# Topographic Maps

HW5:Topographic Maps

Learning Goals:

• Explain how elevation is described on a topographic map with contour lines
• Estimate the elevation of any point on a topographic map
• Identify areas that are steeply sloped or gently sloped on a topographic map
• Identify the shape of land forms on a topographic map, including whether slopes are concave-up or concave-down
• Use the Rule of Vs on a topographic map to determine the direction a river is flowing
• Determine the gradient of a stream or other linear feature on a topographic map
• Use the map scale to infer distances on a topographic map
• Identify the latitude and longitude of the corners on a topographic map
• Describe what is meant by a "7.5 minute" topographic map
• Describe the relationship between map scale and map detail
• Describe how to find adjoining maps from a topographic map
Category: Engineering & Sciences Subjects: Electrical Engineering Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: \$120 - \$180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

WYOMING

Imagery................................................NAIP, January 2010

Names...............................................................GNIS, 2010

Hydrography.................National Hydrography Dataset, 2010

Contours............................National Elevation Dataset, 2010

JACKSON, WY

2012

Interstate Route State Route

Ramp 4WD

Interstate Route State RouteUS RouteWX ./ H

7.5-MINUTE SERIES

JACKSON, WY

2012

Interstate Route State Route

Ramp 4WD

Check with local Forest Service unit

for current travel conditions and restrictions.

FS Primary Route FS High Clearance

Route FS Passenger

RouteJ K L

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USGS: USFS:

Boundaries..............Census, IBWC, IBC, USGS, 1972 - 2010

<OPTIONAL_CITATIONS>

North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83)

World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84). Projection and

1 000-meter grid: Universal Transverse Mercator, Zone 12T

Produced by the United States Geological Survey

10 000-foot ticks: Wyoming Coordinate System of 1983

(west zone)

North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83)

World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84). Projection and

1 000-meter grid: Universal Transverse Mercator, Zone 12T

Produced by the United States Geological Survey

10 000-foot ticks: Wyoming Coordinate System of 1983

(west zone)

Imagery..................................................NAIP, August 2009

Roads within US Forest Service Lands.............FSTopo Data

with limited Forest Service updates, 2009

Names...............................................................GNIS, 2011

Hydrography.................National Hydrography Dataset, 2009

Contours.............................National Elevation Dataset, 1999

Boundaries..............Census, IBWC, IBC, USGS, 1972 - 2010

Public Land Survey System.......................BLM, 2006 - 2008

This map was produced to conform with the

National Geospatial Program US Topo Product Standard, 2011.

A metadata file associated with this product is draft version 0.6.3

CONTOUR INTERVAL 40 FEET

NORTH AMERICAN VERTICAL DATUM OF 1988

SCALE 1:24 000

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## Attachment 2

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Imagery................................................NAIP, January 2010 Roads..............................................©2006-2010 Tele Atlas Names...............................................................GNIS, 2010 Hydrography.................National Hydrography Dataset, 2010 Contours............................National Elevation Dataset, 2010

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IDAHO

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

7.5-MINUTE SERIES

NEWDALE, ID 2013

Check with local Forest Service unit for current travel conditions and restrictions.

FS Primary Route FS High Clearance Route FS Passenger

RouteJ K L

Interstate Route State RouteUS RouteWX ./ H

Expressway Local Connector

Ramp 4WD Secondary Hwy Local Road

NEWDALE, ID 2013

Ramp 4WD Secondary Hwy Local Road

Interstate Route State RouteUS RouteWX ./ H

Imagery................................NAIP, June 2011 - August 2011 Roads..............................................©2006-2013 TomTom Names..........................................................GNIS, 2013 Hydrography....................National Hydrography Dataset, 2011 Contours............................National Elevation Dataset, 2001 Boundaries....................Census, IBWC, IBC, USGS, 1972 - 2012 Public Land Survey System..................................BLM, 2011

North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84). Projection and 1 000-meter grid: Universal Transverse Mercator, Zone 12T

Produced by the United States Geological Survey

10 000-foot ticks: Idaho Coordinate System of 1983 (east zone) This map is not a legal document. Boundaries may be generalized for this map scale. Private lands within government reservations may not be shown. Obtain permission before entering private lands.

