Italy is the largest rice production country in Europe, with about 250,000 hectares of cultivation area () and 1.6 million tons of total grain production. Nearly all rice varieties grown in Italy are japonica ecotype , being adapted to the temperate climate. The efficient improvement of Italian rice varieties relies largely on the knowledge concerning the origin and evolutionary relationships of source germplasm used in breeding programs . Such knowledge will provide breeders with information for the proper selection of alien varieties as parents in their hybridization programs. Determining the history and sources of rice varieties from Asia with diverse genetic relationships to Italian rice will facilitate the strategic utilization of innovative varieties (e.g., resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses) that have not yet been represented in Italy for rice improvement. In addition, understanding alien varieties that are highly similar or otherwise to local varieties with divergent genetic background may also help speed up the breeding process to reach the status of inbred lines through proper crosses and backcrosses.
The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (He = 0.63-0.65) in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships.
World's Top 10 Largest Rice Producing Countries 2017
Rice is a seed cultivated in high water lands. It is the 2nd most produced cereal in the world after maize. This article will show you the largest rice producing country in the world. Asian countries love to eat on daily basis with chicken, vegetable etc. It is utilized by most of the world population. Its plant is grass cultivated with hand in developing countries like Bangladesh. Firstly it is harvested and then dried under the sun. After making the usable form it is moved toward mills for better trade. It has much calories to full the human energy. It can be plant on any place e.g. hills, plane area. Largest rice producing countries need more labor cultivate the seeds. Poor agricultural countries have no access to technology but they have high labor force. Low labor cost and easily access to water countries have the large production. There are many varieties cooked in rice producing country depending upon demand. Some cook with sugar for sweet taste. Wild seeds had not the good taste in the past, but now after advancement in science we are growing variety of seeds with different taste. Latest rice producing country had advance technology to cultivate in better manner for large output. Africa had remained the most ancient rice producing country in history. But after producing in China it spread all over the world. After Asia, rice production had spread toward the Europe and then toward the American countries.