Open Posted By: surajrudrajnv33 Date: 22/02/2021 Graduate Assignment Writing

 1.  Please describe (without naming them) the leadership style of the current or most recent President/CEO of your organization. If you prefer, you may also reflect on a previous employer.

2.  Which components of their leadership style or approach do you find most effective? Which are ineffective? Explain.


Governing Boards & Presidency

Colleges and Organizational Structure of Universities - Governing Boards, The President, Faculty, Administration and Staff, Students, Future Prospects


College Presidency and University - Characteristics, Career Path, Roles and Responsibilities


Presidential Leadership for Public Purpose


Leadership Theories


Leadership Traits and Behavioral Theories


Category: Mathematics & Physics Subjects: Algebra Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $120 - $180 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

LEAS 833 Higher Education in America

Weeks 8 & 9

Governing Boards & Presidency

•Governing Boards


•Leadership Traits & Behavioral Theories

Source: Stateuniversity.com

• The organizational structures of American colleges and universities vary distinctly, depending on institutional type, culture, and history.

• Shared-tasks such as strategic planning, fiscal oversight, curriculum planning, and student affairs are common to American postsecondary institutions.

• Public and private colleges and universities of all types incorporate key authority structures, including a governing board, a president or chancellor, a cohort of administrative leaders, and an academic senate.

• In public institutions these core organizational entities collaborate with such external authorities as state and federal political leaders, community organizations, and members of the public, as well as business interests and philanthropic foundations.

• These external organizations routinely interact with and shape the policies and procedures of the university's internal organization.

Governing Boards & Presidents

Source: Stateuniversity.com

• College/university's governing board, also known as the trustees, regents, or board of visitors, possesses fundamental legal authority over the university.

• The authority of the governing board is vested in it by the state wherein the school resides for public institutions.

• Private institutions governing boards are appointed by the chartering agency.

• Both public and private governing boards are generally constituted of citizen trustees.

• The board is the most powerful governing agent of the modern university.

Governing Boards

Source: Stateuniversity.com

• The formal responsibilities of university governing boards are significant even as they are few in number. ▪ Preservation of the university charter ▪ Institutional performance evaluations ▪ Fundraising ▪ Liaison with external agencies and political bodies ▪ Budget approval ▪ Oversight of campus policies and investment strategies ▪ Hiring and evaluating the ongoing performance of the university


▪ The federal government has influenced the decentralized organization of higher education primarily through legislation–the Morrill Acts, the Higher Education Acts, and the G.I. Bill at both public and private institutions.

Governing Boards

Source: Stateuniversity.com

• The role of governors in trustee appointments and the key role of legislative funding in institutional development has meant that the states play a central role in the governance of the public institutions.

• In the public case those trustees are often political appointees who serve as a fundamental link between the institution and state and national political structures.

• Governing board members at public institutions typically arrive at the trustee table by one of four paths: ▪ direct appointment by the governor ▪ ex-officio appointment ▪ gubernatorial appointment subject to approval of the state legislature ▪ or less frequently, election by popular vote.

Governing Boards

Source: Stateuniversity.com

• Public university board members represent the citizens of the state and the terms and conditions of their service are often defined by institutional charter or state constitution.

• Private boards are generally self-perpetuating, with new trustees chosen by the membership of the standing board or chartering agency.

• While private colleges and universities benefit considerably from public subsidies and support, private boards are not subject to the same degree of external scrutiny or intervention as are public boards.

• State governments rather than the federal government that carry the primary authority for higher education in the United States.

Governing Boards

Source: Stateuniversity.com

• The chief executive officer of an institution of higher education in the United States is commonly known as president. ▪ There are some campuses, however, which use the titles of

chancellor, dean, or chief executive officer in lieu of president. ▪ The diversity of higher education has resulted in chief executive

officers at U.S. colleges and universities with a wide variety of background characteristics and job responsibilities.


