance as the foundation for life, or in some sort of impersonal, spiritual “force” from which we all sprang, it should be no surprise if you’re a bit ambiguous in what you believe about truth. You might be more inclined to believe that there is no such thing as absolute truth or meaning, and that instead, everyone just sort of figures things out and makes sense of life on their own. However, if that is really true, then why do we all appeal to an inherent standard of right reasoning as we communicate with one another? Why do make logical appeals as we seek to persuade one another? It seems like this use of logic is more in keeping with an intelligent Creator-being than with starting point of random chance or a vague, impersonal, spiritual “other”. Likewise, axiology is the study of what we believe about values. If you believe in a personal Creator being, you are more likely to believe in eternal timeless values like love, justice, goodness and evil. If you’re not really sure what you believe about God, you might also find that you’re not really sure about the notion of eternal, timeless values. Perhaps you see concepts such as “love” as being more about what we do to protect ourselves—we “love” others because those people add some sort of value to our lives. And yet, the very fact that we understand the notion of altruistic, unconditional love and critique people who are not being pure in their alleged love of others suggests that there is an eternal Creator-being who has implanted in us an understanding of these eternal, timeless values. The same is true with the fact that we all seem to appeal to an inherent sense of justice and fairness as we interact with one another.

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Ontology is the study of who we are as human beings. If you are not sure what you believe about God, it could be that you are likewise not very sure about what you think about your existence as a human. If there is only a physical universe and no God that created it, then logically, it follows that we humans are nothing more than complex blobs of chemicals, atoms, and physical matter. If that is true, then why are we so interested in meaning and truth? Such yearnings and aspirations are far more consistent with the notion of a personal Creator-being who has made us in His image.

DEFINING THE CHRISTIAN WORLDVIEW So what IS a Christian worldview all about? Obviously the starting point for the Christian worldview—i.e., it’s foundational presupposition—is that there is in fact a personal, intelligent Creator being who is timeless and all-knowing. He created the universe and is separate from it, even though He is intimately involved in and with His creation. This is contrast to more Eastern mystical perspectives which deify nature or view God as part of nature. Epistemologically, God does communicate with intelligence and meaning, and obviously through the use of words. Importantly, Jesus Christ came to this earth as the living “Word of God” (see John 1). Axiologically, we see the God of the Bible balancing both love and justice through Jesus Christ and His work on the cross. Since God is perfectly good, He can’t tolerate any evil. Therefore, man, being less than perfect and bound by sin, needed to be punished. But since God is also perfectly loving, He can’t eliminate mankind, or else His perfect love would be compromised. The solution—Jesus Christ coming to earth and taking on flesh, and dying on the cross for our sins. As a man, He fulfilled God’s sense of absolute justice by ensuring that man was in fact punished for his sins. But since He was also God, He was perfect and therefore able to be the perfect sacrifice for us, thereby ensuring that God’s love was fulfilled on the cross and subsequent resurrection of Christ. Finally, ontologically, we know that we humans have value, not just because of what Christ did for us on the cross but also due to the very fact that Christ came into this world not just as God but as man, experiencing the same pain that we experienced in this dreary and difficult world. We do not have a God who cannot relate to our pains and struggles; on the contrary, we have a God who is intimately familiar with who we are and how we struggle.

APPLICATION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR So how does this Christian worldview impact organizational behavior? First of all, since all truth is God’s truth, we can confidently study and research organizational behavior issues and concepts and at the same time apply Biblical truths to the field—the two are not mutually exclusive but rather complimentary.

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Secondly, we should discuss organizational behavior in terms of absolute truth and values. Moral relativism is not an option for us as we pursue a greater understanding of organizational behavior. Finally, we can be encouraged that everything we do within an organizational context— indeed in life itself—has eternal meaning and consequence. That is because we are valued in the eyes of our loving Creator and we know that He is intimately involved in everything we do. We should therefore act accordingly.

THE BIBLICAL IDEA OF COVENANT Beyond these general worldview guidelines, there are some more specific Biblical applications to the field of organizational behavior. It will be argued here and throughout the rest of the lessons that the Biblical idea of covenant provides not only a unifying theme for understanding organizational behavior, but also a guiding normative framework for doing so. A covenant is a morally informed agreement among various parties to ratify and establish a long-term, mutually-affirming relationship. This idea is largely a Biblical one. In Scripture, God covenants with man, and in so doing, affirms the dignity of man. The result is that humans not only have free will and importance, but also responsibility to choose wisely. Furthermore, a covenant protects the right of all members by protecting the rights of every individual. Mutual accountability and affirmation are key aspects of any covenantal agreement and relationship.

IMPORTANT COVENANTAL TERMS There are three key terms associated with the notion of covenant and covenantal behavior. The first is the Hebrew term hesed, which means “loving fulfillment of covenant obligation.” In Scripture, love and duty are intertwined and it is related to what Christ said when He told His followers to “go the extra mile” in serving one another. We see in Scripture that not only did God keep His promises to His people, but He went above and beyond His stated duties in showing mercy, forgiving, and caring for His people. We are required to do the same. We shouldn’t view our relationships with others as merely contractual obligations, but rather we should see our obligations as opportunities to truly love and care for one another. The implications for this interlinking of love and duty in an organization are significant. We all know leaders who have abused their powers and treated employees poorly, and we all know employees who have done the bare minimum (or worse) to collect a paycheck. Mutual accountability describes the process of interaction in a covenant in which everyone is accountable to everyone else. Not only are followers accountable to leaders, but leaders are

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also accountable to followers. Regardless of the nature of the relationship, be it peer to peer or leader to subordinate, mutual accountability is a requirement. This because in a covenant, no one enters into the covenantal agreement without first securing this obligation. Because no can be coerced into such a relationship, the only reason for doing so is to create a binding relationship that assures everyone’s mutual benefit. An organization that applies this will have greater integrity, teamwork, and decision-making because everyone is committed to serving and caring for everyone else, and leaders, as a general rule, cannot act arbitrarily and in a manner that mistreats employees. Federalism is a specific term in the field of covenantal theology that describes the sharing of power among all members of the covenant. It is therefore related to the notion of mutual accountability and is embodied on the organizational level by the ideas of empowerment, participatory decision making and decentralization (or more accurately, non-centralization, which signifies a sense of teamwork and shared responsibility regardless of organizational structure and departmental guidelines).

