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Assignment 7

Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 21/02/2021 High School Research Paper Writing

Please go over the slides first titled "BUSI201_Topic7" and then complete the attached assignment titled "Home learning week 7" 

Category: Business & Management Subjects: Business Communication Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $100 - $150 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

Business Communications

Topic 7

Intercultural

Communication

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Communicating in a World of Diversity

• Explain how cultural diversity affects business

communication, and describe the steps you can take to

communicate more effectively across cultural boundaries.

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Advantages of a Diverse Workforce

• Obtaining More

Views and Ideas

• Understanding

Diverse Markets

• Accessing a

Wider Pool of

Talent

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Challenges of a Diverse Workforce

• Understanding the Effects of Culture

• Developing Cultural Competency

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Key Aspects of Cultural Diversity

• Cultural Context

• Legal and Ethical

• Social Customs

• Nonverbal Signals

• Age Differences

• Gender Differences

• Religious Differences

• Ability Differences

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• Why cross-cultural communication is critical to business

• Dimensions of cultural difference

– Body positions and movements

– Factors of human relationships

• Problems of language

• Advice for communicating across cultures

• Enhancing cross-cultural communication skills

2-6

Chapter Overview

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• Technological advances (eg. interactive and mobile communication) have fueled globalization

• Effective international communication helps you design products that meet global market needs and win business

• Successful communication with international co- workers improves workplace diversity and productivity

• Communicating with those from other cultures enriches your business and personal life

2-7

Why Cross-Cultural Communication?

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•https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qHRcAPTx

w0k

2-8

Cultural Gaffes

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Definition of culture

“The collective programming of the mind

which distinguishes the members of one

category of people from another.”

Dutch sociologist

Geert Hofstede

What Is Culture?

2-9

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10

Corporate culture

• Culture is “a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved

its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well

enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the

correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.” (Schein, 1992)

– Only slow changes over time

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11

Corporate culture

• Evolution

– Culture evolves as a result of the turnover of group

members

– Changes in the company’s market environment

– General changes in society

– Strong corporate cultures do not evolve overnight

– Different corporations have different cultures

▪ Weak or strong

▪ Dependent on “investment levels” of employees

– Some concepts go back to the 1920s but it took until the

1980s that the topic was taken up by academic research

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12

Corporate culture

• Evolution

– Two perspectives

▪ Differences between corporations across national cultures

▪ Culture within corporations

– Does a geographic region further distinguishes among organizations within a single industry?

▪ Even employees in different national offices reflect national culture more than corporate culture (Hofstede, 1984)

▪ => corporate culture should not run in the opposite direction of national culture (Scholz, 2000)

▪ Multiple cultures and subcultures

–Different functional and geographic groupings

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13

Corporate culture

• Differences between definitions of business culture but common core matter

– “fuzzy set of attitudes, beliefs, behavioural norms, and basic assumptions and

values that are hared by a group of people, and that influence each member's

behaviour and his/her interpretations of the “meaning” of other people’s

behaviour.”

– Shared phenomenon

▪ learned product of group experience and is therefore found within groups with a significant history

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14

Corporate culture

• Core matters

– Different levels of corporate culture

▪ Visible level

–encompass behaviour patterns, the physical and social environment and the

written and spoken language used by the group

▪ Invisible level

–Group value

• Goals and concerns that shape a group’s sense of what “ought” to be.

Can vary greatly in different groups

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15

Corporate culture

• How do new members learn corporate culture?