North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84). Projection and 1 000-meter grid: Universal Transverse Mercator, Zone 12T

Produced by the United States Geological Survey

10 000-foot ticks: Idaho Coordinate System of 1983 (east zone) This map is not a legal document. Boundaries may be generalized for this map scale. Private lands within government reservations may not be shown. Obtain permission before entering private lands.

This map was produced to conform with the National Geospatial Program US Topo Product Standard, 2011.

A metadata file associated with this product is draft version 0.6.15

CONTOUR INTERVAL 20 FEET NORTH AMERICAN VERTICAL DATUM OF 1988

SCALE 1:24 000

1000 500 0 METERS 1000 2000 21KILOMETERS00.51

1 0.5 0 MILES

1

1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 FEET

U.S. National Grid 100,000-m Square ID

Grid Zone Designation

VP

12T

×

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GN

UTM GRID AND 2013 MAGNETIC NORTH DECLINATION AT CENTER OF SHEET

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US Department of the Interior US Geological Survey

US Topo Map Symbols

What is a US Topo map?

The base data layer of a US Topo map is a recent orthographic aerial photograph. These orthoimages have been corrected to remove scale distortions that result from the varying terrain and deviations of the aircraft’s position from the true vertical. The maps include contours that show the shape of the Earth’s surface, hydrographic features such as lakes and rivers, roads, boundaries, and geograph- ic names. Additional data from the geographic data themes of transportation, names, elevation, hydrography, boundaries, structures (such as fire stations) and land cover (such as woodland tint) is being added to the maps as they are updated, resulting in a product that will become progressively more robust over time. Feature data is incorporated from national Geographic Information System (GIS) databases under the stewardship of USGS data programs. The US Topo map is intended for conventional map users, not for advanced GIS analysis. However, most of the data sources used are in the public domain and may be downloaded for free from The National Map (TNM) (http://nationalmap.gov).

US Topo maps are revised on a three-year production cycle.

Symbols on US Topo Maps

The underlying orthoimage for each US Topo map shows those features on the Earth’s surface that are visible to the eye. Because each map is made at a scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map represents 24,000 inches or 2,000 feet on the ground), selected features are also shown and emphasized by symbols, geographic names, and highway route numbers.

Map features may be represented as points, lines, or polygons. They incorporate different colors and patterns to distinguish between feature types and to show each feature’s importance. For example, a perennial stream is symbolized by a solid blue line while an intermittent stream is shown by a blue dashed and dotted line. A large reservoir is depicted by a polygon while a small reservoir may be shown by a point symbol if it is too small to show as a polygon.

Point symbols of different shapes and sizes depict features such as structures, dams, gates, rocks, waterfalls, and wells. Linear map symbols (lines) show such features as roads, rivers, boundaries, and contours. Color is used to show the class of information: topo- graphic contours in brown, streams and rivers and other hydrographic features in blue, and roads in black and red. Areal features are outlined to depict the areal extent and may also be emphasized by a color tint. Names and labels are shown in different type fonts, sizes, and colors.

The unique feature of a topographic map is the contour. These lines do not exist on the Earth’s surface. They join points of equal eleva- tion above a zero level surface (such as Mean Sea Level) and therefore show heights of the land and reveal the shape of the land surface. Heavier brown lines are index contours and are labeled with the elevation they represent. Closely spaced contours indicate a steep land slope; widely spaced contours show more level ground. The elevation difference between adjacent contours is the contour interval. A map of a relatively flat area may have a contour interval of 10 feet. In steep areas an interval of 100 feet or more may be used to avoid coalescence or convergence of the contour lines. The contour interval is always noted below the bar scale in the map marginalia.

The cartographic representation of roads has been updated from a characterization based on organizational maintenance (Interstates, US routes, State routes, etc.) to a functional classification defined as follows:

Expressway1: A controlled access, divided arterial highway for through traffic. Secondary Highway1: Hard surface highways including secondary State routes, primary county routes, and other highways that connect principal cities and towns, and link these places with the primary highway system. Local Connector1: Hard surface roads not included in a higher class and improved, loose surface roads passable in all kinds of weather. These roads are adjuncts to the primary and secondary highway system and represent major arteries through populated places. Local Road1: Roads used primarily for local traffic.