HISTORY OF COVENANT Having laid that conceptual foundation, it is helpful to look at how the covenantal idea has influenced the history of mankind by ensuring greater freedom of common people and limiting the excesses of arbitrary leadership. In the Old Testament, the covenant idea was introduced by God to man. As mentioned earlier, by entering into a covenant with mere mortals, God affirmed their dignity and gave them both the freedom to choose to enter into the covenant and the responsibility to act within the moral terms of the covenant. It is no surprise, then, that even in Old Testament Israel, during the time of the judges and kings, that no one ruler had all the power nor was free from the accountability of the people and the prophets. Power was further shared among the twelve tribes, and the prophets criticized not only the king but also the people when they forgot the terms of the covenant, became greedy, pursued idols, and stopped caring for one another and for the poor. In the New Testament, the covenant idea is affirmed and expanded upon by Christ, who ushered in a new covenant with God that was now available to all of mankind, and not just the Jews. As the Gospel message spread throughout the world, so did the notion of covenant. During the Middle Ages, the covenantal idea was largely overlooked because Catholic theology emphasized a more hierarchical worldview in which Popes had absolute control and kings were not accountable to the people because they were viewed as being appointed by God. But during the Protestant Reformation, Reformers reclaimed the covenantal idea as they articulated the notion of the “Priesthood of a all believers.” Protestants argued that the only priest believers needed was Christ, and therefore they could have a personal relationship with God through Christ. This principle once again affirmed the value and dignity of each individual, and many have argued that it played a key role in not only developing the notion of capitalism in the West, but also contributed greatly to the notion that kings are accountable to the people and that Popes should not try to control political affairs. In fact, John Calvin, John

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Locke, John Knox, among others argued that when leaders significantly abuse their power, a material breach of the covenant has occurred, meaning that the people are no longer under the kings authority because the very covenant has been absolved through the tyrannical behavior. This theory of civil resistance and covenantal principles in general were carried into the American Founding Era. In an effort to flee religious and political persecution in Europe, many Protestants fled to the New World and brought their ideas with them. Research reveals that many of the colonies were further influenced by covenantal pacts and agreements. Often, church covenants made by various groups of Protestants as they came to the New World became the foundation for local governments and state constitutions. As the colonies became more established, the American colonists continued to base their notion of political freedom upon covenantal ideas by providing a rationale for breaking away from Great Britain based upon covenantal principles. Furthermore the very nature of American federalism, in which the national government shares power with the states, is a covenantal notion, as already mentioned. In fact, the word fedis is the Latin word for covenant. So America, with all of its political freedoms, has been greatly influenced by the notion of covenant. The question that we ask here is, given this impressive track record in political development, can the covenantal ideas and principles be applied to the field of organizational behavior in some way? Certainly, there is a difference between the relationship of ruler with citizens and business leaders with employees, but it will be demonstrated in this lesson and throughout subsequent lessons that there are indeed many points of application. This is due in large part because God has commanded all of us to love one another. Covenant is the means by which we do so.

A COVENANTAL MODEL FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The covenantal idea provides a unifying theme for organizational behavior. First of all, the idea of hesed provides the attitude necessary for healthy organizational behavior. This attitude embodies notions such as servant leadership, mutual affirmation and care, teamwork, shared vision, “big picture” thinking, and customer care and community service. Big picture thinking is defined as organizational self-awareness, where employees understand the organization-wide goals, constraints, and strategies and where employees furthermore see how their job as well as their department fits into all of that. The principle of mutual accountability provides the foundation for organizational processes, and includes notions such as conflict resolution, participatory decision-making, empowerment, and an active process of dialogue between leaders and employees.

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The …

Attachment 6

Public Performance & Management Review, Vol. 35, No. 3, March 2012, pp. 489–508. © 2012 M.E. Sharpe, Inc. All rights reserved. 1530-9576/2012 $9.50 + 0.00. DOI 10.2753/PMR1530-9576350306 489

HOw tO MEASuRE PublIc ADMINIStRAtION PERfORMANcE

A conceptual Model with Applications for budgeting, Human Resources Management, and Open Government

wOutER VAN DOOREN cHIARA DE cAluwE

University of Antwerp ZSuZSANNA lONtI

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

AbstrAct: The economic crisis provides some insights on the role of measurement systems. As shown by the ongoing discussion of credit rating agencies by political actors and in the news media, measurement is not a neutral device, but an active agent in societal processes. Comparative measurements of international public administration are as frail, technocratic, and overly aggregated as bond ratings, but nonetheless are increasingly used by journalists, aid organizations, foreign investors, and, indeed, rating agencies to hold governments accountable. Better measurement is needed in public administration performance. This article builds on study reports from the OECD’s Government at a Glance project to address the issue of how to measure public administration performance. The fields of budgeting, human resources management, and open government illustrate both the potential and the challenge of such measurements.