Source: Stateuniversity.com

• College presidents tend to be over-whelming white, protestant, and male. ▪ By the late 1990s more than 19 percent of college presidents were

women and 11 percent were members of other minority groups. ▪ The average age for presidents was 57.6 years, with 30 percent never

having served as a full-time faculty member. ▪ More than 80 percent hold an earned doctorate, with the single

largest field of study being education. ▪ Most college and university presidents are members of their

institution's governing board, although not all have voting rights. ▪ The average length of service for a president is seven years.


Source: Stateuniversity.com

• Responsible to a governing board for the successful operation of the institution.

• The president's relationship with the institution's board of trustees is critical. ▪ Requires care and feeding of the board and to be attentive to

the needs and desires of the board.

• Establish and carry out a vision for the institution - Tells the story of where an institution has been and provides direction for where the institution is headed. ▪ Vision, if believed in by the faculty, administrators, staff and

students, has the potential to transform an institution.

President – Roles & Responsibilities

Source: Stateuniversity.com

• The degree to which the president is respected and admired by the faculty will be the extent to which he or she is able to inspire trust and confidence.

• Identify, and be attentive to, the strengths and weaknesses of the institution.

• Understanding the capacity of those who work for the college or university allows the president to determine what the institution can achieve.

President – Roles & Responsibilities

Source: Stateuniversity.com

• A significant aspect of the college president's role is symbolic in nature. ▪ Leading the opening convocation, dedicating a new facility, or presiding over

commencement ceremonies, the president represents the institution. ▪ Influence from the symbolic nature can move the institution in a given


• In the greater community the president's role is often more prominent. ▪ External individuals believe the president has authority and control over

more than he or she really does. ▪ Presidents may find themselves under greater pressure from external

constituents than internal constituents. ▪ The resulting roles are one of mediator, facilitator, and consensus maker for

issues both internal and external to the institution.

President – Roles & Responsibilities

Source: Stateuniversity.com

• President's broad areas of responsibility include: ▪ Academic affairs, which encompasses development of the curriculum and new

educational programs ▪ Oversight and maintenance of facilities ▪ Fund-raising and communicating the image of the institution through institutional

advancement ▪ Enrollment management, which tracks graduation, admission rates, and financial aid

to ensure stable student enrollment ▪ Finances of the institution ▪ Management of out-of-classroom issues in student affairs, such as judicial hearings,

residence life, and health services.

• Must look beyond next year's class size, the goal for the upcoming annual fund, and other short-term concerns.

• See beyond the horizon and craft a path for the college or university on its way to fulfilling the vision.

• Crafting a long-range plan constitutes one of the major areas of time spent by a president.

President – Roles & Responsibilities

Source: Stateuniversity.com

• Internally responsible for the effective operation of the institution.

▪ Have an advisory cabinet composed of vice presidents and potentially one or two other key individuals who help the president ensure that the goals and vision are being implemented in a positive fashion.

▪ Organizational structure and scope of responsibilities are overseen by vice presidents.

▪ The organizational structure of the president's cabinet reflects institutional as well as presidential values and goals.

▪ Relies on the expertise and experience of his or her staff to accomplish the details of the institutional vision.

• Spend considerable time on and off campus raising money for the institution.

• Visiting with alumni in areas with significant numbers.

• Meeting with key individuals who may have the ability to support the institution.

President – Roles & Responsibilities

Source: National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education

• Be a Public Advocate for the Beneficial Impact of Higher Education. ▪ Articulate the need for flexibility within state regulatory structures to pursue

alternative approaches to fulfilling mission in a changing financial, demographic, and learning environment.

▪ Make a personal commitment to reach communities of young people who are underrepresented in higher education.

▪ Make a concerted effort to tell your institution’s story and cite examples to legislators, and to the public in general of how your institution has transformed the lives of graduates.

• Develop Partnerships with Other Education Stakeholders. ▪ Lead the efforts to strengthen partnerships with K–12 schools.