1 Federal Highway Administration Planning Glossary - http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/glossary/glossary_listing.cfm.

13SEPT2013,ver3.0

Lock Chamber/Spillway

Rock X

Spring E'

Waterfall

Well

Canal/Ditch

Earthen Dam Nonearthen Dam

Levee

Rapids

HYDROGRAPHY

Underground Pipeline

13SEPT2013,ver3.0

STRUCTURES

Cemetery #"!

Fire Station F

Hospital H

School

Post Office

n

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Prison

Police

State Capitol

Oil/Gas Pipeline*

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Swimming Pool

(

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Perennial Lake

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Submerged Stream

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Wash

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1 — 363636

LAND COVER

Woodland

13SEPT2013,ver3.0

TERRAIN

IMAGES

Orthoimage

Contour Features

Index

Intermediate

Supplemental

Depression Index

Depression Intermediate

Depression Supplemental

40004000

HYDROGRAPHY – continued

BOUNDARIES

International

State or Territory

County or Equivalent

Forest Service

Jurisdictional Boundaries

National Park Service

Department of Defense

Bureau of Land Management*

Fish and Wildlife Service

AIANNH Area*

*Currently on Alaska US Topo maps only

ABBREVATIONS

Note: Symbols use transparent color. When these symbols overlap, the colors blend. This alters their appearance from how they are represented in the map legend. 80008000

Hwy AIANNH

4WD

Highway American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Area Four Wheel Drive

Coastline

Reef

Nonearthen Shore

Underground Conduit

Foreshore

Estuary

Ocean

""""""""""""""""""""""""""

## Attachment 3

Imagery................................................NAIP, January 2010 Roads..............................................©2006-2010 Tele Atlas Names...............................................................GNIS, 2010 Hydrography.................National Hydrography Dataset, 2010 Contours............................National Elevation Dataset, 2010

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OHIO

7.5-MINUTE SERIES

WAYNESVILLE, OH 2016

Ramp 4WD Secondary Hwy Local Road

Interstate Route State RouteUS RouteWX ./ H

WAYNESVILLE, OH 2016

Check with local Forest Service unit for current travel conditions and restrictions.

FS Primary Route FS High Clearance Route FS Passenger

Routeª«

Interstate Route State RouteUS RouteWX ./ H

Expressway Local Connector

Ramp 4WD Secondary Hwy Local Road

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

1 Dayton South

8 Clarksville

2 Bellbrook 3 Xenia 4 Springboro 5 New Burlington 6 Lebanon 7 Oregonia

1 2 3

4 5

6 7 8

This map was produced to conform with the National Geospatial Program US Topo Product Standard, 2011.

A metadata file associated with this product is draft version 0.6.19

CONTOUR INTERVAL 10 FEET NORTH AMERICAN VERTICAL DATUM OF 1988

SCALE 1:24 000

1000 500 0 METERS 1000 2000 21KILOMETERS00.51

1 0.5 0 MILES

1

1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 FEET

Imagery.............................................NAIP, October 2015 Roads................................ U.S. Census Bureau, 2015 - 2016 Names..........................................................GNIS, 2016 Hydrography....................National Hydrography Dataset, 2015 Contours............................National Elevation Dataset, 2010 Boundaries............Multiple sources; see metadata file 1972 - 2016 Public Land Survey System..................................BLM, 2013 Wetlands.........FWS National Wetlands Inventory 1977 - 2014

North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84). Projection and 1 000-meter grid: Universal Transverse Mercator, Zone 16S

Produced by the United States Geological Survey

10 000-foot ticks: Ohio Coordinate System of 1983 (south zone) This map is not a legal document. Boundaries may be generalized for this map scale. Private lands within government reservations may not be shown. Obtain permission before entering private lands.

North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84). Projection and 1 000-meter grid: Universal Transverse Mercator, Zone 16S

Produced by the United States Geological Survey

10 000-foot ticks: Ohio Coordinate System of 1983 (south zone) This map is not a legal document. Boundaries may be generalized for this map scale. Private lands within government reservations may not be shown. Obtain permission before entering private lands.