Keywords: budgeting, human resources management, open government, public administration performance

the economic crisis provides some insights on the role of measurement systems in society. Most notably, the role of credit rating agencies has been discussed by political actors and in the news media.1 this discussion shows that measurement is not a neutral device, but an active agent in societal processes. As in the case of bond ratings, comparative measurement of international public administration seems frail, technocratic, and overly aggregated (Arndt, 2007; Arndt & Oman, 2006; Van de walle, 2006). Nonetheless, these indicators are increasingly being used by journalists, aid organizations, foreign investors, and, indeed, rating agen- cies for holding governments accountable. Hence, better measurement of public administration performance is needed. the discussion that follows builds on study

490 PPMR / March 2012

reports from the Organization for Economic cooperation and Development’s (OEcD’s) Government at a Glance project to address the issue of how to measure public administration performance. the fields of budgeting, human resources management, and open government are used to illustrate both the potential and the challenge of measuring public administration performance.

the current economic crisis is also a crisis of measurement.2 In a 2005 cartoon by Randy Glasbergen, a banker offers a couple an interest-only mortgage, bal- loon mortgage, reverse mortgage, upside-down mortgage, inside-out mortgage, loop-the-loop mortgage, and a spinning double-Axel mortgage with a triple-lutz (Mortgage cartoon Glasbergen, 2005). the cartoon appeared two years ahead of the collapse of Northern Rock in the uK and three years before the height of the crisis in 2008. However, Glasbergen and other, more systematic observers, such as Roubini and taleb, were well aware of problems in the housing mortgage market. Measurement systems of both the public and private sectors failed to detect this undercurrent. the economic measurement models used by the national banks and the planning bureaus did not capture the trend, just as the credit agencies failed to adequately gauge the real value of the assets under scrutiny. today, national creditworthiness ratings are being discussed in response to notable downgrades of several eurozone countries along with Standard & Poor’s u.S. credit rating downgrade.

Some critiques target the failure of measurement systems to reflect reality. An additional step is to seek the causes of the crisis in the measurement systems. the AAA ratings for complex collateralized debt obligations (cDOs), for instance, are blamed for having been at least a catalyst for the crisis. crotty (2009) asserts that the recent global financial boom and crisis might not have occurred if perverse incentives had not induced credit-rating agencies to give absurdly high ratings to illiquid, nontransparent, structured financial products. Interestingly, the same mechanism of bad ratings by the agencies before the crisis and overly strict ratings after the crisis has also been documented for the East Asian financial meltdown in 1997 (ferri, liu, & Stiglitz, 1999). Moreover, rating agencies’ power and lack of accountability to the public was also discussed before the crisis (Kerwer, 2005).

for present purposes, there is no need for a thorough analysis of the ins and outs of the economic crisis. Yet the crisis does remind us that measurement systems are not neutral controls for policymakers in the cockpit of society. Measurement systems are themselves agents, and influence behavior through their workings. when measurement systems are used to hold organizations to account, it should be kept in mind that they influence the behavior of account givers as well as ac- count holders. therefore, both a critical attitude toward existing indicators as well as continuous efforts to improve measurement seem warranted. this is also true concerning performance measurement for public administration.

Existing indicators on public administration performance—which usually go

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under the banner of “governance indicators”—have been subject to some criticism. this is true even at the national level, but far more so for the purpose of interna- tional comparisons (Arndt, 2007; Van de walle, 2006). One of the main critiques of governance rankings targets their validity—do they measure what they claim to measure? Rankings such as the world bank governance indicators comprise a broad and unintelligible compilation of opinion surveys, risk assessments, and sector indicators (Arndt & Oman, 2006). typically, nonperceptual indicators on the system’s core functions are lacking. As a result, there is a risk of constructing an image of a country’s performance based on indicators that do not accurately reflect its performance. If these performance indicators are used for accountabil- ity purposes in a subsequent phase of governance, the consequences of invalid measurement become real.

the present article does not offer further critique but, rather, proposes possible measurement improvements. the text is based on several research reports commis- sioned by the OEcD’s governance directorate, which is currently undertaking the large project called Government at a Glance. the focus is on doing measurement, rather than on further elaborating the functions and dysfunctions of measurement (for the latter, see, e.g., Hood, 2006; Radin, 2006). No subjective stance is taken on the utility or potentially negative effects of using performance measures.

for public administration more than for fields such as education or health, an additional difficulty for measurement is the conceptual confusion on what public administration performance actually means. this article begins by exploring the conceptual foundation for indicators of public administration performance. based on this foundation, it discusses possible performance indicators in three areas of public administration: budgeting, human resources management, and open government.

the conceptual Foundation of Public Administration Performance

As suggested above, it is first necessary to sort out a number of definitional is- sues. the primary task is to define performance. there seems to be a common mainstream understanding of performance, but this definition is process-oriented and nonsubstantial. In order to measure public administration performance, a substantial definition of performance is required.

the MAinstreAM deFinition oF PerForMAnce

Performance is usually defined in terms of the outcomes and outputs that follow from a public production process (Hatry, 1999). this model seems to provide the dominant vocabulary used by public administration researchers and practitioners when discussing performance. Although some terminological issues remain, and although some analysts will primarily emphasize the importance of contextual

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factors, the main building blocks have become widely accepted foci of public administration theory and practice.