– Informally from the existing employees and formally through induction training

programmes

– In environment of strong group and peer pressure, the individual adopts the

employees’ norms. Whereas when the group pressures are weak, the individual

is likely to accept the norms encouraged by management

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16

Corporate culture

• Effects and changes in corporate culture

– Strong culture results in higher organizational effectiveness (Peters and Waterman, 1982)

– Corporate culture can as well be a source of problems, especially when the organizational environment changes quickly

▪ Corporate culture defines a normative order that serves as a source of consistency and can be seen as a social control mechanism

▪ “provide group members with a way of giving meaning to their daily lives, setting guidelines and rules for how to behave, and, most important, reducing and containing the anxiety of dealing with an unpredictable and uncertain environment.” (Schein, 1992)

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17

Corporate culture

• Benefits of a strong corporate culture

– Facilitates social control within the company

– Employees will enforce corrective actions by themselves

– Informal social control is likely to be more effective and cost less than formal

control structures

– Enhance motivation and performance of employees

– Enhance goal alignment

▪ Better coordination

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18

Corporate culture

• Pitfalls

– difficulties to convert according to the new position

– new management may find that the strong corporate culture that served well with the old strategy is no longer appropriate

▪ Delta, AT&T

– Difficulty recognizing the need for change

– “the lack of variety…limits the organization’s ability to adapt to changes in the environment.” (Denison, 1984)

– countercultures may be less likely to emerge and persist in firms with a strong culture

– “A coherent statement of who we are makes it harder for us to become something else.” (Weick, 1985)

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• Topography

• History

• Religion

Sensitivity to these

factors helps you

avoid ethnocentrism

Factors Impacting Culture

2-19

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• Barack Obama in the Buckingham

Palace https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ZCsfyaOGdw (1:19

min)

Cross-Cultural Differences

2-20

• Trump meets Japanese Prime Minister

Abe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iiitQ-5_E_Y

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•Body (bowing, standing)

• Bowing is customary in some Asian cultures

• Squatting is a common business practice in

some Asian countries http://www.asian- central.com/stuffasianpeoplelike/2008/04/22/63-squatting/

Different Meanings of Body Language

2-21

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•Head movement

• Shaking head ‘yes’ or ‘no’ means little in

some cultures

• ‘Yes’ means ‘No’, and ‘No’ means ‘Yes’ in

Bulgaria http://www.yourlanguageguide.com/travel-bulgaria.html

Different Meanings of Body Language

2-22

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•Hand gestures

• Peace sign is

considered vulgar in

Australia

• OK sign is insulting in

Russia, Germany, and

Brazil

Different Meanings of Body Language

2-23

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• Americans: firm, 5-7 pumps

• Germans: brusque, firm single pump

• French: light, quick, not offered to

superiors, may include a double kiss

• British: soft, 3-5 pumps

• Arabs: gentle, long-lasting, sometimes

with kisses on both cheeks

Handshakes Across Cultures

2-24

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=blu34t4wu_o

Cultural Differences In Body Language

2-25

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• Time

• Space

• Odors

• Frankness

• Social hierarchy

• Workplace values

• Expressions of emotion

Factors of Human Relationships

2-26

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Business Communication Differences

2-27

• Your textbook was written for US readers

• Guidelines for writing messages may not apply to all cultures

• British prefer a direct approach to negative

messages

• Asians may view this communication style

as too direct

• Even social networking preferences vary from culture to culture

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• Lack of Language Equivalency

• Difficulties with English

– Multiple meanings of words

– Two-word verbs

– Slang and colloquialisms

– Culturally derived words and phrases

Problems of Language

2-28

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Examples of words with no English counterparts

• Deroulement (French):

– an unfolding, how things happen

• Fahrvergnugen (German):

– joy of driving

• Makulit (Filipino):

– from a root word that means “repetitive”

– refers to a type of pest or stubborn person

Lack of Language Equivalency

2-29

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English words not represented in other languages

• French has no word to distinguish between

– house and home

– mind and brain

– man and gentleman

• Spanish has no word to distinguish between

– chairman and president

• Italian has no word for

– wishful thinking

• Russian has no word for

– efficiency

– challenge

– having fun

Lack of Language Equivalency

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Certain English expressions do not translate well grammatically:

• Business could not be better.

(So is the business good or not?)

• We could never be too nice to our customers.

(So are we nice to our customers or not?

How might these be interpreted by someone from another culture?