Imagery<IMG_LEADER><IMG_CITATION> Roads<TRANS_LEADER> U.S. Census Bureau, 2015 - 2016 Roads within US Forest Service Lands.............FSTopo Data with limited Forest Service updates, 2012 - 2016 Names...............................................................GNIS, 2016 Hydrography<HYDRO_LEADER>National Hydrography Dataset, <HYDRO_DATE> Contours<HYPSO_LEADER><HYPSO_CITATION> Boundaries............Multiple sources; see metadata file 1972 - 2016 <OPTIONAL_CITATIONS> Wetlands.........FWS National Wetlands Inventory 1977 - 2014

U.S. National Grid 100,000-m Square ID

Grid Zone Designation

GJ

16S

^

Ø MN

GN

UTM GRID AND 2016 MAGNETIC NORTH DECLINATION AT CENTER OF SHEET

1° 52´ 33 MILS

6° 10´ 110 MILS

* 7 6 4 3 0 1 6 3 8 8 0 5 8 *

N S

N .

7 6

4 3

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1

US Department of the Interior US Geological Survey

US Topo Map Symbols

What is a US Topo map?

The base data layer of a US Topo map is a recent orthographic aerial photograph. These orthoimages have been corrected to remove scale distortions that result from the varying terrain and deviations of the aircraft’s position from the true vertical. The maps include contours that show the shape of the Earth’s surface, hydrographic features such as lakes and rivers, roads, boundaries, and geograph- ic names. Additional data from the geographic data themes of transportation, names, elevation, hydrography, boundaries, structures (such as fire stations) and land cover (such as woodland tint) is being added to the maps as they are updated, resulting in a product that will become progressively more robust over time. Feature data is incorporated from national Geographic Information System (GIS) databases under the stewardship of USGS data programs. The US Topo map is intended for conventional map users, not for advanced GIS analysis. However, most of the data sources used are in the public domain and may be downloaded for free from The National Map (TNM) (http://nationalmap.gov).

US Topo maps are revised on a three-year production cycle.

Symbols on US Topo Maps

The underlying orthoimage for each US Topo map shows those features on the Earth’s surface that are visible to the eye. Because each map is made at a scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map represents 24,000 inches or 2,000 feet on the ground), selected features are also shown and emphasized by symbols, geographic names, and highway route numbers.

Map features may be represented as points, lines, or polygons. They incorporate different colors and patterns to distinguish between feature types and to show each feature’s importance. For example, a perennial stream is symbolized by a solid blue line while an intermittent stream is shown by a blue dashed and dotted line. A large reservoir is depicted by a polygon while a small reservoir may be shown by a point symbol if it is too small to show as a polygon.

Point symbols of different shapes and sizes depict features such as structures, dams, gates, rocks, waterfalls, and wells. Linear map symbols (lines) show such features as roads, rivers, boundaries, and contours. Color is used to show the class of information: topo- graphic contours in brown, streams and rivers and other hydrographic features in blue, and roads in black and red. Areal features are outlined to depict the areal extent and may also be emphasized by a color tint. Names and labels are shown in different type fonts, sizes, and colors.

The unique feature of a topographic map is the contour. These lines do not exist on the Earth’s surface. They join points of equal eleva- tion above a zero level surface (such as Mean Sea Level) and therefore show heights of the land and reveal the shape of the land surface. Heavier brown lines are index contours and are labeled with the elevation they represent. Closely spaced contours indicate a steep land slope; widely spaced contours show more level ground. The elevation difference between adjacent contours is the contour interval. A map of a relatively flat area may have a contour interval of 10 feet. In steep areas an interval of 100 feet or more may be used to avoid coalescence or convergence of the contour lines. The contour interval is always noted below the bar scale in the map marginalia.

The cartographic representation of roads has been updated from a characterization based on organizational maintenance (Interstates, US routes, State routes, etc.) to a functional classification defined as follows:

• Expressway1: A controlled access, divided arterial highway for through traffic. • Secondary Highway1: Hard surface highways including secondary State routes, primary county routes, and other highways

that connect principal cities and towns, and link these places with the primary highway system. • Local Connector1: Hard surface roads not included in a higher class and improved, loose surface roads passable in all kinds

of weather. These roads are adjuncts to the primary and secondary highway system and represent major arteries through populated places.