Outcomes are the result of activities that convert inputs to outputs. the transfor- mation of inputs, such as financial and human resources, to activities is mediated by the structure of government, cultural predispositions, and institutional and managerial arrangements. Outputs are the goods and services that public orga- nizations supply in response to demand. Outcomes are the consumption of the goods and services (intermediate outcomes) as well as the effects this consumption entails (final outcomes).

the criterion for assessing outcome is added value (Moore, 1995). the added value of a private firm is the result of the aggregation of individual decisions to consume a service or good at a given price. A firm’s profit can be conceptualized as its outcome in society, since it is the sum of the values that individuals attach to a good or service, minus the costs of production. free-rider problems3 and the positive and negative externalities of consumption,4 however, mean that one cannot rely on individual consumption decisions for all goods and services (Musgrave, 1959). for public services, although the criterion of added value remains intact, the notion of public value replaces private value. In the absence of monetary profits, it is much more difficult for public organizations to assess outcomes.

substAntive APProAches to PerForMAnce

A problem with the mainstream definition of performance is its nonsubstantial na- ture. the definition of performance as outputs and outcomes of public services does not tell us what these outputs and outcomes should be. Different ideologies will have different views about public services, such as whether or not to redistribute outputs, how many services to provide, and whether or not regulation is needed. As such, the mainstream definition is a purely analytical concept. Different actors can define performance differently without invalidating its conceptual definition in terms of output and outcome (Van Dooren, bouckaert, & Halligan, 2010).

Operationalizing public administration performance calls for a “thick” substan- tive approach to performance that includes a variety of public values. the tendency of measurement systems to develop tunnel vision, similar to the narrow focus of credit-rating agencies, could be countered by maintaining an open conceptual view on what defines public administration performance. In a seminal article on the New Public Management (NPM), Hood (1991) proposes a classification with three clusters of public values. He makes the point that NPM reforms almost exclu- sively stress public values of one type, often to the detriment of other values. the public-values literature expanded further in the following decade. Jorgensen and bozeman (2007), for instance, developed an inventory of more than 70 different values in the public-values universe. for reasons of parsimony, Hood’s three broad value groups are utilized, since they also seem to reflect general dimensions of

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performance (Van Dooren, bouckaert, & Halligan, 2010). three broad but distinct substantial definitions of performance might be:

• Product performance reflects success in matching resources to defined tasks. Government has to operate in an economical, efficient, and effective way. Product performance reflects what Piotrowski (2010) calls mission-based values.

• Procedural performance reflects success in keeping government fair and honest. Government has to pursue honesty, fairness, and mutuality through the preven- tion of distortion, inequity, bias, and abuse of office. Procedural performance is not mission-based (Piotrowski, 2010).

• Regime performance reflects success in keeping the public sector robust and resilient. Government has to operate even in adverse “worst-case” conditions and to adapt rapidly in response to crisis and change. Regime performance is another form of non-mission-based performance.

It is generally easier to measure product performance than process or regime performance (see Table 1). for production, resources are allocated to defined tasks and indicators are a means to assess goal attainment. this is not to say that measurement is unproblematic, but at least conceptually it is unambiguous. Processes in production cycles are usually repeated, which allows for learning in measurement. Measuring levels of fairness and honesty becomes substantially more complicated. Such measures will predominantly be about the absence of fairness and honesty, measuring fraud, corruption, favoritism, and so forth. typi- cally, these activities are “under the radar.” they are, however, recurring events, which makes the development of indicators somewhat easier. Indicators for ro- bustness and resilience are even more complicated, since failures and worst-case conditions that really put a strain on robustness are uncommon. As an alternative to outcome measures, measures of capacity could be developed, but they are not performance indicators (Hall, 2008).

the selected public administration dimensions discussed below touch upon two of the three approaches to public values. Human resources management and bud-

table 1. Approaches to Performance and consequences for development of indicators

Product Procedure Regime

How can performance be observed?

Sufficiency (provision of services)

(Mostly) deficiency (absence of fairness and honesty)

Deficiency (system failure)

what is the incidence of these observations? (Mostly) repeated (Mostly) repeated One-time Developing indicators feasible Difficult Very difficult

Source: based on Van Dooren, bouckaert, & Halligan, 2010.

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geting are typically cyclical, recurring activities. A human resources management department has to hire, evaluate, motivate, and terminate staff on a continuous basis. timely and accurate budgets have to be developed by budget departments every year. Human resources management and budgeting activities have a good deal of product performance, and hence it can be expected that measuring performance on these dimensions is viable. the main “product” of a budget department is the budget. for a human resources department, hires are an important product. Open government, on the contrary, has a more procedural, nonmission focus, and hence more difficulties can be expected in developing indicators. for regime performance, it is not at all clear whether it is possible to develop performance indicators; and in consequence this dimension is left out of the scope of the present article.

Public Administration Performance

the discussion in this section defines public administration performance. the development of performance indicators for public administration requires an understanding of two defining features of the nature of public administration.

first, public administration is about enabling rather than delivering. Public administration almost never provides final goods and services. Public administra- tion, however, is a precondition for the successful operation of other government departments. It is government for government rather than government for the citizens. that takes nothing away from its importance. Public service delivery is a chain of inputs and outputs. clearly, public administration arrangements are to be found earlier in the chain. Schools need to be staffed and financed before they can provide teaching.

the chain of impact is schematically represented in figure 1. Public admin- istration processes, including typical horizontal functions such as financing and human resources management, are a precondition for functions performed by line departments and agencies. Public administration outputs are inputs for the functional processes. for instance, ethics training sessions are an output for an ethics division but an input for a social security department. the outcome of the training sessions is better awareness of ethics issues within the administration of social security. In the same way, the number of administered allowances is an output of the social security administration that is an input for societal processes. If the allowance protects people from poverty, then it is a policy outcome.

the step from a public administration process such as ethics to a policy outcome such as poverty in society is a rather big leap. It would be hard to demonstrate how integrity training has an impact on poverty statistics. However, by taking into consideration the intermediate processes in the chain, it might be possible to bridge the gap. Public administration processes should, in the first place, improve the quality of public administration and enable others to govern society in a more

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direct way. Public administration performance should reflect this position. A second typical feature of public administration is its crosscutting nature.