2-31

Lack of Language Equivalency

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Avoid words with multiple meanings when communicating cross-culturally:

• Run

• Fast

• Ring

2-32

Multiple Meanings of Words

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Possible meanings of run:

• To move fast

• To compete for office

• A score in baseball

• A fading of colors

Can you think of more?

Multiple Meanings of Words

2-33

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search, findtrack down

hold, securetie down

prevent, avoidget around

pursuego after

remove, overcomelive down

excited, nervouskeyed up

demonstrate

SubstituteTwo-Word Verb

act out

2-34

Two-Word Verbs

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• Slang

• She’s a control freak.

• Idioms and Colloquialisms

• That’s just off the top of my head.

• He frequently shoots from the hip.

2-35

Slang and Colloquialisms

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Slang and Colloquialisms

Not this:

• The sales campaign

was a flop.

• I’ll touch base with

you.

• Take an educated

guess.

• Don’t let him get your

But this:

• The sales campaign failed.

• I’ll talk to you later.

• Guess using your knowledge.

• Don’t let him upset you.

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Sample US Colloquialisms to Avoid

• burn your bridges

• cold turkey

• doggie bag

• fat chance

• gravy train

• have your cake and

eat it too

• in a nutshell

•let the cat out of the

bag

• pull no punches

• stick in the mud

• through thick and thin

• tie the knot

• tighten one’s belt

• up a tree

• walk on air

• wheel and deal

• worth one’s salt

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•Ant milker (Arabic)

• Become naked (Japanese)

•Bite the elbow (Russian)

• Give it to someone with cheese (Spanish)

•Hang noodles on one’s ears (Russian)

• Live like a maggot in bacon (German)

•Like fingernail in dirt (Spanish, Mexican)

• Squeezer of limes (Hindi)

Idioms from Other Cultures

2-22

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• Coca-Cola’s characters in China at first translated into “wax-flattened mare”

• Olympia introduced a copier in Chile under Roto, the Spanish word for “broken”

• American Motor Company’s Matador translated into “killer” in Puerto Rico, known for

high traffic fatality rates

2-39

Blundering with Words

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• Toyota’s MR2 did well in most countries, but in France it is often pronounced merde,

meaning human waste

• Ford encountered problems when it introduced a low-cost truck named Fiera into

Latin America. The name translates to mean an ugly old woman

2-40

Blundering with Words

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• In an attempt to place a graphic of flames on their shoes, Nike discovered that it

resembled the Arabic script meaning Allah. The Council on American-Islamic

Relations demanded an apology and withdrawal of the shoes form the market.

2-41

Blundering with Words

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• Do your research

• Know yourself and your company

• Be aware and wary of stereotypes

• Adapt your English to your audience

– Talk or write as simply and clearly as possible

– Word questions carefully

– Use continuous confirmation

• Be open to change

2-42

Tips: Communicating Cross-Culturally

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•If the world were one village (3:12)

–http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FtYjUv2x65g

•Tips on Chinese culture for successful

business (4:44)

–https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H6g7tUcoF3I

• Tips for successful business communication

in the Arab world (4:08)

–http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U9XoD9V9Bvg&feat

ure=related

2-43

Some Videos

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• Geert Hofstede

• 1928 – current, Netherlands

• Edward Hall

• 1914 – 2009, US

Leading Cultural Theorists

2-44

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• Born on 2 October 1928 in Haarlem, Netherlands

• Dutch social psychologist an former IBM employee

• In 1947 it was his first time out of his country when he

made to England where he experienced cultural shock

• Struck by the cultural differences between England and

Holland, two very close European countries

• In 1967, received PhD in Social Psychology from

Groningen University, Netherlands.

• His thesis was titled “The Game of Budget Control.”

Geert Hofstede

2-45

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• Hofstede’s books have appeared in 23 languages.

• Between 1981 and 2011 more than 9,000 articles in

academic journals have cited Geert’s publications.

• This makes Geert Hofstede the most cited European

social scientist of today.