1 Federal Highway Administration Planning Glossary - http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/glossary/glossary_listing.cfm.

04OCT2016ver6.0

04OCT2016ver6.0

TRANSPORTATION

£830

¬«470

§̈¦25Interstate Route

US Route

State Route

Forest Service Primary Route

Forest Service High Clearance Route

ª«240 Forest Service Secondary Route 420

Airport Runway Airport Features

Ferry

4WD

Local Connector

Ramp

Secondary Hwy

Expressway

Tunnel

Trail

PLSS

Township/Range T 34 N R 79 W

Section 1 — 363636

Township/Range (protracted) T 34 N R 79 W

Section (protracted) 1 — 363636

Land Grants

Rock X

Spring E'

Well

HYDROGRAPHY

Levee

Area of Complex Channels

)~ ) ~~~ ~ )~ ) ~~~ ~

~ )~ )~~ ~

~

~~

)~ ) ~~~ ~) ~ )

~ ) ~~~ ~

~ ~

) )~ ~~

Gate |

Dam |

Inundation Area

Swimming Pool

Gaging Station (

Earthen Dam

Nonearthen Dam

Perennial Lake

Lock Chamber/Spillway

Playa

Settling Pond

Rapids =

Reservoir

Waterfall

Perennial Stream

Intermittent Stream

Submerged Stream

Nonearthen Reservoir

Wash

Intermittent Lake

STRUCTURES

Oil/Gas Pipeline*

State Capitol

Campground 9

School (K-12) n

Fire Station F

Hospital H

Police ^

Prison ^

Cemetery "!

Post Office &PO

Visitor Center V

04OCT2016ver6.0

HYDROGRAPHY – continued

IMAGES

Orthoimage

BOUNDARIES

LAND COVER

Woodland

International

State or Territory

County or Equivalent

Forest Service

Jurisdictional Boundaries

National Park Service

Department of Defense

Bureau of Land Management*

Fish and Wildlife Service

AIANNH Area*

National Cemetery

ABBREVATIONS

Note: Symbols use transparent color. When these symbols overlap the colors blend. This alters their appearance from how they are represented in the map legend.

• Hwy • AIANNH

• 4WD

Highway American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Area Four Wheel Drive

*Currently on Alaska US Topo maps only

TERRAIN

Contour Features

Index

Intermediate

Supplemental

Depression Index

Depression Intermediate

Depression Supplemental

40004000

80008000

Coastline

Reef

Nonearthen Shore

Underground Conduit

Foreshore

Estuary

Ocean

""""""""""""""""""""""""""

Freshwater Emergent Wetland

Freshwater Forested/Shrub Wetland

Canal/Ditch

Underground Pipeline

Flume

Ice Mass

Pipeline

Tailings Pond

Tunnel

## Attachment 4

GLY3850 Homework:

Topographic Maps Name:

Note: To complete this homework you will have to view the PDF files of the topographic maps, which are linked separately on Canvas. Print out this handout and fill it in as you go through the different maps. When you’re done you will take a Canvas “Quiz” to enter your answers.

Waynesville, OH Map

Quadrangle maps are always named for a prominent geographic feature on the map–a town, mountain, lake, etc. What feature is the Waynesville Quadrangle named after? (This question is as easy as it seems)

Topographic maps are divided into series. The series is always listed underneath the quadrangle name in the right-hand corner of the map, and the longitude/latitude coordinates are always labeled at the four corners of the map. Therefore you can either read the series directly or figure it out by computing the longitude (or latitude) range spanned by the map. What kind of map series is the Waynesville Quadrangle?

What is the longitude in the northwest corner of the map? (It is W longitude.)

What is the latitude in the southeast corner of the map?

The map scale is always located at the bottom of the map, and is shown as two numbers separated by a colon (:). These numbers indicate the factor by which objects on the map have been shrunk relative to the real world. For instance, a scale of 1:62,500 means that objects on the map are 1/62,500 as large as they are in reality.

What is the scale of the Waynesville Quadrangle map?

If you were to print out the Waynesville, OH map, you’d find that the total distance across the map from west to east is 45 cm.