Precisely because it is an enabler, public administration has an impact on all other policy sectors. this also explains why it is so difficult to implement government- wide administrative policies (Verhoest, bouckaert, & Peters, 2007). Often, such policies are perceived to run counter to the vested interests and practices of the policy sectors. for measurement, the crosscutting nature of public administration complicates data collection and standardization.

Measuring the enabling and crosscutting roles of public administration has two consequences. first, the outputs of public administration processes are the inputs for substantive processes in line departments and agencies. In order to identify output, it is necessary to ask what products and services public administration processes deliver to line agencies. Second, the outcomes of public administration primarily have to reflect its ability to facilitate policy sectors. to identify outcome, it is necessary to ask whether public administration processes succeed in enabling performance in other sectors.

MeAsuring Public AdMinistrAtion PerForMAnce: budgeting, huMAn resources MAnAgeMent, And oPen governMent

the conceptual approach described above will now be applied to three important dimensions of public administration: budgeting, human resources management, and open government. Maturity of measurement differs for the three dimensions. Measurement in budgeting is quite well developed, which allows for relatively robust and comparative indicators. Human resources management is also a dimen- sion in which several measurement efforts exist, but these are not yet developed for international comparative purposes. Open government is, for measurement

Figure 1. A chained Approach to outcome

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concerns, a field of experimentation. Some prospects for indicator development are discussed below. the implications for their use are considered in the discus- sion and also in the conclusions.

Budgeting

A budget is defined as a comprehensive statement of government financial plans, including expenditures, revenues, deficit or surplus, and debt. the budget is the government’s main economic policy document, indicating how it plans to use public resources to meet policy goals (OEcD, 2006). budgeting activities follow a cycle of events or stages in making decisions about the budget, and implementing and assessing those decisions. the cycle usually has four stages: formulation, ap- proval, execution, and audit. what are the outcomes of these budgeting activities? what constitutes successful and unsuccessful budgeting?

budgeting has multiple objectives (Gray, Jenkins, & Segsworth, 2001; Sterck, 2007). three conventional budget functions are authorization (legal function), al- location (policy function), and management (management function). by approving the budget, the legislature authorizes the executive to spend money and to collect taxes. the question, then, is whether budgets succeed in informing executives about the decisions they have to make. More generally, the budget has to inform the general public about government’s spending and revenue collection inten- tions. A second objective of a budget is to allocate resources to policy fields while maintaining fiscal balance at the macrolevel. the question is whether the budget is successful in allocating the right amount of resources to public services and, at the same time, is successful in ensuring a structural balance between revenues and expenditures. A third function is management. Managers have to use budgets to control their organization.

Performance indicators for budgeting could first look at the variance between projected (intended) and actual revenues and the variance between projected and actual expenditures (colonna & Puma, 2003). these measures give an indication of the quality of the estimates. If the variance becomes too high, the impact of the budget as a tool for policy, management, and legislative control erodes. At the microlevel, managers may no longer be able to plan spending and investment. Moreover, overestimation of expenditures may lead to end-of-the-year spending— also known as “December fever” (Douglas & franklin, 2006; tarschys, 2002). Managers typically spend all of their appropriated budgets, partly because they fear sanctions in the subsequent budget round. At the macrolevel, economic and monetary policy will be based on faulty assumptions (Rubin, 1997). the Govern- ment Performance Project (Maxwell School of citizenship and Public Affairs, 2002) uses the following measures;

a. Revenue estimation accuracy = (actual revenue – estimated revenue)/estimated revenue

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b. Expenditure estimation accuracy = (actual expenditure – estimated expenditure)/ estimated expenditure

Expenditures and revenues can be over- or underestimated. cautious budgeting would suggest a higher tolerance for the underestimation of revenues and the over- estimation of expenditures. A budget in the public sector is also a tool for legisla- tive control over the executive. the legislature’s appropriations provide authority under law to the executive to spend public funds up to a set limit and for a specified purpose. In this respect, a budget reflects not only a projection but also an intention (Kristensen, Groszyk, & böhler, 2002). Overestimation of expenditures implies that appropriated budgets are not used. this may be the result of bad budgeting, but may also point to implementation problems and thus an infringement on the legislature’s decision to spend a given amount on a particular program.

A second set of budget performance indicators reflects budgeting transparency. blondal (2003) observes that the budget is the government’s principal policy docu- ment, wherein the government’s policy objectives are reconciled and implemented in concrete terms (i.e., the authorization function). budget transparency—openness about policy intentions, formulation, and implementation—is therefore at the core of good public administration and may even influence more general political indicators, such as voter turnout (benito & bastida, 2009).