• In 2014, a movie was released about Hofstede's life and

work, titled ‘An Engineer's Odyssey’

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a3lkZ88UjxI

(trailer 2:40min)

Geert Hofstede

2-46

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Books:

• Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values

(1980)

• Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and

Organizations across Nations (1984)

• Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (1991)

• Masculinity and Femininity: The Taboo Dimension of National

Cultures (1998)

• Cross-Cultural Analysis: Science and Art of Comparing the World’s Modern

Societies and Their Cultures (2012)

Website:

• http://geert-hofstede.com/countries.html

Geert Hofstede

2-47

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Theoretical Framework – Power Distance

– Individualism vs. Collectivism

– Masculinity vs. Femininity

– Uncertainty Avoidance

– Long-Term vs. Short-Term Orientation

–‘Confucian dynamism’

– Indulgence vs. Restraint

Example: the case of UAE

Geert Hofstede

2-48

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Edward Hall

2-49

• Born on 16 May 1914 in Missouri, US (died aged 95

yo)

• US American anthropologist and cross-cultural

researcher

• During WWII served in US Army in Europe and

Philippines

• In 1942, received PhD from Columbia University,

US

• Taught at Harvard Business School

• Introduced a number of new concepts (proxemics,

polychronic vs. monochronic time, and high vs. low

context culture

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Edward Hall

2-50

Books:

• Silent Language (1959)

• Hidden Dimension (1966)

• Handbook for Proxemic Research (1974)

• Fourth Dimension In Architecture: Impact of Building on

Behavior (1975)

• Beyond Culture (1976)

• Dance of Life: The Other Dimension of Time (1983)

• Hidden Differences: Doing Business with the Japanese (1987)

• Anthropology of Everyday Life: An Autobiography (1992)

• Understanding Cultural Differences – Germans, French and

Americans (1990)

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Theoretical Framework

– High-Context vs. Low-Context

Edward Hall

2-51

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Edward Hall

2-52

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Cultural Context

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Legal and Ethical Differences

• Seek Mutual Ground

• Withhold Judgment

• Send Honest Messages

• Respect Cultural Differences

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Social Customs

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Nonverbal Communication

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Age Differences

• Cultures that Value Youth

• Cultures that Value Seniority

• Cultures with Multiple Generations Shaped by World

Events

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Gender Differences

• Perception of Men and Women

• Percentage of Management Roles

• Different Communication Styles

• Outdated Concepts of Gender and Sexual Orientation

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Ability Differences

• Respect for Individuals

• Sensitivity to Differences

• Use of Assistive Technologies

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Advice for Improving Intercultural

Communication (1 of 2)

• Avoid ethnocentrism

• Avoid stereotyping individuals

• Don’t assume others are like you

• Accept differences; don’t be judgmental

• Communicate respect in other cultures

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Advice for Improving Intercultural

Communication (2 of 2)

• Tolerate ambiguity and control frustration

• Look beyond superficial factors

• Recognize your own cultural biases

• Be flexible and prepared to change

• Observe and learn about other cultures

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Writing for Multilingual Audiences

• Use Plain Language

• Use Clear Examples

• Avoid Slang & Jargon

• Use Short Paragraphs

• Use Precise Words

• Cite Numbers Carefully

• Be Brief

• Use Transitions

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Speaking with Multilingual

Audiences (1 of 2)

• Speak clearly and

simply

• Look for feedback

• Rephrase as needed

• Clarify your meaning

with examples

• Don’t “talk down” to

others

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Speaking with Multilingual

Audiences (2 of 2)

• Learn common greetings and key phrases

• Listen with care and respect

• Adapt your style to the other person

• Check for comprehension often

• Clarify what will happen next

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Using Technology to Improve

Business Communication

• List four general guidelines for using communication

technology effectively.

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Keeping Technology in Perspective

What Technology Can Do

• Help You Accomplish Essential Tasks

• Support Interpersonal Communication

What Technology Cannot Do

• Replace Interpersonal Communication

• Think for You or Supply Essential Skills

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Using Tools Productively

• Using Technologies Effectively

• Using Technologies Efficiently

• Learning Advanced Features