How long is this distance in the real world? Give your answer km.

If you wanted a map that provided great detail, would you rather have a map with a scale of 1:6,000 or a map with a scale of 1:100,000? Explain your answer.

Many quadrangle maps are needed to cover a large area, and often it is useful to know the maps that are adjacent to the one you are looking at. The USGS (the government agency that makes the maps) has used two different methods to display this information. On some maps, the adjoining quadrangles are written along the boundaries and corners of the map. On some newer maps, a small inset diagram shows the layout and names of the surrounding quadrangles.

Many other features of topographic maps can be simply read by studying the key or map itself:

What state is the Waynesville Quadrangle in?

Within what part of this state is the Waynesville Quadrangle located? (i.e., “north”, “northeast”; “central”, etc.)

In which three counties does the Waynesville Quadrangle lie? (look on the map)

The feature that distinguishes a topographic map from other maps is the swarm of brown lines which are used to indicate elevation. These lines, called contour lines, depict the shape of the landscape.

To make the map easier to read, not all contour lines are labeled with their elevation. Normally every fifth contour line is labeled and is also printed a little darker than the others to make it stand out. These contour lines are called index contours. The elevation of contour lines between index contours must be inferred by counting up (or down) from an index contour using the contour interval.

The elevation of every point on a topographic map can be determined by studying the elevation of the nearby contour lines. This can sometimes be tricky. If a point actually lies on a contour line, then determining its elevation is easy–it’s just the elevation of the contour line. If, as is more typical, a point lies between two contour lines then its elevation must be inferred. When the surrounding contour lines are different (the usual case) the elevation of the point must be between these values. For example, a point lying between the 50 foot and 60 foot contour lines must be between 50 and 60 feet–say, 52 feet if the point is closer to the 50 foot contour, or 58 feet if it is closer to the 60 foot contour, or maybe even 55 feet if it is nearly in the middle.

Contour lines that form closed loops enclose eithers hills or depressions. In most cases they enclose a hill, or rise, since these are much more common features of the landscape. When the contours enclose a depression they will sometimes have little ‘tick-marks’ on them indicating the direction downhill.

What is the elevation of the intersection of Oglesby-Harris Rd. and Furnas-Oglesby Rd?

What is the elevation of Stonybrook Farm Lake, southwest of Waynesville?

Locate the depression just east of Corwin, to the east of Sun Ridge Drive. What is the elevation at the bottom?

Newdale, ID Map

Is the Newdale, ID quadrangle closer to Wyoming or Washington state?

How many degrees or minutes of latitude/longitude are spanned by the Newdale, ID topographic map?

What is the map scale?

What is the contour interval in feet?

Find the intersection of 5000N and Reed Parkinson Rd, and determine its elevation. Be as precise as you can.

Locate Chester Cemetary near the very top of the map, and determine its elevation. Be as precise as you can.

Find the intersection of Hog Hollow Rd. and N 2800 E. What is its elevation? Be as precise as you can.

Use the Law of V’s to determine the direction in which the Teton River is flowing (east or west). Make a sketch showing how you came to this conclusion. You will have to upload your sketch into the quiz.

Suppose you were driving west on State Route 33 and wanted to continue using topographic maps. What topographic map would you need when you left this one?

Jackson, WY Map

Suppose you wanted to climb Boyles Hill, located in the northern part of the map. Would it be easier to ascend the northern side or southern side (assuming steeper = harder)?

What is the approximate elevation of the town of Jackson?

Estimate the elevation of the very tip-top of Boyles Hill:

Suppose you were on the top of East Gros Ventre Butte and started hiking down to the south just south of the word “Butte”. Would your path be concave up or down? How can you tell?

Concave down Concave up

Calculate the gradient of the Snake River between S and S’, and Flat Creek between F and F’, by dividing the change in

elevation by the length of the stream (straight-line length, not including all the bends). Express your answer in ft/mile.

Distance S-S’: 11,700 feet

Distance F-F’: 8,700 feet

Snake River Flat Creek

Why do you think the Waynesville, OH, Newdale, ID, and Jackson, WY all have different contour intervals? How do the mapmakers decide on a contour interval?