Researchers at international institutions and nonprofits, as well as academics, have attempted to develop indices of budget transparency that combine several indicators (Alt & lassen, 2006; De Renzio & Masud, 2011). According to blondal (2003), transparency has three essential elements. the first is the systematic and timely release of budgetary data. this is what is traditionally associated with bud- get transparency. budget transparency is seen as an output, that is, the release of budgetary data. the second element is an effective role for the legislature. It must be able to scrutinize the budget reports and independently review them. It must be able to debate and influence budget policy and be in a position to effectively hold the government to account. the third element is an effective role for civil society, through the media and nongovernmental organizations. citizens must be in a posi- tion to influence budget policy and must be in a position to hold the government to account. In many ways, it is a role similar to that of the legislature albeit only indirectly. the second and third elements discuss the roles of the legislature and society, respectively. Active scrutiny by the legislature and society may be the result of efforts to increase budget transparency, but also of characteristics of the polity or broader trends (Sterck, 2007).

Fiscal stability may be a third budgeting performance indicator. As argued above, one of the key budget functions is allocation: to match spending priori- ties with estimated revenues. Many institutional arrangements contribute to this objective—fiscal rules, economic assumptions, expenditure frameworks, fiscal-risk

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assessments, and so on. therefore, a balanced budget seems to be a valid indica- tor of the outcomes of these processes. there is, however, a delicate balance to maintain in practice as well as in the indicator set. Institutions for safeguarding balanced budgets, combined with the growth of entitlements and taxing limitations, can lead to an erosion of allocative efficiency (Marlowe, 2009).

Audits close the budgeting cycle. they are expert examinations of legal and financial compliance or performance (Raaum & Morgan, 2001). Performance of compliance audits might, for instance, be a decrease in the number of corrections auditors have to put forward. the results of such performance measures, however, are usually hard to interpret. Does a higher number of infringements imply that auditors detect more mistakes or that they fail to help administrations to avoid mistakes?

Several supreme audit offices have attempted to measure audit outcomes (for an overview, see lonsdale, wilkins, & ling, 2011). the uK National Audit Office measures the financial savings due to auditing work relative to the money invested in the auditing agency. It identified a savings of £582 million in 2007 as a result of audit work, which exceeded the 8:1 target by some £22 million (National Audit Office, 2007). the National Audit Office, however, stresses that many benefits are not financial, and thus not measured. the u.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports financial benefits of $46 billion, which is a 94:1 ratio relative to every dollar invested in audit (2007). the GAO also measures nonfinancial benefits. It measures (1) how often agencies act on GAO information to improve services to the public, (2) when information the GAO provides to the congress results in statutory or regulatory changes, and (3) when core business processes improve at agencies and government-wide management reforms are advanced by the GAO’s work. beyond this, the GAO measures the percentage of past recommendations implemented. In fiscal year 2007, 82% of the 2003 recommendations had been implemented. A final outcome indicator from the GAO report relates to client satisfaction. It counts the number of congressional hearings at which the GAO testified. the underlying argu- ment is that congressional attention is an indication of responsiveness and impact.

budgeting has been subject to substantial international standardization, in particular within the European union (Eurostat, 2001; united Nations, 1993). Hence, some relatively robust international comparative-performance indicators can be derived from the budgeting system. Most Eu countries seem to follow the Eurostat guidelines, with the notable exception of Greece, which has resorted to unprecedented creative accounting. the reaction of the European union seems to be to impose more control and more intensive measurement.5 Again, an argument pro measurement.

Human Resources Management

One of the most prominent public administration issues is public personnel management. the OEcD (2007) identifies four dimensions of human resources management policy: (1) workforce planning and management, (2) management of staff performance, (3) flexibility and coherence of human resources manage-

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ment rules across governments, and (4) core values. the latter were discussed above in the section dealing with the guiding principles of outcome indicators. the first three dimensions are used as a point of departure for the definition of performance indicators.

(1) the objective of good workforce planning and management is “to ensure an appropriately dimensioned, appropriately …

Attachment 7

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER 7

The Ethics of Public Service

 LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Understanding the importance of ethics to public administrators

2. Learning how to address an ethical dilemma

3. Understanding the issues of administrative responsibility

4. Exploring the variety of issues that present ethical issues to administrators

5. Learning how to create an ethical climate in an agency

 SUMMARY OVERVIEW

This chapter considers the ethical issues faced by public managers, focusing on the fundamentals

of ethical deliberation, administrative responsibility, the moral and ethical problems that may

arise for administrators in public organizations, and the importance of providing an ethical

climate in a public or nonprofit agency. Emphasis is placed on the ability of the administrator to

understand the context in which public problems arise and to work out those problems in a

careful, reasoned, and ethical fashion. As part of this discussion, the chapter elaborates on

tensions between efficiency and responsiveness as ethical dilemmas experienced by the public

administrator.

The authors begin by defining the terms morality and ethics, noting that, although the two are

used interchangeably, the distinction between them is important not only for philosophical

reasons but also because of the deliberative aspect of ethics. The authors argue that by

understanding the context in which an action occurs, working through the arguments on all sides,

and arriving at a set of guidelines for action, public managers can act with greater clarity and

confidence; thus, the steps of ethical deliberation are discussed in detail. This discussion includes

an examination of the predominate moral philosophies or approaches to deciding on the proper

course of action, the levels of moral development through which individuals pass, and the variety

of approaches one might use to help ensure he or she is acting in an ethical manner.

The focus moves next to issues of administrative responsibility, which involve the potentially

conflicting demands on the public manager to operate as efficiently as possible while being fully

responsive to a wide variety of stakeholders. This tension between efficiency and responsiveness,

the authors argue, characterizes many of the problems that public administrators face. This

includes an examination of the limits on administrative discretion, which involves the question of

how we can ensure that administrators exercise discretion in a way that is consistent with the will

of the people. As part of this discussion, the authors explore the classic Finer-Friedrich debate

over external and internal controls on administrative discretion. This section also addresses

ethical arguments for public participation and transparency in government, and explores the

ethical issues associated with the increasing involvement of for-profit and nonprofit organizations

in the delivery of public programs.

