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Open Posted By: ahmad8858 Date: 17/02/2021 High School Coursework Writing

write a discussion

Category: Business & Management Subjects: Human Resource Management Deadline: 12 Hours Budget: $150 - $300 Pages: 3-6 Pages (Medium Assignment)

Attachment 1

Racialization of Indians

Sikhs and Punjabis as “Martial Race”

Anglo-Sikh Wars 1845-1849 Punjab Annexed to the British Empire in 1849.

Sikh Native Officers

23,000 Sikh soldiers

recruited to quash the

Rebellion/sepoy mutiny

of 1857

Interior of Sikanderabagh after the slaughter of

2000 rebels

(Felice Beato 1858)

Martial Races

Sikhs – martial and “most loyal” – but mostly Jat Sikhs (not Khatri Sikhs or Mazhabi Sikhs)

“Gurkhas” from Nepal

Muslims, including Punjabi Muslims, Pathans

Gajendra Singh, following Ann Laura Stoler, calls the images of martial races – colonial negatives – a mix of fantasy and a constructed reality

Idealizing masculinity

Racializing and militarizing South Asian identities to secure the loyalty of its multi-racial, multi-linguistic and multi-faith Indian Empire

Imperial Wars – Colonial Soldiers

There were more South Asian combatant and non-combatants in the First World War than Australians, New Zealanders, South African and Canadian combined.

Diverse Muslim soldiers – twice the number of Sikhs in the British Indian Army

Indian Army 150,000 – 250,000 during peace. Swelled to 1.4 million combatants and non-combatants during World War I.

During the Second World War India’s military forces swelled to 2.4 million people.

Sikhs (mostly Jat Sikhs) made up between 12% - 20% of the Army despite being only 1% of the population.

By 1916 Punjab furnished 50% of wartime recruits despite being roughly 8% of the population.

Indian soldiers

During WW I

Ideals of Masculinity

Muscular masculinity cherished quality under colonialism – some seen as masculine, and others effeminate

For Sikhs Khalsa identity encouraged in the Army – maintain 5 Ks, take initiation into Khalsa (khande di pahul – initiation by the double-edged sword).

Divide and rule/conquer

All encouraged to be loyal to their faith – Muslims (roza, haj); Nepali Gurkhas (purification ceremonies after crossing kala pani or black waters)

Divided Loyalties: Between Colonial State and the Newly Emerging Nation

Rhetoric of loyalty and bravery – carefully inculcated by the colonial state – 1897 – the Battle of Saragarhi

Brutalization of war – fighting in fronts in France, Egypt, Mesopotamia

Shortages, droughts, famines, death and disease – 1918 – Spanish Flu – 800,000 Punjabis alone died in October-November 1918.

The Ghadar movement 1915 – almost 50% participants Sikhs

Khilafat movement – Gandhi and Ali brothers in India – mobilizing Muslims over the end of the Caliph in Turkey

Mutiny in Singapore in 1915 – lasted 7 days.

9

Divided Loyalties

The Jallianwala Bagh shooting on Punjabis in Amritsar on 13th April 1919

The Akali movement and Gurudwara Reform Movements in the 1920s

Controversies over carrying kirpans – Kate Imy (Faithful Fighters) – the size of the kirpan that could be carried – on the one hand 5 Ks encouraged; on the other in India Arms Act that did not allow ordinary people to carry arms.

Public executions of Indian sepoys in Singapore, Outram Road, during the Mutiny of 1915.

World War II

The Making of the Azad Hind Fauj – Indian National Army – first under the leadership of Mohan Singh by the Indian PoWs from the British Indian Army Captured by Japan during the Malay campaign and in Singapore – and then again under the leadership of the charismatic Subhash Chandra Bose - 1942-43.

Among the famous INA trials in Delhi – Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon, Prem Sehgal, and Shah Nawaz Khan – put on trial in the Red Fort at Delhi.

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose with Lakshmi

Sehgal, the led the Rani of Jhansi Regiment

12

Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon

Shah Nawaz Khan

Prem Sehgal

Indian National Army Heroes

Questions to Ponder

To what extent did the ideals of martial race intersect with the Khalsa Sikh notions of masculinity?

How did the creation of the ideal of martial races divide the colonized Indians?

Did the idealizing of masculinity lead to disempowerment of femininity?

How did notions of being a loyal Sikh and Punjabi soldier mean for the development of loyalty to one’s country?