▪ Establish strong partnerships among two- and four-year institutions in the local region to minimize the hurdles students often encounter in the transfer process.

President – Roles & Responsibilities

Source: National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education

• Lead your Institution in Understanding Challenges and Making Needed Change.

▪ Draw the attention of faculty to the changing environment and the implications of those changes for your institution in the future.

▪ Lead your faculty in understanding the changing composition of our student body in terms of ethnicity, financial circumstance, modes of learning, and goals after.

▪ Provide strong leadership to eliminate some of the obstacles that prevent your institution from doing the right thing in fulfillment of core educational, diversity and social values.

▪ Commit your institution to goals that lend themselves to measurement and accountability for achieving a public purpose.

President – Roles & Responsibilities

Source: National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education

➢ Provide Strong Leadership for the Improvement of Learning.

▪ Provide professional development opportunities and support for faculty members who seek to improve your institution’s graduation rate.

▪ Support faculty efforts to develop evaluation procedures and intervention strategies that can increase the rate of student persistence and success.

▪ Support the measures of persistence and sustained learning as criteria for institutional effectiveness.

▪ Commit your institution to adopt better means of assessing the teaching and learning process—what happens “inside the box.”

▪ Commit your institution to voluntary accountability reporting that demonstrates how it is meeting its educational goals.

President – Roles & Responsibilities

Survey of Presidents/Chancellors

8 Major Leadership Theories

1. "Great Man“ Theory: assumes that the capacity for leadership is inherent that great leaders are born, not made.

2. Trait Theories: assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders.

3. Contingency Theories: Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and of the situation.

4. Situational Theories: Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making.

8 Major Leadership Theories

5. Behavioral Theories: Are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.

6. Participative Theories: Suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process.

7. Management Theories: Focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments.

8. Relationship Theories: Focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. These leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards.

Source: shareslide.net

1. The Law of the Lid - Leadership Ability Determines a Person’s Level of Effectiveness

2. The Law of Influence - The True Measure of Leadership Is Influence – Nothing More

Nothing Less

3. The Law of Process - Leadership Develops Daily, Not in a Day

4. The Law of Navigation - Anyone can Steer the Ship, but It Takes a Leader to Chart the


5. The Law of Addition - Leaders Add Value by Serving Others

6. The Law of Solid Ground - Trust Is the Foundation of Leadership

7. The Law of Respect - People Naturally Follow Leaders Stronger Than Themselves

8. The Law of Intuition - Leaders Evaluate Everything with a Leadership Bias

9. The Law of Magnetism - Who You Are Is Who You Attract

10. The Law of Connection - Leaders Touch a Heart Before Ask for a Hand

11. The Law of Inner Circle - A Leader’s Potential Is Determined by Those Closest to Him

John Maxwell’s book 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership

21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership

12. The Law of Empowerment - Only Secure Leaders Give Powers to Others

13. The Law of the Picture - People Do What People See

14. The Law of Buy-In - People Buy into the Leader, Then the Vision

15. The Law of Victory - Leaders Find a Way for the Team to Win

16. The Law of the Big Mo - Momentum Is a Leader’s Best Friend

17. The Law of Priorities - Leaders Understand That Activity Is Not Necessarily


18. The Law of Sacrifice - A Leader Must Give Up to Go Up

19. The Law of Timing - When to Lead Is As Important As What to Do and Where to Go

20. The Law of Explosive Growth - To Add Growth, Lead Followers – To Multiply Lead


21. The Law of Legacy - A Leader’s Lasting Value Is Measured by Succession

John Maxwell’s book 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership

21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership

Looking Ahead

Due This Week (Week 8) • Read Assigned Web Site Articles • Participate in Discussion Forum 4 (Initial post due Sunday night)

Due Next Week (Week 9) • Read Assigned Web Site Articles • Participate in Discussion Forum 4 (Peer responses due Sunday night)