86 Chapter 7: The Ethics of Public Service

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Next, the authors turn to the kinds of ethical problems that may occur in the context of work in

public organizations. This includes an examination of the relationship between public

administrators and elected officials, which creates a unique and pervasive set of issues for the

public manager. As part of this discussion, issues of organizational authority, particularly that of

“following orders,” are addressed. Another area of potential ethical difficulties for public

administrators that is addressed is that of conflicts of interest. As the authors point out, finding

ways to avoid conflicts of interest has been central to ethics legislation at all levels of government

for decades. The authors trace the history of this kind of legislation at the federal level,

referencing details of how recent presidential administrations have approached this issue. This

section closes with an exploration of whistle-blowing, or employee disclosure of problems in

public organizations, and the prohibitions defined by law on political activities by civil service

employees.

The chapter concludes with a consideration of how managers can promote more ethical behavior

in public organizations. This includes formal controls, such as rules and regulations and codes of

ethics, and more informal means of establishing an ethical climate, such as leading by example,

valuing ethical behavior, and encouraging free and open communication throughout the

organization.

 CHAPTER OUTLINE

I. APPROACHES TO ETHICAL DELIBERATION

 Take Action: STEPS IN ETHICAL DELIBERATION

A. Reasoning, Development, and Action 1. Moral Philosophy 2. Moral Psychology 3. Moral Action

B. Post-Modern Ethics

II. ISSUES OF ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITY

A. The Limits of Administrative Discretion

 Exploring Concepts: TODAY’S LEADERSHIP CHALLENGE

B. Avenues for Public Participation

C. Transparency in Government

 Exploring Concepts: OBAMA’S ELEMENTS OF OPEN GOVERNMENT

D. The Ethics of Privatization

III. ETHICAL PROBLEMS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL

A. Interacting with Elected Officials

B. Following Orders

C. Conflicts of Interest

D. Whistle–Blowing

 Take Action: TEN TIPS FOR POTENTIAL WHISTLE-BLOWERS

E. Prohibitions on Political Activities

Chapter 7: The Ethics of Public Service 87

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Exploring Concepts: ACTIVITIES PROHIBITED UNDER THE HATCH

ACT

IV. MANAGING ETHICS

A. Establishing an Ethical Climate

 Take Action: INTERVENTION TECHNIQUES FOR INTEGRATING ETHICS INTO AGENCY OPERATIONS

V. SUMMARY AND ACTION IMPLICATIONS

 KEY TERMS

Cooptation Situations in which citizens are made to feel involved, but allowed to exercise little

real power.

Deontology Belief that broad principles of rightness and wrongness can be established and are

not dependent on particular circumstances.

Ethical or moral relativism Belief that moral judgment can be made only by taking into

account the context in which action occurs.

Ethics Process by which we clarify right and wrong and act on what we take to be right.

Ethics audit Evaluation of the value premises that guide an organization’s action.

Morality Practices and activities considered right or wrong and the values those practices reflect.

Neutral competence The belief that a neutral public bureaucracy following the mandates of a

legislative body will meet the requirements of democracy.

Objective responsibility Assurance of responsiveness through external controls.

Subjective responsibility Assurance of responsiveness based on an individual’s character.

Utilitarianism Philosophy of the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

 WEB LINKS

The following are links to general discussions of ethics in government:

Center for Public Integrity: (http://www.iwatchnews.org/).

Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy:

(http://policy.gmu.edu/Home/ResearchPublications/ResearchCenters/InstituteforPhilosophyandP

ublicPolicy/tabid/464/Default.aspx).

Josephson Institute of Ethics: (www.josephsoninstitute.org).

The following is a link to the primary federal agency dealing with ethics issues:

Office of Government Ethics: (www.usoge.gov).

Attachment 8

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER 6

The Management of Human Resources

 LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Understanding the value of a merit system in government employment

2. Learning about the activities of the human resources function

3. Understanding the importance of collective bargaining and labor-management relations

4. Learning about issues that affect human resources, such as diversity and discrimination

5. Understanding the relationship between the political and career administrators

 SUMMARY OVERVIEW

The concept of a merit-based civil service personnel system serves as a principal organizing

feature of this chapter. The authors address the importance of managing the people who work in

government organizations and examine the reasons behind the rules, regulations, and “red tape”

that often appear as roadblocks to effective personnel management. The chapter covers the rise of

the spoils system in the United States and the move to reform the civil service based on merit

rather than political favoritism, including the creation of the Pendleton Act, the Civil Service

Reform Act, and more recent efforts at “reinvention.” The discussion also addresses the ways in

which these reforms have been adopted at the state and local levels.

Chapter 6 also examines the main components of the personnel function, including classification

systems, recruiting, and pay systems. Conditions of employment also are addressed in this

section, as those who hire and manage government employees must be concerned with issues of

drug use, sexual harassment in the workplace, the rights of individuals with HIV/AIDS, violence

in the workplace, and processes for removing employees.

A key component of this chapter is a detailed discussion about the changes in the relationship

between labor and management in the public sector and the rise and decline of public-sector

unions. The authors trace the history of public-sector unions, outlining the conditions that led to

their development and affecting their growth. Labor-management relations at the federal level

also are contrasted with those at the state and local levels. This section offers a detailed

description of the steps in the bargaining process and discusses the implications of the decision on

the part of employees to strike. This section closes with a look at recent efforts to limit collective

bargaining rights for public employees at the federal, state and local levels.

The chapter then moves to an examination of fundamental issues of discrimination in public

employment, which includes a review of the development and purpose of equal employment

opportunity and affirmative action programs and the Americans with Disabilities Act. The

authors detail the varying approaches to enforcing compliance among employers as defined by

federal guidelines and key court decisions and discuss recent developments in attempts to correct

past patterns of discrimination against women and minorities through affirmative action. This

section also includes an examination of the problems of extending diversity throughout public

72 Chapter 6: The Management of Human Resources

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

organizations and the gaps that still are being experienced by women and minorities in terms of

pay, job status, and overall employment opportunity.

The final section of the chapter deals with the difficult relations between political appointees and

career executives. The authors argue that the tension between political responsiveness and

managerial effectiveness that characterizes public administration is illustrated particularly well in

the relationship between political appointees and career public executives. As appointees become

“bosses” of career civil servants, tensions may arise because the political appointee wishes to

move in new policy directions but often has little experience in government operations while the

career executive has both knowledge and expertise but, aware of potential problems, may appear

reluctant to change. The attempt to reconcile the two positions, the authors note, brings the focus

back to the question of politics and administration.

 CHAPTER OUTLINE

I. MERIT SYSTEMS IN PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT

A. Spoils versus Merit

 Public Administration in History: THE SPOILS SYSTEM

 Exploring Concepts: PRINCIPLES OF CIVIL SERVICE

B. The Civil Service Reform Act and Its Aftermath

C. Reinvention and the National Performance Review

D. State and Local Personnel Systems

II. HIRING, FIRING, AND THINGS IN BETWEEN

A. Classification Systems

B. The Recruitment Process

C. Pay Systems

D. Conditions of Employment and Related Matters

E. Sexual Harassment

F. AIDS Policy

G. Workplace Violence

H. Removing Employees

I. Personnel Reform Efforts

 Public Administration Reform: URGENT BUSINESS FOR AMERICA

III. THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS

A. Steps in the Bargaining Process

B. To Strike or Not to Strike

C. Unions Redefined

IV. CORRECTING PATTERNS OF DISCRIMINATION IN PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT

A. Americans with Disabilities Act

Chapter 6: The Management of Human Resources 73

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

B. Questions of Compliance

C. Affirmative Action and Reverse Discrimination

 Take Action: ADVANTAGES OF DIVERSITY

D. The Glass Ceiling

E. Relations between Political Appointees and Career Executives

V. SUMMARY AND ACTION IMPLICATIONS

 KEY TERMS

Adverse or disparate impact Criterion for showing that employment practices affect one group

more harshly than another.

Affirmative action Use of positive, results-oriented practices to ensure that women, minorities,

individuals with disabilities, and other protected classes of people will be equitably

represented in an organization.

Bargaining unit The organization that will represent employees in conferring and negotiating

various issues.

Comparable worth Notion that men and women in jobs that are not identical but require similar

levels of skill and training should be paid equally.

Equal employment opportunity Refers to efforts to eliminate employment discrimination on

the basis of race, ethnic background, sex, age, or physical handicap; ensures that all

persons have an equal chance to compete for employment and promotions based on job

qualifications.

Final-offer arbitration Technique in which both parties must present their best offer with the

understanding that an arbitrator will choose one or the other without modification.

Job description A thorough analysis of the work to be done and the capabilities for a job;

typically contains these elements: job title, duties required, responsibilities, and job

qualifications.

Lateral entry Entry into government positions at any level.

Merit pay Increases in salary and wages that are tied to actual quality of work performed.

Merit principle Concept that selection and treatment of government employees should be based

on merit or competence rather than personal or political favoritism.

Position classification Analyzing and organizing jobs on the basis of duties, responsibilities, and

knowledge and skills required to perform them.

Rule of three Provision of most merit systems that requires at least the names of the top three

applicants be forwarded to the hiring official to allow some flexibility in selection.

Sexual harassment Any unwarranted and nonreciprocal verbal or physical sexual advances or

derogatory remarks that the recipient finds offensive or that interfere with his/her job

performance.

Spoils system The ability to give government jobs to the party faithful; “to the victor belong the

spoils.”

Structured interviews Those in which a previously developed set of questions is used with each

applicant.

74 Chapter 6: The Management of Human Resources

Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Unit determination Decision to include or exclude certain groups in a bargaining unit.

Whipsaw tactics Argument that pay or benefits negotiated by one group should be applied to

others.

 WEB LINKS

The following are links to information on general personnel issues, human resources,

and jobs:

Office of Personnel Management: (www.opm.gov).

U.S. Equal Opportunity Employment Commission: (www.eeoc.gov).

United States Department of Labor: (www.dol.gov).

HR.Com: (www.hr.com) and (www.hr-guide.com).

LaborNet: (www.labornet.org).

American Federation of Government Employees: (www.afge.org/).

American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees: (www.afscme.org/).

International Personnel Management Association: (www.ipma-hr.org).

International Public Management Association for Human Resources: (http://www.ipma-hr.org/).

Society for Human Resource Management: (www.shrm.org).

Public Service Careers: (www.publicservicecareers.org/).

Go Public Service: (www.gopublicservice.org/Careers.aspx).

FedWorld.Gov: (www.fedworld.gov/).

Careers in Government: (www.careersingovernment.com/index.cfm).

GovtJob.Net: (www.govtjob.net/).

USA Jobs: (www.usajobs.opm.gov/infocenter/howjobsgetfilled.asp).

The Chronicle of Philanthropy: (http://philanthropy.com/section/Jobs/224/).

Opportunity Knocks: (www.opportunityknocks.org/).